FlightCm African Commercial Aviation
Africa’s Biggest Aviation Magazine Edition 300 December 2020 | January 2021 Cover: Darren-Edward O'Neill
FEATURE: THE MIRAGE F1CZ AT WAR! FLIGHT TEST – THE MIRAGE F1!!! CAA DOSSIER – MORE LEGAL FROLICS DES BARKER – FLIES THE MIRAGE F1 WITH A MIG-29 ENGINE! JIM – CROOKED MAINTENANCE! RODGER FOSTER – DODGES COVID CAN PAX SUE AIRLINES IF THEY GET COVID? 1
AV I AT I O N C O M PA N Y P R O F I L E S G U I D E 2 0 21
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POSITION REPORT WOW – THIS IS SA FLYER'S 300th EDITION! NORMALLY we would have had a rocking party, but this year is different. We have decided to give our hard pressed yet loyal advertisers a break and combine our December and January editions into one – a bumper 300th celebration issue. We are no longer printing the magazine and enduring the vicissitudes of trying to get it to subscribers, but the online readership is already
definitive article on the amazing Mirage F1 in
four times larger than our print circulation – and
steadily growing. We may never go back to print. As usual we have done
Amazingly, South Africa continues to produce heroes. Too many, such as Elon Musk, leave for greener pastures, but others stay and build businesses – against all odds. The latest hero is
something special for readers to
Gidon Novick – who has the courage to launch a brand new airline when all around is despair. I would like to take this opportunity to thank my
loyal team, who have shown great dedication to
getting much expanded jobs done under the most
impossibly trying conditions – and for less pay.
Christmas - the
I wish all our readers a happy and safe festive season and a prosperous new year.
Guy Leitch EDITOR & PUBLISHER firstname.lastname@example.org
© SA Flyer 2020 All rights reserved worldwide. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronically, mechanically, photocopied, recorded or otherwise without the express permission of the copyright holders.
AV I AT I O N
P R O F L I G H T S E R I E S 2 AV I AT I O N H E A D S E T
H O L I DAY P R O M O T I O N
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COLUMNISTS SA FLYER
16 Guy Leitch - ATTITUDE FOR ALTITUDE 22 Peter Garrison - LEADING EDGE 28 Jim Davis - PLANE TALK 36 Dassie Persaud-van der Westhuizen 42 George Tonking - HELI OPS 50 Johan Walden - A SLIM LOGBOOK 54 Ray Watts - REGISTER REVIEW 88 Jim Davis - ACCIDENT REPORT
Bush Pilot - Hugh Pryor
CONTENTS Airlines - Mike Gough
CONTENTS FEATURES SA FLYER
58 Flight Test: MIRAGE F1CZ 76 Mirage F1AZ Missile flight clearance 90 The CAA Dossier 96 Letters 100 Krugersdorp Fly-in 106 Morningstarâ€™s Hoedspruit Fly-in 110 Hoedspruit Fly-in - Zandspruit 112 Children's Flight 2020 118 Book Review: Punching Holes in the Sky 120 Out landings:: Mark Holliday
57 Bona Bona Register Review 60 Aviation Direct Events Calender 74 SV Aviation Fuel Table
18 Defence - The F1 Engine Upgrade 24 Can Passengers sue Airlines if they get Covid-19?
32 Face to Face: Rodger Foster 40 The State of African Aviation 48 Boeing 737 Max Returns 10
36 Alpi Flight School Listing 37 AME Directory 38 AEP AMO Listing 45 Atlas Oils Charter Directory 50 Aviation Directory
WISHING YOU A PEACEFUL HOLIDAY & PROSPEROUS NEW YEAR!
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VIATION has been under crushing pressure from the Covid-19 pandemic so we selected this picture to celebrate the re-opening of South Africa to international tourism. This shot is a reminder to us that – “this too shall pass” and the sun will rise on another day – when aviation can once again fly free. Prolific Opening Shot contributor Richard Maier was on his way to his home base at Lanseria for an early start when he saw the sun rise above the ExecuJet hangar. He used his Canon 7D pushed to 1250 ISO, with a 300 mm lens at 400th second2020 at f7.1. Dec/Jan
Send your submissions to email@example.com 15 Dec/Jan 2020
ATTITUDE FOR ALTITUDE: GUY LEITCH
2020 DISASTER REPORT
EACH YEAR I TRY HAND OUT LIGHT-HEARTED OSCAR AWARDS FOR THE BEST AND WORST ACTORS AND PERFOMANCES IN AVIATION OVER THE PAST YEAR. BUT FOR 2020, HUMOUR IS IN SHORT SUPPLY, AS MOST OF THE YEAR HAS BEEN ONE PROTRACTED DISASTER MOVIE AND SO THIS COLUMN IS MORE A BATTLE DAMAGE REPORT.
MOST of us in the aviation industry are shellshocked walking wounded. The culprit is the Covid-19 pandemic. Upfront let me nail my colours to the mast – and say that I am still open to being persuaded that the entire world over-reacted. I may even allow that there could be some diabolical conspiracy behind the pandemic to reset the global economy and the troublesome belief in the western mindset of the rights of the individual. It’s no laughing matter – but one of the few quips that resonates is that this year people are staying up to midnight on the 31 December, not
THE AVIATION INDUSTRY It is now a cliché to say that aviation is in the
to see the new year in, but to check that 2020 is
middle of the biggest crisis it has ever faced,
but, if for no other reason than posterity’s sake,
I need to briefly consider just how flattened our
Aircraft Maintenance Organisations also report
industry is. Airline revenues have collapsed and
good business. It would seem that aircraft
the always fragile general aviation industry has
owners took the opportunity to get longstanding
been brought to its knees.
maintenance snags addressed, or even new
Let’s get the bad news out of the way and start with the big disaster: The airline Industry in Africa:
interiors and paint jobs. But these are the exceptions – and it’s worth
revenue loses are expected to reach $8 billion.
restating what I have said before: the aviation
But as IATA points out - the impact is much
industry leads a recession and lags its recovery.
broader. The consequences of the breakdown
It will therefore take longer than the rest of the
in air connectivity are severe: five million African
economy to recover.
jobs are at risk and aviation-supported GDP could fall by as much as $37 billion, and that’s a 58% drop. Still, its not all doom and gloom. If you look hard enough you can always find a few silver linings. The air freight industry has done well, simply because, without passenger airliners flying there has been a chronic lack of belly space for cargo. This has meant that there has been more than enough demand to keep the pure cargo
The aviation industr y leads a recession and lags its recover y
The new 2020 Squawk.
For the operators in the Okavango Delta and other high-end game lodges, international tourism is not expected to recover much before the middle of next year. And a recovery in 2021 assumes that the major sources of overseas
operators happy – and indeed, making super
tourists can agree the elaborate two-step
profits. (Except SAA Cargo of course).
dance required to comply with both origin and
Similarly, the pure VIP biz-jet operators are doing pretty well. Those who can afford not
destination health protocols. Both Airbus and Boeing have taken great
to have to mix with the germ-infested lumpen
financial strain, but Boeing in particular has had
proletariat have used biz-jets to lord it above the
a torrid time. The stress ended its courtship with
Embraer. Other notable casualties have been the
Perhaps surprisingly, many of the better
death of A380 and 747-8 new builds and massive Dec/Jan 2020
BELOW: 2020 was worse than we dared think.
fleets of parked airliners – many of which will
all but unaffordable and orders dried up for OEM
never fly again. I know of SAA crews who shed a
agents. At the same time, owners have been
discrete tear when they left SAA’s pristine fault-
increasingly exporting their planes, and thus the
free A340-600s in the desert to be hacked by
fleet of GA aircraft within South Africa continues to
both shrink and age.
Boeing’s much hoped
The splendid Sling
for certification of the
Aircraft company is one
777X has still not
of the few beneficiaries of
the weakening Rand. The
small relief came in the
company rather belatedly
FAA approval of the 737
changed its name from
Max for return to flight.
the anodyne ‘The
Whether the airlines
Airplane Factory’ to
and passengers will be
just ‘Sling Aircraft’. This
keen on flying the Max
change recognises that
remains to be seen.
the Sling has become a worldwide success
story as a brand. 85%
In general aviation (GA)
of all its new sales are
we saw evidence – if any was needed – that flying a light aircraft is actually not easy. Pilots who
with half to the USA – which is a notoriously tough market to crack.
had been law-abidingly flightless for six months
Also great to see from Sling Aircraft is a final
suddenly found that they were way behind their
push to get the high wing Sling 4 flying. I’m told
planes and there was an embarrassing spike in
that this will still happen this year, hopefully by the
aircraft accidents from pilots who had forgotten
time you read this, but as they’ve been promising
how to fly.
a high wing for more than ten years, I’m not
The lockdown obviously had the effect of reducing the overall accident count dramatically –
holding my breath. Good progress was made with electric planes,
yet the accident rate seems to have gone up – but
although personally I remain deeply sceptical
as usual we still don’t have definitive numbers as
about their real ability to compete with fossil fuel
the CAA still cannot provide accident stats based
burners. Nonetheless, the successful flying of the
on the number of hours flown.
electric MagniX Cessna C208 and Piper Meridian
The GA industry within South Africa was dealt
made outside South Africa,
is a huge step forward. Even Sling Aircraft have
a further blow by the continued impoverishment
an all-electric Sling 4 being developed by ETH
of South Africans through the weakening of the
University in Switzerland as well as a Hydrogen
Rand, thanks to a full tri-fecta of junk status
Fuel cell version being developed by Delft
ratings. Once again, new aircraft have become
University in Holland.
SAA I would love not to have to say anything about the protracted death of South African Airways - as it is unspeakably tragic. But, like a slowly unfolding
with 1000 hours of command, who have a low cost of living and can therefore accept much lower salaries. We know that things will never be the same
horror movie, SAA holds a morbid fascination for
again, but what will the new normal be? Full
all South Africans.
service airlines have traditionally relied on the fat
The double-whammy of both Covid-19 and the
profit margin from business class, yet the number
maladministration of SAA has taken a huge toll
of business travellers may be reduced by as
on personal lives. I know of pilotsâ€™ wives working
much as half due to the widespread adoption of
nights as hotel receptionists and of 20,000 hour
webinars and online conferencing, instead of face-
Captains driving TLB back-actors and busses.
As a group, the greatest victims are Senior
SAA has been in Business Rescue for a
First Officers, aged around 40, who have 15 or
full year, yet the airline is in a worse position
more years of service, but who were stuck at First
than when it began the Business Rescue â€“ and
Officer due to the lack of SAA growth. When the
carrying on as before is a hopeless dream. Yet
airline industry recovers, these SFOs, who have
this dream is nurtured by those who deceive
mortgages and children in expensive schools, will
themselves and others into believing that the
have to compete against 28-year-old Captains
airline is saveable. The big issue is once again
ABOVE: The Swiss are developing an electric Sling 4. Dec/Jan 2020
the ANC government’s insistence – at all costs – for racial transformation of the pilot body. This
proficiency standards. (I sense a book on this.) The entire business plan for SAA is a fairy tale.
appears to be an objective that has no limits when
It is predicated on absurd assumptions such as
it comes to spending the public’s hard-earned
the airline being profitable with 61% loads, despite
taxes on a vanity project.
the cost of having to transform and to operate
The SA government seems oblivious to the enormous resentment amongst voters and its supporters against its airline. And like it or
politically expedient, but otherwise unprofitable, routes. All this makes the airline un-investable. Minister
not, if pilots are promoted on the basis of race,
Pravin Gordhan wants us to believe that there is a
rather than on skill or experience, the faith
‘white knight’ strategic equity partner waiting in the
t h e CA A continues to get pounded in the cour ts
wings to bail it out, but I’ll believe it when I see it.
that passengers have in SAA’s safety will be
irreplaceable C130 Hercules in a runway excursion
irretrievably damaged. People will rather book on
THE SAAF In 2020 the South African Air Force Apparatchiks tried to pretend that it was 27 years old and not 100. It also saw the retirement of its first black chief, Lt. Gen. Zakes Msimang who threw a few parting punches against stupid politicians in his farewell speech. Meanwhile the SAAF continued to break its few remaining active assets, with the write-off of an
other airlines. The so-called Black Pilots Association at SAA argues vehemently that their standards are just
Pilots either hate the CAA, or just ruefully
as good as any others because they passed the
shrug their shoulders and say, “This is Africa”.
same proficiency checks. However, I am aware
Thus, some accepted that it takes 90 days to
of many examples where the airline “bent over
renew basic aircraft documentation. Others
blackwards” to accommodate struggling pilots.
remember the good old days when you could
The claim that all pilots are the same will simply
get documentation done while you had a cup of
The more the ANC government persists with
This year, thanks to Covid-19, CAA staff were
the money-is-no-object drive to racially transform
allowed to work from home. It seems that much
the pilot body, and at the same time, throw out
of the work was not done, perhaps because
the seniority system (that is accepted worldwide),
they did not have access to a working enterprise
and abolish the tyranny of Training Captains, the
management system, even though the CAA spent
greater will be the pressure for the true story to be
upwards of R90 million on one a few years ago.
told of the compromises that were made in pilot
So the endless checking and double checking of
signatures and box ticking was not possible, and
From this low point, things can only get better. I
Certificates of Registration and Authorities to Fly
still believe that; “This too shall pass” and, “It’s
always darkest before the dawn”. With these
Nonetheless, to give the CAA it’s due, it seems
cliches, let me vacate this page and wish all
to have tried its best to sort out the backlog, and
our loyal advertisers and readers a much more
as we head into the end of the year, the situation
has become tolerable for most users. Meanwhile the regulator continues to get pounded in the
courts, where it loses legal battle after legal battle. A parting thought.
SPACEX Big happy news was achieved by SpaceX. Our Pretoria boykie, Elon Musk, really showed that he does have the right stuff in that they flew two astronauts to the space station and back in May and then a full crew in November. SpaceX is also pushing ahead with its Starlink project to provide widespread 5G coverage to the third world. This is obviously to be welcomed, however I fear the impact of all these little satellites as future space debris. CONCLUSION
W N E EW B S IT E
And thus ends an extraordinarily bleak year.
LEADING EDGE - PETER GARRISON
A NI CE l i t t l e B OOK FROM TIME TO TIME I FIND MYSELF IN THE STUDY OF SOME AFICIONADO OF AVIATION – FORMER FLYING MAGAZINE EDITOR STEPHAN WILKINSON, FOR EXAMPLE – ADMIRING THE CARGO OF HIS BOOKSHELVES. MANY A VOLUME THAT I WOULD LIKE TO SIT DOWN WITH ON A RAINY AFTERNOON; MANY THAT I HAVE NEVER HEARD OF.
THE lavishly illustrated large-format ones you
dense Pynchon novel is doing here, nor St. Ex’s
find remaindered at booksellers aren’t likely to
perennially beloved and terminally tedious Little
be the most interesting; it’s rather the old cloth-
Prince; but you don’t have to buy the whole list,
bound volumes, mostly now out of print, that will
and probably couldn’t even if you wanted to.)
take you deeply into other worlds of flight. It is seldom convenient to note down titles
to Winged Victory, a novel about Camel pilots in
in those situations, but one pilot sent me a nice
World War One. Somehow, I had gotten this far
little book of his that might save one the trouble.
in life without ever having heard of it, although
Searching for the Epic of Flight / 107 Books
it is, according to its cover blurb, “the greatest
Briefly Noted is its title. The British-born author,
novel of war in the air.” The paperback, which
Robert J. Hing, intersperses his capsule reviews
stupidly has an SE-5, not a Camel, on the cover,
with his own reminiscences, and modesty does
arrived the day after I ordered it from Amazon;
not keep him from including a couple of his own
this “one click” stuff is like rubbing a lamp and
books among the aviation classics. The reader
having a genie see to your wishes – although,
may judge for himself whether they ascend to
like wishes, Amazon often does more harm than
the level of some of the others, like Sagittarius
Rising, The Spirit of St. Louis, Night Flight or Gravity’s Rainbow. (I’m not sure what the rather
I’m indebted to Hing for calling my attention
The author, V. M. Yeates, is not to be confused with the poet W. B. Yeats, whose
limpid sonnet on the death
attack. The novel is pretty
pages in what is basically a
of an Irish airman is, to my
clearly autobiographical; one
monotonous series of “jobs”
knowledge, his only work on
way you can tell is that, like
– sorties of an hour or two,
an aeronautical theme. Yeates
real life, it has no discernible
sometimes several in a day, a
L I K E R E A L L I F E , I T HA S NO DI S CER NI B L E P LOT
few miles into “Hunland,” looking for the odd hapless Pfalz or Albatros or reconnaissance twoseater to sneak up on and send
flew Camels on the Western
plot. It’s remarkable that
down in flames, or plunging
Front in 1918, dividing his efforts
Yeates manages to keep you
into a cauldron of machine-
between air combat and ground
engrossed for hundreds of
gun fire to drop a couple of 25-pound bombs or spray a trench with bullets. Movie-style mass dogfights are rare and brief; German pilots, whose equipment the protagonist, Tom Cundall, considers inferior to the British, are depicted as generally, and wisely, avoiding engagements with Camels. Most days end in a drunken haze, alcohol lubricating, as no doubt it always has, the wheels of war. Much of Winged Victory – the title alludes, I think ironically, to the Hellenistic statue, triumphant but headless, that greets visitors to the Louvre – deals with Cundall’s fluctuating feelings about his trade: exultation or relief over his victories and escapes, disgust with the mechanical slaughter of men just like himself – for what? For usury, explains a fellow pilot, who, persuasively enough, sees this mad war as redounding principally to the benefit of
Yeates's book is now acclaimed as one of the best about flying in World War 1.
international industrialists and financiers. Woven through this tapestry of daring, terror and growing doubt are the shining threads of flight. Yeates evokes Turneresque skyscapes – the
many novices died within weeks of arriving. The longer a pilot survived, the longer he was likely to; learning mattered. Most pilots today can have little idea of the
tawny eruptions of evening cumulus, the pools
sensations of flying an aeroplane like a Sopwith
and filigrees of mist, the leaden overcasts and the
Camel. So-called because of the slightly humped
opalescent voids – that every pilot will recognize.
silhouette of its forward fuselage, the Camel was a
Weather has a leading role in the drama. “Dud” weather means safety – you can roll over and
tiny thing, its empty weight about that of a modern two-seat homebuilt.
The quirky and barely stable Sopwith Camel.
sleep, the morning job won’t go – but also the
It was armed with two forward-firing machine
boredom of empty hours. Good weather means
guns. You did not so much climb as slither into
danger – but also the fun of “contour chasing”
its well-like cockpit. Pug-nosed, it was quite
over the war-blasted landscape at 20 feet and
tail-heavy; aft CG caused a lack of longitudinal
diving to radiator-cap level to terrify the occupants
stability which, combined with minimal vertical
of British staff cars encountered by chance on
tail area and the concentration of mass at the
country roads. Pilots who joined their squadrons
centre of the aircraft, made it very agile. It was
during winter months were likely to survive longer,
virtually incapable of prolonged coordinated flight,
because they would fly less; but in any season
but Yeates considered that its willingness to fly
somewhat sideways made it a harder target; an
by the skin of his teeth. Once pilots became
enemy could not be sure where it was going.
accustomed to the aeroplane, however, they found
Several engines were used, the most powerful
it congenial and pleasant to fly; Tom Cundall feels
a 160-hp Gnome swinging a 9-foot propeller at
that his helpful Camel flies itself when he takes
1,400 rpm; this gave an initial rate of climb of
it out on a sortie while staggering drunk. It has
1,200 fpm and a service ceiling near 20,000 feet,
always been so with pilots and aeroplanes: Pilots’
where neither aeroplanes nor pilots were at their
unconscious adaptations eventually make them
best. Cundall’s squadron flies the more common
and their machines one.
110-hp Le Rhône-engined variant. All Camel engines were rotaries – quaint
Winged Victory takes place in northern France a few months before the end of the
parodies of a radial engine, now extinct, in which
war. Although Yeates describes the Allies as
the crankshaft stayed still and the engine spun
enjoying air superiority, the Camel had by then
around it. The scheme was ingenious, with a
been surpassed by heavier, more powerful and
high ratio of power to weight and good ground
faster fighters, notably the Fokker D.VII. Cundall
cooling. There was no oil pump; centrifugal force
increasingly encounters those “new Fokker
carried castor oil outward to the rockers, whence
biplanes” and attaches an obsessive, sinister
it continued overboard. The Gnome engine lacked
significance to the “extensions” of their upper
even a throttle, the pilot controlling power stepwise
wings – just aileron horn balances, actually. It
by cutting ignition to various numbers of cylinders.
was the D.VII, half again as heavy as the Camel,
The main character trait of the rotary was its
with thick cantilever wings and a liquid-cooled
powerful gyroscopic couple, which caused an
Mercedes inline-six engine, that the Allies would
aeroplane to pitch when yawed and yaw when
single out for confiscation after the armistice, and
pitched. It was said – falsely – that the Camel
that would continue in military service in various
could make a 270-degree turn to the right faster
countries throughout the 1920s. It, and not the
than a 90-degree one to the left, but it seems to
agile Camel, pointed the way to the biplane
me more likely that it could enter an accelerating
fighters of the postwar decade.
evasive dive very rapidly to the right, when the
Victor Maslin Yeates flew 163 “jobs,” was shot
gyroscopic couple pulled the nose downward,
down twice, and himself shot down five enemy
whereas when turning to the left the aeroplane
planes in the spring and summer of 1918. He
tended to raise its nose and slow down.
wrote the novel the year before his death at 37,
Maintaining altitude, a Camel makes the same
in 1934, of tuberculosis. It was a great favour to
turn rate and radius in either direction as any other
posterity. Winged Victory is a vivid evocation of
aeroplane at the same bank angle and speed.
experiences that one longs to have had, but is
Between its marginal stability and the
not eager to undergo. One feels harrowed, mud-
peculiarities of its handling, the single-seat Camel
spattered and war-weary after reading it. Just a
presented novice pilots with a difficult transition.
touch of PTSD; it will pass.
Many crashed. Yeates gives a vivid account of his protagonist’s maiden flight, which he survives Dec/Jan 2020
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PLANE TALK - JIM DAVIS
PA X A C T I V E OR
( PA R T 3)
PA S S I V E P E S T S ? THOSE WHO WERE PAYING ATTENTION WILL REMEMBER THAT FOR THE PAST COUPLE OF MONTHS I HAVE BEEN EXPRESSING MY OPINION OF PAX – AND IT’S NOT VERY HIGH.
I’VE been trying to figure out how the five
stories from long ago because they are boring
personality traits, recognised by psychology,
to everyone under 35, and fairly boring to those
affect the safety and harmony of a flight. Here
over 35. So all the following events happened in
they are again.
the past few weeks.
1. Conscientiousness 2. Agreeableness
awful place – I can’t even remember where it
was, but it makes no difference – all military
4. Openness to experience
camps are identical because they are chosen
for the same attributes. The territory must be
And it’s not only the personalities of the pax
devoid of vegetation. It must be flat except for
that matters – the pilot’s personality obviously
a single stony koppie in the far distance. This is
has a big influence on things. Now I must
for troopies to run round when their boots aren’t
confess that I only did Psyc for one year at
sufficiently shiny, or the corporal discovers a
varsity and all I learned was to regard shrinks
dead fly under their locker.
with much suspicion. So what I say comes from
There must be dust or sand for miles in every
the flimsiest of backgrounds and has almost no
direction and a fair scattering of large stones
authority. It’s just my own biased observations.
that need to be painted white. It must never have
I want to tell you a few stories and see how
rained there, and the daily temperatures must
the characteristics of the participants play out in
vary between minus 8 deg C when one gets
the real world.
up in the morning, and plus 45 deg C at 2pm.
The Gleitch says I am not allowed to tell you
I was at an Air Force camp at some gawd-
Whirlwinds are an added attraction.
So we are at this place when I am summonsed
wrapping myself in a plastic, nutria (meaning the
to the Ops tent where Commandant Robertson
colour of warm nappy noodles) raincoat, holds little
greets me as follows, “Davis, go back to your tent
appeal. Even less appealing is Cmdt Robertson’s
and put on your raincoat.” This is an interesting
next order, “You are to take Sergeant de Lange
start – its relevance will become clear in a
flying in that Colt,” he points through the flap of the
tent, “and make him sick. Any questions?”
The lines of retribution between Air Force officers and Army NCO’s were somewhat blurred
So that explains the rain coat – it’s for selfprotection. It would seem that Sgt ‘Slang’ de Lange, the least popular person in the whole of the South African Defence Force, had got up Cdt. Robertson’s nose in no small way. The exact nature of this ingestion was not made clear to me. It would also appear that the lines of retribution between Air Force officers and Army NCO’s
For brunch we have all just uploaded some
were somewhat blurred. One could see that our
stuff which is best described as cow-cube stew.
commandant would love to have sent the hated
It consists of lumps of gristle and hoof in a murky
sergeant on a cross-country gallop around the
fluid that has islands of fur floating in it. I think
distant koppie, but this may have breached some
they walk the cattle through criss-cross band saw
rule of inter-service niceties.
blades and let the bits fall into luke-warm water before serving. We are soaked in sweat so the prospect off
The next best thing to the koppie run was obviously to cause the Sergeant to vomit his cowcube stew all over the inside of a little aeroplane.
The Pretoria Flying Club’s faithful Cubs grazing peacefully on the grass next to Schalk Barnard’s control tower at Wonderboom many years ago.
A runaway Piper Cub will often spin around in ever-widening circles.
I have to break off the narrative for a moment to explain that an RAF instructor had once told me that one should always handle an aircraft as if one’s grannie was sitting in the back with a basket
To that heaving motion caused by the pilot fighting turbulence with ailerons alone
jettison his inner self did not sit well with me, but I had my orders. Now there are two things that are pretty much guaranteed to induce shooting the cat. One is having one’s head down while doing paperwork, and the other is being subjected to that heaving motion caused by the pilot fighting turbulence with ailerons alone. If you don’t use rudder even the strongest digestive system knows when it’s time to eject the last intake. Easing the stick back and forth helps to lift the floor of the stomach.
of eggs in her lap. My dad had given me similar instructions when teaching me to drive a car. Passengers must not feel configuration
I find the repellent sergeant waiting at the aircraft. He is a skinny bugger with a nasty little moustache. He stands ram-rod straight and
changes in an aircraft, nor gear changes in a
stamps his feet, producing little puffs of dust as he
car. So the thought of deliberately making Slang
salutes. Dec/Jan 2020
I explain to him that I require his assistance. I must do a test flight on the aircraft and need a reliable scribe to record important data as
the task. I took pity on the sickly sergeant and landed with seconds to spare. As we touched down, I leant across and
we fly. Every 30 seconds he has to write down
opened his door so he could decant his midday
our altitude, the oil pressure and temperature
meal politely on the runway.
as well as the engine revs and the outside air temperature. He pays careful attention as I hand him a pencil
Commandant Robertson was delighted when I reported that the mission was a success. However, I omitted to tell him that I had somehow
and clipboard in preparation for the task. I explain
become the Sergeant’s hero. While using the
that it will be bumpy, but the mission is of vital
back of his hand to wipe bits of carrot out of his
importance and he must not give up on me even if
moustache, he had begged me to call upon him if I ever need his assistance with any future test flights. I assured him it would be a great pleasure – and I really meant it. My astute psychological analysis of the participants in this drama is as follows.
It's not enough to have a pax in the front when you hand prop - the pax must know what to do.
Sgt de Lange gets ten out of ten for Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, zero for Neuroticism, another ten for Openness to Experience and zero again for Extraversion. I would have to call him the ideal passenger.
he starts to feel unwell. He nods enthusiastically. I actually begin like him already and am starting to feel guilty about what lies ahead. I don’t wish to bore my audience with a description of how my unfortunate passenger
Commandant Robertson, on the other hand, would be awarded somewhere around zero for agreeableness. My own scores are not important in this context, so we can fast forward to The Story of The Spotty Youth.
dripped sweat onto his precious paperwork. Or how his features turned from a healthy tan to a ghastly grey that soon took on touches of duck shit
THE STORY OF THE SPOTTY YOUTH. Unfortunately I was not a witness to this
green while he laboured with his clerical duties.
fascinating study of the human psyche so I have
So I will skip lightly over that and simply mention
to rely on the testimony of my buddy Neville Austin
that my conscience wouldn’t allow me complete
who was on the scene and was able to extricate
the SY from the wreckage of several aircraft.
get the show on the road.
The main character in this epistle has cycled
From what follows it may seem that the gods
from Pretoria to Wonderboom bearing a crumpled
had handing him a particularly dull witted pupil, but
and sweaty cutting from the Pretoria News. He
had Bossie been able to consult our useful list of
presents this certificate to Dirty Bossie, who is the
psychological characteristics it might have caused
duty instructor at the Pretoria Flying club.
him to put less faith his co-pilot’s fitness for the
Upon uncrumpling the document, Bossie discovers it’s an advertisement which briefly
task at hand. The regs encourage one to have a ‘responsible
states that the bearer, in this case a skinny, acne
person’ at the controls. The youngster’s distant
encrusted person of about 16, is entitled to a half-
gaze should have caused Bossie to put him the
price, 30 minute introductory flight in a Piper Cub.
boxes labelled: ‘Introverted’, possibly ‘Neurotic’
The stripling digs in the pocket of his shorts and
and ‘Not quick to catch on to new experiences’.
presents Bossie with a soggy, brown one Rand
Unfortunately, Bossie was not afforded these
note and a hefty 50c piece.
insights that the reader now has.
Looking at our psychological checklist, I
As we zoom in for a closer look at the scene
would have to classify Bossie as being low on
we find Bossie in front of the aircraft putting a
Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. He’s a hell
fair amount of muscle into some vigorous prop
of a nice guy, but he doesn’t mind cutting a couple
of corners in order to get the job done, and he
Those who have been involved with this activity
sees no point on wasting time on pleasantries, or
will remember that there are certain protocols to
be observed. The guy doing the swinging calls
It’s the work of a few moments to complete the
Neither of the participants is mentally prepared for such an eventuality pre-flight ritual on ZS-BNR and have the skinny teen strapped into the rear of the yellow Cub while
out when he wants the mags switched off and the throttle open for blowing out; or the throttle set, and the mag switch positioned on ‘L’ for starting. Anyhow, it seems this is all a bit much for our new enthusiast. His management of the switch and the throttle somehow gets out of sync with Bossie’s curt instructions. We, the onlookers, are unaware of this until, without warning, the engine stutters for a moment and then rapidly accelerates to full power. Neither of the participants is mentally prepared for such an eventuality. Bossie is the first to recover and get an
muttering instructions on the operation of the heel
intellectual grip on the situation. In fact he is the
brakes, the throttle and the mag switch. Bossie
only one to do so. The stripling finds himself in a
expects his passenger to take charge of these vital
situation outside the scope of his expertise. He
controls while he, Bossie, will swing the prop and
mentally retreats into a darkened corner where he Dec/Jan 2020
can, without participating, observe the world pass
his knees, sending him sprawling on the tarmac,
and the aircraft builds up speed.
A more adventurous pupil might consider the options open to him, such as closing the throttle,
possible degrees. It could take the frightened
turning off the mags, or use the brakes, but this
fledgling for a canter across the airfield, and
lad is reluctant to experiment with things beyond
conceivably even get airborne – it’s happened
his skills set. He adopts the role of a spectator
before. But it reverts to the natural behaviour of
and observes how the events unfold from his own
any distressed Cub – it heads straight for its lair
perspective inside the Cub. He does nothing which
– viz the open doors of the Pretoria Flying Club
might influence the unfolding chain of events.
Bossie, on the other hand, takes a more
The scene of devastation is total. None of the
pragmatic view. He realises that the time for action
PFC’s fleet escapes unharmed. Another Cub, a
is upon him. He springs to his left to avoid being
Trike and a 140 Cherokee are all brutalised to
eaten by the prop. He then dives for the strut in
some extent before the wooden prop breaks up
an effort to restrain the aircraft before it gathers
and the engine thrashes itself to death.
too much speed and perhaps takes the terrified trainee on a premature first solo. The scene that usually followed such incidents was not uncommon. We see a man frantically tugging at the strut or wing-tip while an aircraft circles round him. The pupil maintains his bovine detachment.
Despite the pupil’s harrowing experience he is not one to give up on a special offer. In the appalling silence that follows he is heard to ask, “Can we try again next week then?” I still have time for another example of passengers’ psychological makeup. On this occasion I walked right into the passive
Bossie’s bellowed instructions might have been
pax problem. I rocked up at the Brummer’s Kraal
in Swahili for all the difference they make – he is
airfield at Knysna one afternoon to find a bunch
simply not getting involved.
of model flyers there. I had just started watching
If our clinical examination of Bossie were to
them when they all began running around and
include the physical aspects of his being, we
yelling in a desperate panic. The chilling words
would notice that he was not constructed for
“fan stop” were shouted several times by different
endurance. A beer belly and nicotine stained
devotees. It seems one of the models had suffered
fingers would hint at the fact that the fun was likely
an engine stoppage and everyone else had to get
to be short lived.
out of the way while the crippled aircraft glided in
One can see that Bossie’s energy is starting to wilt. It’s time for desperate measures. He has no
for a forced landing. Personally, I didn’t think it was a big event, but
option but to attempt a do-or-die manoeuvre which
perhaps if I had spent a lot of time and money
he must know has little chance of success.
on fashioning one of these noisy, an vaguely
He abandons the strut and dives for the cockpit. It’s a hopeless gesture. The Cub gets away from him. The trail clouts him on the back of
Now its playground becomes any one of 360
annoying little buzzers I would have reacted with equal horror at the dreaded cry of “fan stop”. For a while I watched them doing all sorts of
interesting aerobatics. Gradually I began to notice
After a final couple of words to reassure my
that one manoeuvre was missing from everyone’s
passenger, I lowered the nose to get 105mph, then
repertoire – no one was doing a slow roll.
raised it very slightly above the horizon, checked it
I discussed this with one of the guys and he didn’t seem to understand what I was talking
there and rolled to the right. Now Tigers don’t have fancy fuel systems
about. He summoned a bunch of his cohorts
for inverted power – they are equipped with
and there was much urgent deliberation on the
extremely primitive, black carburettors with brass
subject of rolls. The merits of the straight roll, the
attachments. The sort of thing one would expect to
pansy roll, and the two types of barrel roll were
find under the bonnet of a vintage Lagonda.
all ventilated while the participants twisted their
This means that as you go through 90 degrees
hands through the air, but slow rolls were not on
of roll you must throttle fully back. And you mustn’t
expect to have power until you are just past 270 degrees, at which point you smoothly ease the throttle forward and recover to straight and level. Every now and then this plan is foiled by general wear in the innards of the carburettor. More specifically the float sticks and the engine stops. Well it keeps windmilling but there is no power.
Even the most basic instrument panels can be overwhelming for a non-pilot.
And so it was on that particular flight. I explain the mechanics
I suggested that I take one of them up in my
of this problem to my passenger and say that
Tiger for a demo. At first there was a surprising
unfortunately we will have to land. There is a
lack of enthusiasm for this venture, but finally
stunned silence while he tries to absorb the
the chief punter exhibited what the shrinks call
significance of my words. I am about to ask
‘Openness to Experience’ and volunteered.
whether he heard what I said when he comes
In no time I had this vaguely reluctant passenger briefed and strapped into the front cockpit. As we climbed out over the lagoon in the calm evening air, I could hear by his voice that he
through with a trembling voice, “You don’t mean fan stop do you?” I still have a couple more recent pax stories for next month – the Gleitch permitting.
was starting to relax. We were soon at a happy altitude over the airfield. Dec/Jan 2020
DASSIE PERSAUD-VAN DER WESTHUIZEN Aviation is often seen as a bigger contributor to pollution than a belching smokestack.
GR EEN I S T HE NE W B L A CK ?
MY NASCENT AIRLINE CAREER MAY HAVE BEEN HALTED BY THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC – BUT IT WILL RESTART. A QUESTION THAT BOTHERS ME IN THE MEANWHILE IS WHETHER AIRLINES WILL BE ABLE SURVIVE THE PRESSURE BY THE ENVIRONMENTALISTS WHO LOVE TO USE AIR TRAVEL – AND ITS CONSPICUOUS
VAPOUR TRAILS – AS THE WHIPPING BOY FOR GLOBAL WARMING.
PERHAPS it’s time to apologise to the greenies,
year from 2009 – 2015. Then CO2 emissions are
tree-huggers, climate-hawks and whatever other
capped at 2020 levels and, finally, net emissions
names you secretly called them. They were right;
should reduce by 50% by the year 2050 (based on
Global warming is real, and humans are on track
2005 levels). Domestic airlines are encouraged to
to messing up the earth for good.
participate as well, despite the name suggesting
With only a few years left to make unrecognisable changes in every industry around
that they are excluded. But what does all that really mean?
the world - to meet environmental targets laid out in global agreements, such as the Paris Agreement - the clock is ticking. And the aviation
CORSIA – IN A NUTSHELL Let’s start with the basics - burning JetA fuel
industry recently decided to stop twiddling its
creates CO2 emissions. So, airlines need to burn
thumbs and get involved, despite not having been
less of it for each person carried to become more
included in these arrangements originally.
Maybe you’ve started to notice signs of the
Reduction strategies involve combinations of
impending extreme weather crisis - like the increasing wildfires abroad, droughts preventing refreshing showers in your beach house in Cape Town, and wilder weather in general. So, the goal of the Paris Agreement is to combat this trend and prevent irrecoverable damage by capping the global temperature increase at 1.5°C above preindustrial levels by the year 2050. The aviation industry accounts for at least 2% of global CO2 emissions. As the industry continues to grow (as it did in those ‘good-old-
AIRLINES NEED TO BURN LESS FUEL FOR EACH PERSON CARRIED
days’ before COVID-19), so will the industry’s contribution to total CO2 emissions by burning fossil fuels. The problem is that the CO2 emitted
various measures: Technology options include
into the atmosphere contributes to global warming,
retrofitting the existing fleet with winglets, for
which in turn leads to climate change.
example, or upgrading to new generation aircraft.
What is the aviation industry’s plan of action to tackle its CO2 emissions? It wasn’t easy to make one. How can CO2 emissions from a particular
(The Airbus A320Neo is approximately 17% more fuel-efficient than its predecessor). Improved air traffic management is essential
international flight, for example, be assigned to a
and helps to reduce the distance and holding
time flown to save fuel. Internal airline operational
In the end, ICAO created a Carbon Offsetting
strategies such as continuous descent procedures
and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation
and single-engine taxi also make a significant
(CORSIA). It’s a three-phase strategy: Firstly, fuel
efficiency should have improved by 1.5% each
Is it realistic to want to cap CO2 emissions at Dec/Jan 2020
2020 levels? Simply put, any amount of CO2 emitted
carbon-neutral airline in the US for domestic routes.
into the atmosphere above the 2020 CO2 total
In November 2011, Lufthansa used a blend of biofuel
should be offset by buying Market-Based Measures
to operate the first daily commercial passenger
(MBM) such as carbon credits, or offsets for every
extra tonne of CO2 emitted. Lastly, by 2050, net
SAA made history on our home soil in July 2015
emissions should reduce by 50% when compared to
by completing the first flight with a blend of biofuel
2005. This requires a rapid reduction in the amount
and normal JetA on the continent (on a flight from
of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere through the
Johannesburg to Cape Town). And more recently,
introduction of new technologies into the market.
a Qantas Dreamliner flight took centre stage as the
So, how is the industry coping with the transition
first blended biofuel flight from Australia to the US.
towards a greener future?
While airlines are increasingly utilising biofuels, only a handful of airports have it in regular supply. Partly because it costs far more than fossil-fuels and partly
Zoom meetings and Webinars are expected to cut airline business travel.
because it is not widely available. So maybe biofuels won’t save the day after all. THE REALITY BEHIND THE NICESOUNDING PLAN OF ACTION Some studies indicate that the industry’s projection to reach the 2050 CO2 emission targets is too conservative and that the CO2 emissions compound growth rate is 70% higher than that used by ICAO. Since the future of biofuels and new technology are uncertain, some regard it as highly improbable that environmental targets will be reached. So, why don’t we just rely on carbon-offsets and credits? The aviation industry acknowledges these measures are only an interim solution. Some claim that these measures create a false sense of security for passengers who purchase them - who incorrectly believe that their flight won’t contribute to global warming due to the purchased offsets. Unfortunately, this isn’t the case. So, airlines are encouraged to be transparent about the carbon-
GREEN PLAYERS In November 2019, easyJet became the world’s
offset programmes they support and to carefully consider their choice of language when describing
first net-zero carbon airline. And while the world
offset initiatives to paint an honest picture to
focused on COVID-19, JetBlue became the first
passengers. After all, passengers want transparency
and are placing increasing amounts of pressure on airlines to go green. For example, in Europe during 2018, a movement referred to as ‘flight shaming’ was popularised by the Swedish environmental activist and Nobel Peace Prize nominee, Gretha Thunberg, and resulted in a 4% decrease in international flights from Swedish airports. THE FUTURE IS GREEN So, what are airlines supposed to do if it’s unlikely that biofuels will save the day? I have to admit that I don’t have the answer. But, I’d like to think that some of the greatest minds of my generation are working on it. In the meantime, everyone should do their part to become as environmentally friendly as possible to meet the goals of global agreements which will protect our planet. For airlines that haven’t yet aligned themselves with green initiatives, it could mean temporarily experiencing lower profit
“THE GREATEST THREAT TO OUR PLANET IS THE BELIEF THAT SOMEONE ELSE WILL SAVE IT.”
Protecting the environment is everybody's responsibility.
emissions on short routes or by questioning whether a ‘face-to-face’ meeting is essential. As a passenger, perhaps the time has come to be more like the greenies, tree-huggers, climatehawks. Maybe choosing not to fly for leisure is responsible behaviour moving forward, or packing lighter when travel is unavoidable to reduce baggage weight on board. If 200 passengers can carry 10 kg of baggage each less the two ton load saving will have a small but significant reduction in fuel burn.
margins to retrofit existing aircraft and to train
If we don’t find ways to drastically change the
crew according to new fuel-efficient SOP’s. Or,
industry as it recovers from the global pandemic,
by following in KLM’s ‘fly responsibly’ campaign
we’re in for a rude awaking in very soon - disease,
that encourages passengers to fly less - by rather
droughts and extreme weather patterns will be a
choosing public transport that emits fewer CO2
part of our reality. Dec/Jan 2020
Instead of dealing with these problems in the long-run, already accepting that green is the new black could help prevent global warming and irreversible damage to our earth. Carbon emissions are just one part of aligning with the green trend. In what other ways should airlines change? Acknowledging that singleuse plastics onboard is old fashioned is a great starting point. Green airlines are already flying single-use plasticfree; Etihad Airways proved this is even possible on ultra-long-haul flights in 2019. Or, choosing to operate out of green airports is also a step in the right direction. Stockholm’s Arlanda Airport in Sweden turned carbon neutral in 2009 (the first European airport to achieve this) and incorporates other measures such as environmentally friendly de-icing chemicals into the mix to protect water sources near the airport. While it may not seem like there are many options, making the necessary changes to include as many environmentally friendly choices into daily operations adds up in the end. There isn’t a lot of time left to postpone taking action. So, let’s commend the airlines that have already accepted that green is the new black. Because, as If everyone packs less then significant fuel and emissions will be saved.
Robert Swan has said: “The greatest threat to our planet is the belief that someone else will save it.” And we’ve
believed that for far too long.
absolute quality and integrity We independently manage your AIRWORTHINESS to the highest industry standards, control your maintenance & operational billing. CAMOSA represents your interests in our industry.
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HELI OPS: GEORGE TONKING
P OP P Y DR OP
A LOUE T T E , GENT I L L E A LOUE T T E
DESPITE ENDURING A WORLD-CHANGING PANDEMIC IN 2020 AND FACING AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE, I SUSPECT IT’S NOTHING COMPARED TO LIVING IN A COUNTRY AT WAR. WHICH IS WHAT I FOUND MYSELF CONTEMPLATING RECENTLY AS I FLEW WHAT IS NOW A CIVILIAN VERSION OF A SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY STALWART, THE AÉROSPATIALE ALOUETTE III.
of heightened stress and fear. This month, as alluded to already, I’ll be writing about the machine behind the sound. Picture the setting. The year is 1977 and South Africa is in the midst of the ‘border war’, a spin-off skirmish of the Cold War; a bitter battle in the bushland of the northern reaches of South West Africa (now Namibia) and into Angola. The Alouette III is still a remarkable performer.
It was no holiday for South African lads plucked, wet behind their ears, from their homes, barely old enough to drive their Ratel infantry
“MY favourite helicopter sound,” one friend
combat vehicles, living on rat-packs and in
fear of the inexplicable ‘rooi-gevaar’. I didn’t
“That high pitched turbine whine and whack of the rotors takes me straight back to the border,”
be called up to national service. But I remember
said another. “Spine-chilling!”
one of my school teachers speaking of the utter
It’s amazing how sights, smells and sounds all
experience any of this myself, being too young to
terror of tracers zipping over his head, and of the
have that ability to awaken memories, especially
relief at hearing Puma and Alouette helicopters
when those memories were formed in times
roaring over them to engage a mostly-unseen
Tricycle wheeled undercarriage makes ground handling and rolling take-offs easier.
out of a sticky situation. During the Korean War in the 1950s, Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals, or M. A. S. H. (immortalised by the 1970’s American TV show of the same name) were made possible largely thanks to Bell 47 (designated H-13 Sioux) helicopters, with their two medevac panniers fitted above the landing skids.
enemy from the air. The Border War has been chronicled in many books, including aviation books, which
were, unlike the high flying,
In addition, the Bell 47 was
more glamorous Mirage and
successful in its role as a
Impala Mk2 fighters.
medevac chopper because of
In the beginning of vertical-
its relatively light weight and
I had access to as a ‘laaitie’. It
lift aviation, small numbers
its turbo-charged, 6-cylinder
was easy to pick out the South
of helicopters made an
Lycoming engine, which had just
African Air Force aircraft of the
appearance towards the end of
enough power to take a pilot,
time. Most had similar bushveld
World War II, most notably as
nurse and two wounded men on
olive drab/khaki camouflage,
war-time aerial support vehicles,
stretchers. But ultimately, early
applied over the silver or blue
for observation, transport and
helicopter designers realised
schemes of the 1970s. One
medical evacuation. Unlike fixed
that hovering a helicopter and
aircraft, the Alouette III, seemed
wing planes, they were able to
making purely vertical take-offs
to be in more pictures than any
do without a runway to insert or,
and landings in a hot and high
other, a ‘troepies’ friend as it
more importantly, pluck a soldier
landing zone required more
Huge canopy provides visibility for days.
power than the available piston engines could offer. The answer to the problem came from Joseph Szydlowski, a Polish-Israeli aircraft engine designer who developed a small gas-turbine engine, the Turbomeca Artouste, in the mid1950s. At around the same time and place, French state-owned aircraft manufacturer Sud-Est Dec/Jan 2020
27 points on the main rotor require greasing every 15 flight-hours
rotor system to facilitate large-scale production, also made possible because of a lighter 260 Shaft Horse Power (SHP) Turbomeca Artouste turboshaft engine. The performance of the world’s first turbine-powered mass-produced commercial helicopter made the Alouette II an overnight success. By virtue of the success of the Alouette II, and
A small part of the 8000 paper poppy load.
after a merger between Sud-Est and Sud-Ouest to form Sud Aviation, Chief Engineer René Mouille set his sights on developing a more aerodynamic and more powerful turbine-powered helicopter with improved visibility. The design brief was for a military and civilian helicopter that could carry seven passengers or two stretchers internally. A tricycle undercarriage was selected to allow for running take-offs and landings, as well as for naval ship-borne operations. The Alouette III’s design genius lay in its intricate use of a chrome-moly space-frame centre-cradle and aluminium-skin tension monocoque tail structure combination to achieve strength and light-weight performance. Initially designated as the SE3160, The Alouette III had a lighter Turbomeca Astazou turboshaft engine, originally rated to 880 SHP output, but then derated to 550 SHP. Much thought went into field serviceability, with access to all maintenance
was developing its first commercial helicopter,
points. The Alouette III even has its own ladder
the Sud-Est SE3130. The SE3130 was based on
access built into the main frame, making the
the Sud-Est Alouette (1) prototype, which shared
dynamic components easily accessible for
many design ideas seen in the earlier Bell 47
helicopter, the main difference being a 3-blade,
The Alouette was designed before Teflon
fully articulated, main rotor system, which was
anti-friction materials found in modern rotor-
far more complex than the teetering or see-saw
craft clevises were available, meaning that it is
type semi-rigid rotor on the Bell. The design
imperative to wear a flight suit when flying it,
then morphed into the Alouette II helicopter, with
what with all 27 points on the main rotor requiring
many further refinements and a simpler main
greasing every 15 flight-hours or so. A messy
job indeed! It did, however,
these design elements helped to
which it set way back in 1972.
introduce composite material
create a helicopter with excellent
At the same time, it also set
structures to helicopter design
manoeuvrability and superb hot
an unintended record for the
and manufacture, like the light-
and high performance.
longest successful autorotation
So successful were both
in history, after its turbine shut
iterations of the Alouette, that
down because of the freezing
in 1968 Sud Aviation began
temperatures (measured at
a first for helicopters. With its
designing the SA315 ‘Lama’
-62° Celsius) at the peak of its
for use in extreme mountain
assisted controls, the Alouette III
ranges, such as the Himalayas
needs the softest touch to dance
in Asia and the Andes in South
subject of this article,
through even complex g-loaded
America. By combining the
the Alouette III, which I
or negative-g manoeuvres.
II’s lightweight airframe with
was fortunate to fly at the
The flat floor cockpit layout is
the III’s superior dynamic
Remembrance Day Memorial
spacious and ergonomically
components, the company
Service at Pretoria Boys High
weight fiberglass engine and airframe panels. The control system was also
But back to the specific
designed with the commander’s station on the traditional righthand side. The co-pilot is
A built-in ladder for easy inspections.
positioned in the middle front station with dual controls, while an observer/passenger seat is aligned to the left. In the rear of the cabin is a bench-type seat for four passengers. Sliding doors, also a first for helicopters at the time, allow generous access to the rear cabin on both sides. Engine start and management is accomplished
created a rotorcraft that was
School on the 11th of November
by a complex electro-
the undisputed champion of
this year. The aircraft was
mechanical interface, enabling
mountain work – until the AS350
originally manufactured as
single button operation for start
B3 Squirrel arrived on the
an SE316B by Aérospatiale
and stop – amazing for a 1960’s
(the company created out of
turbine aircraft. The main rotor is
The first-ever Lama
the merger of several French
engaged after engine start via a
constructed still holds the
aviation companies, including
centrifugal clutch, with a specific
absolute altitude record for its
Sud Aviation) in 1970, with
spool-up timed procedure. All of
class of 40,814 ft (12,442m),
construction number 1746. Dec/Jan 2020
The (B) denotes the last production version of
daughter and father Hayley and Paul Cumming
the Alouette, which boasts a longer tail and main
from Helivate, keep her in immaculate condition
rotors, and added modifications for better hot and
while allowing her to do what she does best; fly.
high performance. C/N 1746 left the factory in Marignane, in
As part of the memorial service, we obtained permission from the South African Civil Aviation
the south of France, bound for the USA, where
Authority (SACAA) to do a fly by, before scattering
it was used primarily for firefighting and power
over 8,000 paper poppies from the air in
line inspections. The helicopter was then sold,
remembrance of the South African lives lost during
disassembled and shipped to South Africa to join
World War II, now 75 years on. After the sortie, we duly landed and joined the guests, including
THEY WILL NEVER FORGET THE UNIQUE SOUND OF THE ALO
representatives of all of the SANDF’s arms, as well as military attachés stationed in Pretoria, and “old boys” who had served in the military. The many people I have met who served in the South African armed forces, and specifically ‘on the border’, all tell me they will never forget the unique sound of the Alo. And on 11 November, old boys recounted stories interspersed with tears and laughter, tales dragged from their memories by the distinctive turbine whine of Aerospatiale Alouette
III, number 1746.
the South African Airforce as SAAF Alouette 617 in 1975. Not much is known about her active-duty history, except that she finished her service at 87 Helicopter Flying School at AFB Bloemspruit (Bloemfontein) in 1990. She then spent a number of years gathering dust at 10 Air Depot in Thaba Tshwane before being sold to the public as surplus by Denel. Her latest registration is ZSRNV, after being nut-and-bolt restored in 2009 at Wonderboom Airport by specialist Johan Lok. Rare for a 1970 Alouette, she boasts a Certificate of Airworthiness, rendering her type-certified for commercial operations. Her current owners,
BELOW: Rotor head and blade greasing in a messy job.
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At Dynamic Propellers cc we overhaul and maintain all Hartzell, McCauley, MT-Propeller, Hoﬀmann, Dowty, Sensenich, Whirl Wind and Hamilton standard propellers to include metal and composite blades. We do all maintenance procedures related to aircraft propeller overhauls as called for by the various propeller manufacturers including cadmium plating. Everything is performed in-house, including cold compression rolling on Hartzell propeller blades, as well as dynamic balancing of propellers in the ﬁeld. Dynamic Propellers cc is an Authorised Service Centre for MT-Propeller and Whirl Wind. Dynamic Propellers cc is also appointed as the sole McCauley Authorised Service Centre for the African continent. We carry a large stock holding of fast moving propellers, hubs, parts, de-icing parts, overhaul kits etc. in our inventory to cater for Hartzell, McCauley, MT – Propeller, Hoﬀman, Dowty, Sensenich, Whirl Wind and Hamilton standard propellers. We do a huge amount of travelling to local, domestic and neighbouring countries as well as abroad to cater for customer’s propeller requirements.
A SLIM LOGBOOK - JOHAN WALDEN
S HR I NK M A CHI NE WITH 300 HORSES IN ITS THROATY ENGINE PULLING SIX SEATS UNDER WINGS THE SIZE OF BARN DOORS, CESSNA’S C206 IS A MIGHTY WORKHORSE THAT PACKS A PUNCH.
WHILE the thought of taming the beast made
specs nervously, my inexperience with planes
my knees shake, it was easy to see why pilots
couldn’t comprehend how this brute was going to
love a C206 so much.
“feel the same” as a Jabi, or even a Cessna 172.
It was early morning and my instructor and I
An hour later we landed and parked next
were in a Jabiru 430 cruising to the airfield where
to the Cessna. The first thing I noticed was its
the 206 lived. Loved for charter and cargo flying
monstrously fat nose and windmill-sized propeller.
throughout southern Africa, I’m told a 206 rating
I was immediately worried that, being a shorty, I
will score you brownie points on a job application.
wouldn’t be able to see over the instrument panel,
I was fortunate to be flying one today. I’d done lots of hour building for my CPL in the Jabiru. It is very cost effective, has four seats, and buzzes along at a reasonable pace - and it has a decent range too. But the C206 is “double everything in the Jabi.” With a max take-off mass of 1633kg, it is twice the weight, and almost triple the power of the little ‘Jabbi’. According to the Pilots Operating
The power was visceral, and I couldn’t keep the huge grin on my face.
Handbook (POH) it doesn’t exactly rival the Concorde, but as a friend put it, “You can load
or reach the pedals. I wasn’t particularly keen on
the family, camping equipment, the ‘potjie’, and
instrument flying in a wholly intimidating new type,
granny, and it will still climb like a homesick angel.”
so I grabbed the spare cushion from the Jabi –
According to my friend, everything he’d flown
just in case.
from a Cessna 150 to a Boeing 747 shrank to the
This was a common humiliation I faced in the
same size once mastered. But eyeing the 206’s
Sling 2; with its laid back seats and rudder pedals
miles away under the panel.
added importance of weight and
and has more cool stuff on it, but
One of my favourite things about
balance checks. I’d just passed
is still basically a 172’s. I took a
the C172 is that it has actual
CPL Flight Planning (just) so
moment to locate the main bits
chairs – on seat rails that are
the calculations were done in
and sussed out all the extra
adjustable. And that was my
a flash. And I realised that with
‘knoppies’. At the reins of a beefy
saving grace with the 206, no
only two butts in the seats, that
engine with a constant speed
matter how big or how heavy,
engine was really going to whip
propeller, engine management
it was still a Cessna – built on
us around like a kite in a gale on
was going to be a learning curve.
the same design principles and
a short string.
I found a tacho, fuel pressure and
ergonomics. Well, that’s what I told myself anyway.
With a thorough pre-flight
manifold pressure gauges, EGTs,
done I climbed into the hot
and a digital display showing the
seat… and to my amazement I
cylinder temps. It had high and low pressure fuel pumps, and cowl flaps to control cold airflow over the engine. And of course, the main three controls; throttle, pitch and mixture. Firing this one up was a little more complicated and involved monitoring the fuel pressure
A big step up - from a Jabi to a C172 to the intimidatingly big Cessna 206.
while the fuel pump primed the cylinders. Once the pressure was up, I killed the pump, fed in It has a huge nose to house 300 horses.
an inch of throttle, and turned the key. The prop heaved over several times… and then it fired. The impressively loud pop of each cylinder attacked my left ear through the open side window. The power was visceral, and I couldn’t help the huge grin on my face.
Another feature is its aft
was big enough. The seat was at
double doors on the right hand
its full height and most of the way
side; allowing easy access for
forward, but I could see over the
pushed the black knob to the
passengers or cargo. And with
huge panel. Bliss for a shorty.
such versatile utility comes the
The panel is wider and taller
Lined up, with takeoff vital complete, With
of 300 horses at full gallop I Dec/Jan 2020
was pressed back in my seat and watched in
on rails, it was moving in one direction and wasn’t
amazement as we accelerated hard down the
going to budge for anything except at the pilot’s
runway and thundered past the hangars.
command. It felt good.
Half expecting to be overpowered by the
Eventually it was time to think about getting
plane, I eased the wheel back at 60 knots and
down and tackling a landing. Going down wasn’t
asked it very nicely if it would fly. It left the ground
as simple as pulling the throttle out a finger or
and barrelled on in a straight line. The controls
two and pointing the nose down; with beer barrel
were heavy but responsive, and the rudder trim
sized cylinders and a highish airspeed, I had to
was doing a good job of saving my right leg. After the initial hectic climb-out I was relieved to throttle back and pulled the prop back to 2400 rpm. This 206 had the same digital fuel flow meter as the Jabiru. Every few seconds the display cycled between fuel flow, quantity, and endurance etc. During a quick instrument scan I saw the number “80” on the screen and mistakenly thought for a
..... and a windmill-sized propeller.
moment it was our fuel quantity – it was a typical number of litres to see in the Jabiru’s tanks. My jaw dropped when I looked again and realised we were burning an eye-watering 80 litres per hour. My instructor must’ve noticed the stunned look on my face, as he quickly reassured me these numbers were normal.
Lots more doors - for all the people.
With my mind still recalibrating from Jabiru to 206, we levelled off and started some basic manoeuvres. I rocked the wings, wiggled the tail, and pitched the nose up and down - the elevator was the heaviest control. The 206 is very stable. Shoving air out of the way like a steam train
I was amazed to find I could still see over the instrument panel.
be careful not to shock-cool the engine. I closed
the throttle a nudge. And nothing happened. A
the cowl flaps, which restricted the air leaving the
finger more power - and still nothing. I could feel it
back of the cowl, reducing cold airflow over the
starting to sink – and the airspeed was still low, so I
engine. Then, with the help of the digital cylinder
gave the throttle a gutsy push and we powered out
head temperature gauge which flashed me if it was
of the slump.
Now I understand why pilots have a such soft spot for the C206
On the first couple of landings I flared too high, but soon got the hang of it. The position and softness of the main gear felt pleasantly familiar – the 172 again. After a few circuits we called it quits and turned off the runway to the hangars. Soon we were sitting in the Jabiru again while the autopilot flew us home. I now understood what my friend meant by his
cooling too fast, I throttled back a little at a time,
puzzling notion. The 206 doesn’t feel like a 172, but
allowing the temps to come down slowly.
it flies like one. Even though it felt heavy on the
I entered the circuit and ran the downwind
yoke, has bigger wings and more power, once in
checks. By the time I was finished we’d already
the air, the 206 has the same gentle manners and
flown the whole downwind leg. I turned onto final,
so its size no longer matters. It is still a plane –
lowered the last notch of flap, and slowed to 70
governed by the same four forces that govern the
knots. The 206 was ‘textbook’ in the way it flew.
172, or I suppose any aircraft for that matter – it just
In groundschool we learned about “falling behind
has more of each force.
the power curve” on final. That is; slowing down to
And now I understand why pilots have a such a
the point where the power required to overcome
soft spot for the C206; it’s an aircraft that behaves
the extra drag exceeds the power available and
like it should. There’s something deeply satisfying
you start to sink. I understood the concept, but it
when you see all the theory you’ve stuffed into your
was difficult to really see in a Sling or Jabiru, which
head finally come to life in a plane you’ll probably
are light and nimble. But in the 206 with its barn
spend hours flying for years to come.
door flaps it was easy to get a demo: I inadvertently allowed myself to get a little slow at 65kt and gave
In the end the C206 has gentle manners - and is indeed just a big C172.
REGISTER REVIEW: RAY WATTS
NOV EMB ER 2 0 2 0 One of the very few new type certified aircraft is ZS-FGE B737800 Taken by Stony Steenkamp in Alabama before delivery.
THE CAA HAVE FINALLY MANAGED TO GET REGISTER AMENDMENTS TO ME AFTER NEARLY EIGHT MONTHS. FOR SOME REASON, THE SA AIRCRAFT REGISTER IS NOW CONSIDERED TO BE COVERED BY THE POPI ACT AND THE CAA REFUSES TO GIVE AIRCRAFT OWNERS’ NAMES. I ALSO HAD TO PAY TO GET REGISTERED SO THAT I COULD RECEIVE THE AMENDMENTS – ALL OF R35.00.
FLYSAFAIR is the low cost carrier passenger
on the grounds of that FlySafair would have
division of Safair, which started out in 1965
more than 25% of its shares held by holding
with a single Lockheed L100-382E (The civilian
company shareholder Hugh Flynn, who despite
version of the C130 Hercules) and grew from
having a Cape wine farm, was deemed a non-
there with the acquisition of a further sixteen
resident. This was resolved and they started
L382G aircraft. They were at one stage the
operating with just 2 aircraft in 2014 between
largest civilian operator of the L382 aircraft in the
Johannesburg (OR Tambo) and Cape Town.
world. Safair operated many flights for the SAAF
They gathered momentum quickly and became
to the Namibian border during the ‘Border War’
a major competitor in our market. The started
and I was lucky to go on a casevac flight out of
with Boeing 737-200 series aircraft and quickly
Jan Smuts to Rundu and back. The care given to
migrated to the 400 series as these are far more
the wounded troops by the medics on board was
economical and passenger friendly than the old
200 series was.
Safair has continued with cargo flights worldwide, and continue to operate their L382Gs in
which Safair had leased to SAA were returned
to the FlySafair fleet and these became the first
In 2014 Safair branched into the domestic
In 2017, five Boeing 737-800 series aircraft
800 series on their fleet. They have subsequently
scheduled airline market. Their initial scheduled
acquired another five of these very successful
license was opposed by competitor Comair
aircraft, bringing their total fleet to ten. The
The register continues to reflect the depletion of the SAA fleet - here is ZS-SDC an A350-900 taken by Ray Watts. It was returned to the lessor.
Comair's ZS-ZWR has also been returned to its lessor as OE-IPQ Austria.
latest one ZS-FGD was delivered on 1 October
looking at the regional market soon. Travel News
2020 and there is another one on its way soon
Weekly reports that “FlySafair is considering
(ZS-FGE). These last two have been leased from
introducing a number of regional routes and has
Avalon and are ex GOL airlines in Brazil.
applied for rights to fly between Johannesburg’s
On a personal note, I flew Joburg to Port
ORTIA and Mauritius, Zanzibar and Windhoek.
Elizabeth with SAA in early 2017 in ZS-SJT and
The airline has applied for three weekly flights
then again in Sept 2017 with FlySafair. It felt
for all of these destinations and will know if its
strange to fly in the same aircraft in the same year
applications have been approved within the next
on two different airlines and two very different
cabin crews – but that’s progress – and the FlySafair cabin crew were far friendlier. FlySafair now covers all the major domestic
FlySafair’s chief marketing officer, Kirby Gordon, says the airline has been eyeing these routes for a while and decided that it may as well
routes from Johannesburg and Lanseria to Cape
get the ball rolling with the application process
Town, George, Port Elizabeth, East London and
sooner rather than later. Kirby explains that airline
Durban. I wouldn’t be surprised if they started
flight applications are publicly gazetted before
Agusta 109 ZS-BAX now exported to Cyprus. Image: Ray Watts
REGISTER REVIEW: RAY WATTS
expand our route network in this direction,” says Kirby. He adds that there would be a lot of work to do before FlySafair was in a position to launch any of these routes. Amongst other things, it would need ZS-LUH is a Cessna 210 now exported to the USA. Image: Ray Watts.
to correctly equip its aircraft for international trips, establish a presence in the various international departure halls, gear up its technology to be able to collect and process the necessary passport and visa information and put processes in place for the repatriation of international currency. “We will only be in a position to look at launching these routes in 2021 at the earliest, and even this is dependent on many factors, including the recovery of the domestic market,” says Kirby.”
ZS-AMC is a Robinson R44 now exported to Zimbabwe.
In South Africa they operate as a low cost carrier (LCC) and have scooped up a large section of the domestic market. They had, until the Covid-19 lockdown struck, been very active and judging from their flight frequency and reported
being reviewed by the Department of Transport’s International Air Services Council. This process usually takes about a month.
loads, they are recovering rapidly. As you can see from the fleet list, they still have four L382Gs which operate world-wide.
Kirby stresses that the airline has a lot to do before it would be in a position to launch any of these routes and says that, in many ways, the flight applications are a way for the airline to keep
TAIL PIECE: Now that summer is on its way, watch out for thunderstorms. Be careful and be safe.
its options open at a time when the domestic flight market (that it has traditionally played in) is very depressed. “During August, FlySafair operated at about 14% of our August 2019 seat capacity and we continue to suffer losses while so few of our aircraft are in the air. We urgently need to find new opportunities to deploy aircraft and, at a time when so many regional competitors are operating under conditions of business rescue, this may be a good time to
731 now rebuilt as ZU-ISI.
A la Carte Restaurant
Weddings & Spa Conferences
Reg New Registrations ZS-
Bush Picnics Game Drives
N269WC, PR-GTU, N1786B
AIR TRACTOR INC
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
962 AE 60
AIR TRACTOR INC
ATR-GIE AVIONS DE TRANSPORT REGIONAL
5H-AAD, 5Y-LLO, N884AA, N575TC, N20BY
F-ORVI, 5H-FJJ, F-WNUA, PR-ATZ, F-WWEL
New Registrations ZT-R
BELL HELICOPTER COMPANY
AS 350 B3
New Registrations ZU-
MICRO AVIATION SA
MICRO AVIATION SA
MICRO AVIATION SA
MICRO AVIATION SA
MICRO AVIATION SA
MICRO AVIATION SA
JONATHAN PAUL WILLMENT
MICRO AVIATION SA
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
011-01-12 SAF LSA
THE AIRPLANE FACTORY
SLING 4 Tsi
ABRAHAM JACOBUS ELLIS
ZLIN AIRCRAFT A.S
RANDALL GCW BROWN
NICO JOHAN WALTERS
PHILLIP HOWARD FOLLET BRISTON
ANDRE JURGENS MELLET
THE AIRPLANE FACTORY
SLING 4 Tsi
MICRO AVIATION SA
BAT HAWK R
THE AIRPLANE FACTORY
SLING 4 Tsi
PAUL DAWID SMIT
SMIT FIRE 1
CAMPBELL J A
SAAF 731, ZS-CWA, N4190Y
Aircraft Deleted ZT-
AS 350 B2
MADAGASCAR as 5R-MOO
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
WRITTEN OFF WONDERBOOM 23/6/2020
BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON
BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON
WRITTEN OFF CHRISTIANA 24/3/2020
BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON
RUSSIA as RA-01652
WRITTEN OFF GRAND CENTRAL 17/6/2020
JUNE, JULY, AUGUST & SEPTEMBER 2020 N12 N12 Between Between Klerksdorp Klerksdorp & & Wolmaransstad Wolmaransstad Reservations: +27(0)18 451 1188 Reservations: +27(0)18 451 1188 // 071 071 674 674 9969 9969 email@example.com www.bonabona.co.za firstname.lastname@example.org www.bonabona.co.za
A la Carte Restaurant
Weddings & Spa Conferences
Reg Aircraft Deleted ZS-
Bush Picnics Game Drives
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
CYPRUS as 5B-CMA
RAYTHEON AIRCRAFT COMPANY
PIPER AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
WRITTEN OFF WONDERBOOM 30/6/2020
DG-500 ELAN ORION
BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON
GERMANY as D-HEDD
BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON
WRITTEN OFF VISCHGAT VEREENIGING 19/3/2020
AS 365 N2
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
AS 365 N2
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
MADAGASCAR as 5R-MOM
CANADA as C-FGAL
BE300 SUPER KING AIR
CZECH REPUBLIC as OK-CTU
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N210TY
PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N755PM
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N69GN
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N365GV
PIPER AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
WRITTEN OFF KIRKWOOD 31/10/2020
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N994CD
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N236BC
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N101XW
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
WRITTEN OFF SPRINGS 26/8/2020
PIPER AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N12FL
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
CANADA as C-GNQM
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
BEECH AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON
ITALY as I-IAPA
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N409SH
AS 350 BS
MADAGASCAR as 5R-MON
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
WRITTEN OFF WORCESTER 4/2/2020
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
ROBINSON HELICOPTER COMPANY
AUSTRALIA as VH-VWL
AUSTRIA as OE-IPK
GUERNSEY as 2-SSFG
AUSTRIA as OE-INZ
AUSTRIA as OE-IPY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA then Bahamas as VP-CGI
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N634CA
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N632AC
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N618AC
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N628AC
AUSTRIA as OE-IPJ
MALTA as 9H-SZH
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA a N700NN
NEW ZEALAND as ZK-XLX
UNITED STATES as N830LJ
THE BOEING COMPANY
AUSTRIA as OE-IPQ
THE BOEING COMPANY
N12 N12 Between Between Klerksdorp Klerksdorp & & Wolmaransstad Wolmaransstad Reservations: +27(0)18 451 1188 Reservations: +27(0)18 451 1188 // 071 071 674 674 9969 9969 email@example.com www.bonabona.co.za firstname.lastname@example.org www.bonabona.co.za
A la Carte Restaurant
Weddings & Spa Conferences
Reg Aircraft Deleted ZU-
Bush Picnics Game Drives
KFA BUSH BABY
MICRO AVIATION NZ
ZU-IIJ ZU-INE ZU-IPS
THE AIRPLANE FACTORY
SLING 4 SLING LSA
WRITTE OFF HOWICK 24/10/2020
WRITTEN OFF JEFFERIES BAY 30/10/2020
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N491CA WRITTEN OFF UMKOMAZI RIVER 15/3/2020
THE AIRPLANE FACTORY
TAYLORCRAFT PLUS D
PAUL POTGIETER (JNR)
UNITED KINGDOM AS G-AHHY 25/9/2020 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA as N6505
DBF QUIRIMBAS ISLAND MOZAMBIQUE 10/4/2020
WRITTEN OFF VILLIERSDORP 2/6/2020
NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION INC
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
BONA BONA VIDEO N12 N12 Between Between Klerksdorp Klerksdorp & & Wolmaransstad Wolmaransstad Reservations: +27(0)18 451 1188 Reservations: +27(0)18 451 1188 // 071 071 674 674 9969 9969 email@example.com www.bonabona.co.za firstname.lastname@example.org www.bonabona.co.za
Events by SAC ACE OF BASE 5 – 6 December Baragwanath Airﬁeld Annie Boon email@example.com
FASHKOSH AIRSHOW 19 – 20 March 2021 Stellenbosch airﬁeld Anton Theart gm@stelﬂy.co.za 079 873 4567
AERO CLUB OF SOUTH AFRICA ANNUAL AWARDS 5 December Rand Airport firstname.lastname@example.org
FLIGHT INSPECTION SYMPOSIUM (IFIS) & TRADE SHOW 22 – 26 March 2021 ICC Convention Centre Durban 083 451 2632
SAUDI INTERNATIONAL AIRSHOW 16 – 18 February 2021 Thumamah Airport, Riyadh Saudi Arabia https://saudiairshow.aero/
AERO FRIEDRICHSHAFEN GERMANY 14 – 17 April 2021 Germany Stephanie.email@example.com www.AERO-EXPO.com
Flying in Africa – that’s what we love 60
Flying in Africa - that’s what we love! First Rule of 2021: let’s not talk about 2020. ©Nico Kohne
Comprehensive airfield information, up-to-date aeronautical data, friendly and efficient customer support, easy Flight Planning, In-flight Navigation with EasyCockpit, Weather overlays, Weather cams, Events notification ... you have it all.
www.aviationdirect.co.za • firstname.lastname@example.org • +27 11 465 2669Dec/Jan • 072 2020 340 9943
FLIGHT TEST: DES BARKER
MIRAGE F1CZ “THE GENTLEMAN’S FIGHTER” Ask any SAAF fighter pilot who has flown high performance jets what his favourite aircraft was and the answer will in all likelihood be the Mirage F1, whether the interceptor version, the Mirage F1CZ, or the ground attack version, the F1AZ.
HERE is no doubt that Dassault’s swept-wing Mirage F1 overcame
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT Whereas the Mirage III was a first generation
most of the performance and
delta-winged design based on 1950’s
handling shortcomings for which
aerodynamics and propulsion knowledge, the
the early delta-wing designs were renowned.
swept-winged Mirage F1C was a major step forward in supersonic interceptor design.
BACKGROUND Designed as a single seat, all-weather, air-
Most importantly, the swept wing design retained the supersonic interceptor capabilities
superiority fighter as the successor of what had
originally designed into the delta-winged
become Dassault’s trademark; the Mirage III
aircraft to counter the Cold War threats posed
series of delta wing interceptors, the Mirage F1
by the Soviet bombers and fighters from the
found its way into the heart of many a fighter
Tupolev, Sukhoi and Mikoyan design bureaux
pilot, particularly those of 3 Squadron, South
while simultaneously improving the ‘dogfight’
African Air Force.
capability. This multi-purpose capability had a
The F1CZ (in foreground with black radome), was a formidable air combat platform and the F1AZ (behind without black radome) a ground attack aircraft.
further spin off in that the Mirage F1 design could
F1C was equipped with Thompson-CSF Cyrano IV
also be used in the ground attack role, hence the
development of the Mirage F1AZ. Developed and financed at own risk by
The Mirage F1C eventually entered service with the French Air Force in May 1973 but strangely,
Dassault, the prototype Mirage F1 made its first
initially was armed only with two 30 mm internal
flight on 23 December 1966 and was accepted by
cannon, since missile development was behind
the French Air Force in May 1967. Besides the
schedule. It was only in 1976 that the Matra R530
wing planform change, the most significant design
medium-range semi-active air-to-air missile was
changes were the larger capacity Snecma Atar
released to service and was followed a year later
09K50 turbojet producing nearly 2,000 lbs more
by the short-range infra-red Matra R550 Magic. At
static thrust than the 13,700 lbs of the Mirage IIIâ€™s
the time, this armament combination provided the
Atar-09C and the introduction of more modern
F1C with a potent mixture of air defence ordnance
navigation, weapons and avionics systems.
to counter high speed enemy intruders. The later
In an effort to improve the handling qualities at
production Mirage F1C-200 with a fixed refuelling
high angles of attack, the swept wing was provided
probe served as the main interceptor of the French
with leading edge slats and automatic combat flaps
Air Force until the Mirage 2000 entered service in
to subsidise turning performance which enabled
the Mirage F1 to outclass most contemporary fighters in close combat. In order to comply with the French Air Forceâ€™s requirement for an allweather interceptor, the first production Mirage
SAAF DELIVERY Realising the potential of the design, Dassaultâ€™s subsequent Mirage F1 production was customized Dec/Jan 2020
ABOVE: The F1 has conventional flaps and ailerons which helps enormously with slow speed control and thus runway requirement. LEFT: A SAAF F1 CZ blends with the Angolan bush. BELOW: The SAAF F1's had air to air refuelling capability which greatly extended their combat radius and load carrying ability.
ABOVE: Johan Rankin's gun camera images of his first MiG21 shootdown.
BELOW: An F1 with 2 underwing V3B “Kukri”infra-red guided Missiles.
for an additional two roles, ground attack and
aircraft of the 48 ordered were delivered on 5 April
tactical reconnaissance. Despite the arms
1975 under a blanket of security and the remainder
embargo imposed on South Africa by the United
(including 32 F1AZs) followed in July 1975.
Nations during the 70â€™s, Dassault had no qualms about selling 48 Mirage F1s to South Africa to
complement the already large number of Mirage
Military fighter designs are traditionally
IIIs in SAAF service. In fact, the SAAF became
influenced by the existing aerodynamic and propulsion capabilities versus the prevailing threat. In the USA, third generation fighter design was originally signalled by the introduction of the delta-winged F-102 and F-104 to counter the threats posed by Cold
This shredded tail of Arthur Piercey's F1CZ
showed that the AA-8 Aphid missile had the upper hand in the Angolan border war.
War interception requirements. The call was for efficient supersonic flight that would enable the interceptor to be scrambled, accelerate and climb to a supersonic interception of Soviet bombers, launch the air-to-air missiles and return to base. Dogfighting was not really considered an essential capability for an interceptor and in those days, technology did not really allow for efficient multi-purpose designs. The aerodynamically stringent performance requirements demanded the low wave drag characteristics of the delta wing. However, the disadvantages at high angle of attack flight, and the low lift curve slope gradients, eventually forced designers to compromise by rather using swept wings to reduce the low airspeed, high induced drag characteristics of the delta while retaining the higher critical drag rise Mach Number of the swept wing. Sadly, by the late 1970s, it became
the launch customer for Dassaultâ€™s Mirage F1CZ
apparent to aerodynamicists that due to the
while the Mirage F1AZ was developed by Dassault
induced drag penalties of delta wings and
specifically for the SAAF as the ground attack
inadequate flight control technology, the utilisation
variant. Considering the international political
of such wing planforms would only be sustainable
pressure of such an acquisition, the first two
in future by the use of fly-by-wire and negative
stability margins. Delta wing fighter design
A modern fire control radar, semi-active
therefore quietly faded into obscurity as designers
radar and latest generation IR missiles, flight
chased after swept wing planforms to meet their
refuelling, and an autopilot that was everything
interception requirements. The introduction of fly-
a fighter pilot ever wanted, were just some of the
by-wire systems by the 1980s enabled designers
technologies that in the 1970s allowed the SAAF,
to select practically any wing planform and life
technologically, to achieve parity with most first
was once again breathed into Dassault’s beloved
world air forces.
delta wing configurations such as the Mirage 2000 variants.
Referred to respectfully as ‘Sir Ponsonby’ by some of the F1 pilots due to its dynamic
Dassault, in keeping with a developing trend in
performance throughout the flight envelope, and in
Europe at the time, chose a swept wing mounted
contrast with the older generation transport aircraft
SAAF F1s were sold to the Ghanain Air Force - here former SAAF Kmdt
Koos Kiek gives ACM ground school.
high on the fuselage which gave the Mirage F1
autopilots, that were affectionately known as
its rather aggressive look when viewed from the
‘George’, this autopilot allowed automated flight in
front. Wing sweep generates an unusually high
all missions except dogfights and low-level tactical
roll response to sideslip and in an effort to provide
flying. It was the quick and predictable response
rolling agility and neutralise the dihedral effect, the
of the autopilot that flew the aircraft like a fighter,
wings were mounted with anhedral.
not a transport aircraft, that won it most of its accolades.
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES Considering that SAAF fighter pilots were
Then of course, and most importantly, with a significant increase in internal fuel load, the F1CZ
flying Mirage III, Sabres and Impalas during the
could no longer be referred to in disparaging terms
1970s, the latest technological advances that were
by transport and helicopter pilots. Calls that: “The
introduced by the Mirage F1CZ had a significant
Mirage III is the only aircraft that can see its point
impact on SAAF operational capability.
of no return while on the runway threshold”, in Dec/Jan 2020
reference to the very limited fuel payload of the
coupled with significant adverse elevon yaw below
Mirage III, were common ‘chirps’. The fact that the
minimum drag speed, required a concerted and
Mirage III could reach its destination in a fraction
coordinated effort to use rudder to counter the
of the time was always quite conveniently forgotten
adverse yaw of the elevons. These factors all
by the critics.
made air combat manoeuvres challenging, not only
THE F1 WAS INVOLVED EXTENSIVELY IN AIR COMBAT WHERE IT CAME UP AGAINST BOTH WESTERN, AS WELL AS SOVIET FIGHTERS
to co-ordinated flying, but also in terms of physical workload. These factors cost many a Mirage III pilot the tactical advantage if the aircraft was not flown optimally. With hydraulically powered, full electromechanical controls, the F1CZ design engineers were able to produce harmony about all three axes utilising spoilers to counteract adverse aileron yaw with pitch and yaw dampers and automatic rudder trim to further reduce pilot workload to fly the aircraft accurately throughout the entire flight envelope, all the way out to Mach 2.2. Such delightfully balanced controls made it easy for the pilot to focus on weapons system operation and combat tactics instead of having to focus on aircraft handling. These relatively easy handling traits contributed to fighter pilots classifying the Mirage F1CZ as a ‘gentleman’s fighter’. Speed and weapons capability define an interceptor’s capabilities and as such, the F1CZ
The addition of a flight refuelling capability increased endurance to more than five hours
short-range Infra-red (IR) missiles fitted on wing-
which was ideal for combat fighter sweeps and
tip missile rails and the longer range radar guided
combat air patrols which in effect was a force
MATRA R530 which could be carried either
multiplier in the context of the limited numerical
under wing or under fuselage. However, the
assets of the SAAF.
R530 proved to be ‘technically challenged’ by the
Pilot workload remains one of the major
demanding conditions of Africa and due to the
challenges in ‘dogfighting’. In the case of the
number of problems experienced, the MATRA
Mirage III, this was exacerbated by the high
R530 was withdrawn from service after the initial
induced drag of the delta wing and the consequent
high energy bleed rates. With a minimum drag
was provided with a mix of MATRA 550 ‘Magic’
The Mirage F1CZ retained the twin internal
airspeed of 280 to 300 KIAS, energy management
DEFA 30mm canons similar to the type used in
was a serious challenge to the pilot which,
the Mirage III. Quite surprisingly though, the only
two kills achieved by the Mirage F1CZ in combat
used on Eurofighter Typhoon and Gripen. This
during a time in which missiles were regarded as
system offered the pilot the capability to achieve
the weapon of choice, were by the DEFA cannon,
off-boresight missile lock-on. The B model introduced a new improved rocket
not air-to-air missiles. The imposition of the UN Arms Embargo led
motor, a more sensitive IR seeker, better target
to the establishment of a local armament industry
discrimination and improved counter measures
within the RSA which had, as one of its objectives,
resistance. The V3B, which entered Service in
to increase the capabilities and survival indices
1982 as the standard missile available on the
of the SAAFs fighter aircraft through improved
Mirage F1CZ was, nonetheless, still effectively
air-to-air missile capabilities, active and passive
a tail aspect missile with a maximum range of
electronic warfare capabilities and even propulsion
between 2 - 4 kms. However, greater range and an all aspect
systems. It must be remembered that the F1 was
capability was urgently needed to counter the
essentially mid-1960s technology, at best early
Russian missile technology employed by the
1970s. By the time the F1CZ entered the Angolan
Angolan Air Force’s MiG-23s and Kentron set
conflict, the Mirage F1CZ technologies were
about developing the next generation air-to-air
already more than ten years old and modernisation
missile for the Mirage F1CZ, the V3C (U-Darter).
to compete against Soviet technology employed by
With increased maximum range, this was the first
Cuban Forces in Angola, was essential to maintain
air-to-air missile fitted to the Mirage F1CZ with an
the balance of power. As the SAAFs primary air defence fighter at that time, the focus was obviously on the development of a locally designed air-to-air missile. The V1, similar in appearance to the AIM-9B, was designed in 1969 by the National Institute of Defence Research which saw the establishment of a new local missile company
THE F1EQS ALSO, AMAZINGLY SHOT DOWN ONE GRUMMAN F-14 TOMCAT
Kentron (later Denel). Even though the V3A entered service in 1978, work was started almost
all-aspect capability but, due to developmental
immediately on the V3B “Kukri”.
time lag, it only entered service on the Mirage
Such was the success of Kentron’s development programme that a new air-cooled IR
F1CZ in the early 90s, too late for operational use. There is no doubt that the Mirage F1CZ was
seeker was developed which could be slaved to
a capable interceptor and ‘dogfighter’ in the air
an indigenously developed, helmet-mounted sight;
defence configuration of 825 litre belly tank, two
the forerunner to the helmet sight currently being
V3C IR missiles and two 30mm DEFA cannons. Dec/Jan 2020
But, in an effort to keep abreast with technologies
UN Arms Embargo enabled access to state-of-the-
being introduced to Soviet aircraft in Angola in the
art technology that could be purchased ‘off-the’
1980s, and to provide an increased combat thrust-
shelf’ and as such, the requirement to develop the
to-weight ratio, the SAAF had no other option but
Mirage F1CZ further could not be justified.
to upgrade the engine and the air-to-air missiles. [This engine upgrade is coved in the separate box
a potent air defence network comprised of anti-
after this article.]
aircraft systems, hand-held, mobile and fixed base
The missile on offer was the Russian AA-11
surface-to-air missiles (infra red and radar guided),
‘Archer’, which even by today’s standards, remains
extensive surveillance radar coverage, agile short
in service with several air forces in the world and is
range fire control radars and radar controlled anti-
considered a highly capable missile. It is no secret
aircraft guns. There was nowhere left to hide for
that Soviet missile technology was ahead of that in
SAAF fighters and the only way of increasing the
the West at that time. The missile was cleared for
survivability indices of the SAAF’s fighters, was to
carriage on the Mirage F1AZ and F1CZ and would
introduce radar warning devices. The combination
have provided a major improvement in IR missile
of radar warning systems and tactics enabled the
capability for the SAAF, bringing it back at least
SAAF to emerge as one of the most skilled forces
on par with the MiG-23s that were encountered
at negating the threat of electronically controlled
in the Angolan war. However, the cessation of the
air defence systems.
The Mirage F1 remains a supremely capable aircraft despite being in its sunset years. Image: Chris de Beer.
During the Angolan conflict, the SAAF faced
First to be introduced on the Mirage F1CZ was the Radar Warning Receiver. Ongoing development of these systems eventually led to
in Iraqi Ilyushin Il-76 transports for the repair of extensive battle damage. The 1990 Gulf War was the culmination of the
South Africa becoming a leader in this field under
Mirage F1’s combat career, with the type being
Grintek which even today continues to provide
operated by both sides in the conflict. The Iraqi
electronic warfare systems, not only for the SAAF,
Mirage F1EQs saw a good deal of combat on the
but also for several foreign countries.
losing end of the battle. Three F1EQs were shot
But as the pilots flippantly pointed out, the early
down by US Air Force (USAF) F-15 Eagles using
variants of these systems were rather a device
AIM-7 Sparrow AAMs on 17 January 1991, with
that indicated how quickly you were about to die.
one more lost in an accident while mixing with a
The next step was the introduction of active and
USAF F-111 Aardvark on the same day. In fact,
passive counter measures coupled to the Threat
the Mirage F1EQ was the first Iraqi aircraft to be
Warning Receivers to automatically neutralise the
lost in air combat in the war.
electronic threats. On the F1CZ this was a high
Two more F1EQs were shot down by USAF
priority and the first chaff and flare systems were
F-15s on 19 January, with another two lost to a
installed inside the modified ventral fins.
single Saudi F-15 on 24 January. One final kill on an F1EQ was scored by a USAF F-15 on 27
COMBAT RESULTS The only true test of character for any
January which left the final score of F-15s versus F1EQ as 8 – 0 to the F-15s. The contest was
fighter aircraft is how it faired in actual combat.
clearly unequal, but Iraqi handling of air combat
Considering that the users of the Mirage F1
in the conflict was apparently unbelievably timid
were essentially in Africa and the Middle East
and the F1EQs might have done a bit better for
‘hotspots’, is it any wonder then that the F1 was
themselves with better pilots.
involved quite extensively in air combat where it
In the Mediterranean theatre, Mirage F1CGs
came up against both Western, as well as Soviet
have had occasional run-ins with Turkish fighters,
with Greek F1CGs and Turkish F-4 Phantoms
The first combat deployment of the French Air
getting into bloodless engagements over the
Force Mirage F1s was in 1983 to Chad. Using
Aegean Sea. One F1CG was lost in an accident
F1C-200s for combat air patrol, one Jaguar was
in 1992 while trying to intercept two Turkish F-16s.
shot down while an F1C-200 was damaged in
(Greg Goebel -In the Public Domain: Sep 05)
early January 1984. Iraqi Mirage F1EQs were kept busy fighting the
In SAAF context, two dogfights that were well publicised involved SAAF Mirage F1CZ #204 and
Iranians during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s,
F1CZ #203. Interestingly enough, the pilot in both
with the F1EQs claiming destruction of at least 35
instances was 3 Squadron’s Major Johan Rankin.
Iranian aircraft, mostly McDonnell F-4 Phantoms
On 6 November 1981, two F1CZs were scrambled
and Northrop F-5E Tiger IIs and also, amazingly,
from AFB Ondangwa after two MiG-21s had been
one Grumman F-14 Tomcat, shot down on 22
detected on radar approaching South African
November 1982. Seven F1EQs were lost in
ground forces deployed in Angola. They flew
combat, and several were flown back to France
at low-level up the Cunene River staying below Dec/Jan 2020
Angolan radar cover and then pitched to 25,000ft.
selected afterburner and at the cross, started a
Undetected by the MiG-21s, they jettisoned their
hard right-hand turn in pursuit. The MiG-21s had
drop tanks as they entered a hard left turn that
fired their missiles just before the cross but without
brought them directly behind the unsuspecting
success. Closing in on the MiGs, Rankin fired
MiGs flying 1,000 metres apart. Closing from the
a missile but the range was excessive and the
rear, Rankin fired a short 30mm cannon burst
missile went ballistic. He fired the second missile
striking the wingman’s aircraft. The bandit’s
at the lead MiG from 1,500 metres and it exploded
attempted evasive action brought the MiG into the
close to the MiG, damaging it. Rankin closed on
sights of Rankin who fired a further burst of 30mm
the wingman and fired the 30mm cannon which
cannon. The MiG exploded as the pilot ejected
struck the MiG, causing it to explode. Subsequent
to safety and Rankin had to take evasive action to
reports received indicated that lead MiG’s aircraft
avoid flying into the debris.
was unable to lower its undercarriage which
A DEVICE THAT INDICATED HOW QUICKLY YOU WERE ABOUT TO DIE. In another dogfight on 5 October 1982, two
a belly landing, causing substantial damage. (SAAF FAPA Dogfights, Winston Brent, 9 Jan 2006) Up to that stage, the balance of power had been relatively equal within Angola. With the introduction of the MiG-23ML “Flogger G” by the Angolan Air Force, however, the whole scenario in Angola changed.
Designed for air defence tasks, they were
Mirage F1CZs were escorting two 12 Squadron
equipped with frontal aspect air-to-air missiles,
Canberras that were carrying out photographic
which brought a whole new twist to counter air
reconnaissance overhead the Angolan town
missions. Without frontal aspect missiles, the
of Cahama. Mission controllers detected two
Mirage F1CZ could no longer afford to engage in
unidentified ‘bandits’ approaching the Canberras
air combat; a bit like taking a knife to a gunfight;
and instructed the Canberras to egress southward
the probability of success is extremely limited and
to safety and directed the F1CZs towards the
the employment philosophy was forced to change
bandits which were identified as MiG-21s.
which in effect, severely restricted Mirage F1CZ
The two F1CZ pilots pitched to 30,000ft and found they were approaching the MiGs head-
required the pilot to conduct
operations during daylight hours. Total avoidance of combat within an operational
on at a closing velocity approaching twice the
environment cannot be guaranteed. The only
speed of sound. They jettisoned their drop tanks,
Mirage F1CZ lost in the Angolan conflict to a
Dassault DassaultMirage Mirage F1CZ F1CZ Specifications Wingspan
27 ft 7 in
49 ft 3 in
Max. Takeoff Weight
Engine Power: dry & afterburner (PC)
49,1 / 70,6 kN
11,038 / 15,872 lbf
Length Empty Weight
Maximum Speed Service Ceiling Range
Performance 2,350 km/h 19,995 m 850 km
1,269 kts 65,600 ft 459 NM
counter air mission was #206. On 27 September
the SAAF, wisely chose not to challenge the
1988, Captain Arthur Piercy flew his damaged
Angolan MiG-23s in air-to-air combat. Piercy’s
aircraft back to AFB Rundu after it had been struck
aircraft was also the last aircraft to be involved in
by an AA-8 (Aphid) air-to-air missile fired from an
Angolan Mig-23 – exactly the scenario the SAAF were trying to avoid. After a successful landing but without wheel
CONCLUSION There is no doubt the acquisition of the
brakes or drag chute due to missile fragmentation
Mirage F1CZ was a quantum leap in air defence
hits, landing the Mirage F1CZ on a very short
capability for the SAAF. The introduction of the
runway was always going to be challenging. The
next generation of aerodynamics and navigation
result was that his aircraft overshot off the end
weapon’s systems provided a significant increase
of the runway, struck a ditch, the force of which
in dogfight capability for the SAAF in the 1970s.
caused his seat to eject him from the aircraft
Although the Mirage F1CZ was prematurely retired
and since there was insufficient height for the
from service in 1992, there is no doubt that in the
parachute to open fully, Piercy impacted the
minds of the pilots that flew her, she was one of
ground in his seat, seriously injuring his lower
the great fighters of the time, in fact, a gentleman’s
back and spinal cord. Today, he is restricted to
a wheelchair as a paraplegic. Fred Bridgeland’s book “War for Africa” details this combat mission comprehensively. Following this tragic accident, Dec/Jan 2020
FUEL TABLE www.sv1.co.za
SA Flyer 2020|12
FuelFuel Prices Prices as atas01/10/2020 at 01/10/2020 Pri ces Pri ices nclude i nclude VATVAT but but exclude exclude any any serviservi ce fees ce fees Ai rfiAield rfi eld Avgas Avgas Jet A1 Jet A1 Baragwanath Baragwanath R 18,50 R 18,50 Beaufort Beaufort West West R 18,85 R 18,85R 14,85 R 14,85 Bethlehem Bethlehem R 21,97 R 21,97R 15,62 R 15,62 Bloemfontei Bloemfontei n n R 14,01 R 14,01R 6,88 R 6,88 Brakpan Brakpan R 19,50 R 19,50 BritsBrits R 16,65 R 16,65 Cape Cape Town Town R 22,77 R 22,77R 7,13 R 7,13 Eagles Eagles Creek Creek R 19,55 R 19,55 EastEast London London R 18,69 R 18,69R 8,51 R 8,51 Ermelo Ermelo R 18,75 R 18,75 Fi santekraal Fi santekraal R 21,50 R 21,50 Fly-In Fly-In R 17,75 R 17,75 GariGari ep Dam ep Dam R 20,10 R 20,10R 13,00 R 13,00 George George R19,79 R19,79R9,48 R9,48 Grand Grand Central Central R 19,32 R 19,32R 12,42 R 12,42 Hei delberg Hei delberg R 18,00 R 18,00 Ki mberley Ki mberley R 14,21 R 14,21R 7,08 R 7,08 KittyKitty Hawk Hawk R 18,10 R 18,10 Klerksdorp Klerksdorp R21,64 R21,64R14,80 R14,80 Kroonstad Kroonstad R 16,27 R 16,27R 9,98 R 9,98 Kruger Kruger Intl Intl Nelspruit Nelspruit R 20,00 R 20,00R 13,90 R 13,90 Krugersdorp Krugersdorp R 18,50 R 18,50 Lanseri Lanseri a a R 18,29 R 18,29R 13,32 R 13,32 Margate Margate R 20,20 R 20,20 Morningstar Morningstar R 18,25 R 18,25 Mosselbay Mosselbay R 19,52 R 19,52R 11,25 R 11,25 Nelspruit Nelspruit R 18,86 R 18,86R 12,94 R 12,94 Oudtshoorn Oudtshoorn R 17,10 R 17,10R 10,66 R 10,66 Parys Parys R 16,40 R 16,40R 10,20 R 10,20 Pietermaritzburg Pietermaritzburg R 18,00 R 18,00 Pi etersburg Pi etersburg Ci vi Ci l vi l R 17,10 R 17,10R 11,00 R 11,00 PortPort Alfred Alfred R 23,17 R 23,17 PortPort Elizabeth Elizabeth R 17,83 R 17,83R 12,98 R 12,98 Potchefstroom Potchefstroom R 16,40 R 16,40R 10,20 R 10,20 Rand Rand R 19,91 R 19,91R 11,98 R 11,98 Robertson Robertson R17,45 R17,45 Rustenberg Rustenberg R 16,35 R 16,35R 11,20 R 11,20 Secunda Secunda R 18,96 R 18,96R 12,19 R 12,19 Skeerpoort Skeerpoort *** *** Customer Customer to collect to collect R 14,20 R 14,20R7,90 R7,90 Springbok Springbok R 19,80 R 19,80 Springs Springs R 18,60 R 18,60R 12,79 R 12,79 Stellenbosch Stellenbosch R 18,50 R 18,50 Swellendam Swellendam R 16,50 R 16,50R 8,56 R 8,56 Tempe Tempe R 16,22 R 16,22R 11,16 R 11,16 Thabazimbe Thabazimbe R 16,90 R 16,90R 10,90 R 10,90 Ultimate Ultimate HeliHeli (Midrand) (Midrand) *** *** R 17,60 R 17,60R 11,40 R 11,40 Upington Upington R 14,71 R 14,71R 7,58 R 7,58 Vereeni Vereeni gi nggi ng No Fuel No Fuel AvblAvbl Vi rgiVinirgi a ni a R 18,18 R 18,18R 10,35 R 10,35 Welkom Welkom R 16,27 R 16,27R 9,98 R 9,98 Wi ngs Wi ngs ParkPark EL EL R 18,75 R 18,75 Witbank Witbank R 16,75 R 16,75 R 14,70 R 14,70R 8,40 R 8,40 Wonderboom Wonderboom Worcester Worcester R 18,10 R 18,10 *** *** HeliHeli copters copters onlyonly
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FuelFuel Prices Prices as atas02/11/2020 at 02/11/2020 Pri ces Pri ices nclude i nclude VATVAT but but exclude exclude any any serviservi ce fees ce fees Ai rfiAield rfi eld Avgas Avgas Jet A1 Jet A1 Baragwanath Baragwanath R 18,50 R 18,50 Beaufort Beaufort West West R 21,35 R 21,35 R 14,35 R 14,35 Bethlehem Bethlehem R 21,97 R 21,97 R 15,62 R 15,62 Bloemfontei Bloemfontei n n R 15,91 R 15,91 R 8,20 R 8,20 Brakpan Brakpan R 19,50 R 19,50 BritsBrits R 16,65 R 16,65 Cape Cape Town Town R 22,77 R 22,77 R 7,46 R 7,46 Eagles Eagles Creek Creek R 19,55 R 19,55 EastEast London London R 18,09 R 18,09 R 7,90 R 7,90 Ermelo Ermelo R 18,75 R 18,75 Fi santekraal Fi santekraal R 21,50 R 21,50 Fly-In Fly-In R 17,75 R 17,75 GariGari ep Dam ep Dam R 20,10 R 20,10 R 13,00 R 13,00 George George R19,19 R19,19 R8,88 R8,88 Grand Grand Central Central R 19,32 R 19,32 R 12,42 R 12,42 Hei delberg Hei delberg R 17,80 R 17,80 Ki mberley Ki mberley R 16,15 R 16,15 R 8,43 R 8,43 KittyKitty Hawk Hawk R 18,10 R 18,10 Klerksdorp Klerksdorp R21,64 R21,64 R14,80 R14,80 Kroonstad Kroonstad R 16,27 R 16,27 R 9,98 R 9,98 Kruger Kruger Intl Intl Nelspruit Nelspruit R 20,00 R 20,00 R 13,90 R 13,90 Krugersdorp Krugersdorp R 18,50 R 18,50 Lanseri Lanseri a a R 18,29 R 18,29 R 11,44 R 11,44 Margate Margate R 20,20 R 20,20 Morningstar Morningstar R 17,95 R 17,95 Mosselbay Mosselbay R 18,70 R 18,70 R 11,25 R 11,25 Nelspruit Nelspruit R 18,86 R 18,86 R 12,94 R 12,94 Oudtshoorn Oudtshoorn R 17,10 R 17,10 R 10,66 R 10,66 Parys Parys R 16,40 R 16,40 R 10,20 R 10,20 Pietermaritzburg Pietermaritzburg R 18,00 R 18,00 Pi etersburg Pi etersburg Ci vi Ci l vi l R 17,20 R 17,20 R 11,10 R 11,10 PortPort Alfred Alfred R 21,40 R 21,40 PortPort Elizabeth Elizabeth R 17,83 R 17,83 R 13,67 R 13,67 Potchefstroom Potchefstroom R 16,40 R 16,40 R 10,20 R 10,20 Rand Rand R 19,32 R 19,32 R 11,27 R 11,27 Robertson Robertson R17,45 R17,45 Rustenberg Rustenberg R 16,20 R 16,20 R 11,20 R 11,20 Secunda Secunda R 18,96 R 18,96 R 12,19 R 12,19 Skeerpoort Skeerpoort *** *** Customer Customer to collect to collect R 14,20 R 14,20 R7,90 R7,90 Springbok Springbok R 19,80 R 19,80 Springs Springs R 18,60 R 18,60 R 12,79 R 12,79 Stellenbosch Stellenbosch R 18,00 R 18,00 Swellendam Swellendam R 16,50 R 16,50 R 9,00 R 9,00 Tempe Tempe R 16,22 R 16,22 R 11,16 R 11,16 Thabazimbe Thabazimbe R 16,90 R 16,90 R 10,90 R 10,90 Ultimate Ultimate HeliHeli (Midrand) (Midrand) *** *** R 17,60 R 17,60 R 11,40 R 11,40 Upington Upington R 16,72 R 16,72 R 9,00 R 9,00 Vereeni Vereeni gi nggi ng No Fuel No Fuel AvblAvbl Vi rgiVinirgi a ni a R 18,18 R 18,18 R 10,35 R 10,35 Welkom Welkom R 16,27 R 16,27 R 9,98 R 9,98 Wi ngs Wi ngs ParkPark EL EL R 18,75 R 18,75 Witbank Witbank R 16,25 R 16,25 R 14,70 R 14,70 R 8,40 R 8,40 Wonderboom Wonderboom Worcester Worcester R 18,10 R 18,10 *** *** HeliHeli copters copters onlyonly
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SA Flyer 2016|11
• • • • •
MILITARY TEST FLYING:
Missile flight clearance on the Mirage F1AZ
In an extract from his book, Recollections From a Test Pilotâ€™s Logbooks, Des Barker describes the flight test clearance of the V3C on the Mirage F1.
ABOVE: A Mirage F1 with a test V3C missile mounted on its wing.
NDER the international arms
airframe. All of these have their own unique ground
embargo the South African defence
and air system checks before the pilot can accept
industry was forced to design and
the aircraft for flight.
develop its own weapons for the
SAAF’s fighter force.
With the aircraft signed off by the various technical specialists, and accepted and signed for
These locally developed weapons had to be
by the test pilot, the pre-flight commences with the
extensively flight test before they could be released
walk-out to the aircraft where technical specialists
for service into the SAAF’s operational fighter
await the pilot. But before the normal aircraft pre-
squadrons. The weapons clearance programmes
flight inspection can commence, the pilot must
were the ‘bread and butter’ of the South African
first check the basic safety of the aircraft; there is
Air Force’s Test Flight and Development Centre
equipment on the fighter that can cause significant
(TFDC) during the UN embargo years in the
harm if incorrectly handled.
FUEL IS SO CRITICAL THAT IT CANNOT AFFORD TO BE WASTED BY DOING A 180° TURN IF THE RECIPROCAL RUNWAY IS USED
A key weapon in the SAAF arsenal was the much improved V3C air to air missile developed locally by Kentron. This required extensive testing before it could be cleared for the Mirage F1. INTRODUCTION During the V3C missile launch envelope clearance programme on the Mirage F1AZ in August 1986, TFDC had successfully fired eleven missiles from the F1AZ. All that still remained from this particular phase of the flight test programme was the final launch at maximum Mach number. PRE-FLIGHT The military control and safety oversight of an
Besides the air-to-air missile, the ejection seat
aircraft is very strictly regulated and before any
presents a potential ‘loaded gun’ hazard so it is
flight, the aircraft is required to be signed off by a
imperative to check that all five of the ejection seat
number of senior technicians before the aircraft
pins are in place and that the Armament Master
can be accepted for flight by the test pilot. This is
is off, the gun trigger is folded and the normal and
not only because the aircraft is a State asset and
emergency oxygen, hydraulics and fuel systems
that the State stands guarantor for its serviceability
are checked to confirm replenishment. Only after
and insurance, but because of the complexity and
ticking off all the sub-system elements as safe, can
the hazardous nature of some of the systems.
the walk-around commence.
The matrix of systems includes: ejection seats, armament, radar and avionics, engine and
With the aircraft accelerating to 650+ KIAS/ M2.0 up to an altitude of 50,000 feet for the missile Dec/Jan 2020
ABOVE: F1 with a V3C missile plus a V3S missile.
launch, it is obviously imperative that all panels,
negative-g and lap straps, survival pack and
flaps, slats and spoilers and canopy seals are
shoulder harnesses are â€˜tight and lockedâ€™. With the
serviceable and secure.
quick-release box locked, the anti-g suit plugged in
On a sophisticated fighter with many complex
and the helmet donned, the first series of cockpit
systems, besides the standard airframe checks
checks can continue. This includes the normal
and inspections on wheels and wings, the pilot
and emergency oxygen system and the anti-g suit
will check the angle of attack and temperature
inflation system and if the pilot is satisfied that all
sensor probes; check the air intake shock cones
the systems check out serviceable, the ejection
(mice), that the static and dynamic pressure vents
seat pins are removed by the marshaller.
on the balanced nose probe are unobstructed and that the air intake auxiliary doors are free to open during certain high power settings to prevent intake choking. Climbing into the cockpit via the external ladder,
ENGINE START Starting the Atar 09K50 is a relatively simple task with most of the starting cycle functions, automated; Low Pressure main cock open, switch
the Martin Baker Mk.04 leg garters to retract the
on both right- and left-hand fuel pumps as well
legs during ejection are fastened, seat straps,
as the Starting Fuel Pump, which lifts the safety
guard, exposing the Start pushbutton. With the
Alternators having come on line between 2600
fuel low pressure warning light out, simultaneously
and 2800 RPM, the engine idles at approximately
depressing the stopwatch and the starter for
2900 RPM, allowing the pilot to continue with the
approximately one second, the starting sequence
after-start cabin, airframe, avionics and weapons
With a sharp audible whine, the starter motor
Starting on the right-hand console and moving
accelerates the compressor and at between 300
across to the left-hand console, the pilot follows
and 600 RPM, the throttle is moved to the Idle
a flow through for each system’s checks. First,
position. The pilot’s focus now is to monitor the
the Air Conditioning is switched on and the
engine starting procedure by checking that several
temperature settings made, Identification Friend or
warning lights extinguish as the various engine
Foe (IFF - military jargon for the Transponder) is
and auxiliary services come on line. Importantly,
switched on STBY and the navigation computer’s
the compressor Blow Off Valve warning light
heading modes selected, A/A/ missile plunger
extinguishes timeously, fuel and oil pressure
on the weapons control panel is off, VOR/ILS on,
warning lights flicker and extinguish and the
standby artificial horizon on and uncaged, Radar
engine spools up to at least 2000 RPM within
Warning Receiver on, Moving Map Display on
15 secs. HYD 1, HYD 2 and EMG Hyd warning
and importantly, the shock cone (mice) plunger
lights extinguish in turn while simultaneously
and nosewheel steering plunger is engaged in the
the pilot monitors that the Jet Pipe Temperature
High Sensitivity position. Flying supersonically at
(JPT) does not exceed 850°C. Now with both
Mach 2.0 on this sortie, if the ‘mice’ don’t move
F1 Mirage wing has complex flap settings which delta winged Mirage III could not have.
out at M1.27, the risk exists that a compressor stall
and will be able to operate satisfactorily out to the
will occur or even worse, the engine could cut. At
maximum Mach Number.
a cost of approximately R100,000 for this sortie,
With the canopy now closed, the marshaller
nothing ‘can go wrong’ – we have to get it right first
signals the pilot to test the elevator and aileron
time. V/UHF radio’s on, it is now time for the final
flight controls for full and free movement and the
nosewheel steering through the rudder pedals.
Using the neumonic TAFFIOHC, Trims are set
All the various control selections are confirmed
at zero for the takeoff, Airbrakes are opened and
externally by the marshaller who appears to be
closed on command of the marshaller and the high
performing some weird double-jointed arm flailing
lift devices tested; the flaps, slats and combat flaps
and hand signals that to an outsider, look strange.
tested through the various combinations of high
With the sight set, hydraulic pressures
lift device options. While the pilot continues with
normal and ‘nothing to consider’ on the failure
the various fuel checks, the fuel Detote (contents)
warning panel, final checks are carried out on
AN ENGINE FAILURE AT 50,000 FT WOULD IMMEDIATELY CUT THE CABIN PRESSURISATION
the oxygen system, the ejection seat connections, particularly the maritime survival pack, and harnesses are tight and locked in the event of having to eject. Since the missile will be launched in the air-to-air missile range off the Cape west coast at Jacobs Bay, the maritime survival equipment
and Cross Feed Cock off, the particular fuel
is of critical importance. The SA Navy’s crash
transfer sequence for this air-to-air configuration is
rescue boats stationed at nearby Langebaan are
selected. Due to the criticality of mass distribution
on standby in the event of an emergency requiring
and aeroelastic considerations, the pilot is required
to select one of two fuel transfer options – one
Checks complete, taxi instructions received
for the air-to-ground bombing role to deal with
from ATC, the engine power is opened against
the mass distribution of bombs and external fuel
the wheel brakes to 6000 RPM. Brakes released
tanks hanging on the wings and fuselage weapons
the aircraft is allowed to taxi forward to check
stations, and one for non-bomb or fuel tanks
the brakes which requires a sharp application
on the brake pedals to enable the marshaller to
The Integrated Flight Control Test (IFCT) is
confirm that the pitch dampers responded to the
run while the built-in test equipment runs through
deceleration forces and the subsequent nose-
the 35 different mode tests. After Auto-Pilot is
down pitch force. The F1 is provided with both
selected, it runs through to mode 88, satisfying the
pitch and yaw dampers which are essentially
pilot that the flight control systems are functional
an active feedback control system generated
through an air data computer/gyro control of the
reached, Max AB is selected. Several lights in the
aircraft in pitch and yaw to damp any oscillations,
cockpit illuminate, the SRL light and then the red
modifying the aircraft’s response to perturbations
coloured INJ (injection) light indicating that the
and preventing pilot induced oscillations – critical
afterburner hot streak injector fuel is feeding fuel
elements of the flight control system required for
into the afterburner section. A steady green light
stability and control, particularly in supersonic
replaces the red INJ light indicating that the A/B
activation has been successful and it’s a ‘go’ for
But we’re not yet ready. ‘Last chance’ checks
are done by another marshaller to verify that there are no loose panels, or fuel or oil leaks, a final
Airbrake is not speed limited and so is used to slow from Mach 2. Image: Charlie Hugo
salute from the marshaller is acknowledged and the aircraft taxied to the holding point of runway 02 at Langebaanweg. TAKEOFF AND CLIMB TO 48,000 FT The planned heading after takeoff is northwards, and the fuel is so critical that fuel cannot afford to be wasted by first completing a 180° turn if the reciprocal runway 20 was used. Fortunately, the northerly wind favours runway 02. With no time to spend on the runway, the aim is a non-standard takeoff procedure by completing the pre- takeoff vital actions: CHAFL during taxying and only stopping at the holding point to have the missile safety pins removed by the armourers. Then takeoff is with full afterburner. Canopy is closed and the CAB P warning light is out, Harnesses are tight and locked,
With only a single 96 kg missile on the wingtip,
Airbrakes are in and Auto Arthur, which manages
the aircraft mass at takeoff is 11,350 kgs and
the sensitivity of the control stick as a function
with the maximum afterburner producing 15,355
of airspeed, is selected, Flaps and Slats are
lbs of static thrust, the F1 in this relatively light
extended and all failure warning lights are
weight configuration (thrust to weight ratio of
extinguished as the F1 enters the runway.
approximately 0.62), accelerates at 10 kts/second
Mini-afterburner (A/B) (French terminology ‘PC’ for ‘Post Combustion’) is selected for takeoff, the
at sea-level. Nosewheel steering is used via the rudder
pilot monitoring JPT and AB light-up sequence.
pedals to maintain centreline and after a very rapid
Once a jet pipe temperature (JPT) of 750°C is
12 seconds acceleration, rotation at 120 KIAS Dec/Jan 2020
allows the F1 to fly off at 150 KIAS and with the
airspace from which we could Bingo (minimum
acceleration rate increasing, the undercarriage
fuel state to terminate the mission) and land
must be selected up and nearly simultaneously,
safely. Fuel consumption graphs indicated that
the flaps must be retracted to half-flap before 225
the start, taxy, takeoff, climb and acceleration to
KIAS. By 300 KIAS the flaps are fully retracted
M2.0 would require at least 2,500 litres, leaving
and the afterburner is cut to MIL power for the dry
us with 1,800 litres, 600 of which were mandated
climb to 30,000 ft. The takeoff from standstill to
to be the minimum fuel state to enter the landing
300 KIAS was completed within 25 seconds and
pattern. Despite 1,200 litres contingency fuel, this
the F1 accelerated in the climb to 470 KIAS/M0.92
was insufficient to reposition for another pass
in a 10° pitch attitude.
should we not achieve launch parameters at the designated launch point. To this end, ATC provided
The launch of the Kentron V3C missile - which soon accelerates to Mach 4. Image: Overberg Test Range.
flight clearance with no restrictions and under radar control, moved all other traffic out of the flight path. No safety/chase plane was included in the plan that could hinder achievement of the Rutowski energy climb schedule. (In 1953 E.S. Rutowski published a seminal paper: Energy Approach to the General Aircraft Performance Problem.) The profile options were a subsonic max A/B climb at 500 KIAS/M0.95 to 50,000 ft in 2 min 40 secs and then accelerate to M2.0, but a level acceleration to M2.0 at 50,000 ft from M0.95 would use significantly more fuel than using the Rutowski optimum specific excess energy climb schedule. The specific energy climb profile selected was
We had never launched a V3C missile at that Mach number or height before but knew that to
level off, select max A/B and accelerate to 610
achieve the test point of maximum Mach number
KIAS before entering a cruise climb at 610 KIAS/
of at least M2.0, we would have to fly the most fuel/
M1.8 through the Tropopause which in the late
energy efficient profile possible. We had to have
winter of August, was at 37,000 feet.
the Rutowski energy profile flown accurately. This
Before accelerating supersonically, the shock
implied that we would only carry one missile, but
cone plunger was confirmed depressed and the
it could actually increase the trim drag due to the
High Lift Device switch, OFF. The last thing that
asymmetric carriage. How much? We didn’t know.
any pilot would want is for the high lift devices to
The F1AZ internal fuel load is only 4,300 litres.
activate during supersonic flight – the ensuing
It may sound like lots of fuel, but for the intended
structural chaos would be too dastardly to
flight profile, is barely sufficient. We knew that
we would have to accelerate to a point in the
flown at MIL power at M0.9 to 30,000 ft, and then
At top of climb, the F1 was overhead Van
Rhynsdorp, 80 nautical miles to the north
the cockpit which was an indication of how close
of Langebaanweg and in a very shallow left
the missile cut across the nose of the F1 and that
hand turn, max A/B was selected and the F1
missile motor gasses were ingested by the engine.
accelerated south-westwards off the Cape west
The aero modelling and simulation tools and
coast to 610 KIAS cruise climbing to 37,000 ft
numerical methods available at that time were
and further accelerating to M1.8, thereafter cruise
not accurate enough to provide useful trajectory
climbing at M1.8 to 48,000 ft where M2.0 was
predictions. The only way to validate the launch
achieved. Levelling off to accelerate further, the
envelope was through actual flight testing.
plan was obviously a one chance, single pass,
Was there a possibility of the missile cutting in
there would not be fuel for a second pass - if a
sufficiently to impact the nose of the aircraft? Highly improbable, but not impossible! Was it
Mirage F1 V3C missile launch clearly illustrating the unguided missile cutting across the nose of the F1.
possible for the missile exhaust plume to be ingested by the engine and the engine suffer a compressor stall – which we had encountered during an earlier missile launch? We did not know. Although the F1 was fitted with a fuel dipper which effectively reduced fuel flow to the engine to prevent a rich mixture combustion chamber flameout when the missile was launched, the test plan called for the fuel dipper to be left off so as to test the missile launch under ‘worst case’ conditions. An engine failure at 50,000 ft would immediately cut the cabin pressurisation and without a pressure suit, there would not be much time to resolve the impending catastrophe which would place the
minimum Mach number of M2.0 was not achieved
pilot at major risk – but this was, and will always
at the designated missile launch point, the sortie
be, the role of the test pilot - go out there and
would be terminated.
after engineering analyses, prove the safe missile
We were unsure how Mach effects would
launch envelope. Of course this question passed
affect the trajectory. The trajectories of all the
through the test pilot’s mind and he would be in his
missiles launched during the missile development
full rights to wonder “what the hell am I doing up
testing programme cleared the aircraft safely
and satisfactorily although a concern was a
During the inbound run for the missile launch,
tendency for the missile to cut in front of the
engine performance was continually monitored,
nose immediately after launch, particularly in the
particularly the mice movement starting at
unknown region of M2.0+.
M1.27 and the automatic activation of the engine
After launch, the acrid smell of the solid fuels from the missile motor was often ingested into
overspeed indicated by the engine RPM suddenly increasing to 8,900 RPM on passing M1.4 (and Dec/Jan 2020
THE LAST THING THE PILOT NEEDS IS FOR THE SUPERSONIC SHOCKWAVE TO HIT THE CITY OF CAPE TOWN
JPT drop to 735°C). It was important for the pilot to monitor the mice moving out in synchronisation
MISSILE LAUNCH What maximum Mach number will be achieved
with the Machmeter, only 0.01 Mach difference
by launch time? As the speed reaches M2.02, the
between the mice Mach meter and aircraft’s Mach
aircraft is adjacent to Langebaanweg which from
meter was permitted; any greater deviation would
48,000 feet, appears as if the runway is directly
result in termination of the sortie.
below. Following a countdown from three seconds
With the launch area rapidly approaching and
to the ground engineers, at 1 second, the on-board
the fuel Detote winding down at four litres/second
high-speed cameras are activated, and at the
as the Atar 09k50 guzzled the fuel, the weapons
count of zero, the missile ‘pickle’ is depressed.
checklist was completed, AIR-AIR guns selected
To the engineering staff on the ground at
on the throttle, the A/A MISS pushbutton on the
Langebaanweg watching the launch, they witness
weapons panel depressed to arm the missile
the contrail of Mirage F1AZ No. 216 against a
firing circuit, the flight test onboard cameras
perfectly blue sky background and at t=0, the V3C
selected to standby, the missile safety cover on
launches from the wingtip of the F1 and rapidly
the control column lifted to enable depressing the
accelerates to an effective speed of close to M4.0.
missile launch pushbutton on the stick and finally,
In the cockpit, there is a moderate lateral
the Armament Master is selected ON. All that
‘bump’ as the missile leaves the rails and the
remained was activating the onboard cameras
missile initially drops two or three feet before
(running at 1000 frames per second) one second
cutting in ahead of the F1, last seen heading into
before launch and then depressing the missile
the Atlantic Ocean leaving behind a white plume
launch ‘pickle’, providing of course that the launch
and a few seconds later, a slight smell of missile
parameters have been achieved. There is no room
motor exhaust gasses in the cockpit. According to
for failure. Get it right first time – or else.
engineering calculations, the missile will decelerate
The F1 is accelerating at M0.1 every few
rapidly after rocket motor burn-out and then adopt
seconds while covering the ground at up to 20
a ballistic trajectory to impact at the southern
nms per minute (1,157 KTAS) by the time we reach
end of the air-to-air range. In test pilot terms, “the
M2.0. The cockpit walls, canopy and airframe
missile launch was safe and satisfactory”.
heating from the adiabatic temperature increase due to ram pressure rise is such that by Mach 2.1, the impact temperature on the airframe would be approximately 135°C. The F1s acceleration coincides well with
RECOVERY AND LANDING At 48,000 feet/M2.02, Cape Town and Table Mountain lie below the F1s nose, only three minutes away at the current speed – the last thing
the desired track and distance to go as M2.0 is
the pilot needs is for the supersonic shockwave
reached at the northern border of the air-to-air
to hit the city of Cape Town. The drama and
range; there are still a few seconds to go before
pandemonium in the city would cause chaos and
reaching the planned launch point.
reputational damage to the SAAF which would
The Mirage F1 cockpit is extremely busy and a very tight fit. Dec/Jan 2020
surely earn the pilot a personal interview with
The F1 is a delight to fly, particularly the final
the Chief of the Air Force. It is possible for the
approach and landing and with fuel contents down
shockwave to sweep across the city from the north
to 700 litres, at a landing mass of 8,600 kgs, the
and then for certain portions of the pressure wave
aircraft is stable in the landing configuration with a
to reflect backwards off Table Mountain – this
good, unobstructed view of the runway. The pilot’s
apparently happened many years ago.
primary task is to fly a 10° angle of incidence
With the missile gone, while still at Mach
approach, equivalent to approximately 150 KIAS
numbers greater than M1.4, power reduction
with a Vref of 135 KIAS/ incidence of 13°. The
below MIL is prohibited and as such the
throttle is retarded a few feet above the runway
throttle is reduced to mini A/B, then MIL
and the pitch attitude maintained as the main
while simultaneously applying airbrakes. The
deceleration forces at 650+ KIAS are significant,
The drag chute is deployed holding a nose
the restrained pilot’s body bearing the brunt of
high pitch attitude for aerodynamic braking until
the deceleration forces and emphasising the
120 KIAS, the nose is then lowered to the runway.
importance of being strapped in tightly to the
The decelerating tug of the drag chute opening is
ejection seat. The pitch dampers are working
always welcome on a short runway – failure of the
overtime to prevent pilot induced oscillations by
drag chute could require a go-around followed by
damping any short period oscillations generated
a drag chute out landing. The rapid deceleration
by pitch and yaw perturbations during and after the
enables the pilot to reduce the landing run
considerably and jettison the drag chute alongside
With the airbrakes extended and power reduced to MIL, the F1 decelerates rapidly to subsonic flight and a spiralling descent at 6,500RPM/M0.92/450 KIAS. Radar vectors to final approach on runway
the runway where it will be collected by the ground crew. The engine was shut down with approximately 500 litres remaining.
02 at Langebaanweg relieves some of the pilot workload in managing the energy levels prior to entering the circuit. Allowing the airspeed to decrease to below
It’s been thirty minutes from engine start to engine shut down and we have successfully
250 KIAS, the standard jet pneumonic of BAUFF
and safely demonstrated the launch envelope
is carried out, Brake and Hydraulic pressures
clearance of the V3C air-to-air missile on the
checked, High Lift device switch back to NORMAL
Mirage F1AZ. Thanks to detailed, accurate
and now, with the airspeed down to 200 KIAS,
engineering planning and flying, the V3C missile
Airbrakes in, U/C down and locked, Flaps selected
was launched at M2.02 and cleared the aircraft
fully down. Fuel contents are down to 800 litres,
flow field satisfactorily. The V3C air-to-air missile
sight set to approach mode, anti-skid system
was cleared for operational test and evaluation on
tested, brakes tested, nosewheel steering light out,
the Mirage F1AZ and likewise for the Mirage F1CZ.
Nose-wheel Steering plunger out, and landing light selected on.
Nico van Staden Tel: +27 (0) 083 321 0916 E-mail: email@example.com
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STORY : GUY LEITCH
The CAA Dossier More ill-advised legal frolics from the CAA.
Around two years ago I ran a series of 12 articles I called ‘The CAA Dossier’ which articulated the frustrations of the aviation community at the manifold failures of the SACAA. However, I became increasingly uncomfortable with that series as it was too often one-sided. The nature of publishing deadlines meant that the CAA could claim that it did not have a fair opportunity to reply to the accusations. THE problem is: the CAA just doesn’t learn
aircraft that weighed anything less than exactly
from its mistakes. It’s deeply worrying that the
600 kg was not acceptable. The regulator
old patterns persist, despite the CAA having
persisted in this dogged absurdity, despite
been roundly smacked down by the Department
increasingly clamorous demands from the
of Transport’s Civil Aviation Appeal Committee.
frustrated aircraft owner and perplexed appeals
The only explanation for this failure by the CAA to learn would seem to be that this
The CAA implacably closed ranks
is the symptom of an endemic or structural
until a number of aviation bodies patiently
dysfunctionality within the regulator. The latest
managed to convince them of the absurdity
manifestation of this dysfunctionality is yet
of this bureaucrat’s decree. Then there was
another inexplicable episode of what can only
much face-saving obfuscation to justify the
be described as stupid rule interpretation and
indefensible, in a weak attempt to rescue the
ill-advised legal adventurism.
tarnished image of the CAA as a reasonable
About a year ago the CAA emerged with mud on its face when one of its esteemed
from the recreational aviation administrators.
regulator. This publication let that embarrassing
bureaucrats decreed that the 600 kg maximum
incident go largely unremarked upon because,
weight limit for light sport aircraft meant that the
like many, we simply shrugged our shoulders
aircraft had to actually weigh 600 kg. Thus, an
and, in a sense, said that this is Africa. Now
t if the Sim instructor Does the CA A think tha al the sim may crash. does not have a medic
however an incident of equal absurdity has come
forty years of dedicated instructional experience,
to the fore and unfortunately the regulator chose
was thus unable to earn a living and the small
to drag it all the way through the appeals process
airline where he was working became deprived of
before the Civil Aviation Appeals Committee (CAAC). The well thought-out and eloquent judgment of the CAAC in this matter has recently been released. The attitude and antics of the Regulator make appalling reading. It is hard not to conclude that the CAA is incapable of learning from its past foolishness. The current case arose when a senior and
THE REGULATOR DECIDED THAT A FLIGHT SIMULATOR INSTRUCTOR HAD TO HAVE A VALID MEDICAL
highly respected former Chief Training Captain at SAA temporarily lost his medical. CAA officialdom
his wealth of knowledge and expertise.
used this as a pretext to stop him from training on
I cannot imagine what the regulator was
flight simulators. The Training Captain, with some
thinking when it decided that a flight simulator Dec/Jan 2020
BELOW: Jobsworth's everywhere
instructor had to have a valid medical. Did the
should be applied for the purpose it is intended.”
Director of the CAA, Ms Poppy Khoza, whose
The judgment specifically found that the CAA
responsibility it was to sign off the application,
had failed to consider the application in terms of
genuinely think that the DFE instructor would
the provisions of its own regulations. This is the
endanger lives by crashing a simulator because of
core of the problem. The CAA seems unable to
an underlying medical condition?
apply basic standards of common sense to its
CAA BUREAUCRATS COMMITTED TO RACIAL TRANSFORMATION AT ANY COST
Regulations and instead persists in doltishly applying the letter of the rules as they choose to interpret them (tea-time rulemaking), often causing grave damage to the already delicate fabric of the aviation industry. This was the case in particular with the vindictive ‘lawfare campaign’ the Regulator waged
The judgment makes it clear that the Director was badly informed by her subordinates in that she managed to leap to the unjustifiable
against CemAir as described in the earlier series. This latest attack on a Designated Flight Examiner (DFE) once again raises the question as
conclusion that one may not instruct in a flight simulator in the absence of holding a valid licence and medical. The Director’s decision is all the more inexplicable in that it flies in the face of the clear provisions of the Civil Aviation Regulations (CARs) and worldwide practice where pilots who have lost their medicals have been able to continue to contribute to aviation development by instructing and testing in simulators. The CAAC was uncharacteristically blunt in its comment about the CAA’s decision making process. The judgement says, “It is not open for the Respondent [the CAA] to read and apply regulations
interchangeable to suite a particular outcome.
to whether the CAA is hell-bent on attacking DFEs
Each regulation in the CARs exists to provide for
– who are the key custodians of aviation standards
certain processes, eventualities, etc and therefore
and safety. In a particularly scathing comment, the
CAAC judgment referred to an earlier judgment which said; “…the doctrine of legality requires
was returned to the appellant. It is a tribute to the solidarity of the aviation
that the power conferred on a functionary to make
industry that the victim’s former colleague, Captain
decisions in the public interest should be exercised
John Campbell, who also happens to be an
properly i.e. on the basis of the true facts.” This
attorney, was willing to take up the case and fight
use of the words ‘true facts’ must suggest that the
for justice. He has been a determined litigator
CAA was manufacturing its own version of the
against the unreasonable and heavy-handed
actions of the CAA.
It is noteworthy that the CAAC went on to
This publication also notes with relief the quality
effectively lecture the CAA Director by reminding
of the judicial process provided by the CAAC
us of the basics of a constitutional democracy,
in terms of its ability, impartiality and diligence
where; “the furnishing of adequate reasons for
to rein-in the more ill-advised (and quite frankly
a decision forms the cornerstone of a person’s
idiotic) legal frolics of the CAA.
constitutional right to fair administration action.” This is of great comfort to all South African aviation users. Many of us often feel that we have been the victim of either absurd or unjustified regulatory action by the regulator. The judgment quoted from Australian case law which states that it is required, “for a decision maker to explain his decision in a way which will enable a person aggrieved to say in effect; “Even though I may not agree with that, I now understand why the decision went against me. I am now in a position to decide whether that decision has involved an unwarranted finding of fact or an error of law which is worth challenging.” The CAAC judgment concluded that; “It is incumbent on the respondent as the regulator to provide guidance to the industry on compliance matters and as such the respondent should have advised the appellant to provide information/ documents which were acquired in terms of the CARs for it to make a decision on the application.” The order was therefore granted that the appeal
The CAA was given the right of reply to this article and replied as follows: The South African Civil Aviation Authority (SACAA) has received the judgment of the Civil Aviation Appeal Committee (CAAC). The SACAA is studying the judgment, and once the full understanding and appreciation of the legal implications of the judgment has been established, the Regulator will then, in due course, make a determination on how to proceed with this matter.
be upheld and to further censure the regulator, possibly against further legal frolics, the appeal fee Dec/Jan 2020
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bluechipflightschool.co.za ATO CAA 056 Part 61(A)
ACCIDENT REPORT: JIM DAVIS
CR OOK ED
M A I NT ENA NCE A ND A ‘ V I R T UA L’ OV ER HA UL . HISTORY OF FLIGHT: The aircraft took off from Kitty Hawk Aerodrome on Runway 01 at 1500Z. Prior to takeoff the pilot performed the engine run which indicated that the magnetos were
A C CI DENT R EP OR T S UMM A R Y :
within the required limits as. After
Date of Accident: 22 December 2010
two circuits and landings the pilot
Time of Accident: 15.20Z
flew towards the South-South-East
of the Aerodrome.
Type of Aircraft: Cessna 172 K
After seven minutes, at
Type of Operation: Private
approximately 400 feet AGL, the
Pilot-in-command Licence Type: Private
engine started running rough. The
mixture was rich, the pitch full
Licence Valid: Yes
fine and manifold pressure was
Pilot-in-command: Total Flying Hours
22”. The pilot switched on the fuel
503.3 Hours on Type 459.2
pump but it had no effect.
Last point of departure: Kitty Hawk,
The pilot selected a field to his
Next point of intended landing Kitty Hawk
right that was planted with maize
Location of the accident: Welbekend East
approximately 250 mm high. The
of Pretoria in a corn field.
ground was wet as the area had
had more than 100 mm of rain
Surface wind: 340/20kts.
over the previous three days. The
wheels sank into the ground and
Number of people on board: 1 + 0
the nose gear broke off. The plane
No. of people injured: 1
flipped onto its back.
No. of people killed: 0
THIS REPORT WAS COMPILED IN THE INTEREST OF THE PROMOTION SAFETY AND NOT TO ESTABLISH LEGAL LIABILITY.
Was this accident from crooked maintenance or from the owner cutting corners and using Mogas?
Unsuccessful forced landing due to engine
Type Continental IO360K Serial Number
failure because both magnetos were earthed via
355844 Hours since New 1920.1 Hours since
bad condenser leads.
Aircraft Information: Type Cessna R172K Serial Number R172-2764 Year of Manufacture
TESTS AND RESEARCH: The magnetos were sent to an approved AMO
1977. Total Airframe Hours (At time of Accident)
for further investigation. The report states:
1920.1 Last MPI (Date & Hours) 28 July 2010
hand magneto S/N A189372 Checked timing
1919.2 Hours since Last MPI 0.9. C of A issued
and rotation of Magneto and found satisfactory.
28 February 1978 C of R issued Date 13 May
Inspected condition, found one tower spring
missing on harness. Found arcing on same lead Dec/Jan 2020
pin. Found the condenser lead in bad condition,
found that pistons no.2 and no.4 showed a signs
wire touching magneto frame and braid giving
of detonation. Melted aluminium piston heads
grinded metal pieces caused the oil filter to block,
Left hand magneto S/N A189374 Checked
causing the by-pass to open, which in turn sent
timing and found satisfactory. Condition inspected
unfiltered oil to the bearings, which in turn caused
and found condenser lead in a bad condition, wire
the seizure. Teledyne Continental Motors,
A tower spring in the mag was missing.
the manufacturer of the engine, issued a service bulletin M773 which states: TCM does not recommend or authorize the use of automotive fuels in any of their aircraft engines. The engine warranty and pro rata policy will be voided if such fuels are utilised. Fuels must conform to ASTM-D910 or MIL-G-5572E, if satisfactory engine service life is anticipated. Automotive fuels can contain additives that act
The accident report blamed the frayed earth leads on the mag - but this is ludicrous.
as corrosive agents, formulate gum deposits and therefore increase combustion chamber deposits. Continued operation on automotive fuel can lead to detonation, pre-ignition and sticking or eroded valves. The vapour pressure of automotive fuels exceeds that allowable for aviation fuels. The increased vapour pressure increases the tendency to vapour lock at higher altitudes. A vapour lock
touching frame giving a “dead magneto”. Harness
condition can cause complete power loss. The
found to be satisfactory. The engine was taken to
use of any fuel that does not conform to the above
an approved maintenance facility for dismantling
specification may cause cylinder assembly, valve,
and inspection. During the investigation it was
piston and/or piston ring damage/failure.
The engine was in shocking condition - and there was no sign of a recent overhaul.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: According to the pilot, for the 23 hours before
JIM’S COMMENTS This is the most extraordinary accident I have
the accident, the aircraft was using automotive
seen in a long time. Behind the CAA’s usual stuff-
fuel. The aircraft did not have a supplemental
ups it hides some interesting and complex safety
type certificate (STC) to use the automotive
issues which I am battling to come to terms with.
fuel. The investigation revealed that the engine
Bear with me, we will run through the facts first
power loss and the subsequent engine failure
and then look at the implications for the average
were as the result of a wire touching the magneto
frame and braiding, with the result that no spark
First, this was the initial flight after an MPI –
was produced. Although further investigation
statistically the most likely time for mechanical
revealed that pistons no.2 and no.4. were worn
out/ damaged, this was not a factor in the engine failure. The aircraft was flown approximately 0.9 hours
What I see here is the owner’s attempt to save money at every turn. The most obvious example is using automotive fuel instead of Avgas without
since the previous MPI. It was revealed that both
the STC. I have a feeling that this may have been
magnetos were earthed, therefore it appeared that
the direct cause of the accident. With a density
the AMO did not install the magnetos properly,
altitude of around 8000’ on that day, I am inclined
resulting in chafing of earth wires, which led to an
to suspect that a vapour lock may have caused the
engine failure. It is recommended that the AMO
engine to lose power.
should be addressed in this regard. ---------------------------------------------
The CAA’s conclusion that earth wires (or ‘P’ leads) on both magnetos just happened to short Dec/Jan 2020
out at exactly the same time is ludicrous. The
from them had completely blocked the oil filter
photos show that these leads suffered years of
and then circulated through the bypass so that it
wear and abuse.
caused the bearings to seize. For those who are
The logbooks tell us that when the engine
not mechanically minded this means the engine
failed, it had only done only 89.9 hours since
was about to disintegrate, and that it was in need
a complete overhaul, and less than one hour
of another complete overhaul.
since MPI. Frankly, I don’t believe a word of it –
The fact that the filter was totally blocked
and neither should the CAA. The engine was in
means that it had not been changed at the MPI,
shocking condition both internally and externally.
which should have happened. In other words the
Internally, detonation had caused two pistons to be ‘worn out/damaged’ so badly that the debris
AMO was not doing its job. A tower spring in the distributor section of one magneto was missing. It’s just possible that this
A clean engine is a sign that it has been well looked after.
could have been forgotten during overhaul – but a glance at the condition of the condenser leads tells us that the magnetos were overhauled only in the logbook – but not in the real world. In short, the AMO was operated by a bunch of crooks. Further, I would suggest that the owner was complicit in the fraud. Any pilot with half a brain cell would have seen from its condition that it had not been overhauled. Methinks (to use a lovely Shakespearian word that’s coming back into Being able to remove the cowl for the pre-flight inspection is vital to your peace of mind.
After a recent overhaul the oil should be a honey-brown colour.
fashion) that the owner and the AMO agreed to
wired shut. I made a fuss about it until the owner
simply overhaul the logbooks, without touching the
agreed to let me undo the wiring and remove the
engine. Or to use another term that is in vogue at
cowl. That’s one of the things I really like about the
the moment – they opted for a ‘virtual’ overhaul.
Piper range – it’s easy to inspect the engines. It
But it gets worse. There is something very fishy about the history of this aircraft. The logbooks say that it is a ‘K’ model built in 1977 – but that
turned out that this engine was in great condition and I was very happy to fly it. But this is rather a silly story because I have to
can’t be true because Cessna stopped fitting
ask myself whether I would have done the same
Continental engines to their 172s nine years
on a Cessna or a Mooney? Obviously no. It’s
earlier in 1968. So this aircraft should have had a
simply not possible to inspect the engine properly
Lycoming engine. The CAA could have obtained
on most light aircraft. The best one can do is shine
this information from Google, as I did.
a torch in through the oil filler hatch and try to get
a general feeling for the engine’s condition. So, inspecting the most mechanically suspect
WHAT CAN WE LEARN? This is where I normally give you some pithy bullet points of dos and don’ts, but with this
part of any aircraft – the engine – turns out to be the most difficult. All I can do, is suggest that you become a
accident I am left scratching the pip – and I’ll tell
mechanical detective. This is easy if it’s an aircraft
that you fly regularly. First, have a critical look at
I recently refused to fly a Piper Arrow because the quick release cowling fasteners had been
the logbooks. If the owner doesn’t want to show them to you, then take your business elsewhere. Dec/Jan 2020
Once you’re satisfied that everything is legal and
way you will get some info about its inner workings
up to date then a general look around will tell you
is to have a look at the oil. That is the life blood of
the engine. If it is changed regularly then it should
Oil leaks are the first sign that things are not
have a pretty honey colour. Black, or dirty grey oil
great – unless you are flying behind a radial
is not necessarily a don’t fly flag, but it calls for the
engine or a Gypsy, in which case a lack of oil
raising of an eyebrow. The owner should be able
leaks probably means a lack of oil. Just feel under
to explain that it’s the type of oil being used, or
the belly of the aircraft – that’s where the oil winds
have some other good reason for its appearance.
up if it’s leaking. If your hand gets oily, go and fly another aeroplane.
Finally, the history of the oil level is important. Is the engine’s consumption in line with the expected
Strangely, the outside of the cowling can sometimes give you useful information. Blistered
use shown in the POH? Excessive consumption is a big red flag.
or scorched paintwork may indicate leaking exhaust pipes, blown gaskets or troublesome turbochargers.
In a nutshell, if it’s a one-off flight you had better be a damn good mechanical detective. If
If you use a torch you should be able to spot
it’s an aircraft you fly regularly, you can take some
any obvious faults like frayed wires, torn elephant
comfort from its history. And if it’s a Piper – well
trunk hoses or fluid leaks.
there you go. Not that I am biased at all.
If the outside of the engine looks good, the only
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR IN PRAISE OF ATNS My name is Dapper Dan and I fly aeroplanes...
‘bout the J.O.B. Short, curt commands are issued at a pace that
like a boss. I’m known to regularly recall the time I
would make an LSD imbued auctioneer jealous.
landed a 19 seater in 53... wait for it: STEPS!!! “If
My little steed and I are cleared direct AVAGO for
you think that’s impossible, you should have seen
the 2A arrival.
the chap from the UN!” I am a man at the height of his professional
Now let it not be said that Dapper Dan is easily shaken from his high horse. It will take more than
prowess, and you know I know it! So I recently
a highly competent and professional lady to shake
find myself merrily chucking along over Botswana.
my self-belief. One has to keep appearances
Homeward bound, song in heart and with high
up and all that. One has to believe in oneself,
opinions of myself and the mighty little steed that I
otherwise who else will believe in you?
am ferrying home for a client. Harare Info gave me the cold shoulder, but the lady at Gabs was super friendly and bade me
So, with the tiniest crack in my voice, I read back my clearance and then; well then lads, I made a mistake!
“bon voyage” and call her at ETMIT. At ETMIT I
“A what?” you say.
bring my particular brand of “la vie est belle” to the
I say: “Well ,yes, erhm, I made a mistake.”
chaps at INFO north: Boet, do I suddenly realize
You say: “A mistake? A cauliflower inspired
Even Dapper Dan can make a mistake in single pilot IFR ops.
that these peeps ain’t ‘bouts the party, they bee all
finger painted interpretation of secularism in
lady said was... “change frequency to INFO
NORTHWEST.” No snide remark, no -albeit, well
No lads, Dapper Dan read back the clearance
deserved- chastising, just a simple and efficient:
and then promptly made like a Nationwide MEL
“change frequency.” I was descending out of
item and descended. (Just between us, I have
her airspace and into lower airspace which is
never seen an engine on the 737’s MEL but
governed by a different frequency.
seeing as items not listed, must be present and
Promptly I change and am greeted by one
working for all flights, I take the an engine is
of my own kin. A Dutchman whose accent,
crucial for flight... just saying).
like my own, can cut wood at a standard mile.
Well, a rather flustered INFO NORTH called
Immediately, I feel infinitely more safe in the
me about a minute later and asked: “Dan old boy,
arms of familiarity. In between explaining to a
confirm that in your infinite and well know wisdom,
student pilot that Polokwane is actually not to the
you are descending?”
southeast of Pretoria and that he advises a left
Now here I must admit to maybe just a little
turn onto heading 350, he clears me to level 080.
A Du t c h m a n whos e accent , lik e my own, can cut wood
A little later, I ask the good man if I am still cleared for the AVAGO 2A... he just laughs at me and says: “Dan, mate, those lovely people up there in INFO NORTH know that you can fly the bum of a mosquito, but they can also hear when a chap might need a little help, so they have cleared you direct JSV for radar vectors onto 03R.” Now, I do not need to regale you with the
self-doubt starting to creep up the old spine. I answered in the affirmative, I was indeed descending. At this point I knew with a spectacular
story of my landing or the chat with APRON and GROUND. What I do want to say is this: I do not regularly fly in such highly controlled
clarity that my life would positively end if the lady
airspace, nor in places where there are two
at INFO asked why I was descending. You see,
runways or so many procedures. All of this is
what had happened, is that thing that happens
daunting, even to Dapper Dan types. The smooth,
to other people, never to Dapper Dan. I made
efficient and professional way in which I was
a mistake. My autopilot was off due to heavy
handled by the people from ORT ATNS was
turbulence (on those little steeds the magic that
comforting and reassuring.
makes the autopilot work, ironically does not like
To the people of ORT ATNS, I salute and thank
to be worked like a cart horse) and I had been so
you guys for a brilliant effort and wish you all
busy trying to figure out how in the name of all that
many happy hours of bringing us home.
is good you make it from WKV Radial 218 to 03R that I... well, I think you get the idea. But bless that angel of the airwaves. All the
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STORY & IMAGES: GARTH CALITZ
Early arrivals at Krugersdorp's Jack Taylor Airfield.
KRUGERSDORP FLY-IN The Krugersdorp fly-in was commendably well attended.
Flying clubs are doing a great job keeping up the esprit de corps of the beleaguered flying community. For years SA Flyer supported the Krugersdorp Flying Club (KFC) annual spot landing competition but this publication has been forced to reduce its involvement and the KFC has shown that despite the odds the club can still produce a memorable fly-in.
Brian Appleton taxies out with Ricardo De Bonis in pursuit on his bike. Image: Andre Venter.
NOT only has aviation been hard hit by the
The music and interviews of prominent aviation
Covid-19 pandemic, but the weather was not
personalities kept everyone entertained
cooperating either. The hard working members
throughout the morning and hopefully a few of
of KFC must have woken with heavy hearts on
their listeners were inspired to join the wonderful
Saturday morning when they saw the weather
world of aviation.
which covered Gauteng. Visiting pilots had to navigate past low cloud and then deal with the notorious Krugersdorp winds, fortunately straight down runway 08 so it didnâ€™t pose too much of a problem to anyone flying in for the day. Members of EAA chapter 322 were at the ready with welcome pancakes, Marie Reddy and her assistant Gladys keep a steady flow of pancakes
CA A o f f i c i a l s came along to keep an eye on proceedings
throughout the morning. The good folk from Krugersdorp Flying Club made sure that there
The excitement levels kicked up a notch
was a delicious cup of coffee available. Later the
when the Puma Energy Flying Lions arrived and
pancakes and coffee gave way to biltong and beer
flew a flat display due to the low clouds. Puma
for those who didnâ€™t have to fly home again.
pilots Scully, Sean, Arnie and Ellis then landed
A local radio station, Vibez Live, broadcast their Morning Show from Krugersdorp Airfield.
and joined the crowd for a cup of coffee and a pancake. Dec/Jan 2020
Dieter Bock made a welcome appearance in his Lancair Legacy.
With major thunder-showers predicted for the afternoon, the visitors couldnâ€™t stick around too long, which must have come as a relief to CAA officials, Piet Fourie and Mothiba Kanyane who had come along to keep an eye on
RIGHT: The Coffee Station was well supported.
The Bearhawk Patrol from the tragically deceased estate of Wayne Giles is flying in the hands of Jeremy 'Moose' Woods Image: Andre Venter.
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ATLAS AVIATION VIDEO
PETER GARRISON’S NEW BOOK! Acclaimed SA Flyer (and Flying magazine) columnist Peter Garrison has just released a book of noteworthy accident analyses, and lessons to be learned, from his ‘Aftermath’ series. He writes: “I’ve put a bunch of slightly used but still serviceable Aftermaths into a book called “Why? Thinking About Plane Crashes”, which is for sale on Amazon Books as both a Kindle ebook and a paperback.” Guy Leitch highly recommends it; “I downloaded it for just US$5.75 on kindle and the profound insights to be gained from these accidents will make us all better pilots. From the risks of ‘taking a look’ at dubious VFR conditions, to showing-off in front of our friends, there are 32 invaluable lessons. This book should be part of every pilot’s prescribed reading list.”
STORY & IMAGES: GUY LEITCH
The Morningstar Flying Club (MFC) is known for launching an annual long-distance fly-in. 2020 was no exception and the Club’s intrepid pilots flew from the Cape all the way across South Africa to Hoedspruit, in Limpopo Province. IN past years the MFC has
owner Evette was happy to fetch and carry the crews from the
flown to Namibia, Botswana and
Zimbabwe. This year they were
Leaving early the next day, they all made it to Hoedspruit
constrained within the borders
Civil by lunchtime. Initially it had been hoped that the nearby
of South Africa by Covid-19 so
Zandspruit Aero Park would provide secure aircraft parking, but
MFC Chairman Ross Leighton
they were not feeling hospitable, so Hoedspruit Civil based AMO
took the opportunity to catch
Ian Greenwood prevailed upon local members to make hangar
up with Guy and Nicola Leitch
space available to the visitors.
to sample the delights of Nicola
The group spent four days savouring the delights of the
Leitch’s upmarket new Safari
Hoedspruit safari hub – including a day in the Kruger Park
Moon Luxury Bush Lodge in
fortified by a delicious Safari Moon picnic breakfast. Other
excursions involved visits to local animal rehabilitation centres
Hoedspruit had an unseasonal two weeks of wet weather, but as the day of departure dawned, the clouds covering the interior of the
and the flesh-pots of the booming Hoedspruit dorp, the sybaritic delights of massages and laid back G&Ts around the pool. A trip into the Kruger Park rewarded with this sighting of a rare elephant tusker.
country magically parted to give the MFC pilots a clear VFR routing from one corner of the country to the other. Three Slings, two RVs and a Sting RG left Cape Town for the two-day journey. First stop was Beaufort West for fuel. Unfortunately Cindy Simpson and her father elected to overnight at Gariep Dam where she contracted food poisoning which stopped her from flying further. The other five aircraft overnighted in Bethlehem – at Lavender Hill lodge, whose Dec/Jan 2020
After weeks of bad weather across the country the skies miraculously cleared and gave our intrepid aviators a clear run from the Cape to Bethlehem for Day 1.
Morningstar Club Chairman Ross Leighton on arrival with a stiff crosswind at Hoedspruit Civil.
Lazy days catching up around the pool at Safari Moon Luxury Lodge.
The Hoedspruit stay ended with a braai at the airfield against the backdrop of the magnificent Drakensberg and sunset over Mariepskop’s radar station. On the Sunday morning everyone made an early start to avoid the turbulence, which was forecast to be hot and convective over the central land mass. The two RVs, keen to use their speed to push on to Cape Town, arrived at Bloemfontein’s Tempe at 8.00 am and discovered there was no fuel pump attendant. His presence would require a R450 call-out fee. The slower aircraft began arriving
Dolly Ferguson at Bethlehem. Mark Becker flew his Sling 2 all the way from The Cape.
in Bloemfontein from around 10.00 am, so they shared the callout fee. The RVs took off again into the heat of the day – and a 40 knot headwind. Ross Leighton and Mike Marshall’s usual 170-180 knot ground speed was reduced to 140 and they began wondering if they would have sufficient fuel reserves for the normally
Jonathan and Andrea Stake in their Sling 2.
comfortable 2 hour 45 minute sector. In the end the wind relented, and they were safe on the ground at 14.00B. The slower aircraft decided to again make it an easy two-day journey and after an early start on the Monday morning, had an uneventful flight back,
Heading back - a hefty call-out fee on a Sunday morning a Bloemfontein's New Tempe.
arriving mid-morning at Morningstar. If you would like to arrange a fly-in to Safari Moon Luxury Lodge please contact Nicola on 083
Mark Becker early morning over the Gariep Dam.
A pre-dawn start from New Tempe for the Starkes and Fergusons.
Making their first appearance together - the two Blue Mountain Harvards.
Popeye taxies in after its 25 year restoration.
Johnnie Smith demonstrates his Cessna Agwagon's aerial application of smoke down the runway.
As the Covid-19 lockdown lifted, a number of flying clubs seized the
Martin den Dunnen's amazing new Aerotel is now open for business at Zandpsruit.
opportunity to get their members back in the air by organising fly-ins.
MEMBERS of the informal Zandspruit Flying Club in Hoedspruit managed to arrange a small but particularly noteworthy fly-in. Stars of the fly-in were the two Harvards from the well-known Balding Eagles collection in Hekpoort. Of particular note was the first appearance of the Harvard called Popeye. This Harvard has benefitted from a twenty five year restoration – with parts sourced from around the world. Popeye joins its stablemate Mighty Mouse which was restored thirty years ago. Both Popeye and Mighty Mouse have
Linda Warner (centre) won the prize of a bush break at Zandspruit from Tredea Smith and Mandy Ord (R).
remarkably similar histories. They were part of a lend-lease exchange deal from America to the Luftwaffe in 1954. Then they were sold to Portugal and later shipped out with the Portuguese Air Force to Mozambique. After Mozambican independence, the new Frelimo government was unable to keep them airworthy and Popeye ended up on a plinth in Maputo – while Mighty Mouse was recovered and shipped back by train to South Africa by Brain
Shuttles were kept busy bringing in guests from the Zandspruit Estate gate.
Zeederberg, along with many other notable aircraft. After an extremely thorough and lengthy
by the fly-in’s host Johnie Smith, who has joined
restoration it was a thrill to see Popeye join Mighty
the retired pilot influx to Hoedspruit, and has
Mouse in the air. They have both been repainted
brought his beautifully restored and re-engined
in their Luftwaffe squadron colours – and unlike ex
Cessna 188 Agwagon. Johnie demonstrated a
SAAF Harvards, are noteworthy for their low total
smoke run down the runway – which enables
time of around just 3,000 hours.
the pilot to judge the wind and thus spray with
Another notable feature of the Hoedspruit flyin was the impromptu aerial application display
greater accuracy. He then sprayed with water to demonstrate his precision aerial application.
s ’ n e r d l i h C
STORY: GARTH CALITZ | IMAGES: TREVOR COHEN AND GARTH CALITZ
Flight 2020 BUILDING THE FUTURE
Very few people in the aviation community would have dared imagine that even the indomitable Felix Gosher could pull off his extraordinary Children’s Flight in 2020. Nonetheless, Felix inspired his team to once again share the joy and thrill of flight with under-privileged children.
Jumping for joy - the 2020 slogan was 'More Gs - less cheese'. Image: Trevor Cohen
National pride was supplied by the huge flag flown by the skydive. Image: Trevor Cohen
THE Children’s Flight for 2020 may have been
an inspiration to all that spent time getting to know
smaller than previous years but what it lacked in
numbers it more than made up for in spirit and love. The day began at dawn early for the children and the pilots repositioning to Orient Airfield. Some of the pilots were delayed slightly due to a large mist bank that covered a major part of Gauteng. Fortunately, the mist burned off pretty quickly, leaving a beautiful day to share the wonders of flight with the children. Orient Airfield became a field of dreams for the day, a day that will hopefully inspire the children to believe in and more importantly, follow their dreams. Most of the children chosen for flights had
The Children’s Flight Motto is “Fly Feed Love Inspire” and this year I believe the majority of the inspiration and love was supplied by the kids,
A n o n -e x i s t e n t wind blew dust in the eyes of the pilots causing a few tears
been through horrors that we cannot comprehend. Some were victims of abuse and others had been burnt in shack fires that left them permanently scarred. The resilience of these young souls was
rather than the other way around. After a welcome from Felix to everyone and a briefing for all the pilots by Safety Director Dec/Jan 2020
Organiser Felix Gosher with a happy child after his first taste of flight. Image: Garth Calitz
pilots continued for most of the morning, some of the pilots performed rolls with the more daring children. The joy on these young faces when they landed was so humbling that some of the pilots could be seen swallowing the massive lump in their throats. It seems a non-existent wind blew dust in the eyes of the pilots causing a few tears. The flying programme was paused for a special treat at 11:30, The Puma Energy Flying Lions joined from Rand to thrill the young ones with their polished display of graceful Harvard aerobatics. Once all the fixed-wing flights were done the
Francois “Hosepipe” Hannekom it was time to get
kids were treated to a helicopter flight as well,
the flying under-way. The first aircraft to take to the
Charles Fuller and Rob Osner made their ex
skies was an Atlas Angel carrying the skydivers
SAAF Alouette II and III available for yet another
to altitude. Ralph Ridge and his team exited the
unforgettable flying experience.
aircraft and displayed the flags of key sponsors
The younger children were encouraged to take
and of course the massive South African flag – to
part in a colouring competition while the older
the sound of the national anthem.
children built balsa wood gliders. The winners
Once the skydivers were safely on the ground
of each competition were taken for a flight in a
it was time to give the children their first taste of
glider by members of the Orient Gliding Club. It is
flight. But before they could take to the skies they
believed that a world record may have been set
had to undergo a quick medical at the ER24 tent.
by these children having flown in a fixed-wing, a
Each child received a medical certificate then
helicopter and a glider on the first day they had
it was off to the waiting aircraft for a flight of a
lifetime. A continuous stream of children meeting The astounding 'Flying flea' made a welcome appearance. Image: Trevor Cohen.
The line-up of pilots that stepped up to the plate for this year’s Children’s Flight read like a who’s who of the aviation world: ranging from Red Bull Air Race pilots to National Aerobatics Champions as well as a number of international airshow pilots. The effort from all of these pilots was amazing. Patrick Davidson travelled all the way from Port Elizabeth just to be a part of the event, then flew all the way back the same afternoon. After the flying, all the pilots were individually called to the stage to receive their commemorative wings, something I’m sure will find a place of honour in their homes or hangars. To try and
RVs were kept busy with flips. Derek Hopkins follows Trevor Warner into the air. Image: Trevor Cohen.
single out anyone at an event like this is almost
given me a new perspective of my own situation.
impossible but Felix’s right-hand lady, Laurien
To bring joy into their lives was an experience of
Kemp, deserves a special mention, here is a note
serene fulfilment that I will carry in my heart for a
to her from Felix. “I want to thank Laurien before
long time.” - Johan von Solms Vans RV7 Airline
you all.... she was the difference between good
Captain and Goodyear Eagles Display Pilot.
and outstanding.... never known a person who
Wh e n y o u meet these children and hear about their lives , it mak es 2020 look like a picnic
wears responsibility and creativity all in one.... never known an organizer who cares more for the event than what the event can do for them.... Laurien is a person who climbed from three decor challenges to Organizer of Children’s Flight... she has earned it, without a cent paid to her... she gives from the heart” SOME NOTES FROM THE PILOTS: “What a fantastic day it was and to be a part of bringing so much joy to the little ones that would not ever get the chance to experience the aviation we take for granted. Felix and his team have done wonders to put the day together.” -Derek Hopkins Vans RV7 Veteran pilot and mentor to many. “I had the honour to be part of the Children’s Flight. We are all going through turmoil in our lives due to the Covid-19 epidemic and it is easy to let
“We have all had challenges in 2020, with what
despair into our hearts. To experience the love and
the Civil pandemic dished up to us. When you
happiness of these beautiful people in need has
meet these children and hear about their lives, it Dec/Jan 2020
makes 2020 look like a picnic. What a privilege it was to be involved and fly 8 children who touched my life profoundly. Our challenges are tiny compared to what these children have endured and it made me more grateful for all I have. Great to be a part of it.” - Ryan Beeton Vans RV7 Raptors Display Pilot. “The Children’s flight is an event I been looking forward to since 2019. The big difference between 2019 and 2020 is that this year I was able to not only show the kids what flight and aerobatics is all about but actually let them experience it with me, which was amazing! The enthusiasm and
Patrick Davidson flew his RV-7 all the way from Port Elizabeth and back in the same day for the event. The Puma Flying Lions filled the air with the sound of radials - and a cheery wave. Image: Trevor Cohen
energy from these young kids really inspire me and reminds me just how lucky I am to do what I do and to have the ability to give something back! Here’s hoping that I have inspired them as they have done me” - Patrick Davidson National Aerobatic Champion and Red Bull Air Race competitor. “Chatting to ‘parents’ of some of the safe
Children were kept entertained when they were not flying Image: Garth Calitz
homes quickly helps one to see life through a different lens. It was wonderful to share our passion for things aeronautical with children of a variety of ages. The smile of a child is a great tonic. Watching children delighting in the freedom of flight is a real privilege. Thanks to all involved for a great event.” - Trevor Warner Vans RV7 Raptors Display Pilot. “I was really moved by the day. Most of the children were understandably a little apprehensive before experiencing their first-ever flight, but once we got up into the air, their reactions were all pure joy! Several kids even started laughing with total delight, this was touching to experience first-hand. It is a gift to be able to take another person into the air for their first time ever. Well done to Felix and his superb team”. - Elton Bondi Cessna 140 and National Aerobatic Champion.
Indefatigable organsier Felix Gosher with his star assistant Laurien Kemp. Image: Trevor Cohen
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Punching Holes in the Sky SCULLY LEVIN A long-awaited book that has been released in time for Christmas reading and as a treasured gift is Scully Levin’s: Punching Holes in the Sky. Scully is a living legend in South African aviation. His achievements would fill a book – and so he has.
AS a bright-eyed kid from Pietersburg with the
winner thus far of SA Flyer Magazine’s ‘Lifetime
sky in eyes, Scully joined the SAAF at a scrawny
Aviation Achievement Award’. Last year, Scully
55kg boy aged just 17. He excelled as a pupil pilot,
was recognised by The Honourable Company
wining the trophy for the best on his course. He
of Air Pilots, an international Guild founded in
earned his wings before his driver’s licence, and
1929, for his long service and consistently high
then instructed for two years before heading to
standards in professional flying. The certificate,
Wits University to study engineering. Before he
approved and signed by a member of the British
graduated he was accepted into SAA as a boy
Royal Family, honours the esteemed few who
pilot. Scully has gone on to log 29,770 hours on
have consistently displayed qualities of pilotage,
over 180 different types of aircraft.
air navigation, airmanship and character, bringing
Punching Holes in the Sky is more a series of anecdotes and a memoir than an autobiography.
honour and respect to the profession. In this book – an industry first – Captain
In his foreword to the book, Airlink CEO Rodger
Scully Levin brings to life some of his most
Foster writes, “Scully’s achievements in aviation
memorable aviation moments. Part memoir and
have long been recognised in South Africa. In
part autobiography, this essential collector’s
2012 he was awarded The Order of the Baobab
item shares some of the highlights of his notable
in Bronze by the Presidency for his contribution to
career, spectacular stunts and exploits that have
aviation as a pilot and trainer. He is also the sole
made him a living aviation legend.”
An inspirational account, Punching Holes in
for anyone even slightly interested in flying. As a
the Sky features anecdotal commentary and
collector’s item, Punching Holes in the Sky is only
technical insights into the many aircraft that Scully
available in print. Scully will sign your copy and
has flown throughout his distinguished career.
provide a personalised message – so it is ideal as
His autobiography is packed with wonderful
insights and anecdotes – from flying the Spitfire,
To order your copy click on this link: https://
to demonstrating an SAA Boeing 747-400 at an
form.jotform.com/202162654759056. The cost
English Air show – to pioneering truck top landings
for a signed copy is a very reasonable R300,
in a Piper Cub.
including postage to the nearest Postnet.
The book is packed with excellent pictures from the many photographers who have captured Scully’s achievements. It is written in clear accessible language which avoids jargon and successfully navigates the path between excessive modesty and braggadocio. Scully’s rich repository of experiences and his love for flying make this book a must-have
OUT LANDINGS: DR MARK HOLLIDAY
Across the furrows The Mafikeng pre-World Cup Competition in 2000 served both as a pre-World Cup dress-rehearsal and the South African National Champs, in order to select the South African team for the 2001 World Champs.
and two of them balanced the fuselage on its main wheel for the 2 hours it took my crew to arrive after negotiating treacherous roads for 80km. The road back was very slow and when we reached the tar road we stopped for supper and my first beer in 3 months. I realised at this point that after four out-landings my competition dream was pretty
had logged several hundred practise hours
much over, so I relaxed and had a party with my
over the preceding months and spent a lot
crew that evening. Lying in bed that night I reflected
of time involved in other disciplines such
that my meticulous preparations had removed any
as sport psychology, visual exercises,
room for flair and enjoyment. I launched the next
weight reducing diet, and physical fitness in my
day slightly hungover yet in a refreshingly different
endeavour to make the SA team.
frame of mind, and to my surprise scored 1000
Things hadnâ€™t been going my way. I had landed out three times in the first four competition days and Day 5 proved no better.
de-rigged glider about 400 metres to his front lawn
points for the dayâ€™s win. Lessons: If remote, there will not be a cell phone signal, so be sure to land near a farm house.
After a long day, the sky died early with a strong
Stick to your training and fly wide circuits. In my
surface wind and I barely made the final turn point
early out-landings I tended to fly narrow circuits. If I
about 100 km west of Mafikeng, at a remote place
had been too tight in this situation I would not have
called Mansfield. I was faced with a single ploughed
been able to go for the into-wind landing which
field with the furrows pointing 90 degrees to a
clearly was the right decision here. The 40km/h
40km/h wind. On downwind I noticed that the heavy
wind resulted in a 25 km/h touch down speed.
rains the day before had washed away a 100m
Gliding is meant to be fun. Taking competitions
section of the furrows so at the last minute I elected
too seriously is going to ruin it for you and for the
to land into wind across the furrows and trust the
landing flap and strong ASW20B undercarriage. It
Ours is not a professional sport and unlike many
fortunately worked out fine, but there was more to
other sports, we all need and rely on our fellow
come: no cell phone signal. Happily, the farmer had
competitors to rig, retrieve, run wings, score, tug,
a land line.
find thermals and be safe. The real challenge in
The access road to the field could not
competitions I find is to find out what potential the
accommodate a trailer, so the farmer, who went
day had and whether you matched up to it or not.
by the delightfully Dickensian name of Celester
You never see a competition where one competitor
Crafford, volunteered his labourers who carried the
wins every day.
QUOTE OF THE MONTH: In response to a learned series of scientific studies that show that pilots think differently – a poster on www.avcom.co.za simply noted that,
“Pilots are the highest form of life on Earth”
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FlightCm African Aviation
Edition 146 | DEC 2020/JAN 2021
Real HELICOPTERS HAVE HOISTS
Rodger Foster – Dodges Covid Des Barker: Mirage F1 with MiG-29 engine CAN PAX SUE AIRLINES IF THEY GET COVID?
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A NOTE FROM
THE EDITOR: It is now trite to say that aviation businesses have been particularly hard hit by the Covid-19 pandemic. But many aviation companies are struggling, so we have decided to give our hard pressed yet loyal advertisers a break and combine our December and January editions into one.
advertising revenues are down, so we accelerated the natural move away from print and into the digital-only space. This has had tremendous and unexpected benefits – most notably the circulation of FlightCom has increased almost ten times as people around the world are accessing our unique UR
and original content via our website, through search engine optimisation. Many readers and advertisers seem to struggle to understand the role of FlightCom. By way of explanation, I am fond of quoting Jonathan Livingstone Seagull author Richard Bach, who differentiates between flying and aviation. He maintains that flying is a passion, a sport and a great way to live in three dimensions, whereas aviation is the industry behind flying. Aviation is about airlines and air forces and maintenance. It’s about the flying training industry and pilots’ futures. So FlightCom is about aviation in Africa. Thanks to a partnership with Robin Rabec, we are also able to add benefit from the swing to a digital publication platform by including specifically commissioned interviews on the website and to market these via our market leading Facebook page. Thanks to Google and other search engines, and the reach of our Facebook page, we are driving new readers to FlightCom. But we haven’t forgotten our loyal core of longtime followers and subscribers. We are still reaching our long-standing readership base through ‘pushing’ a downloadable pdf version of the magazine to them by email. Furthermore, we have teamed with key industry organisations such as the Airlines Association of Southern Africa (AASA) and the Commercial Aviation Association of South Africa (CAASA) to email the magazine to all their members. The digital version of the magazine has had other great spin-offs, especially for advertisers. Most notably – we are able to include links to their
marketing video material and have live website links to take readers directly to the advertiser’s website. In this way the reach and effectiveness of the clients’ adspend is vastly more efficient. But no matter how much better we have become at delivering value to our advertisers, the heart of any publication is always its content. Despite the sea change in the publishing industry, we remain true to our foundational value - of making sure we produce a publication people want to read – that fulfils our key objective of entertaining and informing our readers. Fortunately, we have been blessed to have developed a core of contributors that make FlightCom unique. I am most grateful to Hugh Pryor, who 14 years ago, after meeting me for just a quick cup of coffee, gave me a memory stick with hundreds of his priceless stories of bush flying in North Africa. Shortly thereafter, Mike Gough, then a Senior First Officer with SAA, and the owner of a nascent flight school at Lanseria, came on board to write about airline operations and pilot training. For the past four years we have been privileged to have Darren Olivier’s expert analysis on African defence. And I now have a PhD on the challenges faced by African airlines in providing essential air connectivity. The spin-offs from this study, and in particular with the CEOs I interviewed as part of the primary research, have provided many fascinating industry insights. I am honoured too to have excellent access to the key leaders and decision makers in the aviation industry. I am grateful to all airline CEOs who always take my calls at any time of the day, no matter how busy they are. I find the insights provided by these industry leaders fascinating and wonderfully informative. And I trust our readers do too. Which makes FlightCom a key source of reliable industry intelligence. In this issue we feature Airlink CEO Rodger Foster – who has used the strength and quality of 6
his business to take full advantage of the dire straits his competitors find themselves in. As I write, he is adding yet another Embraer 190 to his fleet – and he discusses his exciting expansion plans across Southern Africa – and perhaps further. Our regular contributors form the core of FlightCom, and I am grateful for their commitment to quality writing and fresh insights. With them, and the topical articles we provide, I am confident that we have indeed fulfilled our mandate to entertain and inform our readers and provide the best channel for our advertisers to reach their market. So what can we expect for 2021? From where we are now, things can only getter better. This is not just a hope – there are real signs. Domestic and foreign travel is reopening, and tourists and business travellers are returning. Airlines will start rehiring and yes, there will indeed be a massive pilot shortage, caused both by those who have left the industry due to Covid, and from the current wave of retirees. The world economy will come back with the impetus to make up for the year of lost growth – and it will take the South African economy with it as resource prices rebound. A Covid-19 vaccine is coming – sooner than hoped, and a massive airlift will be needed to distribute it. With their long and successful track record with UN relief agencies such as the World Food Programme and the WHO, South African contract flying companies are the best placed to handle the distribution of the vaccines across Africa. Within a year it will almost be back to business as usual. There is a lot to be hopeful about and so I wish all our readers and loyal advertisers a wonderful festive season and a happy and prosperous new year.
A LEADING AIRCRAFT SALES COMPANY IN AFRICA
BUSH PILOT HUGH PRYOR
CORRUPTION Did you buy your licence? Or did you earn it by working hard, gaining appropriate
qualifying before an impartial board of examiners?
HAT’S one of the
problems we’ve got in Africa today. During recent decades, the civil aviation authorities of many Third World countries have been run on the graft system. Not ‘Hard Graft’, as in hard work, but ‘graft’, as in; “How much money do you need to renew my Instrument Rating, without us having to actually fly a plane?” You must have heard of P-51 time. That’s Parker 51, the people who make the pen. Not the ones who built the World War winning fighter. Not heard of it? Well, let’s put it like this. I do know 8
of certain persons who could be open to accusations of, shall we just call it ‘Creative Logging’, possibly written with a Parker 51. It has been going on for years and years, of course, since the time that log books were invented. I remember one particular person, for example, during my infant and impressionable years in aviation, who decided to transfer all his flying hours from civilian flying log books to Royal Air Force log books. The Air Force log books looked so much tidier, we were told. It took him quite some time to complete the task and maybe that was partly because he ended up with
fifteen hundred hours more, after completing the exercise, than he had before he started it. And,
guess what! That extra fifteen hundred gave him exactly the right number of hours to apply for a job with a certain large middle eastern airline. I think he must have only retired last year. Of course his cheating barred him from returning to Kenya, because everybody and his dog in Kenya knew what he had done, and would have spilt the beans if he had looked for employment in our neck of the woods. The horrified board of inquiry into a recent major accident in Africa found that the captain of the aircraft, who sadly did not survive the disaster to defend himself, was found to have gained hundreds of hours each time he carried over the totals from the bottom of one page to the top of the next, in his log book. The copilot logged his time in a similar fashion, but this could not hide the fact that he had only one
BUSH PILOT HUGH PRYOR hour of formal training on the aircraft before the accident which took his life. The hours recorded in the aircraft technical logs bore no relation at all to those claimed by either of the pilots. So how did they manage to get away with it? Administrative slip up? Administrative incompetence? Why don’t we just try straight ‘Administrative corruption’? To get to the bottom of this problem it is important to examine the root causes. So let’s have a look at some of them, and see why this insidious and corrosive disease is so contagious and difficult to control.
The hours recorded in the aircraft logs bore no relation to those claimed by the pilots MOTIVATION Let’s start right at the bottom, financially
speaking. Do you think that you would feel motivated to run the licensing office of a civil aviation authority, if your salary was twenty (yes…20) times less than those of the people whom you were responsible for regulating? Probably not. Would you feel motivated if your salary had not been reviewed for over twenty (Yes… I did say 20) years? Probably not. Would you feel motivated if you noticed that, in spite of the above, your bosses, who seldom graced the offices whose doors bore their names, suddenly 10
became the proud owners of Seven Series BMWs, while you still took a jam-packed little minibus taxi to work every morning? I’ll bet you wouldn’t. How about if the international community started muttering about your total incompetence and how they would like to beat the living daylights out of you and then see you in jail? Would that motivate you? I doubt it. In fact I think the opposite might be true. Okay. Suppose I came to your office at around eleven o’clock one morning and suggested lunch at a discrete local pub for discussions about something which might be very much to your financial
advantage. Then I took you out, filled you with beer, introduced you to a stunningly nubile and seemingly willing young lady or two and offered you a straight ten thousand dollars to licence the crew of an A310 that I wanted to operate to Europe, and, yes, of course the pilots are all well experienced. Well? Would you be interested? NOW we’re talking! The problem is that if you agree to my proposition, then I’ve got you on a string. So next time I’ll only have to give you five hundred dollars, for the renewal, because you’re not going to go blabbing your mouth off to all and sundry about how I bought you, are you? No you are not. I’ll just deny it anyway, and where are your witnesses? Anyway, you could do with the extra five hundred, couldn’t you? And so could your new girlfriends. You are certainly not going to blow the whistle. This gravy train is going so fast now that you would probably be badly hurt, or even worse, if you tried to get off. REPERCUSSIONS Right. It’s all downhill from now on. Nice and easy. Freewheeling. No need for paperwork. No need for any work. Who’s interested anyway? Just sit back, enjoy the ride and wait for the big boys to admit
who really runs the show. And they have made the pay much better now, of course. Not Seven-SeriesBMW-much better yet, but the day will come when they really need something. That will be the time to turn the screws and find out how much the market will stand. Then suddenly, one day, the past starts to catch up. Two pilots, terrified by the fact that their qualifications are based on a financial transaction, not on hard work and experience, are forced into a corner by commercial and peer pressure, a deep dark corner with no way out. They are tasked for a flight which can realistically only end one way and they are not given the option of declining.
It takes them five attempts to get their large aircraft into the short primitive airstrip at their destination, but they have to get in, because they have a very senior government minister on board and he needs to talk to the people on the ground and the chief pilot has flattered them by telling them that they are the right guys for the job. Forget the fact that they have never ever tried to land an aeroplane this size in 800 metres. Forget the fact that the book says it cannot be done. Forget the fact that these two pilots have never landed this aircraft on an unpaved surface before. Forget the fact that one of the aircraft’s engines did not belong to that particular type. In fact, just sit back and watch the Gravy Train, containing the ‘Financially Enhanced’ (we’re not allowed to say BRIBED nowadays) aviation authorities, thunder comfortably and unwittingly down the last bit of the hill and fall, together with the two frightened ‘pilots’ and everybody else in the plane, over the edge, into the gaping abyss. That actual accident happened in early 2003, on take-off. The laws of aerodynamics ruthlessly swept aside the laws of the graft system and declared the inevitable verdict imposed by the laws of physics. You won’t believe it, but quite a number of people
got out of the wreck, in spite of the fact that the plane cart wheeled obscenely, before ending, upside-down, on top of some unfortunate person’s house. The Minister and the two frightened pilots did not survive.
If you agree to my corrupt proposition, then I’ve got you on a string SOLUTIONS
The next problem is… how to get the survivors out of the abyss. And how do you stop the next gravy train of bribery and corruption tumbling into the chasm? Well, the first thing you have to do is to prevent other gravy trains getting started down the slope. As you know, stopping runaway trains normally involves quite a lot of wreckage. Wreckage very often comes blood-stained and the blood comes from wounds. Wounds have to be excised in order to expose clean flesh where the healing can take hold. The people who carry out the surgery must themselves be free of infection and in small close-knit communities, these people are sometimes almost impossible to lay hands on. If you can’t find the person locally, then the only option is to look elsewhere. The other very important thing to remember is that controlling runaway gravy trains is not a job for the fainthearted. Skill, determination, enormous strength and, above all, courage are prerequisites for the job. Gravy trains kill. Ask any anti-Mafia judge in Italy. Vast quantities of fortitude are necessary and endless patience. There is no other way Another thing to bear in mind. If you are looking for that hero and you walk into an office and find me sitting behind the desk, you’re in the wrong office!
AIRLINES MIKE GOUGH
LEGISLATING COMMON SENSE In certain situations that appear to be devoid of rationality, we may discover a chunk of rules and regulations that attempt to try do the thinking for us – or at least speak to the lowest common denominator among us.
intrinsically a regulation intensive industry, and some regulations must of necessity be complex. Its is then perhaps inevitable that the competence of the regulators may not quite be up to the task, with a resultant overflow of verbose and tedious rules. As I find myself spending most of my time back in the General Aviation environment, the ‘real’ environment of operations and regulations reminded me how cocooned we can sometimes 14
become in the airline world. Several of my ex-colleagues have spent a lot of time with me at Lanseria doing initial ratings or reviving long-expired instructor ratings, and the discussions we have had has highlighted the relationship between practicality, reality and the figments of some bureaucratic imaginations. While conducting an initial instructor rating, I do my best to test for understanding of the various concepts associated with aerodynamics and procedural aspects. I certainly do not claim to be any form of guru in either department, but I have been
around the patch a few times in this regard. Having said that, I have a confession to make, and I am going to open the Lift Theory can of worms yet again. We do teach the Equal Transit or Longer Flow theory, which is by far the easiest lie to perpetuate in this regard. This is the much-maligned explanation that the upper surface flow of an aerofoil has to travel faster so the air molecules, traumatised by being separated at the leading edge of the aerofoil into upper and lower surface flow, are hell-bent on getting to the trailing edge simultaneously, thus forcing the longer flow to accelerate, with the attendant pressure drop, a la Bernoulli. Anyone who has had to wash dishes in their lives has witnessed the turning or displacement force as a practical experiment when holding a serving spoon’s curved surface in a laminar water flow from the kitchen tap. In this case there is no lower surface flow at
Briefings are often reduced to a short chat while walking out to the aircraft.
all, and the resultant force as a result of the deflected flow is noticeably strong and visually revealing. This can be clearly broken up into the upwash at the leading edge of the spoon, and the marked downwash at the trailing edge. Thus, once the Bernouilli discussion is done, everyone goes off to the kitchen in our hangar. As this aspect is firmly in the CAA syllabus, we are stuck with it. I don’t, however, think anyone is a poorer pilot as a result, after decades of technically inaccurate information. Getting back to the instructor evaluation – a discussion on certification criteria is relevant. Why specifically? Well, there’s a definite method to the madness when an aircraft, large or small is designed, tested and certified. These sets of rules are referred to as Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 23 and FAR 25, for little ones and big ones respectively. FAR 23 pertains to light aircraft, up to 5,700kgs, or in the commuter category, up to 19 seats. Beyond
this is the transport category, and everyone needs to sit up and pay more attention as things get a little more stringent. A primary difference between the two categories
legislating a major safety hazard into the regulations is the G Load limit. Part 23 requires 3.8G positive limit, while Part 25 only requires 2.5G limit, as the rest of the package that goes with it is highly regulated and building in unnecessary structural strength adds weight.
AIRLINES MIKE GOUGH
Students need to understand why the static port is on the left side of the fuselage.
For those who may be familiar with Airbus and its various control laws, there is a very definite and nonnegotiable maximum bank angle of 67 degrees. Full and sustained side stick deflection while in Normal Law will not produce any bank angle greater than this. This brings us around to certification limits, as ‘n’ or G load, is calculated by 1 over Cosine of Bank angle and using 67 degrees in this formula results in a ‘n’ factor of 2.5G. My favourite Air Exercise briefing is the littlevisited exercise of Side Slipping. This is now incorporated into the Descending exercise. An Air Exercise briefing is meant to be completed after the talk-and-chalk part of the briefing and outlines what will be accomplished in the General Flying area to complete the exercise. These ‘little’ briefings are often reduced to a short chat while walking out to the aircraft prior to the flight, often animated by swooping hands, which is not the idea at all. How many of us remember, during our PPL 16
training, how one determines when the side slip limit of an aircraft has been reached? I thought so… your instructor did not consult the Instructor Training Procedures manual (formerly AIC 14.3), which has in depth air exercise material. This brings me around to another certification question for that nervous instructor candidate. Why is the static port on single-static source aircraft (such as the Cessna 172) on the left side of the fuselage? It didn’t end up there by accident. Slipping to the left results in an elevated static value for the same given pitot value. This results in an under read on Indicated Air Speed (IAS). The distracted pilot glances back inside and sees a speed lower than planned and the natural reaction is to push the nose down, which is a safe tendency – especially with crossed controls and reduced airspeed. Should the port be on the right, the opposite would occur, with the tendency to pull back on the control column. This could well result in a stall / spin scenario, which would end badly if close to the ground.
All of these certification rules come together to allow a Type Certificate to be issued, which indicates a particular design conforms to its Type Design. The regulating authority (for example the Federal Aviation Administration – FAA, or the European equivalent, EASA) issues this certificate. When each example of a particular type is rolled off the production line, it is issued with a Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A), which is valid for the entire life of the aircraft, provided it complies with its Type Certificate – in other words, no unapproved modifications or damage occurs. Unless of course you are in South Africa. Our Civil Aviation Authority feels that a fee to maintain the airworthiness certificate is required, and as a result has decided that an absolute mountain of paperwork is required to be submitted to them every year. Every single maintenance aspect must be re-submitted annually, even if it is a once-off item that is required by the manufacturer to be accomplished, to the extent that they require the actual Type Certificate number to be declared each time – in case we have wickedly re-designed the aircraft between submissions.
On top of a massively tedious process, there is also a highly likely possibility that more than sixty days will elapse after submission, with no sign of the new certificate, which grounds the aircraft. Thus, the addition of a date to the C of A renders the aircraft to
exclusive domain of the Director of Civil Aviation to decide if this person is allowed to continue flying. Without doubt, forty hours with no solo is a significant amount of flying without a ‘normal’ progression rate. What is completely lacking with this
a Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) is valid for the entire life of the aircraft be non-conforming to its original Type Design. Another uniquely local requirement, contained in our regulations, pertains to how quickly the all-knowing authority expects a candidate to be ready for his or her first solo flight. For some reason, there is a restriction that is in place which requires a solo recommendation in the training file prior to completing thirty hours. Passing this arbitrary total requires an entire intervention which involves the Chief Flight Instructor and then a Designated Flight Examiner. If forty hours total now elapse, it becomes the
regulation, is context. If one did twenty-five hours, ten years ago, and now want to re-start (probably from the beginning), one has to be kicked out of the nest within five hours. Talk about legislating a major safety hazard into the regulations. Similarly, many years ago in Nelspruit I had an elderly candidate, whose retirement mission was to attain his PPL. To say we spent quality time together would be an understatement. I finally sent him on his first solo with a total of 74 hours in his logbook. He was so delighted with his first landing as pilot-incommand that he stopped on the
AIRLINES MIKE GOUGH
runway, with the engine idling, and did not move. I eventually walked up the runway to see what was happening, and he was sitting there, with an ear-to-ear grin, while being a thousand miles away, utterly caught up in the moment. He went on to complete his PPL, and flew for many years, accident and incident free. I have subsequently learned that this piece of legislation will be reviewed or removed, but it should not have been there in the first place. It is impossible to regulate human performance and ability through the statutes – but that doesn’t prevent ‘authorities’ from trying. By the way – the side slip limit is reached when one has full rudder applied to the stop, and further application of aileron will cause the aircraft to turn into the direction of the side slip – also a certification requirement. But you knew that.
Airbus has an absolute bank limit of 67 degrees as that is the 2.5G maximum load.
BELOW; Once the Bernouilli discussion is done, everyone goes off to the kitchen to try the spoon trick.
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Defence - Des Barker The 'Crystal' F1 built for a French expo shows the layout well.
ENGINE UPGRADE Des Barker writes - It is now history (and thus no longer classified) that local aerospace company, Aerosud successfully managed to reengine the Mirage F1 with the MiG-29’s Klimov RD-33 engine (dubbed the SMR-95) – a feat originally thought impossible by Dassault. 20
modification was not only aimed at improving the aircraft’s thrust-toweight ratio and specific excess power, both parameters critical to the combat capabilities of a fighter, but also to provide the Mirage F1CZ with improved sustained turn performance and acceleration. With the engine package, a new all-aspect missile was also included in the deal, the combination of which would have produced a significant increase in fighting capability for the Mirage F1CZ. HIS
FLYING THE SMR-95 F1
The flight test programme for the engine integration programme was conducted on Mirage F1AZ No. 216. As a demonstration of increased performance with the SMR-95 fitted, a comparative demonstration was flown at TFDC, AFB Overberg. F1AZ No. 216 lined up on runway 35 next to No. 239, both aircraft spooled up to Mini PC (afterburner) against the brakes and on the countdown to zero, released the brakes simultaneously, selected maximum afterburner and the challenge was on. No. 216 (18,285 lbs static thrust) versus No. 239’s (15,888 lbs static thrust) pulled away from No. 239 and had lifted-off by the time 239’s nosewheel was rotating; 216 then pitched up to 25°, climbed away in a steep climb, with 239 trailing embarrassingly far behind. The formation was then set up for a comparative acceleration, both aircraft at 1,000 ft agl, approached the airfield from the south over runway 35 at 200 KIAS; both pilots selected maximum afterburner and once again, 216 just leaped ahead and left 239 ingesting 216’s exhaust.
It was an impressive comparative demonstration for the Air Force’s Command Council, leaving many former F1 pilots impressed and secretly wishing to have an opportunity to ‘have a go’. Further tests included climb performance, level accelerations to M1.8 at 25,000 ft pressure altitude and even shutting down the engine intentionally at 50,000 ft to verify the engine’s ability to relight
216 just leaped ahead and left 239 ingesting 216’s exhaust. automatically at heights up to 50,000 ft. An added bonus was the engine’s ability to be slammed open and accelerate in 3 seconds versus the 8 seconds of the F1s Atar 09K50; an important consideration in third generation air-combat tactics. Typically Russian, robust and effective, it would have significantly increased the combat performance of the Mirage F1.
BELOW: The F1's Atar 09k50 engine had 3000 lbs more thrust than the Mirage 111 and the Klimov SMR-95 further dramatically improved on the Atar 09k50.
FITTING THE ENGINE
Writing on Russian News site NARKIVE, David E. Powell, provided the following information: “[Installing the MiG-29’s Klimov RD-33 engine (the SMR-95)] wasn’t as simple as making a few changes to MiG engines. The project was started while South Africa still had an arms embargo against it, which
As I said, the mods were major and included “straightening” the engine, as there is a “kink” in the engine as installed in the MiG. The [Russian] RD-33 was specifically designed for installation in a twin-engined fighter, which meant it did not comply with the requirements for a single engined fighter. For this reason, a fairly extensive range of more subtle changes were needed, but the most major one was probably repositioning of the gearbox. There were also attempts to reduce the amount of smoke produced by the engine (not quite achieved on the SMR-95) and a substantial increase in time between overhaul (TBO). The installation in Mirage F1AZ #216
The [Russian] RD-33 did not comply with the requirements for a single engined fighter really limited the number of possible candidates. The main reason the upgrade program was initiated was to get some improvement in specific fuel consumption (SFC) by going to a turbofan instead of a pure turbojet (the ATAR-09K50 is a pure turbojet), and the RD-33 also offered additional thrust when in afterburner.
The Snecma Atar 09K50 engine was replaced by the lighter and more powerful Russian SMR-95. Image: Martin Pole
was very mature, and if it wasn’t for the end of the arms embargo allowing us to purchase new aircraft, the mod would probably have been done on the whole fleet. 216 Is still occasionally flown for demo purposes and there are still some hours left on the engine. The Cheetah installation, on the other hand, was far from mature and a lot of work was still needed at the time when the project was cancelled. It also seemed that the Cheetah installation was not going to be of as much benefit as it was for the Mirage F1.
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Can airlines navigate the legal minefield of Covid-19 risks to passengers?
Can Passengers SUE Airlines if they get Covid-19? A DEEP DIVE INTO INTERNATIONAL AVIATION LAW AND PRECEDENT SHOWS THAT AIRLINES MAY BE LIABLE IF A PASSENGER GETS INFECTED BY COVID-19 ON A FLIGHT. 24
his article explores the extent to which carriers may be considered guarantors of the safety of their passengers and how the law classifies contamination that is proven to have occurred on board an aircraft. The article will further delve into whether the law classifies COVID 19 as an “accident” in terms of Article 17 of the Warsaw Conventions and the Montreal Agreement and whether air carriers may be held liable for contamination associated with a flight. First, some background definitions:
ARTICLE 17 Article 17 of the Warsaw Conventions and the Montreal Agreement impose strict liability on carriers for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger that is caused by an accident and the injury so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking. ARTICLE 14 OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION The 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (the Chicago Convention), recognises plague and other communicable diseases such as cholera, typhus (epidemic), smallpox, yellow fever, and ratifying States must specifically take steps to prevent these diseases from spreading by means of air transportation. The Chicago Convention makes it mandatory for air carriers to comply with the pertinent provisions of the International Health Regulations (2005) of the WHO.
Under Article 14 of the Chicago Convention each contracting state is required to take effective measures to prevent the spread of communicable diseases and to keep in close consultation with those international agencies concerned with international regulations relating to sanitary measures applicable to aircrafts. ACCIDENT Both conventions require an “accident” to have caused the illness and to have taken place on board the aircraft or in the course of the operation of embarking and disembarking. An “accident” has been defined as an unusual or unexpected event that is external to the passenger, and which results in physical injury to the passenger. Bodily injury includes the “physical infliction of physical injury during the flight even though not already manifested at the time of the conclusion of the flight, for example a disease or illness contracted upon the aircraft (resulting from) food (contamination)” as defined in Air France v. Saks,
Is it an accident if a passenger gets infected with Covid-19 on a flight ?
470 U.S. 392 (1985). In In re Crash at Little Rock, Arkansas 231 E.D. Ark. (2002), the court broadened the scope of the interpretation of the Convention and confirmed that a party can claim for mental and psychological injuries to the extent that they are caused by and approximately flow from the physical injury caused by the accident. Thus a claimant must prove that an “accident”
A party can claim for mental and psychological injuries occurred within the meaning of Article 17 in order to succeed with a claim for liability against a carrier. DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS A form of injury that has been associated with air carriage is the deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which is a serious condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein located deep inside the body. The aviation industry has seen a number of claims associated with DVT. However, current medical studies have not proven that air transportation increases the risk of developing DVT and this is a topic currently being researched by the World Health Organisation. The point of contention facing air carries concerned with DVT litigation is whether the condition can be classified as an “accident” in terms of Article 17 of the Warsaw Convention. A claimant must provide any admissible evidence that he developed DVT as a result of an unexpected or 26
unusual event or happening external to the passenger. In Blanset v. Continental Airlines 204 S.D. Tex. (2002) a passenger developed DVT and instituted proceedings against Continental Airline for alleged injuries sustained while on board the carrier. The claimants alleged that the carrier failed to warn them of the risk of developing DVT during air transportation and failed to take adequate precaution to inform the claimants of the risk of developing DVT. The claimants alleged that the defendant violated a custom or procedure amongst international air carriers by failing to warn passengers of contracting DVT on board an aircraft and that this could lead to an “accident” within the meaning of Article 17 of the Warsaw Convention. Continental Airlines then moved to dismiss this claim on the basis that developing DVT was not an “accident” under Article 17. Continental was unsuccessful in its attempt. The court held that a failure to carry out established routine procedures can be an “accident”. However, the court left open the question of whether warning passengers about the risk of DVT specifically is an established custom or procedure within the aviation industry. In Air France v. Saks, 470 U.S. 392 (1985) the court held: “If… nothing happens during an ordinary or unremarkable flight that involves the actions of anyone except for the passenger himself or herself and his or her atypical reaction to a normal and unremarkable flight, there had been no unexpected or unusual event or happening. The only basis upon which liability could arise in such circumstances would be for a court to hold that a culpable act or omission is always an unusual or unexpected event or happening, so that wherever negligence is established, or known risks are ignored, an “accident” must have occurred. But that ignores the fact that the culpable
act or omission cannot necessarily be described as an unusual event or happening in itself.” The questions to ask are: • Is there an accident as required by the Conventions; • Is there admissible evidence of the occurrence of the accident; • Is there an awareness of a risk; and • Did the carrier warn passengers of established routine procedures or provide necessary information relating to the risk. Case law reveals that while not advising passengers of the risk associated with DVT a carrier may be held as negligent, this negligence is not in itself an accident within the meaning of Article 17 in that DVT sustained by a passenger is not linked to an unusual and unexpected event external to them as a passenger. SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a contagious and sometimes fatal respiratory illness that has been the subject of litigation for air carriers. In May 2003, the WHO issued an Emergency Travel Advisory to passengers and airlines advising that, while there was a low in-flight transmission rate of passengers, parties should be alert to the symptoms associated with SARS. Recommendations were set-out to restrict travel and minimise in-flight transmissions. A Scottish decision, King v Bristow Helicopters 2001 SLT 126, confirmed that the bodily injury induced by an accident in terms of the Convention does not have to manifest during or at the conclusion of the flight as it is sufficient for the injury, illness or disease to have been contracted upon the aircraft through the contamination of the aircraft’s air supply. Similar to DVT liability claims, the Conventions require an “accident” to have caused the damage to
take place on board the aircraft or in the course of operation of embarking or disembarking. The current litigation on DVT will further assist in determining whether an airline’s failure to warn passengers of SARS and/or to take steps to isolate a passenger with SARS symptoms or honour requests by other passengers for alternative seating might possibly amount to an accident as an unexpected or unusual event or happening. COVID-19 Locating or tracing of passengers after flights to enable airlines to ascertain those likely exposed to risk is complicated as passengers on disembarkation would have dispersed widely. In the projected two to fourteen days’ incubation period before the COVID-19 may fully manifest, the airline should ensure that they have sufficient and correct data of passengers to give to airline medical staff and health authorities. In the 21st century, however, technology has played a major role in enhancing contact tracing of
The Conventions require an “accident” to have caused the damage communicable virus such as COVID 19, presenting individualised tracking as a reliable way to trace the movement of individuals who are infected and to identify individuals with whom the former came into contact during the period in which they were contagious. Mobile location data has been proposed as a helpful method to identify potentially exposed individuals as some governments and the
private sector have heavily relied on data-driven technologies to help contain the novel COVID 19. Thus technological measures have become a critical solution for contact tracing, quarantine enforcement, tracking the spread of the virus, and allocating medical resources. However, these practices raise significant human rights concerns as measures taken that limit people’s rights and freedoms must be lawful, necessary, and proportionate. The airlines’ legal duty thus appears to be limited to collaborating with contracting states to determine whether any passenger’s condition poses a direct threat to public safety relying on directives issued by public health authorities. Carriers must comply with international health regulations and the laws of the countries to and from which they operate services. If they ignore passengers who look unwell or present symptoms, they may be exposed to penalties. In Dias v. Transbrasil Airlines, Inc., 26 Av. Cas. (CCH) 16,048 (S.D.N.Y. 1998). the court ruled that the poor cabin air quality due to the aircraft’s air filtration system not working properly which resulted in an injury to the passenger constituted an “accident”. Thus emphasising the strict obligation that air carries owe to passengers and their safety. When determining whether a carrier may be held liable for the possible transmission of COVID 19 onboard, WHO examines the following risk factors: Did the carrier deny a passenger check-in boarding who has COVID 19 symptoms or take any precautionary steps to check that the passenger is medically fit to fly? • Did the carrier isolate a passenger who exhibited COVID 19 symptoms during the flight or await on medical authorities at destination before disembarking passengers? • Did the carrier trace fellow passengers where it was notified that a passenger on one of its flights had COVID 19?
• Was there a failure in the cabin ventilation system? or • Was there a failure to follow prescribed regulatory protocols to screen passengers when boarding or other precautions required?
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) works closely with WHO and other international health and aviation bodies to assist in containing the spread of communicable disease in aviation. The ICAO has developed Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) to ensure a coordinated response. The aviation sector’s primary role is to minimise travel of individuals who have contracted a communicable disease to other jurisdictions through passenger screening procedures. These procedures are performed at airports and through the presentation of health certificates or the famous ‘yellow card’ indicating vaccinations against certain communicable diseases where mandated. BURDEN OF PROOF The burden of proof rests with the claimant to prove that they suffered an illness as a result of contamination on the carrier. Since the source of contamination of COVID 19 has been proven to be nearly impossible to trace, more so that such manifestation of the contamination occurred during a flight, it will be difficult for a claimant to prove that the occurrence of an accident within the definition of Article 17. It is both a legal and factual question whether passengers will be successful in claims for the contamination of COVID-19 aboard a flight and whether, as with DVT, issues will arise as to what is an accident – as the event itself must be the cause of the accident rather than the illness. Article 20(1) of the Warsaw Convention states
that the carrier is not liable if they can prove that they and their agents have taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for either party to take such measures. The Montreal Convention adopted this defence but changed the wording. Article 21(2) of the Montreal Convention states that the carrier is not liable for damages arising under Article 17 to the extent that: • such damage was not due to the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of the carrier or its servants or agents; or • such damage was solely due to the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of a third party. Notably, even in circumstances where a passenger is able to prove that they contracted COVID-19 on board an aircraft or while embarking or disembarking, the passenger’s claim may be limited by the limits often highlighted in the contract of carriage, and terms contained on the air ticket. Is it up to passengers to clean their own area?
VOLUNTARY ASSUMPTION OF RISK Where an air carrier has taken all necessary precautionary measure to mitigate infections, Article 20 of the Montreal Convention provides a defence, where the Air Carrier proves that the damage was caused or contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful act or omission of the person claiming compensation. The defence of voluntary assumption of risk is based on the concept that no wrong can be done to
one who consents. Consequently, where a passenger is deemed to have agreed to assume all the inherent risks involved with flying aboard an aircraft during a pandemic, the air carrier may be absolved of the responsibility for injuries arising from flying in an aircraft that did not result in an accident from the act or omission of the carrier. Where a passenger decides not to heed the advice against traveling and by so doing, contracts the COVID-19 on board an aircraft, either before or during embarking or disembarking the aircraft, the express or implied agreement by the passenger to assume both the physical and legal risk may absolve the airline from all future liability claims that may be made by the passenger provided the carrier is not
negligent. It must be noted that the principle of “voluntary assumption of risk” falls solely under the Montreal Convention and not the Warsaw Convention. The Warsaw Convention does not limit liability for passengers against air carriers. CONCLUSION In conclusion, a passenger may be successful in pursuing a claim for liability against an air carrier for contracting Covid-19 on board the aircraft if they can prove negligence (“accident”) on the part of the carrier or their agents or sub-contractors. However, where the air carriers have taken all reasonable measures by complying with all the prescribed health procedures and where a passenger is infected by a fellow passenger who has Covid-19 but is asymptomatic, the passenger would not be able to sustain a claim that the air carrier is liable for the transmission of Covid-19 to the claimant. The air carrier may also be absolved from all liability on the basis that passengers, who contracted Covid-19 on board an aircraft, voluntarily assumed the physical and legal risks, whether expressly or impliedly, in boarding a flight during the wellpublicised risks of the pandemic.
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SA Flyer 2020|12
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Rodger Foster FACE TO FACE WITH
AIRLINK THE WAY AHEAD
It is said that in times of crisis, only the fittest survive. Airlink has demonstrated that it is indeed one of the fittest by emerging from the Covid-19 pandemic in a better position than it was before the crisis began. Guy Leitch asks Rodger Foster how Airlink did it and what its future plans are. 32
GL: IN THE PAST YOU SPECIALISED IN FEEDER ROUTES. BUT NOW YOU HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFULLY OPERATING THE HIGH DENSITY AND FREQUENCY JOBURG - CAPE TOWN ROUTE SINCE THE DOMESTIC LOCKDOWN ENDED. YET YOU USE SMALL GAUGE 98 SEAT EMBRAERS WHILE YOUR COMPETITORS OPERATE MORE ECONOMICAL 185 SEAT BOEING 737800S?
While loads are recovering the smaller gauge aircraft present lower economic risk as their trip cost is significantly lower than the Boeing or Airbus trip cost. And it doesnâ€™t matter much if our seat cost is slightly higher as we are not trying to compete in the low-cost carrier market. Airlink has a competitive advantage in that it has a comprehensive airline network system where our customers can connect to myriad destinations within our network and they have access to the global networks of our commercial partner airlines. Our Economy Class fares include a 20kg free checked-in luggage allowance RF:
Airlink CEO Rodger Foster - now decoupled from the SAA franchise and pushing upwards strongly.
plus a 15kg sporting equipment allowance. Onboard, we provide a light meal, refreshments, generous leg room and a choice of aisle or window seat, as our flights do not have middle seats. Our “Intracontinental Business Class” service is available on selected flights operated by our Embraer E-jets, and includes complimentary meals and beverages, a 30kg check-in luggage allowance and priority boarding, as well as access to business class lounges at select airports.
NONETHELESS, THERE IS TALK THAT YOU ARE TRYING TO OPPOSE THE EMERGENCE OF GIDON NOVICK’S
APPLICATION TO THE AIR SERVICES LICENSING COUNCIL?
No, that is not the case. I understand that Lift is essentially a marketing operation on the back of the Global Airways AOC and Air Services licenses. I have every confidence that Global has their house in order and that the arrangement with Lift is above board. So we have no objection.
WITH THE RETURN TO FLYING OF KULULA.COM AND
to get from an International destination to one of the many regional destinations we serve.
THE SO-CALLED GOLDEN TRIANGLE OF JOBURG -
HOW SIGNIFICANT IS THE LOSS OF THE SAA
BECOMES EVEN MORE HEAVILY TRADED AND
FRANCHISE TO YOUR BUSINESS?
THUS COMPETITIVE. DO YOU IMAGINE THAT
SAA only carried about 15% of the international market to SA before going into business rescue, so it is not critical. But replacing the SAA franchise agreements is just a first step and we will continue to expand our interlining agreements with many other airlines. We are especially looking forward to the increase in long haul connectivity being provided by other players. For instance, United has already announced that it will be providing flights from New York’s Newark to Johannesburg from March
YOU WILL CONTINUE TO BE ABLE TO COMPETE AGAINST THE LOW COST CARRIERS? OR WILL YOU WITHDRAW FROM THIS ROUTE?
Not at all. We have every intention of continuing with the trunk routes as they are very much part of our broader network strategy. Since we no longer have our franchise agreement with SAA we have to build our own wide connectivity network, and that includes Cape Town. HAS
and we have heard of a number of other airlines also planning new direct flights into South Africa.
THEREFORE CHANGED SINCE YOU UNCOUPLED FROM SAA?
Yes, to some extent in that we now need to have our own wide network. We have already expanded to over 60 routes across the sub-region and we are adding destinations such as Lubumbashi in the DRC and Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania. However, our core values are unchanged, and that is to be the best that we can in terms of our own network system. WITH
AGREEMENTS HAVE YOU HAD TO GO OUT AND AGGRESSIVELY
AND CODESHARE AGREEMENTS?
Our commercial partners have recognised the allure of Airlink’s expansive network of destinations and have worked closely with us to speedily emplace these new relationships, because they’re the ones who most benefit from our ability to feed our network into their long haul routes. We are also expecting that our current interlining contracts will gradually be upgraded to codesharing, which will provide a completely seamless interface for travellers wanting
DECOUPLING FROM SAA HAS BEEN THE NEED TO REBRAND YOUR BUSINESS AND YOUR FLEET. I SEE THAT THE FIRST AIRCRAFT HAS NOW BEEN REBRANDED.
Yes, we are doing the repainting as the aircraft come in for major maintenance, so it will be a protracted process. We have made the new brand distinctive and yet we have kept our key emblem; the sunbird, which we like because it is both endemic to our region and fulfils many of our own ideals in being nimble, agile and small. We have also changed our corporate name to Airlink (Pty) Ltd. ARE YOU PLANNING TO FURTHER EXPAND YOUR ROUTE NETWORK, ESPECIALLY WITH THE SPACE CREATED BY THE DEMISE OF SA EXPRESS?
Yes. We have however had to battle for designation or traffic rights on some routes such as for instance Windhoek. However, we have resolved the legacy issues and are making steady progress as regards procurement of foreign operator’s permits.
ACCOMMODATE THE ROUTE GROWTH?
Not at the moment as the lack of international travellers means that we are still not operating at a 100% of capacity. But yes, once international travellers start returning then we will have to look at expanding our fleet.
IF YOU EVER DID DECIDE TO SWITCH TO BOEING OR
MAINTENANCE ON THOSE?
No. We believe that it is absolutely vital to our success that we manage our own maintenance, that we have it under our control if our standards are to be maintained.
IF YOU CONTINUE TO OPERATE ON THE LOW
AND THESE STANDARDS PRESUMABLY INCLUDE
COST CARRIERS’ ROUTES WOULD YOU CONSIDER
ON TIME PERFORMANCE (OTP) – A CRITICAL
MOVING TO AIRBUS OR BOEING PRODUCTS WITH
PERFORMANCE AREA FOR A FEEDER AIRLINE.
HIGH DENSITY SEATING?
Probably not. We find our Embraer relationship extremely good and it is difficult and quite costly to change to another fleet or type, as we discovered with the change from the RJ-85 to the Embraer EJet fleet a few years ago.
Yes, I am, very proud that our On Time Performance is still the best with year to date at 96.06%. In October it improved to a fantastic 97% which is significantly better than FlySafair’s still very creditable 95.25% for the year to date and 96.48% for October. So I am comfortable that we will soon be growing again, and that we are still doing the key things best.
Airlink is steadily expanding its route network - and moving into space left by the demise of SA Express.
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SERIES: Views on: THE STATE OF AFRICAN AVIATION
IATA: Alexandre de Juniac on Africa's Aviation Crisis IATAâ€™s Director general Alexandre de Juniac provided an online address to the AFRAA 52 annual assembly. His address provides a concise assessment of the challenges facing the African air transport industry â€“ and the way forward. This summary of the key points of his presentation provides a useful marker for the future as to where the industry found itself at the end of 2020.
IATA's Alexandre de Juniac says that the airline industry will take years to recover from the Covid-19 pandemic. 40 FlightCom Magazine
E are in the middle of the
biggest crisis our industry has ever faced. Airline revenues have collapsed. Fleets are grounded. And you are taking extreme actions just to survive. We all support efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. It is our duty and we will prevail. But policymakers must know that this has come at a great cost to jobs, individual freedoms and entire economies. ECONOMIC OUTLOOK FOR AFRICA
For aviation in Africa the numbers are staggering: • Traffic is down 89% • Revenue loses are expected to reach $8 billion. But the impact is much broader. The consequences of the breakdown in connectivity are severe: • Five million African livelihoods are at risk • And aviation-supported GDP could fall by as much as $37 billion. That’s a 58% fall. We have a health crisis and it is evolving into a jobs and economic disaster. Fixing it is beyond the scope of what the industry can do by itself. We need governments to act. And act fast to prevent a calamity. IATA calls on governments to address two top priorities: 1. The first is unblocking committed financial relief. Airlines will go bust without it. Already four African carriers have ceased operations and two are in administration. Without financial relief, many others will follow. Over US$31 billion in financial support has been pledged by African governments, international finance bodies
and other institutions, including the African Development Bank, the African Union and the International Monetary Fund. Unfortunately, pledges do not pay the bills. And little of this funding has materialised. And let me emphasize that, while we are calling for relief for aviation, this is an investment in the future of the continent. It will need financially viable airlines to support the economic recovery from COVID-19. 2. The second priority is to safely reopen borders using testing and without quarantines. People have not lost their
desire to travel. Border closures and travel restrictions make it effectively impossible. Forty-four countries in Africa have opened their borders to regional and international air travel. In 20 of these countries, passengers are still subject to a mandatory 14-day quarantine. Who would travel under such conditions? Systematic testing before departure provides a safe alternative to quarantine and a solution to stop the economic and social devastation being caused by COVID-19.
Our customers need to do international business that aviation facilitates. And they long to reunite with family and loved ones. Our industry will, no doubt, be changed by this crisis. But flying will return. Airlines will be back in the skies. The resilience of our industry has been proven many times. We will rise again. We are the business of freedom. For Africa that is the freedom to develop and thrive. And that is not something people on this continent will forget or lose their desire for.
SERIES: Views on: THE STATE OF AFRICAN AVIATION
AASA: Chris Zweigenthal Addressing the AfRAA AGM and in an interview with African Aerospace, Chris Zweigenthal â€“ the CEO of the Airlines Association of Southern Africa discusses what airlines need to do to return to their previous growth trajectory.
Chris Zweigenthal of AASA says African states have propped up their own airlines - but not the private ones.
OUTH Africa’s state president Cyril
Ramaphosa opened South Africa to all international tourists in October. Zweigenthal notes that “The decision marks the culmination of an intensive effort by industry, led by the Tourism Business Council of South Africa, AASA and partner bodies, to persuade the South African government it could safely resume international air travel without compromising its efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic in the country. Under the relaxed restrictions, tourists from all nations may visit South Africa as long as they present valid COVID-19 test certificates. AASA welcomes this positive step forward and urges all other SADC countries that have also reopened their borders to harmonise the implementation of the ICAO Council’s Aviation Recovery Task Force’s (CART) guidance for the safe resumption of air travel and tourism. These measures and standards were prepared in conjunction with the World Health Organisation. They are designed to be adopted systematically worldwide in order to eliminate inconsistencies and the need for arbitrary measures such as quarantines and the discrimination of travellers according to meaningless lists of countries classified by risk. States that still classify countries into risk profiled lists should scrap them. Tourists will be reluctant to travel with the risk that their country of origin may suddenly be placed on a restrictive or banning list. All that is required is for testing and screening prior to departure and the diligent application of layered biosecurity and basic hygiene measures including wearing masks, sanitising and social distancing. Crucially, their harmonised implementation will also avert confusion which deter travel and will hamper economic recovery.
THE CRISIS OF CONFIDENCE
More than ever, consistency and certainty are needed to restore confidence in air transport. This crisis of confidence is the biggest challenge facing our industry’s survival and the region’s entire air transport and tourism eco-system, including public and private airlines, airports, air navigation services, ground handlers, safety regulators and allied businesses. Not a single aviation industry stakeholder has been spared. Every organisation relying on revenue for airline operations and passengers is affected, with traumatic social and financial consequences. Saving the industry – and securing its vital socio-economic contribution - requires close cooperation and ongoing short-term emergency relief by governments. Emergency relief could be provided to both public and private organizations through cash infusions, government-backed loans and through relief mechanisms such as waivers and reductions on taxes and charges. If State owned enterprises are provided support, some of this should be filtered through into relief on taxes and charges which airlines and passengers have to pay. Governments could also safely prevent prolonging the economic harm and distress by adopting clear and consistent measures for the safe resumption of regional and international travel in all categories. The crisis calls for direct engagement between industry and government Directors-Generals and Ministers, on an open door and open mind basis. We are pleased that such engagements are now taking place in South Africa. This is essential if we are to address strategic, policy and practical issues that will ensure the ongoing safe restart of airline operations and the region’s economic recovery, without compromising public health and safety. While governments must assist communities
and other enterprises that are also desperate for financial relief, they should not ignore the vital role that aviation, travel and tourism will play in driving Southern Africa’s economic recovery through the jobs they create - directly and indirectly - and the millions of people whose livelihoods are dependent upon it. AIRLINES IN CRISIS
I don’t expect there will be any profitable airlines this financial year in Southern Africa. The lockdown on domestic and
The CART guidelines advocate harmonised regulations between states. The problem is that many states are not using CART but are introducing their own individual restrictions and that is making passengers think twice before they decide to travel. from an economic perspective, it’s absolutely essential that we get aviation travel and tourism going to the fullest extent, so that we can help the economic recovery. Around the world, 50% of the economic contribution of aviation to the economy is at risk. In Africa
Quarantine is however not the way to go
international travel has created a liquidity crisis because revenue stopped almost entirely. In the region, we’re going to have a loss of around about a billion US dollars for this year compared to about a 200 million US dollar loss last year. However positive moves that are starting to happen, for example, they’re looking at introducing antigen tests, which are tests requiring about 15 minutes before you will know the result, whether it’s positive or negative. Quarantine is however not the way to go because it is absolute a 100% deterrent on travel. For global tourists the average stay is around about 10 to 12 days. So if you’re required to do a 14-day quarantine on arrival in a country, then there’s absolutely no incentive for you to travel to that particular country and wait for the quarantine to end. 44
the state is the predominant airline owner. The state, has been able to prop up their own airlines but privately owned airlines have been disadvantaged. AASA made requests to government for financial relief for all airlines in South Africa, both public and private. However we haven’t had their responses yet. For the immediate future, I think the recovery has been remarkably good which is why South Africa has, for example, said all African States can fly to South Africa. Intra-African travel has started, and we need to find ways to actually ramp up that travel.
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SERIES: Views on: THE STATE OF AFRICAN AVIATION
AFRAA: Abdrahmane Berthe Speaking on the side-lines to African Aerospace at the African Airlines Association (AFRAA) Annual General Meeting, the Secretary General, Abdrahmane Berthe, shares his thoughts on the recovery of the African air transport industry.
OVID-19 was declared a pandemic
on 11 March 2020. This brought the African airline industry to a halt. Since July, the lockdown has been gradually lifted but the level of activity is still very low. African airlines have not yet attained 50% of traffic compared to 2019. The airlines have been without any revenues for many months so now the real challenge is a liquidity crisis. The scale of the losses suffered by the African airline industry is huge. AFRAA calculates that airlines may lose $9 billion dollars of revenues in 2020, compared to 2019. African airlines are restarting flying, but they are making losses on the routes they are operating. Only 73 routes have been reopened since September, which further limits air connectivity. Hubs are not being fully used, so AFRAA has set
up a route network coordination meeting to address intra African connectivity gaps. This impact on connectivity has also set back the progress being made to implement the Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM). Although 34 countries committed to SAATM, only 18 countries have actually modified their bilateral air service agreements to implement the SAATM. The COVID-19 pandemic is an opportunity for all states to better implement SAATM. It is a huge opportunity for a network reset. The immediate future will be very tough for African airlines. The restart of flying is still very slow. Load factors are very low, revenues per passenger are low too, and the cost of operations remains high, so the airlines will lose more money. For that reason, the states and shareholders need to support their airlines.
We know that some states have put in place financial support to their airlines, but we are asking them to go further. In April, AFRAA made an assessment of indebtedness of our airlines for 2020, 2021, for the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. We found that for the 16 members who responded, the indebtedness level was $3.2 billion. So we are working with African Union and the financial institutions to put in place a fund of $25 billion to support the industry, not only airlines, but also airports, air navigation service providers. We think that by January 2021 we will have this fund in place and it will help restart the business. We also need to bring back confidence of passengers to travel, because the current situation is very difficult in Africa. We need the harmonisation
of health screening protocols across the continent. We still have some very high health testing costs, so AFRAA is advocating to reduce the PCR test cost
The COVID-19 pandemic is a huge opportunity for a network reset. within Africa, and also to harmonize the protocols and to have mutual recognitions of protocols across the continent. ďƒź
AFRAA's Abdrahmane Berthe says Covid-19 has set back SAATM.
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BOEING 737 MAX RETURNS There is still uncertainty as to the fate of the 8 Comair Boeing 737 Maxes.
After having been grounded for 21 months the Boeing 737 Max has finally been approved for a return to service by the FAA.
HE FAA has now approved the comprehensive changes and testing of the now infamous MCAS system. American Airlines as said the date for the return to service of the Max has been set at 29 December, 21 months after the plane was grounded worldwide in the aftermath of a pair of accidents that killed 346 people. The 737 Max with its CFM Leap 1-B engines was introduced into service in May 2017, but until the two crashes, there hadn’t been any widespread understanding of the issues surrounding a new system, MCAS, which automatically enhances the stability of the plane to compensate for the changes the new, larger engines made to its flight envelope. Boeing developed the new model in record time in order to give it a plane to compete with Airbus’ improved single-aisle A320neo, which boasted best-in-class fuel efficiency, and was gaining orders fast. As a result of the two crashes, questionable practices by Boeing and the FAA were brought to light, with Boeing allegedly doing a poor job of 50
communicating its changes internally and with the FAA failing to properly oversee the certification of the Max. In late November the US House of Representatives unanimously approved legislation that will reform the FAA aircraft certification process. The House committee responsible for investigating the airplanes issued a preliminary report in March that identified errors and failures in multiple areas on the part of Boeing and the FAA. In June senators introduced the Aircraft Safety and Reform Act of 2020 to reform the FAA’s aircraft certification process and give the FAA more authority over the process. In September the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee issued a report determining that both Boeing and the FAA were at fault in certifying and developing the 737 MAX. After the Ethiopian crash in 2019, the Max was grounded worldwide, resulting in hundreds of jets being parked around the world. Before an airline can start operating the 737 Max again, it needs to get their new training programs approved and implemented. The only South African operator for the Max was Comair and it is still in negotiation with the lessors about the fate of the 8 Maxes on order and the one which has been delivered.
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• Adventure Air - Interior & Exterior refurbishment
CW Price & Co - Airport Support Equipment
• Aero Engineering & Powerplant - Engine
Dennis Jankelow & Associates - Aviation
• Aerospace Electroplating
Diepkloof AMO - AMO, aircraft maintenance
• Aeronautical Aviation - Avionics / Electrical /
DM Aviation Spares - Aircraft parts and
Instrumentation / Autopilots
• Aerocolour - Aircraft Refurbishment
Dynamic Propellers - Propeller Specialists
• Aeronav Academy - Pilot Training
Emperor Aviation - AMO, refurbishments, rebuilds
• Aerotric P/L - Electrical, Ignition, Instruments
Executive Aircraft Refurbishment - Aircraft
• AES - Electrical and avionics workshop
• AIFA - Flight Training
F Gomes - Aircraft Upholstery
• Airbus Helicopters - Aircraft Sales, Maintenance,
GIB Aviation Insurance Brokers P/L
International Flight Clearances - Aircraft Handling
Training • Aircraft Assessing
& Clearance/Permit Specialists
• Aircraft General Spares
Jemax Aviation (Pambele) - Air Charter
• Algoa Flight Club - Flight Training / Hire and Fly
JHB Flying Academy - Flight Training
• Alpi Aviation - Pilot Training
KZN Aviation - executive charters
Leading Edge Aviation - Helicopter Firefighting
• Armscor - gateway to defence solutions
and Heavy Lift Operations
• Ascend Aviation - aircraft sales
Merchant West - Aircraft Finance
• Astwood Aircraft - electrical spares and Repairs
• Avdex - Software Maintenance Tracking
Namagri - Robinson Dealer
• Aviation Rebuilders
Pilot Flight Training - Flight Training
• Aviation Direct - Airfield Information,
Skyhawk Aviation - Flight Training
Starlite Aviation Aerosales - Operations -
Flight Planning & Navigation • Avisys • Avtech
Contract Work and Emergency Services/
• Beegle Tracker - Tracking, flight following
Helicopter, Aeroplane and Drone Pilot Training/
• Benveroy - Fuel Protection and Enhancement
Aircraft Sales/Local and International Charters/
• Blue Chip Flight School -
Our Pilots become Captains!
• Border Aviaiton - Flight Training and Hire & Fly
Wings 'n Things - Pilot Supplies
TAKE TO THE SKIES
2 0 8 A VIA TION AERO ENGINEERING AND
tion specialises in Blackhawk engine es for Beechcraft King Air Series and Cessna Caravan.
208 AVIATION Aircraft Maintenance
an approved Blackhawk Dealer and Installation Facility,
C) PROPELLER DIVISION:
The supply of new & second
Based at hangar number four,
hand Hartzell and McCauley
at Wonderboom Airport, Aero
variable pitch propellers, as
Engineeringâ€™s services include
fitted to piston & turbine engine
Aviation cc is a South African
the overhaul, maintenance,
privately-owned company that
service, and repair of Lycoming
strives to provide a broad range
and Continental aircraft piston
& Sensenich fixed pitch
of maintenance and inspection
engines and associated
HANGAR 59, WONDERBOOM AIRPORT PRETORIA. SOUTH AFRICA www.208aviation.co.za +27 83 744 3412
Established in 2007, 208
The supply of new McCauley
Propeller dynamic Balancing.
Now in our twelth year of
Aero Engineering and
operation, we have become a
Powerplant comprises of the
D) PARTS DIVISION:
key player in aviation operations
The parts division specialises
on the African continent. Our
in the sourcing of all piston
speciality is the Cessna 208
A) ENGINE DIVISION:
engine, component, & propeller
Caravan, Beechcraft King Air
Overhaul of Lycoming &
parts, either from local
series, Quest Kodiak, Daher
distributors or from overseas
TBM and Eclipse 500 aircraft
Carrying out shock-load
distributors & OEM.
maintenance and technical
Bench-testing of engines,
local & over-border operators,
Re-boring and honing of
and owners, of piston & turbine
earned a reputation for
engined aircraft, as well as local
providing superior quality and
Repair on starter clutch gears.
& over-border maintenance
Over the years, we have
workmanship. Doing things right
Their client base includes
is how we do business. We
B) COMPONENT DIVISION:
consider it our responsibility to
The overhaul of all engine
1996 and was taken over in 2006
go above and beyond when it
by partners Andre Labuschagne
comes to aviation safety and
McCauley, Hartzell, PCU
and Derek van der Westhuizen.
5000 and Woodward Constant
They have seven qualified
engineers and a loyal clientele.
208 Aviation is also an
The business was founded in
authorised Quest Kodiak and
TCM & Bendix Fuel systems,
Daher TBM Service Center
TCM, Romec, Fuel pumps,
as well as a very proud
Marvel Schebler carburettors,
BlackhawkÂŽ installation facility.
Garrett & HET turbo-
+27 83 744 3412 Email:
Overhaul & servicing of
Contact Ben Esterhuizen
Contact Andre Labuschagne on:
AERIOS GLOBAL AVIATION – AGA HELICOPTERS ADVENTURE AIR
Helicopter operations, maintenance,
Interior and Exterior refurbishment
cargo and medical evacuations.
Adventure Air was established in November
AGA specialises in offshore and land based
2010 and operates from the purpose built; positive
helicopter operations, providing full flight
pressure aircraft painting facility fully refurbished
operations and maintenance support, carrying
to our exacting standards. Using our own process,
both passengers and cargo and medical
paint and quality experts together with state-of-
the-art electro-static equipment, Adventure Air
AGA operates from its facility at Cape Town
offers our customers a reliable and high-quality
Airport and has operated for UN WFP and is OGP
(Oil, Gas and Petroleum) Industry APPROVED,
Adventure Air offers the following services:
with its EC145 twin engined 2x pilot operations, as
Aircraft interior and exterior paint repair, Aircraft
well as being a member of SAOGA (South African
exterior complete strip and repaint, Aircraft exterior
Oil and Gas Alliance).
wash, Aircraft Valet and polish We also specialize in 49% building assistance on the VANS’RV range and MPI’s Adventure Air is now able to offer the aircraft industry a complete high-quality, top-class aircraft refurbishment and assembly service for small to medium-sized aircraft. In October 2019 Adventure Air and Zenair
AGA has over the years serviced a number of contracts in a number of African countries, (Uganda, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, South Sudan, Swaziland, Madagascar, DRC, Liberia), as well as in the Middle East and Afghanistan. AGA operates its own Helistop, in the Port of Cape Town, Customs and Immigration area, which is SACAA Approved for Day and Night VFR
signed an agreement to grant Adventure Air the
operations. This enables them to offer a full OPL
rights to have the only professional-build facility In
(Off Port Limits) service to the Shipping Industry
and Emergency Maritime Services (Search
In July 2020, Adventure Air was approved and
and Rescue and Medevac), with our industry
granted the Part 24 Type Approval in terms of the
partnerships in Cape Town and internationally.
South African Civil Aviation Regulations under
AGA’s experienced crews and personnel, supply
Category, Production Build (LSA) Under type, and
on deck landing, hoist and cargo slinging services,
model designation: Zenair CH STOL 750 / CH
including Ship Pilot Services, landing on oil rigs, oil
STOL 750 Cruzer and CH STOL 750 Super Duty.
and gas tankers, FPSO’s and bulk cargo carriers,
This Aircrafts type was developed and approved
while they are still sailing.
under the guidelines and requirements of SACAA
AGA provides Flight Operations through our
Regulation 24.02.10. We are also a Manufacturing
Aerios Global Aviation Part 127 and Part 138 AOC,
Organisation under part 148.
as well as Maintenance through our FliteTech AMO
Contact Lande Milne +27 012 543-3196 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
at our Cape Town International Airport facility, in support of our AIRBUS type helicopters. Contact: e-mail: opsmanager@aeriosglobal.
co.za Cell: +27 76 420 9100 t : +27 21 934 9127
AEROCOLOUR Aerocolour cc. was founded in 2005 and has been based at Lanseria Airport, Hangar M5, South Africa ever since. We are a privately owned Aircraft Refurbishment facility in Southern Africa and have the confidence of a wide variety of Aviation Customers. Our hard-won reputation is built on excellent workmanship, after sales service and product support as well as personal customer relations, which have earned the confidence of manufacturers and customers alike. Our core business is made up of private and corporate general aviation aircraft owners as well as aviation service providers and sales companies to whom we provide aircraft refurbishment. We proudly provide the service that our clients have come to expect from Aerocolour cc. Aerocolour cc’s broad base of customers stretches throughout South Africa and Southern Africa, as well as UAE and certain Northern African countries. Aerocolour is a trusted service provider throughout the aviation industry for Respray of Complete Aircraft Exterior as well as panels / parts, touch up and repair of parts or specific areas on aircraft and various other refurbishment requirements. Please contact Alfred Maraun on 082 775 9720 for any queries and quotes.
to consider cockpit workload,
Avionics / Electrical /
client requirements, legislative
Instrumentation / Autopilots
requirements, over capitalisation
Aeronautical Aviation, based
and down time. We truly believe a
at Lanseria International Airport,
client must walk away after using
is an African leader in the
our services and feel he was sold
repair, installation and overhaul
the right goods, at the right price
of aircraft Instrumentation,
with high quality, good turn around
Avionics, Electrical, Autopilots
and exceptional service.
and accessories since 2005. We
Over and above this, who
provide superior, reliable, and
better for an aircraft owner to
cost effective services for a broad
deal with than a Pilot and Aircraft
spectrum of the aviation industry,
Owner. Clinton understands
the challenges in the cockpit,
corporate aviation, helicopter
regulatory requirements and
operations, and government and
certification issues so he can give
informed advise accordingly. An
We are committed to providing our customers with outstanding quality and service. Our company
upgrade is not something to take lightly. At Aeronautical Aviation, your
was built on integrity, honesty,
success and safety is our number
and excellence in every aspect of
the services we have to offer. We
Company Contact details:
also believe in keeping the cost
Tel: 011 659 – 1033 / 083 459
reasonable, while maintaining
6279 Fax: 011 659 – 1035
exceptional quality that either
Physical Address: Hangar 202,
meets or exceeds Original
Gate 7, Lanseria International
Aircraft Manufacturer (OEM)
Airport. Email: Sales@
When Clinton Carroll started the company in 2005, he noticed
a huge gap in the market when it came to the understanding of
Social Media: Twitter:
what a Pilot needs versus what is
economically viable. Most Avionics
shops try and sell high, where
as we at Aeronautical Aviation
take a different look, before the
client spends money. We need
AERONAV ACADEMY Pilot Training Aeronav Academy is committed to providing top-level flight training utilising the most modern equipment available. This not only gives our clients an enjoyable training experience but also provides Aeronav the ability to conduct flight training in a manner that ensures that student pilots will be ready and well equipped to enter the aviation industry of the future. Aeronav Academy is proud to offer a dynamic
We are situated at 30B, Build Aircraft Refurbishment, Aircraft Call Des on 011 827 7535 or Maintenance or Peter on 081 775 2434 or Aerospace Electroplating, SACAA AMO 506, For all your ircraft and Allie has been operating at RandAAirport, Germiston since 1965 and has served the aircraft industry AEROSPACE ELECTROPLATING
with distinction and produce high quality surface finished products. The company is owned by Mistral Aviation Services and run by Oliver Trollope and a highly
professional and qualified team of electroplaters.
fleet of aircraft, including Diamond DA20s, Cessna
Our highly qualified team are available to
182s and the Diamond DA42 Twinstar Multi-engine
advise you on the perfect solution to all your
trainer. The Academy’s latest acquisition is the
electroplating plating needs and solutions to
impressive Alsim ALX-65 flight simulator. The
perfectly re-finish your aircraft components to the
amazingly realistic graphics feel of the controls
and response make training in this flight simulator a truly first class experience. The school is based at Lanseria Airport. A controlled airspace provides students with an
Our processes are approved by SACAA, Denel, Airbus Europe, Rolls Royce, Pratt & Whitney and Allison Doil. We offer a wide range of services for aircraft
excellent grounding in procedures and gives them
owners and general industry, and through our
the experience needed to cope with operating in a
partnership with Mistral Aviation Services, we can
busy airline orientated environment. Whether you
offer engineering and NDT services.
choose to fly for pleasure or wish to make aviation your career, Aeronav can provide you with an approved course tailored to your needs. Tel No: + 27 11 701 3862
We look forward to the future with a range of innovative services to continue servicing the aircraft industry.
Tel: 011 827 7535
AERO ELECTRICAL SOLUTIONS (AES) AES is an Aircraft Maintenance Organisation, AMO1011, established in October 2004 and AEROTRIC Electrical, Ignition, Instruments Aerotric (Pty) Ltd is based at Wonderboom Airport and has grown from strength to strength since opening their doors in May 2012. The Company prides itself on providing quality and reliable services such as overhauling, installing and repairing all electrical, ignition, instruments and avionics that is efficient and at an affordable rate. Aerotric is a small company with big heart that strives to maintain relationships with all customers. Consisting of seven staff members Aerotric maintains a policy of high standards and keeping up with the latest technology and trends in aircraft maintenance. Contact Aerotric on: Office Tel: +27 87 802 1347 Email: email@example.com or Richard@aerotric.com
operating initially from Lanseria airport. The company is growing strongly and has expanded to Cape Town International. AES prides itself on providing quality and reliable service on most aircraft, including electrical, instruments, avionics, compass systems and all aircraft components. AES can do your Ni-cad, Lead Acid main batteries, Emergency Batteries, ULB Batteries and ELT batteries at both Branches. AES has recently acquired the Agency for ACK ELT’s. AES can do your Inspections and defects away from base at affordable rates. AES states that the company is committed to the principles of honesty, excellence and dedication. All staff at AES are committed to provide its clientele with quality service time after time, because flying isn’t JUST flying! Contact: Erwin Erasmus (Cape Town) Cell: 082 494 3722 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or Danie van Wyk (Lanseria) Cell: 083 269 8696 Email: email@example.com Website: www.aeroelectrical.co.za
AIFA is the AVIC International Flight Training Academy (Pty) Ltd AIFA is accredited with both the SACAA and
dream and a great passion for all things aviation
the CAAC (China) as a Part 141 Air Training
led to the founding of this company. Alpi Aviation is
Organisation. The School provides world-class
headed by avid aviation enthusiast, Dale de Klerk,
training from modern facilities on a modern fleet
who is an accomplished hangglider, microlight,
of aircraft, state-of-the-art aircraft simulators and
glider and fixed-wing pilot.
operates from three training bases in South Africa,
Dale has won several regional and national
namely George Airport in the Garden Route,
competitions, becoming world Rally Flying
Oudtshoorn in the Little Karoo and Beaufort West
Champion in 2003. Dale also earned his
in the Great Karoo.
Springbok Flying colours in Rally and Precision
AIFA was formed after the acquisition of the
flying from 1995 through to 2004, and continues
former Cape Flying Services during April 2011.
to challenge his considerable aviation capabilities
AIFA is backed by AVIC-International, a large
in a wide range of aviation techniques, styles and
scale state-owned conglomerate with aviation
products and technology import and export as
ALPI Aviation SA was established after
its core business. Headquartered in Beijing,
the demand arose for an accredited training
With its total assets of up to RMB 24 billion and
organisation to cater for those who don’t want to
accumulated import and export volume of US $24
be, ‘just another pilot’. The intention was to build
billion thus far, AVIC-International ranks among the
an accredited Flight School, certified to CAA
first 20 of China’s top 500 enterprises for import
standards, using experienced instructors with an
and export. Test Flying Academy of South Africa
ethos of respect toward all their students.
(TFASA) is our other shareholder, a company with
At Alpi Aviation, we value the individuality of
long and successful business relationships with
each student, and we will do our utmost to hone
AVIC-International and COMAC in China.
their capabilities and enhance their passion.
AIFA combines the experience of world-class
No one is ‘just another student pilot’. It is with
instructors, the beauty of our surroundings,
this credo in mind that we invite you to personally
excellent South African weather and the passion
experience how our broad background of solid
for aviation of our personnel to afford our students
aviation experience and expertise can take your
a modern learning experience which will open
flying career to new heights.
doors to an exciting career in the aviation industry
Contact Alpi Aviation on:
anywhere in the world. Our commitment to
Tel: +27 82 556 3592
upholding a very high standard of aviation safety is
one of the cornerstones of AIFA.
Contact: Oudtshoorn Base: Tel: +27 (44) 272 5547. George Base Tel: +27 (44) 876 9217
Not ‘just another’ flying academy. A childhood
AIRBUS Aircraft Sales, Maintenance, Training Airbus Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd has maintained a presence in South Africa since 1994 and is headquartered at Grand Central Airport in Midrand, South Africa. The Grand Central base is home to the company’s regional Helicopters and Defence & Space businesses. As a world-leading aerospace company, Airbus offers the most comprehensive range of passenger airliners, military transport and special mission’s aircraft, helicopters, rocket-launchers and satellites. It also provides a comprehensive array of aviation, space and geo-intelligence systems and solutions to government and civilian customers. Airbus Helicopters provides the most efficient civil and military helicopter solutions to Sub Sahara Africa customers who operate an inservice fleet of around 340 turbine helicopters, to serve, protect, save lives and safely transport passengers in highly demanding environments. This arm of the business also supports customers from its branch in Nairobi. Airbus Defence and Space is responsible for sales and support of military transport aircraft in service with the SA Air Force and other armed forces in the SADC region. It also supplies satellite images, geo-intelligence and space data solutions to government, research and commercial customers. Worldwide, including South Africa, Airbus employs a workforce of around 135,000 people. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: +27 (0) 11 266 2600 Fax: +27 (0) 11 266 2628 Web: www.airbushelicopters.co.za / www. airbus.com
AIRCRAFT ASSESSING COMPANY Maintenance, appraisals Aircraft Assessing Company (AAC) was registered in 2002 in response to a growing need from the regional (Continent of Africa) aviation industry for unbiased and professional evaluations of fixed wing and rotor wing aircraft. In satisfying the industry's needs, AAC’s client base has grown to include local, regional and international aircraft fleet owners, airlines, government agencies, corporations, Insurers, legal practioners, financial institutions, individual aircraft owners and other interested parties. All appraisals are carried out to international Uniform Standards for Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) standards by AAC’s owner and Senior Certified Aircraft Appraiser, Paul Leaker NSCA who is well experienced as an Appraiser of narrow body airliners, heavy lift helicopters and everything in between. Paul has carried out in excess of 3000 aircraft appraisals and is required by AAC’s governing body to undergo re-certification training and examination in the USA every 3-years. In addition to certified appraisals, AAC provides a broad range of technical and associated services to the industry which include pre, mid and post lease aircraft assessment, maintenance oversight, maintenance record and log book audits, post repair assessment, cost review, legal expert witness services and aircraft sales. Aircraft Assessing Company (Pty) Ltd remains the only company in Africa specialising in its chosen field. Contact Paul Leaker on: Cell: 083 310 8588 Tel: 011 659 1127 Email: email@example.com Website: www.aacglobal.co.za
ALGOA FLYING CLUB Flight Training / Hire and Fly AIRCRAFT GENERAL SPARES Aircraft Maintenance Eric Erasmus, the owner and founder of Aircraft General Spares, gained his extensive experience in the industry as a parts store manager at PLACO. When the company closed in 2017 Eric bought the entire inventory and Aircraft General Spares (AGS) was born. AGS are conveniently situated at the main entrance to Rand Airport. In addition to stocking a large variety of off the shelf items, AGS also specialises in assisting clients with hard to find items which will be sourced and imported according to the client’s requirements. With their large variety of spares, AGS have a well-earned reputation for being the one stop for anything needed in the light aircraft industry. Their range of spares includes Alclad, tyres, tubes, hoses, 4130 tubing, rivets, O-rings, seals, engine parts, gaskets, bearings, glue, sealants, sick bags, funnels, ducting, air filters, oil filters, spark plugs, aircraft logbooks and a vast range of fasteners. AGS are also an official distributor of the full range of Aeroshell oil and grease products. AGS may be found at: Building B7: Rand Airport, Germiston. Call Eric on Tel: 067 154 2147. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or visit: www.acgs.co.za
We provide all forms of flying training and self-fly hire with the specific goal of making flying accessible to as many people as possible, within a friendly environment where members, students and their guests can relax after their flights. The Algoa Flying Club is a not for profit organisation of flying enthusiasts with the aims and objects of promoting flying and flying training in all its facets and to the highest standards. It’s the shared experience that helps to make the Algoa Flying Club the right place to earn your wings. We boast a fleet of Cessna 152’s, Cessna 172’s, a Cessna 172Rg, a Sling 2, a Piper Comanche, a Piper Seminole and a SACAA Accredited Elite Evolution S812 (FNPT 11) Simulator, which offers Multi Engine Piston based on the Beech Baron B58 and a Single Engine Piston based on the Cessna 172RG. Contact: Telephone +27 41 581 3274 Email email@example.com
AIRCRAFT POWERPLANT COMPANY
ARMSCOR PROVIDES COST EFFECTIVE
Aircraft Maintenance, Engine Overhaul
DEFENCE SOLUTIONS Defence
Aircraft Powerplant Company (APCO) was born in 2001 as a result of the management buyout of the PLACO Engines Division. Under the guidance Tony Rodrigues and Henk Joubert, both equipped with a wealth of experience and knowledge, APCO has earned a reputation for excellence within the aviation community. APCO’s Team of highly qualified factory and locally trained technicians have developed full in-house capacity to perform all required maintenance and turn key repair services, including bench testing on both Lycoming and Continental Engines. In addition APCO have an in-house component division, engine hose shop, machine shop, aluminium welding shop and also offer cadmium engine plating. The newly introduced NTC engine shop specialise in the repair and overhaul of many brands of NTC engines including Gypsy, Lycoming and Superior Kit Engines to name but a few. As an optional extra they offer a balancing and porting service as well as many types of corrosion protective applications, ranging from polyurethane base paints to the more lavish and durable ceramic coatings. Hangar 5A, Wonderboom Airport, Pretoria North firstname.lastname@example.org +27 82 558 9388 email@example.com +27 83 258 5272
The Armaments Corporation of South Africa SOC Ltd (Armscor) is the acquisition agency for the South African Department of Defence and other organs of State. Its primary mandate is to provide armed forces with state-of-the-art defence materiél required to provide safety and security for South Africa, its citizens and the continent. Through its Aero Systems Division, Armscor plays a key role in providing the South African Air Force (SAAF) with the necessary equipment and support required for mission readiness, which includes but not limited to conducting humanitarian operations in African countries. Armscor provides cost-effective and safe provision of aircraft product systems and logistic support that creates defence capability. Aero Systems capabilities offered at Armscor include: •
Contract and project management expertise
Providing maintenance and storage management
Holistic over view of the life cycle of equipment
Technical (systems and logistic engineering) expertise
Tel: +27 12 428 1911 Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org www.armscor.co.za Follow us:
ASTWOOD AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL Electrical and avionics workshop Astwood Aircraft Electrical has grown steadily since its opening as a one man business in 1996. The company is a fully accredited AMO with the SACAA, providing specialist services regarding most electrical/ignition components associated with light aircraft and helicopters up to small jets and turbine aircraft. Located on the south side of Grand Central Airport in a prefab building (close to the fuel bay), the owner Shaun Lombard-Chibnall and his team offer a personal and professional approach to the needs of aircraft owners and other AMOs needing electrical or ignition work. Shaun completed his training in Zimbabwe and has been a licenced AME since 1980. Based on his wealth of experience and knowledge, Astwood provides aircraft owners with the highest industry standards for repair, servicing and overhauling of alternators, starters, magnetos, motors, startergenerators and wiring. Shaun has kept the company small to offer a more personal service. We are proud to say that we have customers from all around South Africa and the SADC countries. The Astwood team has an efficient spares system in place, supplying clients local and overseas, and is the sole agent for B&C Specialty Products, a specialist company in light weight electrical systems for the professional and the home builder. We will go out of our way to help locate and provide spares and components. Astwood also offers their valued customers a travelling deal if the need arises – we will come to you. We are only a call away. Contact Astwood Aircraft Electrical on: Tel: +27 (0)11 315-9605 Cell: +27 (0)83 263-6413 Email: email@example.com
ASCEND AVIATION Aircraft Sales ‘Trustworthy Sales, Airworthy Excellence’ With 25 years of experience in aircraft sales Maartin Steenkamp established Ascend Aviation in early 2014. Aviation sales specialists must not only possess an exceptional understanding of their field and products, but also of the customers’ needs and experience in aviation. Acquiring an aircraft is an emotive as well as a practical decision. Maartin’s market knowledge and track record is greatly respected in the industry and Ascend Aviation’s customers can be assured that they are getting the most honest, independent, objective solutions to their present and future requirements. Ascend Aviation has assembled a team with the experience and abilities to streamline the entire process for buyers, from selection, budgeting and finance, through long-term performance and cost expectations, to ongoing advice and support, thereby making aircraft acquisition and ownership a rewarding and pleasing experience. Ascend Aviation believes personal attention, relationship building and integrity is key to service excellence, and provides a comprehensive range of services to the aviation industry: • Aircraft Sales • Acquisition mandates • Aircraft Valuations • Aircraft Management • Aircraft Finance • Aircraft Insurance • Aircraft Ferry including Importation and Exportation Contact Ascend Aviation on: Tel: +27 (0)11 064 5624 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.ascendaviation.co.za
AVIATION DIRECT (PTY) LTD
Airfield Information, Flight Planning &
Software Maintenance Tracking
Navigation The internet has opened the world, but for many of
Avdex currently renders two leading services: the maintenance tracking of aircraft and
us it is still preferable to talk to someone who has the
management of the administrative functions of
experience and knowledge of local conditions, right?
any AMO. Our products are user friendly and full
Well, AviationDirect has been around for over 20 years, and we are in the forefront of providing airfield
training and support are provided. With more than 25 years of experience in
and aeronautical information for Southern Africa within
the industry and staffed by committed aviation
our various products.
professionals, Avdex strives for nothing less than
We have the most comprehensive database of airfields for this part of the world, receiving first-hand
service excellence. AMP is an online aircraft maintenance tracking
information from active pilots and operators in the
service. It has a central aircraft maintenance
scheduling system, which means no schedule
Our exciting range of products for pilots flying in Southern Africa are designed to make the pilot’s task easier, safer and more comfortable. Added to that, we provide excellent customer support. Products that we are particularly well known and respected for
building required on the client’s side. AMP’s accurate usage tracking means less down time for the aircraft and more productivity for the AMO. AMP offers a variety of helpful features: • Full aircraft status reports based on live maintenance data • Work packs
• Tracking of component movement
• The Airfields Directory for Southern Africa and
• SBs, ADs and Manual Revisions tracked by
Africa, available in printed and electronic format • EasyPlan, the flight planning software for desktop/
Avdex and notified to client when the AMP Schedule is updated
laptop PC with Win OS, an easier way to do flight
• Tracking usage of an aircraft
planning, print out flight logs and maps
• Online recording of maintenance compliance
• EasyCockpit, Southern Africa’s most used in-
AMS is a feature rich AMO administration
flight navigation app for Apple or Android Mobile
programme, which takes care of the administrative
Devices, there to enhance situational awareness,
tasks, such as:
and, together with Easy-Weather overlays of radar, satellite and winds, to provide additional safety and peace of mind • Logbooks (electronic and printed) which have been devised according to SACAA requirements.
• Purchase orders, Inventory control and traceability • Labour and time sheet control • CAA and statutory reporting • Tracking cost of sales
Contact Andrea Antel on:
Contact Avdex on:
Tel: +27 11 465 2669 | Mobile: (0)72 340 9943
Tel: (011) 954-1536
AVTECH AIRCRAFT SERVICES Aircraft Maintenance
AVIATION REBUILDERS Aviation Rebuilders is an SACAA approved category B and X5 Aircraft Maintenance
Avtech Aircraft Services based at Wonderboom
Organisation, number AMO 188, based in the
National airport maintains Beechcraft, Piper,
Showroom right that the entrance to Rand Airport,
Cessna, Bellanca and Aerostar aircraft. With over
Germiston. Established in 1997, Aviation Rebuilders
28 years of operation, the family-owned business
is your competitive and reliable option when it comes
has a vast experience in aircraft maintenance
to of all your sheet metal, welding and flight control
and meets the highest standards, still under the
cable assembly requirements. No repair is too big or
guidance of Riekert, Sr.
too small for our enthusiastic team who are always
Avtech Aircraft Services component shop
keen and up for a challenge. Our highly experienced
specialises in the overhaul and repairs of
technicians provide excellent quality and turn-around
Continental fuel systems, carburettors and constant
times for your maintenance requirements.
speed units, which include Woodward, McCauley,
Our flight control cable assembly facility offers all
Hartzell & PCU5000. This division is run by Andre
standard MIL-SPEC cable and end fittings, ranging
Botha, AKA Proppie, who also has many years’
from 1/16” to 3/16”, with cables assembled per
experience in his field.
sample or specification. Our welding facility offers
The Avtech team have collectively over 170
weld repairs using TIG methods to aluminium alloys,
years of experience, between just four people.
carbon steel and corrosion and heat resistant steels.
Avtech is therefore a wise first stop for all your
The Aviation Rebuilders sheet metal facility boasts
general aircraft maintenance requirements.
an extensive range of tooling and equipment which
For more information contact PJR Stroh, Sr, on 082 555 2808 or PJR Stroh, Jr, on 082 749 9256. Visit them at Hangar 6 Wonderboom Airport. Email: email@example.com
enables us to offer an excellent repair service to keep your aircraft flying. Contact Aviation Rebuilders on: Tel: +27 (0)11 827-2491 Cell: +27 (0)82 872-4117 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
BEEGLE TRACKER AVISYS AVIATION SYSTEMS
Tracking, flight following
Aircraft Maintenance AviSys Aviation Systems is an established Maintenance Organisation (AMO 1089) with SA CAA, and other African CAA accreditation to perform component maintenance and overhaul capabilities under its Category B rating. Currently, AviSys is equipped to cater for our clients’ needs as per the SA CAA Approved Capability List and Operational Specifications on the following: •
Aircraft Braking Systems repair and full overhaul capability with SA CAA Component
Release to Service (Authorised Release Certificate) on the following OEM Makes;
ABSC, Honeywell / Bendix, Goodrich and Meggitt Aircraft Braking Systems.
Aircraft main and nose wheel assemblies for the above makes, to repair and overhaul.
Landing Gear Repair and Overhaul
Helicopter Servo Actuator Repair and Overhaul
Flexible Hose Build-up
Engine Fire Bottles HPT, Service, Fill and Recharge
AviSys Aviation Systems is committed to deliver service excellence and quality workmanship at market related prices, carried out with years of cumulative aviation experience in our field by means of dedicated hand-picked staff members. AviSys looks forward to establishing long and just
Designers and manufacturers of Iridium-based satellite tracking solutions since 2002. Our devices are used for a wide range of applications, including aircraft, watercraft, vehicles, birds, animals, personnel and bespoke applications. Our customers include governments, conservation organizations, aircraft charter companies, aviation schools and private pilots. Beegle aviation trackers are battery powered and fully automatic. They are placed on the dashboard and require no pilot input to turn on or off. Position update frequency is done automatically depending on the phase of flight so that an accurate trace of your flightpath is recorded. The battery lasts for approximately 40 flight hours before recharging is required. Ground personnel are kept up to date with realtime flight progress using our online tracking portal, and optionally via text message for take-off, landing and emergency events. This assists customers in effective trip planning, whilst providing an important safety function by drastically reducing the time to locate an aircraft, especially in remote areas without cellphone reception. Furthermore, our trackers can easily be moved from one aircraft to another as needed. www.beegletracker.com email@example.com +27 (0)21 438 1888
relationships with our client base, in order to meet our high standards of customer satisfaction. Hangar 17 Wonderboom Airport Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: +27 (0) 83 442 5884 Fax: +27 (0) 86 618 6996 Website: www.avisys.co.za
BENVEROY A Division of Khubenker Energy (PTY) LTD– BIOBOR AFRICA Fuel Protection and Enhancement Benveroy a division of Khubenker Energy , a privately owned South African company, based in Johannesburg, South Africa, focuses on developing environmentally sustainable solutions for fuel consumption reduction, reduction of carbon footprint, and reduction of harmful exhaust gases. Benveroy offers a complete fuel enhancement product package and the related implementation of product injection blending and product dosing systems, for individual aviation companies, and airport infrastructure. This includes high level fuel quality management. Biobor JF ® became the first biocide tested and approved by FAA, airlines, aircraft manufacturers, and aircraft engine manufactures, for the treatment and prevention of microbial contamination in aviation fuels, and aircraft fuel tanks. Biobor JF ® is also the only biocide that not only fights microbial growth, but replaces lubricity lost in ultra-low sulphur fuels. After 50 years, Biobor JF ® continues to be the most recognized and recommended biocide for all hydrocarbon fuels, bio fuels, transmission and hydraulic fluids, etc. Other aviation products offered are Biobor EB, Lubribor, and Turboline. Benveroy’s company directors have combined more than 60 years of experience in the Engineering, Petrol-Chemical, and Aerospace Industries. Contact Benveroy for all BIOBOR family of fuel additives on: Tel: 011 482 3650 / 011 726 7162 email@example.com / 071 453 1517 firstname.lastname@example.org / 079 524 1461
www.benveroy.com / www.khubenker.co.za
BLUE CHIP FLIGHT SCHOOL Flight Training Our Pilots Become Captains! Blue Chip Flight School has 25 years of experience, training professional and recreational pilots from over 30 countries. Situated at Wonderboom National Airport, we provide flight training from PPL to ATPL. Blue Chip has an accredited in-house examination centre, a modern fleet of aircraft as well as an SACAA approved FNPT II simulator. We offer a web based, paperless electronic booking, authosheet and student file system. Hour building is with a difference; we host fly-aways and cross country trips that provide unique opportunities to be exposed to unfamiliar environments, and our instructors are always close at hand for guidance. There is no substitute for a personal visit. Every day is open day at Blue Chip. Better still, talk to people in the aviation industry, former Blue Chip students are in sought after positions worldwide. Contact Blue Chip Flight School on: Tel: 012 543 3050 Email: email@example.com Website: www.bluechipflightschool.co.za
BORDER AVIATION CLUB & FLIGHT SCHOOL Flight Training and Hire & Fly Border Aviation has been training pilots since the 1940’s. We offer diverse training, from Weight-shift microlights to Warbirds, historical aircraft and everything in between. We carry out Ab-Initio Training (PPL and NPL) , Commercial Pilot Training, Conversion to type training, Hour building for Commercial Students, Renewals, Short field landings & take offs, Instrument Flight (IF) Training and Hire & Fly. We now also offer Helicopter Training – PPL to CPL. What makes us unique is that our dedicated team of instructors work with each student on a one-onone basis, offering them tailored training specific to their needs. We also offer our Training out of three bases; Our East London Airport base allows for Instrument flight training (IF Training). Our Wings Park base is situated just outside East London and allows for Short field training. Our third base is at Queenstown Airfield which gives our students an opportunity to do Mountain flying. We welcome any aviation enthusiast from teenaged Ab-initio students to the casual weekend flyer to pursue their aviation passion. Border Aviation’s fleet consists of a Cessna 150, a modern glass-cockpit Sling 2, a Piper Archer 181, a Mooney M20, a Beechcraft Baron (BE58), a Savannah XL and a Helicopter. We are a non-profit organisation that truly believes that aviation is a career that brings a new adventure over every horizon. If you are interested
CUBBY AIRCRAFT Plane Sales Based in the picturesque village of Barrydale near Swellendam in the Western Cape, Cubby Aircraft manufacture an 80% scale copy of the Piper Super Cub, with a variety of engine choices. The latest development is the Cubby Renegade which may be flown solo from the front seat and is substantially larger than the basic Cubby. With modern materials and technology, the performance has been vastly improved. The purchase price is remarkably low and operational costs are kept to a minimum due to the use of automotive fuel as opposed to expensive and sometimes hard to find Avgas. The price is dependent on the choice of engine. The Cubby can be registered as a Light Sport aircraft or a non-type certified light aircraft. Undercarriage can be either tri-gear or a tail dragger configuration The Cubby is available in kit form, fast built and basic kit. It is also available as ready to fly or fully built, but without engine, radio and instruments. Jean Crous welcomes visitors at his factory on Route 62 and can be contacted on 072 671 6240.
or would like to find out more, please feel free to contact us on: Tel: +27 43 736 6181 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.borderaviation.co.za Find us on: Instagram & Facebook
C W Price & Co CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS MAINTENANCE
C.W. PRICE AND COMPANY
Airport Support Equipment
SOUTH AFRICA A CAMO is an ICAO recognized organisation, mandated
C.W. Price and Company has been
in the European Union and other countries, for the purpose
involved in aviation and meteorological
of administrating the control of an aircraft’s airworthiness.
instruments for over 71 years. They also
We have emulated this structure into a business model that
import aircraft ground power units and
offers these services to owners in countries that have not
aircraft towing and push-back equipment.
yet mandated this into law. In many countries, the roll of airworthiness control is
Based in Midrand, C.W Price are the appointed agents for airport support
left to the owner / operator, who is reliant on maintenance
equipment from aircraft ground power to man
organisations to review and prescribe what has to be done.
portable rugged Redbox power packs for
There is no independent verification of the work scope or
the legality of the final documentation. Furthermore, the
They are also agents for Eagle All Wheel
cost control of a maintenance event is left up to the owner’s
Drive aircraft tow tugs for regional, corporate
employee’s who often have little experience in this field.
and military applications.
Many aircraft are enrolled on maintenance programmes
They are also importers of Precision
to assist with the control of cost but are not always used
Airmotive fuel injector parts and overhaul kits
to their fullest extent. Warrantees are seldom tracked and
along with some starter generator spares.
ongoing system issues that can ground an aircraft, are not properly addressed. Our team of experienced maintenance and
Weather stations stand alone for regional airports or their well established online VitalWeather system for remote or sms
operational personnel are able to provide operators with
monitoring of small airports is a specialty of
comprehensive support, irrespective of their geographical
location. We independently source the best products and
Contact Kelvin on:
service for your operation and control costs through our
Whether you own an aircraft or are planning the purchase of a new or pre-owned aircraft, CAMOSA will review it’s specifications & inspect the records or perform a comprehensive Pre-Purchase Inspection, giving you the opportunity to make informed choices. CAMOSA will simplify and manage your aircraft’s maintenance requirements and support the aircraft throughout its entire life, leaving you, as the operator, with full operational control. Continued Airworthiness Maintenance Organisation – South Africa. 1275 Willem Botha Avenue, Eldoraigne, Pretoria, 0157 email@example.com +27 82 555 3555
DIEPKLOOF AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE DIEPKLOOF AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE D.M. AVIATION SPARES Aircraft Parts and Consumables D.M. Aviation Spares is situated on the north side of Lanseria, Unit 2, next to Century Avionics, Gate 5. The company stocks aircraft parts, aircraft consumables and general consumables. D.M. Aviation Spares was started in 2011 by Daniella Mawson who has been in aviation since 1980 and in the aircraft parts industry since 1990. She therefore has extensive knowledge of parts and their sourcing. D.M. Aviation Spares’ aim is to make life easier for the smaller AMOs at the airport by holding fast moving stock. Daniella goes out of her way to source parts that others say are not available. D.M. Aviation imports parts as well as sourcing hard to find aircraft components. They provide clients with the best prices and service possible. Furthermore, they are agents for Aircraft Spruce and others. For more information, contact Daniella Mawson on: Tel: 082 576 8853 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
AMO, AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE With 70 years of experience, Diepkloof Aircraft Maintenance (AMO SACAA 1398) are one of the leaders in aircraft maintenance as well as the preferred choice for many clients. Based at Diepkloof airfield, Malmesbury, Diepkloof Aircraft Maintenance is a South African Civil Aviation Authority approved AMO. It is your one-stop AMO facility that offers a wide range of services that include general aviation aircraft maintenance, Non-Type Certified maintenance as well as specialized services. General Aircraft Maintenance: •
All single engine Piper & Cessna & Beechcraft series
All Air Tractor, Thrush, Dromader, AG Cat, Piper Brave & Piper Pawnee
All Lycoming, Teledyne Continental engines
All Pratt & Whitney -Turbine & Radial engines.
Non-Type Certified (NTCA):
All NTCA Aircraft work - Homebuilt, Ultralights etc…
Hartzell & Mc Cauley Propellers
Licenced for complete rebuilds
Specialised Sheetmetal work
Fabric covering and interiors
Contact details: E-Mail: email@example.com Nick Kleinhans: +27 83 454 6366 Pieter v Aswegen: +27 82 784 7133
DYNAMIC PROPELLERS Propeller Specialists DJA AVIATION Aviation Insurance DJA Aviation was formed over 40 years ago by Dennis Jankelow and to this day remains South Africa’s foremost specialist aviation insurance
specialises in the overhauling, repair and maintenance of propellers for commercial and privately owned aircraft. With a staff compliment with a total of around
brokerage, offering the greatest concentration of
130 years propeller overhaul experience, Dynamic
aviation insurance experience and expertise on the
Propellers overhaul and maintain all Hartzell,
African continent and continuing to lead the market
McCauley, MT, Hoffmann, Sensenich and Hamilton
in the areas of product innovation and technical
propellers and is the only enterprise in South Africa
that provides comprehensive repair and maintenance
DJA Aviation creates aviation insurance programmes for its clients that are perfectly balanced in the critical areas of cost, coverage, service and security. In addition, DJA Aviation’s long-
services on Dowty and Whirlwind propellers. All of which is done to the highest standards as stipulated by the various propeller manufacturers. Dynamic Propellers’ repair services are
standing and close relationships with the insurers
performed both in-house in a state of the art aviation
who underwrite its products – locally, regionally and
engineering workshop, or in the field.
internationally – ensure that a DJA Aviation client is in the best possible hands when losses occur. DJA Aviation is an authorised Lloyd’s correspondent and has conducted aviation insurance
Highly skilled engineers will travel domestically or to neighbouring countries and abroad to cater for customers’ propeller requirements. Dynamic Propellers is an SACAA Authorised
business at Lloyd’s for more than 40 years, a
Service Centre, AMO 1150, and is the sole
relationship that is strengthened by regular visits to
McCauley Authorised Service Centre for the
the Lloyd’s market by DJA Aviation’s key personnel. DJA Aviation is an Authorised Financial Service
African continent. Contact Details:
Provider (FSP No 15808) and a proud member of the
iCapital Group. DJA Aviation’s social responsibility
Tel: +27 79 492 0592
programme includes on-going support for the
South African Guide Dogs Association for the Blind. Contact DJA Aviation on: Tel: 0800FLYING (0800 359-464) Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.dja-aviation.co.za
Established in 2008, Dynamic Propellers
Andries Visser Tel: +27 82 445 4496 Email: email@example.com
EXECUTIVE AIRCRAFT REFURBISHMENT Interior and Exterior refurbishment EMPEROR AVIATION AMO, Refurbishments, Rebuilds Emperor Aviation is a fully licensed Aircraft Maintenance Organisation (AMO NR 1226) based at Rand Airport, specialising in the maintenance of Bell and Robinson helicopters. We have a state of the art component overhaul shop and can assist you with any helicopter sales needs. We also specialise in helicopter refurbishments ranging from total refurbishment (interior and exterior) to helicopter rebuilds. Emperor Aviation is an approved Robinson Service Centre and also the official LORD Distributor for 206B and
“Quality is our Passion”, this is the mantra that we live by at Executive Aircraft Refurbishment. We are an Aircraft Interior and Exterior refurbishment facility, based at Lanseria International Airport, quality workmanship and service excellence, combined with knowledgeable staff has earned us the reputation of No.1 Aircraft Interior and Exterior refurbishment facility Complete aircraft exterior paint strip and resprays are done all under one roof, designing paint scheme lines, logo’s to customer specifications. We also offer a mobile touchup service to our customers ensuring their aircraft stays in mint condition. Our interior shop also specializes in complete interior refurbishments such as the refurbishment of overhead stowage bins and seating, Roof-liners,
206L TT-straps in Africa as well as an agent to
cockpit glare-shields, cabinets and galleys, wool
supply LORD replacement parts.
carpets, textile and non-textile floor covering,
If you’re looking at buying a new or used helicopter, Emperor Aviation can assist you to find the helicopter best suited to your needs. We carry out pre-purchase inspections all over
refurbishment of seats and foam building in varying modern styles. We manufacture interior window sunshields and aircraft exterior ground covers, EAR also re-web and re-certify aircraft safety belts. Executive Aircraft Refurbishment are the right
the world to ensure our customers has options of
choice for interior and exterior refurbishments of your
purchases not only in the African market but
aircraft from interior refurbishment to exterior spray
worldwide. With more than 50 years’ combined experience in the helicopter industry, Paul, Jarrett, Trevor and their team of qualified engineers and admin staff look forward to welcoming you to the Emperor Aviation
painting, we do it all. Entrust your fleet to Executive Aircraft Refurbishment for a new fresh look and we promise to have your aircraft ready and serviceable when you need it.
Tel: +27 (0)10 900 4149 | Mobile: +27 (0)82 547
Contact Emperor Aviation on:
8379 Info@earefurbishment.com | Francois@
Tel: +27 11 824 5683
Hangar 11 (interior shop) and 31(paint shop)
Lanseria International Airport South Africa, Gate 5, North Side
F. GOMES UPHOLSTERS Aircraft Upholstery F. Gomes Upholsters is a family based upholstery company. Established in 1979, the company specialises in aircraft, as well as motor vehicle, boat and furniture upholstery. F. Gomes Upholsters will refurbish your aircraft interior to look like new, giving it the class it deserves. They use only the best quality materials, and their craftsmanship is outstanding. Mr Gomes, the founder of F. Gomes Upholsters, has been in the upholstery business for close on 40 years and as such brings many years of experience and professionalism to the company. F. Gomes Upholsters provides an expert reupholstery and upholstery service that caters to any upholstery need. No job is ever too small or too large. F. Gomes Upholsters is based in Johannesburg. For exceptional craftsmanship at the best prices, contact F. Gomes Upholsters on: Tel: (011) 614 2471 Fax: (011) 614 9806 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
PILOT FLIGHT TRAINING SERVICES Flight training FTS is a flight school that operates out of Grand Central Airportâ€™s main terminal building. The company has an impressive fleet of over 10 aircraft which include Cessna 172s, Piper PA28s, Cessna 172RG and the PA-30 Piper Twin Comanche for advanced multi-engine training. These aircraft are all used for basic and advanced instruction. Flight Training Services offers a comprehensive, state of the art, training service starting from entry level Private Pilot Licence (PPL) through to Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) licence. Browse through their site and have a look at the services on offer. For the forthcoming CPL & ATPL ground school contact FTS on: 011 805 9015 or Email: fly@fts. co.za to book your seat. For more information contact Amanda Pearce on: Tel: 011-805-9015/6 Email: email@example.com Website: www.fts.co.za
International Flight Clearances Africa's aircraft handling and clearance company
INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT CLEARANCES GIB AVIATION INSURANCE Integrity, Intelligence, Energy at your Service Utilising the finest insurers worldwide, GIB arrange both simple and complex insurance and reinsurance solutions for General Aviation, Airline and Airport Owners, Operators, Maintenance Facilities, Manufacturers, and Financiers throughout Africa and beyond. GIB Aviation have always taken pride in the fact that they do not only serve all their customers insurance needs, but also develop close and long term relationships with them. This enables their highly skilled team to understand their unique and exact requirements and to tailor make insurance programmes by selecting the appropriate cover, provide accurate contractual advice and very importantly negotiate effective time sensitive claims settlement. GIB House 3 West Street, Houghton, Johannesburg +27 (11) 483 1212 firstname.lastname@example.org
Aircraft Handling & Clearance/Permit Specialists International Flight Clearances are Lanseria based aviation consultants whose aim is to add 24 NEW ADDRESS value and ensure safety to international flights Unit 32, Falcon Lane, Lanseria
+27 11 701 2
anywhere in the world, while reducing flightops@flyifc Business Park, Lanseria Ext 26, the stress factor for bothJohannesburg, operators andGauteng passengers.
They have immense experience in dealing with all types of flights, both regionally and internationally. They assist in cost efficient and safe route planning, whilst adding a personal touch. By being intimately acquainted with Africa in all her moods, and being familiar with the vagaries of every country, they have the expertise to plan with the detail necessary to bypass avoidable inconveniences, ensuring a trouble free trip for passengers. Contact International Flight Clearances on: Tel: +27 11 701 2330 or +27 76 983 1089 (24 hours) Email: email@example.com Website: www.flyifc.co.za
www.gib.co.za FSP License No. 10406
JOHANNESBURG FLYING ACADEMY
Flight Training Facility
Johannesburg Flying Academy established
KZN Aviation is an established BEE compliant
in 1984, are an SACAA approved Flight Training
multi-taskedaviation company, based at Virginia
Facility situated South of Johannesburg. Due
Airport in Durban North. We are licensed in terms of
to our unique location at Panorama airfield, no
the South African Civil Aviation Authority and the Air
time is wasted flying to and from the general
flying area or on the ground waiting for flight clearances. Johannesburg is an ideal location for flight
KZN Aviation own and operate both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, offering a range of services that include helicopter and fixed-wing VIP charter
training, owing to our year-round favourable
work, contract work, tourism flights, powerline and
pipeline inspections, aerial photography, vehicle
JFA offer professional training by dedicated and qualified instructors for National Pilot Licence (NPL) Private Pilot Licence (PPL),
searches, traffic surveillance and patrols to name a few applications. KZN Aviation has a hand-picked team of
Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL), Instructors
professional and dedicated staff who are available
rating, Night rating, Renewals, Conversions,
24/7 to offer assistance, advice and provide cost
Endorsements, in a relaxed, professional
effective quotations. We have vast experience in the
charter and contract market and have been actively
Training is carried out,7 days a week, on our
involved in aviation for decades.
modern fleet of 2-seater, Sling Aircraft and is
KZN Aviation pride themselves on ensuring that
tailored to your individual needs. The course
high quality services, tailor-made to meet customer
includes all required lectures, briefings and
requirements are provided efficiently and effectively
without compromising safety. Our rigorous safety
Our accredited Exam centre ensures that exams can be written to suit your schedule.
standards are maintained by highly experienced flight crews and are constantly reinforced through the highest levels of professionalism and integrity
Contact us for more information.
displayed. Our crew receive recurrent training
Office: (+27) 064 756 6356
to ensure performance remains consistently
Address: Panorama Airfield, Kromvlei road,
Contact KZN Aviation on:
Tel: 031 564 6215 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.kznaviation.co.za
LEADING EDGE AVIATION Helicopter Firefighting and Heavy Lift Operations Leading Edge Aviation is an SACAA approved Aircraft Maintenance Organisation (AMO 261) based at Nelspruit Airfield in
Fixed Wing and Helicopter Purchases
Leading Edge Aviation (LEA) caters
to numerous fields including firefighting,
external lift operations, wildlife conservation
and refurbishing and restoring of aircraft interiors and exteriors, including fitment of SACAA approved windows. Utilizing their UH-1H and UH-60 helicopters, LEA are perfectly positioned to meet your utility helicopter requirements. Whether you need supplies moved, wildlife relocated, natural disaster support, construction equipment lifted or fire suppression carried out, LEA are available to assist. With lifting capabilities up to 3000kgâ€™s, we use the latest equipment and vast experience to meet our clients needs. In addition, LEA has the only SACAA approved painting booth in the Lowveld and carries out all painting using Boeing and Airbus approved products across the Cessna, Piper and Embraer and Beechcraft range. Our interior refurbishment division carries out the finest leather and upholstery work. All painting and leather work includes CRMAs for the applicable aircraft. Peter, Zeph, Sipho, Alfred and Lucas, along with the team, will ensure all your refurbishment
Merchant West is one of the largest privatelyowned financial institutions in South Africa. We provide alternative business funding outside of the commercial banks. As an agile business with an entrepreneurial approach, we pride ourselves in structuring flexible and innovative finance solutions that meet the industry requirements of our clients. Our financial solutions are operated as independent business units headed up by skilled and experienced executives who have surrounded themselves with industry experts. Merchant West has become a key partner in the Aviation industry in South Africa specializing in Aircraft finance including purchases, avionics upgrades as well as engine overhauls. We pride ourselves in our unique view of the industry, specialised support, knowledgeable staff and the products we offer. Contact: Shayne Wright email@example.com +27(11)-305-9490 +27(71)-373-8825
expectations are met and exceeded. Feel free to contact Leading Edge Aviation with any queries: Tel: +27 13 7413654 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.leadingedgeaviation.co.za
MISTRAL AVIATION SERVICES
Mistral Aviation was founded in 2002 with the aim of addressing the high cost of operating aircraft thousands of miles from the original equipment manufacturers. (OEM). Mistral continues to add to its capability and has just added Machining and NDT. Our experience has grown and we are about to embark on training of our staff to take up the challenge of new equipment.
Namagri Aviation is a privately-owned Namibian
company, based in Windhoek since 2008 Namagri Aviation are official dealers and service center appointed by Robinson Helicopters in Namibia. We provide clients with quality and experienced assistance with the purchase and maintenance of new and pre-owned helicopters. Our aviation department is divided in a helicopter and fixed wing. We sell new and second-hand helicopters. We deliver Aerial Works
services in the Agricultural sector and also offer
Telephone: (27) 81-755-2534
specialised equipped airplanes to clients for
Fax: (27) 11- 395 1291
application of de-bushing granules during rainy
season. Namagri De-Bushing Services was the
Website: www. mistral.co.za
1st legal entity in Namibia that attended to bush encroachment through aerial applications. At
Namagri you will find a group who are dedicated,
passionate and committed to provide the best
Northern Perimeter Road,
service to our customers in making every aviation
OR Tambo International
dream take flight.
+264 81 1286821
email@example.com +264 812166910 firstname.lastname@example.org
PAMBELE FONT: ITC Avant Garde Gothic PAMBELE FONT COLOUR: 60% Black PANTONE: Cool Gray 9c
www.pambele.aero c = 90 m = 50 y=0 k=0 Pantone 285c
PAMBELE AVIATION Air Charter Pambele Aviation has its primary base of operations located at Grand Central Airport (Midrand). Pambele Aviation is a dependable air charter company operating throughout Southern Africa providing light aircraft transport services. We have been operating in the South African air charter market since 2006 and have fourteen years’ experience providing charter flights for the private and business sectors, transporting business leaders, tourists and VIP’s. The primary aircraft being operated are a Beechcraft King Air B200 and a Cessna Grand Caravan 208B. A number of light piston engine aircraft are available for smaller group sizes, or for those who are budget conscious. The passenger charter services are ideally suited for customers requiring access to remote, or poorly serviced destinations. A satellite base of operation is located at Kruger Mpumalanga International Airport serving the Lowveld region of the country. Pambele Aviation holds license N892D and a Part 135 AOC. Email: email@example.com OR lowveld@ pambele.aero
SABRE AIRCRAFT Plane Sales Sabre Aircraft are the exclusive importers of the Polish built full-composite Ekolot JK-05 and Topaz LSA high wing aircraft. To complement their stable Sabre Aircraft have also secured the distributorship for the low wing all-metal Direct Fly Alto TG which is expertly manufactured in the Czech Republic and available in either kit form or ‘ready to fly’. All aircraft are powered by the Rotax 912 series engines using a Ukrainian manufactured full composite ground or in-flight adjustable propeller from a company called NR Propellers for which Sabre Aircraft is the newly appointed South African agent. Although all these factory built aircraft are very well-appointed, customers have the flexibility to choose from several additional cost options to suit their specific needs and budget. Even with our constantly fluctuating exchange rate Sabre Aircraft is still able to offer real value in Rand terms against anything produced locally with comparable performance and/or specification levels. With an ever-increasing worldwide dealer footprint both Ekolot and Direct Fly continue to produce beautifully crafted LSA aircraft with spectacular performance, proven reliability and established aftersales support. We call it ‘affordable brilliance’. RICHARD STUBBS Tel: 27-11 467 3103/3193 083-655-0355 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org or visit: www. aircraftafrica.co.za
SKYHAWK AVIATION Flight Training Skyhawk Aviation was established by Mike Gough (Airbus Training Captain and SA Flyer columnist) in 2008. Well established as the dominant operation in the flight training environment at Lanseria International Airport, Skyhawk Aviation offers all the resources required for the successful completion of all CAA licences and ratings. As a Designated Flight Examiner (DFE 1) as well as an Airbus Training Captain, Mike is able to assess studentâ€™s progress, and conduct final flight tests presenting realistic scenarios. We are also approved to conduct the full type rating for the Airbus 320, as well as proficiency checks and ATP revalidations. Aimed specifically at developing the professional pilot, we specialise in both the full turn-key contract clients as well as individuals starting out on the road to flying for a living. Part of our services include accommodation, transport and visa services. Skyhawk is associated with the Sakhikamva Foundation, and offers programs to high school learners to expose the kids to aviation and spark interest in maths and science through this medium. Come and see our Boeing 737 nose section kitted out as a classroom! If you need a reality check about the sometimes hard truth about becoming a career pilot, then you canâ€™t go far wrong by dropping in at Hanger 30, Gate 5 at Lanseria. Send an email to Mike beforehand to get welcomed to the demanding, but infinitely rewarding world of Commercial Aviation. Contact Tracey Gough on: Tel: 011 701 2622 Cell: 072 484 7984 Email: email@example.com
TITANIUM AIR Aircraft Charter Training Titanium Air is a private, boutique-style Aircraft Charter, Training company based out of Lanseria Airport. Flying with a private charter company offers you complete privacy and luxury, while minimising your waiting time at the airport and have you flying within minutes of your arrival. Titanium Air has an unblemished safety record and their pilots have extensive knowledge and experience of all types of aircraft. Titanium Air caters to corporate and leisure travellers alike and specialises in bush and hunting lodge transfers where small aircraft are needed to land on and take-off from dirt runways. Titanium Air is dedicated to its clientele and makes every experience a memorable one, from first point of contact to the safe touch-down at your destination. www. titaniumair.co.za
STARLITE AVIATION GROUP Operations - Contract Work and Emergency Services/Helicopter, Aeroplane and Drone Pilot Training/Aircraft Sales/Local and International Charters/Aircraft Maintenance Starlite is a diverse, solution driven company, offering a wide range of aviation services and products. We have operated on 5 continents, in over 30 countries worldwide, in
Air cargo tanks TURTLE-PAC from Australia has developed a unique range of mini long range collapsible tanks for light aircraft. Turtle-Pac’s Commercial and military side of tanks include: •
and Air Cargo Tanks for fuel.
the most hostile and austere environments. Starlite has a
These include both in-fuselage
proven track record of successes and is a trusted, long term
and underslung for helicopters.
partner to corporates, the military and governments.
They make possible a doubling of
revenue runs for aircraft operators.
Starlite Aviation Operations
Bush Collapsible Diesel Tanks for
Hennie Pietersen: +27 82 822 5376 Contract and Emergency Services
trucks and off-road vehicle use. •
the oil and gas offshore industry
Fiona McCarthy: +27 82 552 3813
and naval use. This includes mine
recovery and helicopter flotation
Starlite Aviation Training Academy Helicopter, Aeroplane and Drone Pilot Training Helicopter and Aeroplane Aircraft Hire : Arme Birkholtz: +27 31 571 6600 corporate business, tourist travel, passenger firstname.lastname@example.org and cargo transportation Jennifer de Lange: +27 82 977 1847 email@example.com Starlite Aero Sales Dealers in new and pre-owned aircraft Klara Fouché: +27 83 324 8530 firstname.lastname@example.org Starlite Maintenance Durban AMO 824 Third party Maintenance and Spares Emmanuel Mhungu: +27 82 402 7117 email@example.com
Turtle-Pac manufactures a large range of underwater airlift bags for
Flexible Marine Fuel Tanks for offshore small vessels and Super
Starlite Maintenance Johannesburg AMO 927 Helicopter and Fixed Wing
Collapsible Ferry Tanks for aircraft
bags. Turtle-Pac are tools that pay for themselves in a very short time in remote areas. Sizes range from 66 Gallon to 529 Gallons. All models collapse and fold up compactly. They are light weight to carry empty on the return flight. The products are unique and combine extremely ease use with lightweight yet tough construction. Delivery to South Africa is within 3 working days by DHL. Visit: http://www.turtlepac.com
CLICK HERE 28
WAGTAIL AVIATION WAGTAIL AVIATION
WINGS ‘N THINGS
Wagtail Aviation specialises in the designing and manufacturing of custom-made Gyrocopter
Wings ‘n Things is a specialist pilot supplies
to satisfy the end-user requirement. Gyro’s are
shop based at Lanseria and Grand Central
inexpensive to own and maintain, are stable, easy
airports, catering for all levels of aviation
to operate, has a short take-off and landing, and
enthusiasts and is the preferred supplier to many
can fly comfortably at very slow speeds.
aspiring and professional pilots.
We are authorised dealers of some of the
Patrolling of livestock and farm observations
world’s premium aviation brands, including
Surveillance, including fire management
Jeppesen, David Clark, Bose, and ASA. We are
Aerial Agricultural application
also resellers of Pooley’s, Garmin, Icom, RAM
Support for anti-poaching operations
Mounts and many more local and international
So, whether you are a professional or recreational pilot, student pilot, aviation enthusiast,
Our Trojan with its innovating engineering
looking for a gift for that someone special or just
makes rough terrain landing possible and
looking to spoil yourself, visit one of our shops at
is powered by 260HP Subaru EJ 25 Turbo
Lanseria or Grand Central, or shop online, for the
powerplant. With an empty weight of 420kg, she
widest range of aviation related products and gifts.
can carry a payload of 300kg. She has a cruising
Visit our website to see the full range of products
speed of 120-140km/h and a slow speed of
that we carry.
56km/h. All these features make the Trojan your “bakkie’ of the sky”, you will soon not understand how you ever got around without it. Contact: Braam Hechter Cell: +27 (84) 697 7703 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www: www.wagtail.co.za
Contact Wings ‘n Things on: Tel: +27 (11) 701 3209 Email: email@example.com or info@ wingsnthings.co.za Website: www.wingsnthings.co.za
A Message to All Our Loyal Readers The Covid-19 pandemic has thrown the aviation publication business into turmoil. QUESTION:
WHY CAN I NOT FIND SA FLYER ON THE SHOP SHELVES AND IN MY POST BOX?
T HECOVID-19PANDEMICHAS EFFECTIVELY FORCED ALL THE AVIATION MAGAZINES TO STOP PRINTING. BUT THE GOOD NEWS IS THAT THERE IS NOW FAR MORE TO ENJOY!
OVID-19 has brought the entire print publication industry to its knees. One of the impacts of this has been the closure of our retail distribution to shops and our inability to deliver subscriptions. For this reason, we have moved to a purely digital offering. Our new value proposition to you, our loyal reader: We now provide not just the magazine, but 3 different ways for you to get your flying fix – and not just monthly – but with new material every day! 1. Our all new digital pdf magazine - available for free on our website www.saflyer.com 2. Our Facebook page - with by far the biggest aviation following in Africa 3. Our brand-new state of the art website - visit www. saflyer.com And best of all! We provide all three of these platforms for free!!
The core our offering remains the magazines, which, as purely digital PDF publications use an excellent ‘e-zine’ reader. Click on: https://issuu.com/saflyermagazine for your free copy of SA Flyer and FlightCom. This very
powerful yet easy to use e-zine reader allows us to fully exploit the wonderful opportunities created by digital publishing in linking videos to our articles. And we have made the font and layout much easier to read on a tablet or computer monitor. So now – not only is SA Flyer and FlightCom available for free – it offers so much more! Our means of reaching our readers may have changed, but at SA Flyer and FlightCom we remain committed to our core principles of quality journalism and insightful thought-leadership. Our key objective is to inform and entertain our readers, which we do thanks to the world-class contributors we have nurtured. These include: •
Peter Garrison’s unrivalled insights into aerodynamics and accidents
Jim Davis’s years of instructing experience
George Tonking’s unique helicopter insights.
At the same time we are nurturing young writers such as Johan Walden and the wonderful Dassie Persaud van der Westhuizen who qualified as an architect and then became a flight attendant to fund her flying training – all the way to the cockpit of an Airbus A320.
We are also the only magazine to do hands-on ‘from the cockpit’ flight tests where we actually fly the aircraft. And we bring our readers invaluable information, such as where to get the cheapest fuel – thus saving you thousands of Rands! We live in challenging times and it will be extremely interesting to see what the aviation publication market looks like in a year’s time. But in the meanwhile, we are confident that we are still by far the most liked and respected aviation magazine in Africa. Thank you for your support!