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POSITION REPORT Flying Clubs & Safety
that the current CAA ethos is to circumvent legal
AS discussed in my Position Report last month,
guilt. The regulator then imposes heavy-handed
the CAA seems determined to set the clock back
fines which undermines the mutual respect
by undoing the vast institutional knowledge that
between the regulator and the pilots needed for
has led to the development of a ‘just culture’ in the
GA to be intrinsically law abiding.
process by trapping pilots into an admission of
I fear the current zeitgeist is one where,
justifiably or not, the CAA has come to distrust
While the ‘just culture’ may be more appropriate or applicable to the airline and military
the pilot body. The bureaucratic earth-bound desk
environments, where getting to the cause of the
drivers at the CAA clearly do not have sufficient
problem and thus preventing it, is more important
empathy with their subjects, and so a chasm
than punishing non-performance, it has an equally
of mistrust now exists between the users and
valuable role in general aviation.
regulators of flying.
It is essential that the CAA, as the regulator,
The questions must be asked: Is self-regulation
be seen to be fair and credible if it is to be
an unattainable ideal? Can any industry be
respected by its members. General aviation
allowed to self-regulate? I would argue that the
(GA) is unlike almost all other forms of highly
answer is yes, the GA industry can self-regulate.
regulated activity in that a large part of it happens
And because of the difficulties of inspection and
in an environment where it is up to the pilot to
oversight of flying aircraft, GA must be given every
self-regulate and demonstrate airmanship by complying with the strictures of air law. For self-regulation
opportunity to do so. There is no better example of the GA industry’s ability to self-regulate than flying clubs. Many commentators have bemoaned the ‘death of flying
and the standards
clubs’, but as Spike Milligan so famously sort
of airmanship to
of said – the rumours of their death are greatly
work, the regulator
exaggerated. As an umbrella body the Aero Club
must be respected.
still performs a vital role and under it, specific
However, all too
interest clubs and associations do much to self-
often it would appear
regulate and foster safety. Local flying clubs are perhaps best placed to create a safety conscious environment. I belong to two local flying clubs, and one in particular has shown a commendably pro-active approach to self-regulation. When two members flagrantly violated the standards of good airmanship by doing a beat-up between the hangars, the club
came down heavily on them. After establishing the facts beyond a reasonable doubt, the Club’s Safety sub-committee – (yes it has one) suspended the members, effectively making
Any member who is deemed by the Committee to be operating any aircraft in an unsafe manner will be suspended following a disciplinary hearing. No member may over-fly any hangar, person or
the culprits visitors who would have to be signed in
group of persons in such a manner as to cause a
and out by a member who must take responsibility
nuisance or endanger life or property at the airfield.”
for them. They also required the offending members
It is thus evident that a well constituted and
to make a public apology at the Club’s AGM, and
run flying club is a very effective instrument in
my sense is that this eating humble pie apology will
applying good standards of airmanship, safety and
really have made them think twice about further
reckless behaviour. I quote the Club’s safety committee report here
I know of other flying clubs having to deal with the problem of semi-legal flips in questionably
verbatim as it is instructive as to how thorough and
reliable aircraft being sold as introductory flights
aligned the practices and constitution of a flying club
to trusting tourists. There are a host of compliance
can be for the implementation of safe flying:
problems that can best be dealt with by the pilot
“The Committee, having reviewed the available photographic evidence, witness statements and statements from the accused members concluded
community – as they are the people who are there full time. More than twenty years ago I published a
that the accused members should be subjected
column in the then Aero Africa magazine to
to a disciplinary process in terms of the Club
promote an idea from Insurance Broker Dennis
Constitution. This decision was not taken lightly but
Jankelow, who proposed a ‘feather’ system – that
given the severity of the offences and the danger
pilots be awarded feathers for airmanship. This is
posed to life and property, it was decided that in the
a positive reinforcement that may be made into a
interests of safety, the Committee had to act.”
club competition – and is thus well suited to pilots’
The report went on to restate key elements of the flying rules of the club:
competitive natures. The conclusion must then be that the CAA
“Members shall at all times adhere to the Air
should aim to strengthen the self-regulation
Navigation Rules as laid down by the South African
capability of the clubs – not undermine it by
Civil Aviation Authority and shall in addition display
threatening punitive R10,000 fines which unite pilots
good airmanship and courteousness to members,
against the common enemy of excessively heavy-
visitors and other pilots while operating any aircraft
wherever they may be, so as to keep the good name of the ... Flying Club intact. Members shall ensure that any aircraft under their command comply with all legal requirements regarding the operation of aircraft as specified in the
Guy Leitch EDITOR & PUBLISHER email@example.com
South African Civil Aviation Acts of the Republic of South Africa. Failure to comply with this clause will constitute gross misconduct. November 2020
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COLUMNISTS SA FLYER
16 Guy Leitch - ATTITUDE FOR ALTITUDE 22 Peter Garrison - LEADING EDGE 28 Jim Davis - PLANE TALK 36 Dassie Persaud-van der Westhuizen 40 George Tonking - HELI OPS 46 Johan Walden - A SLIM LOGBOOK 52 Ray Watts - REGISTER REVIEW 90 Jim Davis - ACCIDENT REPORT 105 Chris Martinus - AOPA BRIEFING
8 12 18
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BIZJET & COMMERCIAL JETS REVIEW
58 Flight Test: Stemme S12 75Ã¥ Letters 76 Starlite buys ALSIM Simulator 80 Sling Aircraft Fly-in 86 Companies: Baileys Cars 96 SA Aerobatics Championships 2020 102 No Wing-Stand Required: Mark Holliday 111 CAPE TOWN REVIEW 129 LOWVELD REVIEW 139 GRAND CENTRAL REVIEW
53 Bona Bona Register Review 70 SV Aviation Fuel Table 76 Aviation Direct Events Calender
24 REAL Helicopters Have Hoists 32 Chief of the Airforce Bids Farewell 30 Wilderness Search & Rescue 40 HISTORIC: Spitfire vs Hurricane 53 BIZJET & COMMERCIAL JETS 73 OR TAMBO REVIEW 10
36 Alpi Flight School Listing 37 AME Directory 38 AEP AMO Listing 51 Atlas Oils Charter Directory 88 Aviation Directory
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South Africa’s migration to Level 2 lockdown in mid-August and its graduation to Level 1 in October was received with a hearty and inviting welcome by the airline industry and more generally by the entire hospitality sector. NOW 210 days+ into a “21-day lockdown”,
into the 1300m runway at Richards Bay Airport.
South Africans are battered, bruised and broke.
Margate’s runway is in fact 1370m long and Plett
Levels of anxiety and depression are the highest
1220m long, and together with the Q400’s narrow
ever recorded as an additional 2.5 million newly
runway supplement the Q400 is certified for Plett’s
unemployed workers contemplate how they will
20m runway width.
provide for their families. CemAir is one of the three remaining domestic
seat CRJ900 variant and the 50-seat CRJ100/200
scheduled airlines still operating in South Africa –
variant. The jet aircraft offer speed and range and
a very different playing field from just 10 months
are the equipment of choice on the longer domestic
ago. The Company owns and operates a fleet of 16 aircraft of three basic aircraft types including both jets and turboprops. The Dash-8 and CRJ, both previously manufactured by Bombardier, are now owned respectively by De Havilland (Dash-8) and Japan’s Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (CRJ). Combined with the Textron Beechcraft 1900D, CemAir’s fleet offers a broad range of seating and range capability. The Dash-8 aircraft offers comfort, cabin service and impressive short field performance and is the ideal tool for operations into the municipal airports
routes between JHB and Cape Town and soon between Cape Town and Hoedspruit. These aircraft will also be deployed to operate on planned regional routes up to a range of around 1,400nm per sector. CemAir has opened its domestic flight schedule for the December 2020 / January 2021 festive season to include Cape Town, Plettenberg Bay, Margate, George, Hoedspruit and Durban. And despite the talk of a potential second Covid-19 wave, South Africans seem eager to support the local tourism sector and escape for a few weeks to
of Plettenberg Bay and Margate. The Dash-8
the coast or inland to experience those Kruger Park
102 (37-seats) and Q300 (50-seats) both operate
lodges previously only enjoyed by foreign tourists.
regularly on these routes whilst CemAir continues
CemAir’s MHI CRJ fleet includes both the 90-
As an employer and service provider, CemAir
to work with the SACAA and the airports to upgrade
strives to make a meaningful contribution to South
these operations to the Dash-8 Q400 (78-seats).
Africa’s economy and retains faith in the ability of
The Q400 is also an impressive short-field
South Africans to unite as hard workers, finding
performer and is no stranger to municipal airport
solutions and making a plan for the common good
runways as it has for many years been operated
of all our people.
Plettenberg Bay Cape Town
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HIS Opening Shot is significant because it shows the South African Air Forceâ€™s last two remaining airworthy C-130 Hercules flying together. The occasion was the retirement parade for the Chief of the Air Force, Lt Gen Zakes Msimang. The photo was taken by frequent SA Flyer contributor Malcolm Reid, who was invited to cover the parade. Malcolm used his Canon 7D Mk11 with a 200 mm lens to capture the incoming formation against the backdrop of the building cumulus clouds. Exposure was 320 sec at f8 with an ISO of 250.
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ATTITUDE FOR ALTITUDE: GUY LEITCH
S E C UR I T Y A C T AS AIR TRAVEL BEGINS TO TENTATIVELY EMERGE FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC THE HEALTH CHECKS WILL MAKE THE SECURITY CHECKS SEEM TRIVIAL. COVID SCREENING WILL TAKE
CHECK IN HASSLES TO A NEW LEVEL â€“ STARTING THE DAY BEFORE WHEN YOU MUST HAVE HAD A LONG PROBE INSERTED INTO YOUR NOSE TO DO A COVID TEST.
Security checks have privacy issues.
AIR travel will initially be restricted to ‘bubbles’ – between states that can agree health testing
to after 50 years of fumbling. Why is security screening an charade? There
protocols and that neither country poses too
is increasing evidence that what passes for
much of a risk to another. Then the airports at
airport security checks is in fact just an elaborate
either end of the routes have to become ‘dance
theatrical performance – more designed to
partners’ in an elaborate series of moves to
reassure passengers than deter any hijacker or
implement agreed standards. Travel consultant
Annie Cee writes, “Travellers into and out of
The whole painful drama of airport security
South Africa need to show a negative PCR
checks began nearly fifty years ago, when on 10
(polymerase chain reaction) test result not older
November 1972, three innovative crooks hijacked
than 72 hours. However, you also need to check
a Southern Airways DC-9 with 31 passengers
the requirements of your destinations - some
and 3 crew. The drama started in Birmingham,
require a more recent test - as well as those of the airline which also vary. Emirates requires a test taken a maximum of 96 hours before departure. Lufthansa requires one taken a maximum of 48 hours before departure. For example, - a traveller flying to Germany will need to present a negative test no older than 72 hours in order to leave South Africa. They will also need to show a test no older than 48 hours from the time of departure to enter Germany, or they must test on landing and go into quarantine until the results are available. “Travellers will also need to test at their destination prior to departure in order to
For now Covid-19 screening is on top of security checks.
board the flight back to South Africa - they will
Alabama and the novelty of dealing with the
need to show a negative test recent enough
problem meant that it continued for 30 hours
to meet the requirements of the airline and the
and 6,400 km, only ending the next evening in
72-hour window to enter South Africa again. In
Havana, Cuba. The hijackers’ threat to crash the
South Africa, the labs of Lancet, Pathcare and
aircraft into a nuclear reactor led directly to the
Ampath say their PCR test results are available
requirement that airline passengers be physically
within 48 hours of the test sample arriving in the
screened, with effect from 5 January 1973.
laboratory.” A key part of the process will be the earning
Since then there have been amazingly few successful hijackings or terrorist attacks
of trust between the two ends of the route. In
compared to the number of flights flown. Other
this sense the Post Covid-19 health screening
than one event in the Middle East, there have
will be trying to take-off from the point where the
been no deaths or injuries from terrorists in
elaborate charade of security screening has got
airliners since the 911 attacks 19 years ago. The November 2020
event that we know for sure was terrorism was the
Those defending airport security screening
bombing of Metrojet Flight 9268, an A321 flying
claim that since 11 September 2001 there have
from Sharm el-Sheikh to St Petersburg. The
been a number of foiled attempts to destroy
finding was that a bomb was placed in the hold by
airliners. Yet the amazing thing is that not one
a baggage handler, or someone who had airside
was averted by airport security checks. In 2006
a plot to simultaneously bring down several
For a while EgyptAir flight MS804 was thought
aircraft crossing the Atlantic was foiled by
to have been a bombing, but that is now generally
good intelligence work. In 2010 a tip-off from a
accepted to have suffered a pilot’s iPad induced
Saudi agent working for the British resulted in
intercepted bombs disguised as printer cartridges. Finally, Richard Reid, the
Are airport security checks really effective?
‘shoe bomber’, and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the ‘underpants bomber’, tried to set off explosives on board airliners but were subdued by other passengers. So despite any claims of effectiveness, airport security screening had no effect. Other than suicidal pilots, the real threat is not the passengers, but the ground handlers. The security risk from airport insiders is mindboggling. ISIS boasted that the bomb that took down the Metrojet flight was
Pilot suicides are the biggest problem – and airport security checks can’t fix that. Malaysia’s
drink can would be impractical. Heathrow employs
Boeing 777 MH 370 is now generally accepted
76,000 people, and that’s a lot to screen. The
to be a suicide. As was the Mozambican Airlines
reality is that few security holes are as difficult and
Embraer 190 which crashed in Namibia and the
expensive to close as those posed by determined
Germanwings A320 which dived into the Alps.
insiders with detailed knowledge of how airports
The need for a theatrical performance about security is that airliners are high profile targets for terrorists – and politicians. These tragedies led
hidden in a cold drink can. Screening every cold
work, and with security tags giving easy access to targets. Some idea as to how easy it is to put a bomb
to calls from politicians demanding tighter airport
into somebody else’s bag comes from the number
security – and so a big show is put on.
of valuables stolen from checked-in luggage. In
the four years to 2017 just in the USA, passengers
“Most experts incline towards the latter view. Philip
filed over 30,000 reports of missing property with
Baum, a security consultant and editor of Aviation
the US Transportation Security Administration
Security International, calls it “security theatre as
(TSA). In 2017 police at Miami Airport used a
opposed to security reality”.”
hidden camera to film baggage handlers rifling
America’s TSA has a colossal budget of more
through bags in a plane’s hold and stealing
than $7 billion a year and access to the most
whatever they liked. And such practices are
advanced scanning technologies money can buy.
widespread, yet it’s not baggage handlers but
Yet it has not claimed to have prevented a single
passengers, who are screened the most.
terrorist plot or caught a single terrorist in the past
One of the weaknesses of the security
decade. If they had been successful, I believe they
inflicted on passengers is that they are – perhaps
would have claimed the credit – if only to justify
surprisingly –largely toothless. The ban on liquids,
their massive budget.
aerosol and gasses (LAGs) introduced in response
Although the TSA catches plenty of guns and
to the 2006 plots, is a case in point. If security
knives inadvertently packed by passengers, it
staff find illicit liquids that a passenger has not
is less effective at spotting more determined
presented, they confiscate the containers, but still
attempts to get weapons onto aircraft. Its acting
allow the passenger to fly. And despite the mild
head was booted out after a so-called ‘red team’
consequences, nobody has been caught trying to
succeeded in getting fake bombs and weapons
get liquids on board to make a bomb in over ten
through the screening process in 67 out of 70 tests
years. Nor have there been any reports of other
carried out in airports across America.
would-be shoe bombers or underpants bombers being intercepted, despite the requirement
Airport security checks are a boring job and most events are false alarms. Also, the technology
red teams succeeded in ge tt i ng f ak e bombs and weapons through the screening process in 67 out of 70 tests
is just not good enough, even when it works. Columnist Mike Gough describes a situation in Africa when there was a power failure and the security staff were pushing bags through the inert X-ray scanner with a stick. And even when it works, the best technology is bad at detecting PETN, an
implemented after Reid’s crude effort for
ingredient of the Semtex explosive carried by the
passengers to remove their shoes.
underpants bomber. The uncomfortable truth is
So the question is; have security checks
that a disassembled bomb or weapon still has
deterred would-be terrorists? Or could it be
an excellent chance of getting through airport
that they are just an ineffective performance to
reassure passengers? The Economist reports,
An obvious criticism is that airport security is November 2020
ineffective because it looks in the wrong direction, in that it tries to find weapons and bombs, instead
on other types of security. Bags in the hold
of focusing on the people who carry them.
are subjected to barometric pressure testing,
The Israelis have, of necessity, worked out how
undercover armed marshals travel on every flight
to protect their El Al airliners from terrorist attacks
and its planes are even equipped with anti-missile
– even if their measures do not meet liberal
standards of political correctness. Issy Boim, a
Elsewhere, better technology might improve
former Shin Bet officer who worked closely with
the performance of conventional screening, but
El Al, points out that, while the Americans look for
few airports can afford to update their systems
weapons, the Israelis look primarily for the terror
whenever the latest technology comes out.
X -r a y m a c h i n e s are the most virus laden sur faces in airpor ts— even more than toilet bowls suspect. Boim is naturally a strong advocate of profiling— building a picture of both passengers
Instead, says Boim, they should use profiling to help make their procedures much less routine. “Airport security is far too predictable,” he adds, “Giving everyone a pat-down search is a waste of resources.” But the most important thing of all is just to keep a sense of proportion. Millions of people travel on busses and trains, go to sporting events and attend open-air concerts. All are potential targets for terrorists, yet they receive not even a fraction of the attention that air travel gets. The lessons from El Al profiling are key to
and airline staff. He rejects the idea that this has to
post-Covid flying. Health screening will exclude
be based on crude stereotyping (being suspicious
you if you are from a high-risk area or have had
of all swarthy Muslim men, for example). It should
contact with Covid-19 sufferers. Moving through
be based on behaviour, both before flying, for
the airport will be a whole new experience. The
example: when, how and where a ticket was
most dangerous place in terms of risk of infection
purchased—and at the airport itself.
is not the all too often grungy toilets and wash
El Al employs people trained in psychological
basins. Thanks to research by the University
observation techniques to interview every
of Nottingham, we now know that the security-
passenger before he or she is cleared to go
line trays used to transport bags, loose change,
through physical screening. Anyone who arouses
bottles, and laptops through X-ray machines are
their suspicion is subjected to a further grilling and
the most virus laden surfaces in airports— even
may not be allowed to fly. It is therefore inevitable
more than toilet bowls.
that El Al’s profiling techniques would be politically
El Al also spends more than other airlines
The Nottingham research involved collecting
unacceptable in Europe or America. Hebrew-
90 surface samples and four air samples in
speaking Israelis can expect to be screened more
the Helsinki-Vantaa airport in Finland over the
lightly than Arabs, for example.
course of several weeks. They tested children’s
playground equipment, buttons on payment
To work toward decreasing the threat of falling
terminals, and bathrooms, among many other
ill from exposure to viruses, the researchers
spots. After collecting samples, the team sent their
propose that airports revise their security checks,
swabs back to the laboratory, which calculated the
especially in areas that are mandatory for airline
average amount of bacteria per square inch.
passengers to walk through, such as security
“Our main findings identify that respiratory virus
lines. “Measures preventing transmission locally
contamination of frequently touched surfaces is
could be enhanced, for example by improving
not uncommon at airports; and that plastic security
hand sanitization opportunities where intense,
screening trays appear commonly contaminated,”
repeat touching of surfaces takes place,” they
the researchers wrote in their study. Those
wrote. “Many cleaning agents, household
respiratory viruses included rhinovirus (often
(antibacterial) wipes, and anti-viral tissues are able
associated with runny noses, the common cold,
to rapidly render influenza virus nonviable.” And
and pneumonia) and yes – you guessed it – the
remember – this research was published some
Coronavirus. Covid-19 is airborne.
years before Covid-19 arrived.
Contagious viruses have been known to
With any luck one of the unintended
hitchhike their way around the world via the
consequences of Covid-19 will be the ending of
global network of airports and the airplanes that
the elaborate security check-in charade.
connect them. In 2003, Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome (SARS) travelled from Hong Kong to a handful of countries. Then in 2009, the worldwide spread of pandemic influenza (known as H1N1) spread outward from the US and Mexico. And for 2020 we have Covid-19 (which stands for Corona Virus Disease 2019).
Are airport security checks really effective? November 2020
LEADING EDGE - PETER GARRISON
R OB O P L A NE
IN 1992, SCALED COMPOSITES BUILT A RADIO-CONTROLLED UAV INTENDED FOR 48-HOUR FLIGHTS AT 65,000 FEET. CALLED QUIVER (THE NAME WAS LATER CHANGED TO RAPTOR, FOR “RESPONSIVE AIRCRAFT PROGRAM FOR THEATER OPERATIONS”), IT HAD A WINGSPAN OF 66 FEET AND AN 80-HP ROTAX ENGINE.
SCALED also home-brewed the autopilot, and
and Doug Shane climbed into the saddle for the
there was some uncertainty about how it might
behave before its rates and gains had been properly adjusted. In order to avoid losing the
astride the aeroplane and behind the beating
prototype on its first flight, Burt Rutan came up
propeller, as “a new and unwelcome experience.”
with the idea of providing it with a human safety
Landings were particularly harrowing. Melvill
pilot who could take over in case something went
recalled “how hard it was to let [the remote pilot]
land and not grab the controls.”
Now, the Quiver was designed to carry
Shane later described flying in the open air,
On a seemingly unrelated topic, I remember
a 150-pound payload, including a couple of
watching in awe, as a small boy in New York
underwing anti-missile missiles, but its skinny
skyscrapers, while a liveried elevator man made
fuselage did not have a cockpit, or even room
a series of subtle adjustments with an ornate
for one. Rutan solved the problem with his
brass lever to bring the floor of the elevator to
customary ingenuity and sublime indifference
rest in perfect alignment with the floor outside.
to human comfort. A back rest and safety belts
It seemed like a beautiful example of human
– but no windshield – were added on top of
skill and adaptability; how cruel to discover that
the fuselage, along with makeshift links to the
those artists of alignment were unnecessary, and
primary flight controls. Test pilots Mike Melvill
elevators could be made to mind themselves!
Did the first riders in
figuring out how (but not why)
to call them Zip Aircraft, after
automatic elevators, invited
to put people on Mars, are
the Zip Car model of distributed
to believe that the touch of a
meditating a different kind of
car rental. In the Zip model,
button would carry them up that
autonomous flight. The concept
a person needing a car uses
terrible dark shaft and deposit
is something we have seen
an app to find one nearby and
them safely at their destination,
in movies and illustrations
unlock it. He simply abandons it
feel the same qualm as Shane
depicting cities a hundred years
at his destination, and eventually
and Melvill did as their fingers
hence: aerial taxis whizzing
someone else uses it. This
first followed the tremors of a stick controlled from afar? Or as our children will, when they first board an aeroplane having neither a pilot nor even a
B OA R D A N A ER OP L A NE HAV I NG NEI T HER A P I LOT NOR E V EN A C OCK P I T ?
cockpit? The idea of passenger-
among the towers, delivering
model has become ubiquitous in
carrying aeroplanes without
their occupants to destinations
the form of the electric scooters
pilots usually comes up in
they would have reached, in the
that now clutter the sidewalks of
relation to the increasing
olden days, by foot, horse or
every major city.
automation of airliners and
the rumoured withering-away
These are PAVs – Personal
The assumption underlying Zip Cars was that most people
of basic flying skills in their
Aerial Vehicles. Mark Moore,
know how to drive. The
pilots. But the designers of
who left NASA Langley to head
obvious difficulty, when you are
our Future, when they are not
up Uber’s aerial branch, used
considering an aerial version, is that most people do not know how to fly. The solution would be an aeroplane that flies itself – you tell it where you want to go, and it takes you there. Although Moore is careful to describe his studies to date as merely exploratory, he is optimistic about the future of PAVs and particularly about the potential of electric power. Electric motors open up possibilities for structural
Scaled Composites Raptor - with Mike Melvill perched on top to supervise the autopilot.
and aerodynamic advances, November 2020
increased reliability, reduced noise and pollution,
“inner loop” and “outer loop” skills. The inner loops
and lowered acquisition and operating costs; but
consists of basic ship-handling: staying right side
they suffer today from the inadequacy of even
up, managing power, manoeuvring, maintaining
the best batteries. For a given powerplant weight,
speed and altitude, navigating among defined
an aeroplane, particularly one that must take off
waypoints, even controlling the approach and
vertically, cannot go nearly as far on battery power
landing. These are tasks, some more complex
as it could on a like mass of liquid fuel. Moore
than others, that “are dealing with relatively
argues, however, that experimental batteries
straightforward/deterministic signals and physics.”
now in development could provide a four-seat
In other words, either things are where they should
A later model put the pilot inside rather than on top.
aeroplane with a range of 200 miles, and that
be, or some clearly defined action is required to
would be more than enough for most PAV trips.
get them there; there are no ambiguities.
Hybridizing the powerplant with a small range-
Goodrich compares a semi-autonomous
extending internal-combustion engine would
aeroplane – one with just inner-loop capabilities
take care of longer trips, at least until still better
– to a well-trained horse. “The aeroplane has
instinctive or reactive intelligence (which is much
NASA’s Kenneth Goodrich, who studied the
simpler than general, human intelligence) relative
problems of autonomous flight, imagined pilot and
to expected environmental factors and is generally
aeroplane sharing responsibilities. He speaks of
biased toward self-preservation in the absence of
decisive pilot direction.” If you do the wrong thing,
a response to each new event, but by ensuring
or do nothing, the aeroplane finds its way to some
that fewer unexpected events occur.
safe condition. Outer loops involve more abstract types
Whatever mix of autonomous control and piloting skills it might eventually require, the
of perception and decision-making, ones
implementation of the Zip Aircraft concept requires
for which we now consider the human mind
finding a way to integrate large numbers of PAVs
indispensable. The variety of situations that can
into present traffic. Fortunately, most current air
arise in flight, and the complexities of dealing
traffic is at high altitude; PAVs are expected to
with them, seem far beyond the grasp of any
operate at low altitudes, from special airports or
imaginable computer program. It is difficult to
special parts of existing airports, and on routes
imagine a machine possessing the combination
that would avoid conflict with other types of traffic.
of situational awareness, initiative, judgment and
Of course, we know that pilotless aeroplanes
resourcefulness that a good pilot possesses, and
are already here; but battlefield drones are still
so pilots – not to mention everybody else – tend
mostly controlled from afar. PAVs are drones that
to be sceptical of the idea that full responsibility
have moved away from home. It’s certain that they
for the execution of a flight could be entrusted to
will increase in number and undertake more and
automata. It is sufficient to mention Sullenberger
more diverse tasks, including the delivery of cargo,
and the Hudson River, and the case is closed.
and will learn to mingle unobtrusively with piloted
But even full autonomy may prove more
aeroplanes. And eventually they’ll carry people.
attainable than we suppose. Digital technology
And the first people they carry will almost certainly
continually surprises us in unexpected ways. The
ability of multicopters to stop and hover in flight
Will pilots go the way of coachmen? Before we
makes them particularly adaptable to automated,
prepare to hang up our goggles and scarves in
distributed collision avoidance. ADS-B, which
the temple of Dedalus, let us take some comfort
continually broadcasts its GPS location, makes the
from Ken Goodrich. “Elevator-like autonomy,” he
job that much easier.
says, “could be an option in the distant future (20-
I can imagine – Moore and Goodrich suggest nothing of this sort – aeroplanes without pilots operating in a highly regimented environment
30+ years), but it’s far beyond the state of the art today.” Trouble is, predictions these days are like rear-
under either external or distributed control. They
view mirrors: Things in them are closer than they
would fly at altitudes and along routes chosen
to mesh with other flights. They would sense the proximity of others and avoid them. A PAV might join a flock of others moving along a sort of threedimensional city street, and formate more closely with them than normal pilots would dare. Conflicts would principally be avoided as we avoid traffic conflicts by staying in our lane: not by improvising November 2020
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PLANE TALK - JIM DAVIS
PA X A C T I V E OR
( PA R T 2 )
PA S S I V E P E S T S ? LAST MONTH WE LOOKED AT THE PERSONALITIES OF PAX WHO ARE MOST LIKELY TO KILL YOU. I’M GOING TO CONTINUE WITH THIS THEME AS THEY HAVE ALMOST UNLIMITED RESOURCEFULNESS IN THEIR PURSUIT OF EVIL.
I’VE just been reading a discussion on Avcom
evening. As you taxi in, you see them standing
about a 22-year-old commercial pilot who took
on the apron with a pile of luggage.
off from East London in bad weather on his way
You can see you’ll be way over gross if you
to Pietermaritzburg. They never arrived and
load them all. Someone has messed up with
subsequently parts of the Cessna 336 ZS-JVK
the booking – they should’ve ordered a bigger
were found in the sea. The discussion was
aircraft. But you are left to carry the can.
around whether the pax had pressured the pilot into doing the flight against his better judgement. I have no idea whether they actively tried
The problem is compounded by the fact that the sun is setting. There is enough daylight to fly them to the lodge, but not enough to do two trips.
to talk him into flying, but you can be sure that
The airport has closed so there are no taxis
their presence alone was enough to passively
or hire cars, and the airport hotel is closed for
Pax don’t need to touch anything, or even speak, to constitute a safety hazard – their very
Here are your options:
existence is often enough to prod you into taking
• Leave one of them behind. You can
off against your better judgement. Think about this situation; imagine you are a new young
imagine how that would go down. • Leave some of their luggage behind –
charter pilot in Botswana. Your boss has told you
probably to be stolen in the night.
to fly a family of safari pax in a C206 from Maun
• Leave a passenger or luggage behind
to a lodge in the Delta. Their flight from overseas
and risk coming back to collect them in
lands just before the airport closes in the
the dark – with no runway lighting.
• Endanger everyone by overloading the aircraft – and invalidating the insurance. This isn’t the sort of mass and balance problem
stripes on each shoulder. Although he’s a commercial pilot with an instrument rating, he has a total of only 275 hours,
that you studied for your Com. This is a people
and less than ten hours on type. Worse still, the
problem that you are ill-prepared to handle.
aircraft is in such poor shape that it’s not certified
Whatever you do, you are going to piss some
for flying in IMC due to the unserviceability of
people off – and possibly lose your hard-earned
some of the avionics or instruments.
first flying job. You think this is an unlikely scenario? Okay here’s the real thing – I reported on this in the June 2012 issue of SA Flyer. We are at the Kruger Mpumalanga International
The pilot’s shirt is soaked with sweat as he struggles with the luggage – while the passengers stand back and watch his efforts. The story so far is that the pilot who usually flies the Islander had injured his leg and couldn’t
Airport (FAKN). It’s mid-afternoon on Sunday 5
fly. He had found this substitute pilot who’s not
October 2008, and it’s a muggy day with low cloud
rated on the type, and rushed him through a two-
and the rumble of distant thunder. We see a rather
and-a-half-hour conversion. The purpose was to
tatty Britten-Norman Islander, ZS-OSD, standing
fly the owner and his family, plus a friend and his
on the apron.
family from Bloemfontein to Inhambane, on the
This situation isn’t dissimilar to the one at Maun. There are nine people gathered around the
Mozambique coast, for a short holiday. The families are now returning to Bloemies,
aircraft. They are loading a large pile of clobber
where the four children are expected back at
and some heavy wooden carvings. Amongst them
school tomorrow morning. They’ve landed at
is a 21-year-old pilot with the traditional dark blue
Kruger International to clear customs.
pants, a white short-sleeved shirt and three gold
The pilot, who’s young enough to have a touch
ZS-OSD was overloaded - and not equipped for Instrument Flight.
of acne on his cheeks, has the haunted look of
pilot and the bully boy passenger. Here they are
one whose mind is heavily burdened. This is
indeed the case – the aircraft is 400 lb over gross and the owner is demanding that they fly towards
high ground and deteriorating weather.
Here are a couple of snippets from the official accident report: Before departure from Inhambane, on
3. Neuroticism 4. Openness to experience 5. Extraversion
the return leg of the flight, the pilot was very concerned about the weather. He did not want to
Now we’ll look at the pilot first:
fly because the weather in the Nelspruit area was
Conscientiousness. A really conscientious pilot
not good. The staff at the lodge noticed that the
would not have been in that situation in the first
pilot spent an unusually long time on the internet.
place. He would’ve refused to be rushed through
When they questioned him about it, he expressed
the type conversion. He would’ve refused to take
his concerns about the weather.
off from Inhambane on account of the weather,
The pilot then attempted to convince the aircraft owner to delay their departure, but only managed to convince him to wait for one hour. Staff at the lodge said that the pilot was intimidated into flying, against his own judgment,
the aircraft’s non-instrument status, and the overloading. Agreeableness. The poor young pilot scored high on this – he just wanted to please his client. We don’t know how he’d rate on the other three,
by the owner of the aircraft. The staff told
but let’s see how the aircraft owner fares under the
investigators about the intimidating manner of the
owner of the aircraft throughout his stay at the lodge. Before departure, the owner of the lodge expressed concern to the owner of the aircraft as to the large amount of luggage and curios that
Conscientiousness. This is certainly not his strong point. If he were conscientious, he wouldn’t be flying his family and friends around in a battered aircraft with a semi-trained pilot. Agreeableness. Well, it sounds as if it would
were gathered at the reception desk to be loaded
be hard to find a more disagreeable character
into the aircraft. The owner of the lodge made a
anywhere. The hotel staff found that to be the
passing remark that the aircraft owner would need
case, and his bullying of the young pilot would
to attach a trailer to the aircraft to carry all the
certainly confirm their view.
luggage and curios. The only real difference between this situation
We don’t know how he’d rate on numbers 3 and 4, but he sounds like a classic extrovert. Usually,
and the one at Maun is that the Maun passengers
it’s not a bad thing. I’ve generally found extroverts
were passive, while this guy is being actively
to be very receptive to reason. I’ve never had any
aggressive in his demands to fly his overloaded
trouble with them when explaining why a flight
aircraft into crappy weather.
can’t happen, or must be delayed or diverted.
Just for a moment, let’s go back to those five personality traits and see how they play out for the
Back to the story. All nine people we saw on the apron at Kruger were to die within the hour. November 2020
They took off and stayed below the cloud initially. Then, somewhere near Barberton, they climbed into the cloud, hit the mountains and the aircraft burst into flames. Passengers, be they bullying types like this guy, or totally passive, like the tourists at Maun, are a potential threat to any flight. You can generally avoid the problem, or defuse it, by managing their expectations before the flight. If the tourists at Maun had been properly briefed on the weight of their luggage, or the charter company had managed their expectations with a larger aircraft, there wouldn’t have been a problem. If Mr Bully Boy’s pilot had said upfront that the aeroplane was not suitable for the mission, he
The pilot, who’s young enough to have a touch of acne, has the haunted look would’ve saved nine lives. The trick is to simply warn your pax, before the flight – even the day before – that the weather isn’t great and you might have to cancel or divert. In doing this, you’ve mentally prepared them for a change of plan. And perhaps more importantly, you’ve made it easy for yourself to break the news to them – if you do have to cancel or divert. I’ve a feeling that the famous double Albatross accident was largely due to passive pressures from the pax. People had to be back at work, kids had to be back at school, and so on. The pilots felt the pressure of having to meet certain
expectations or be considered chickens. Hence my endorsement of the Live Cowards’ Club (LCC). I suspect the pilots also have felt passive pressure because smaller single-engine aircraft had taken off before them and got through, or round, the weather without a problem. From a flying point of view, it seems both pilots should’ve circled over the field to gain height before crossing the mountains – but I wasn’t there and don’t know all the facts. I’d guess that passive people pressures played a big part in their decisionmaking. My feeling is that one or both of the pilots (I didn’t know either of them) should’ve said, “Hang on folks, I’m not happy with the weather – let’s have another day’s holiday.” I’ve done that often enough, and it always worked out just fine. So how do you protect yourself from bullies, both passive and active? Two very simple tricks. First, the advanced warning that I told you about earlier. If they know there might be a problem, they have the opportunity to make alternate plans – like driving or going by airlines. And if the problem does arise, they are mentally prepared for the consequences. I learned my second line of defence from a flight I had very soon after getting my Com, and it has served me well ever since. Here’s what happened. I was flying a 235 Cherokee for a charter company in Kimberley. My boss, Bert Potgieter, then bought a shiny new Twin Comanche, ZSEAR, because he understood it was an “all weather aircraft.” Soon after getting the twin, he wanted me to fly him to Bloemfontein for a business meeting. As we approached Bloem, I could see there was a weather factory, a Charlie Bravo, sitting on the airfield like a fat hen warming her eggs. She had no intention of moving for me or anyone else.
She covered the whole area and I could see we
ignoring him. I saw my passenger, not as a rotund,
were not going to get in. Bert was determined we
red-faced businessman, but as a wooden crate
HAD to be there as the meeting was seriously
that had been packed with a bunch of sound
equipment. This stuff had got loose in the box and
To show I was willing, I got us chucked around
was chirping its stupid head off. The pleading,
on the outskirts of the storm and frightened by
demanding and shouting was nothing personal – it
lightning. But Bert wasn’t put off.
was simply rogue electronics.
Eventually, I told Bert I wasn’t prepared to keep
Ever since then, I’ve stuck to the idea that
trying until we killed ourselves. Bert was normally
pax are not really people – who have to get to a
a passive and jovial man, but now he blew a fuse.
meeting, or a match, or a funeral – they are just
He got red in the face, he pleaded and shouted
boxes of recordings. It works like a charm.
and demanded, but I was more scared of the
Perhaps if our youngster in the Islander had
storm than I was of him. So I stuck to my guns
known this trick, he and his pax would’ve been
and headed back to Kimberley. Bert was livid. He
told me I was fired, and said he’d find a pilot who wasn’t scared of the weather. The next day I ignored my firing – I had been
Guys and girls, I appeal to you to be brave cowards. Have the guts to be the boss and make flying decisions – not people decisions. Nobody
fired by bigger fish than him, and I knew the drill:
really minds staying an extra night when they get
you simply pitch up the next day as if nothing had
used to the idea. And you probably won’t be fired.
happened – it always works. Anyhow, I was in
Once the dust has settled, you’ll be respected for
my office, which was separated from his by a thin
your professional attitude.
partition. He was talking to some slightly nervous
There’s a chilling postscript to the Islander
potential charter pax and I overheard him saying
accident. They hit the mountain about 150 ft below
they’d be fine because I was the safest pilot in the
its summit. Had the pilot refused to overload the
aircraft, it would have cleared the mountains with
The point of this story is that while Bert was
W N E EW B S IT E
shouting at me, I developed a trick – a way of
CORRECTION & APOLOGY IN FEBRUARY 2019 WE PUBLISHED A JIM DAVIS ACCIDENT REPORT ABOUT
to be done, then I would do them as fast as
THE DANGERS OF SINGLE ENGINE NIGHT
FLYING. THE ARTICLE RELATED TO AN INCIDENT ABOUT 43 YEARS AGO AND REFERRED TO MR CHARLES KINGWILL.
• Mr Davis had to encourage me to slow down and do things properly; • Mr Davis came close to dying during my alleged first attempt at night flying;
Mr Kingwill has contacted us and states the following: “The most salient error in the article that I was never the student pilot involved in the night flying
• I did something stupid by switching off the instrument panel lights instead of the landing lights; (this allegation was also graphically depicted in the cartoon on page 25)
story relayed by Mr Davis. I never at any stage
• Having managed to place the aircraft in an
received dual instruction from Mr Davis and my
upside down position, I then froze and Mr
log books confirm this.
Davis had to take control.
Notwithstanding this basic fact, the article
As indicated above none of this happened to
makes a number of serious allegations regarding
me as I never received dual instruction from or
my proficiency as a pilot and my attitude to safety
with Mr Davis. He has clearly confused me with
procedures. In particular the article alleges:
• I paid little attention to his bleating! • I regarded checks and procedures as an annoyance; if checks and procedures had
For having confused Mr Kingwill with someone else, we sincerely apologize to Mr Kingwill.
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DASSIE PERSAUD-VAN DER WESTHUIZEN
T HE MP L G A MB L E IT IS INCREASINGLY BEING REALISED THAT THE TRADITIONAL WAY OF TRAINING
AIRLINE PILOTS MAY BE WRONG IN THAT IT COSTS TOO MUCH, TAKES TOO LONG, AND TEACHES STUDENT PILOTS THE WRONG STUFF â€“ WHICH THEY HAVE TO UNLEARN LATER.
The 5 quick steps to become an MPL airline pilot.
SO, in 2006, a new training methodology for
their syllabus moves in vastly different directions
airline cadets was developed to replace the
after a few hours’ exposure to communicating with
traditional flight school progress from Student Pilot
the tower and experiencing the sensations of flight
to Private to Commercial and eventuality to Airline
on a single-engine piston aircraft.
Transport Pilot. This also replaces the Integrated
Integrated ATPL cadets follow the tried and
ATPL Programme – which is a kind of half-baked
tested steps that we are familiar with in South
hybrid between the old and the new.
Africa - progressing from single-engine piston
Airlines realised that the newly minted ATPL
aircraft right through to instrument and multi-
pilots who had painstakingly built up 1,500
engine training to obtain a Commercial Pilot’s
hours flying little planes were ill-equipped for the
License. Finally, these cadets are introduced to
demands of flying an airliner – and in particular
their airline flying job during the short type rating.
the requirements of operating in a multi crew
MPL cadets progress through an airline-
environment. So European airlines such as
specific course to be airline ready; the basic
easyJet, FlyBe and Virgin Atlantic streamlined
phase involves learning to fly on jet simulators in
cadet pilot training to prepare their recruits for a career as an airline pilot only. Multi-Crew Pilot License (MPL) training was, therefore, introduced and tailored to each airline’s SOPs so cadets could graduate from flight school ready to welcome over a hundred passengers on board with a smile. The number of airlines using MPL training is on the rise, yet some South Africans are unfamiliar with this route since our local market doesn’t offer low-hour pilots fresh out of flight
newly minted ATPL pilots who have painstakingly built up a 1500 hours flying little planes are illequipped for the demands of flying an airliner
school opportunities in the right-hand seat at airlines. Those who are aware of MPL training have questioned the ability (and safety) of pilots
a multi-crew environment. The intermediate phase
who graduate from this course. And, because of
is tailored to the sponsor airline’s fleet and SOPs
the limitations of an MPL, these cadets are some
(so, if the airline flies A320s, then the cadets
of the hardest-hit pilots during the COVID-19
familiarise themselves with the A320 through
simulator sessions). And finally, the advanced phase, which is comparable to type rating training
SO, WHAT IS AN MPL? Instead of gradually jumping through the hoops
in a level D simulator. Perhaps you noticed that almost all MPL
of an integrated ATPL program, MPL training
training is on a simulator? I’m sure you’re
removes most of the syllabus focused on single-
wondering whether it isn’t safer for cadets to gain
pilot training. While both courses commence with
experience in a real aircraft before loading 180
ATPL ground school and the theoretical exams,
passengers on board? Shouldn’t all pilots develop November 2020
confidence in their flying skills in general aviation
awareness, teamwork, decision-making, workload
while slowly working their way up to more complex
management and threat-and-error-management
aircraft before flying the big birds at airlines?
are a few on the list. But do these competencies
These questions have been asked and debated
matter if cadets haven’t developed hand flying skills
numerous times over the years. The divide
(through single-engine piston flying in real aircraft) to
remains strong. The short answer is that airline
use when things do go wrong in an emergency?
flying requires a set of skills not acquired during
Surprisingly, yes. These competencies tend to
single-pilot training in an ATPL course. More
be more beneficial than hand-flying skills in a multi-
specifically, studies have proven that several airline
crew environment when successfully managing a
accidents/incidents are as a result of pilots lacking
system degradation or failure. ‘Stick and rudder’
The MPL allows pilots barely out of their teens to get to the flight deck.
skills are still essential, but the skills required for airline flying are developed through level D simulator training only - a reality I had to face during my Airbus training in the UK since single-engine piston ‘stick and rudder’ skills aren’t transferable. (In fact, a considerable amount of effort went into removing what was consolidated in my previous ATPL training). Additionally, it is generally accepted that crew revert to their primary training when placed in high-stress situations. For ATPL trained cadets, this would mean dangerously trying to apply
interpersonal skills (not technical skills). So, why
single-engine piston flight training to the airline
shouldn’t cadet pilots be trained to be competent
environment. For example, when I found myself
airline pilots from day one?
under pressure during my A320 skills test, my immediate reaction was to revert back to basics -
COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING Since MPL training is specialised for airlines, the course enables cadets to reach their full potential by developing the interpersonal skills required to
which involved using my feet while flying an ILS. That was a big mistake! (Fortunately, I got my feet back in check very quickly and passed my exam). So, in theory, the MPL route sounds like the right
be an airline pilot from the outset. Why waste time
way to go for a career as an airline pilot (in a country
teaching cadets how to fly small piston aircraft if
that offers these opportunities to low-hour pilots).
they’re employed to fly an A320? Why train to be
proficient in single-pilot operators when the job requires daily teamwork? Flight hours, therefore, mean very little in MPL training. The focus is on
If this training is more suitable for a career as an
developing competencies through competency-
airline pilot, then why don’t all student pilots enrol for
based training (CBT) instead.
an MPL? Well, all that glitters is not gold. Firstly, if
What type of competencies? Situational
THE MPL GAMBLE
the student fails any phase of training then the entire
MPL training course is ‘failed,’ and you don’t even
the MPL graduate is not allowed to fly for another
get a PPL.
airline, although he or she at this time holds both
Additionally, there are limitations on MPL
a license and a type rating.” Which is why the
holders; “The privileges of the license holder is
COVID-19 pandemic is so devastating for MPL
to act as co-pilot and to exercise the privileges of
cadets - they not only lost their jobs but their ability to find a new one. CONSIDERING YOUR OPTIONS Before my brief A320 airline training, I regarded MPL courses as financially risky and a training methodology that couldn’t produce safe pilots.
Building hours as a charter pilot may not make you a very well trained airline pilot.
However, my short time in a level D simulator opened my eyes to the reality of airline flying - in which I would ‘operate’ an Airbus instead of ‘flying’ it and for which I would have to develop a new set
the instrument rating (IR) in an aircraft required
of competencies. Having to unlearn most of what
to be operated with a co-pilot. The MPL training
I had solidified in flight school was a challenge I
is focused on the multi-crew environment and
could have avoided if I was an MPL graduate.
for that reason, the license does not include the
So now I have a new (and informed) opinion
privilege of flying in single-pilot operations.” In
of MPL training. If I could go back in time, I might
other words, forget the idea of hiring a Cessna
have chosen the MPL path to better prepare
and flying away for the weekend - the only flying
myself for a career as an airline pilot. However,
MPL holders in Europe can do is through their
since COVID-19 interrupted my airline dreams, it is
airline (until gaining an ATPL at 1,500hrs total
a relief knowing that I can apply for any flying job -
unlike my former cadet colleagues in Europe, who
Unfortunately, the limitations of the MPL isn’t
lost big time with their MPL gamble.
only restricting for flying on the side. Careers of MPL holders in Europe are entirely dependent
Airline pilots need to work as a crew and operate the plane rather than fly it.
on the airline that recruits them as ab initio cadets. “If the particular airline involved in the MPL training interrupts hiring, or for any other reason cannot continue as a participant during the initial operating experience, November 2020
HELI OPS: GEORGE TONKING
MMMM. . .
I GE T HI GH WI T H A L I T T L E HEL P F R OM MY F R I ENDS FOR THOSE WORRIED ABOUT THE USE OF RECREATIONAL CHEMICALS - THE TITLE THIS MONTH IS A HELICOPTER PILOT’S PLAY ON WORDS, AND NOT AS JOHN LENNON OR PAUL McCARTNEY INTENDED IT.
IN the June 2019 edition of SA Flyer I wrote
west of the town. (We call it one-way because
about a harrowing flight to the Lowveld in an
the airstrip is on a slope, which necessitates
Airbus Helicopters Squirrel. In that episode,
taking off down-hill and landing up-hill.)
I was stuck in White River at the mercy of a
Located on Heidelberg farm, a few minutes’
frothing, fuming mountain between me and my Highveld destination, as a heavy squall-line storm roiled in. I was more than keen to find a hiding place for my birdy as hail could cause some pricy damage to her silky-smooth skin. At the time, a small airfield just outside White River came to mind. I had visited White River fairly frequently, along the N4 to Nelspruit or via the more picturesque route through Dullstroom and Sabie, to
Hurricane Idai flooded vast areas around the Zambezi Delta - and left people on trees for days.
visit my dad who had lived there
most of my adult life. After learning to fly, I
drive outside White river, the airstrip is home
began to venture into the Lowveld to visit him
to mission aviation NGO “Mercy Air”. Its green,
by helicopter, which is when I first spied, and
grass runway, nestled between orchards, vines
started to drop in on, the small one-way strip
and fruit plantations, draws your imagination
that keep me coming back. On that stormy day in question, I had arrived at Mercy Air, tail between my legs after the walloping I had just endured at the escarpmentface above Rhenosterhoek. The immediate willingness to stow my sodden eaglet was The Quest Kodiak provided a vital link to move supplies to the flooded region.
welcomed, as Philip, the base helicopter technician, cleared a space for me in one of their
to the early pioneer days of
Africa at the time, which was
Airbus Helicopters AS350 B2
aviation explorers in Africa. It
operated by Mercy Air from
Squirrel’s berths. Fortunately for
has always been an interesting
1994 to 2010. Incidentally, that
me, it was in Mozambique at the
place to visit – both because of
very aircraft was a star in an
time, leaving the perfectly-sized
the people and the non-human
iconic Hollywood film about the
space for mine. Heartening
aviation relics one often finds
famous aviatrix Amelia Earhart.
company and a good night’s rest
there. Wherever I land, I find
But I digress.
at my Dad’s place helped me to
myself snooping around birds
As much as I enjoy exploring
largely recover from the trauma
on the ground and wondering
the aircraft, it is the Mercy Air
of the storm. On returning early
about the stories they could
people, who are enthusiasts
morning to retrieve my heli, I
tell. Like the old Beech 18, ZS-
always willing to have a chin-
found her carefully dried off and
OIJ, one of only two airworthy
wag about some or another
put out for me to pre-flight. It’s
Beechcraft Model 18s in South
aviation or faith-related topic,
that level of care that reminded me of the close brotherhood and great responsibility we have to help each other in the industry. Unbeknownst to me, that trip was also the beginning of a special friendship with a fellow helicopter pilot who hails from thousands of miles away. Joel Bärtschi joined the Swiss Air Force Pilot School out of high
Mercy Air's two Squirrel helicopters provided the all important last link to the stranded communities.
school, and trained first on the Pilatus PC-7, before being selected for helicopter training, November 2020
flying the twin-engine Airbus Helicopters EC635.
had moved to Mozambique from her Midwest
A combined civilian-military flying syllabus meant
town, learnt Portuguese, and had been serving
that he ended up with frozen ATP licenses for both
the local community by teaching and administering
airplanes and whirlybirds. After leaving the Air
healthcare. After the epitome of a long-distance,
Force, Joel considered a civilian flying career and
remote relationship, they are now married and
soon found his passion for God and flying aligned
working together at Mercy Air. And being a
in joining Mercy Air in Switzerland.
match made in helicopter heaven, she still gets to do what she loves most, work into her beloved Mozambique. Founded in 1990, Mercy Air South Africa has operated over vast tracts in the SADC region (but predominantly in Mozambique) from their South African base, providing medical humanitarian aid and pastoral care without charge. Their current fleet comprises a mix of fixed- and rotary-wing
Joel Bärtschi - Mercy Air helicopter pilot.
aircraft. On the fixed-wing side, they have a Quest Kodiak single-engine turbine and a twin-piston Cessna 310. Then, for work into remote areas, with no access to runways, they fly two Squirrels,
In 2015, Joel located to Mercy Air’s base in the Lowveld. Partnering with like-minded organisations like Youth With A Mission (YWAM)
which are perfect for transiting people, goods and equipment. A good example of this type of multi-discipline
in Mozambique saw Joel fly many sorties to
operational deployment was during Cyclone
and from one of their bases on the banks of the
Idai, one of the deadliest tropical cyclones to hit
Mercy Air’s Kodiak came to the fore, ferrying supplies from larger airports to small prepared airstrips
southern Africa, in March 2019. The cyclone, with winds of up to 195km/h, made landfall near Beira, Mozambique. Although there was not much flooding in the town, wind damage left it looking like it had been hit by multiple,
Zambezi River delta. Flying the YWAM teams
indiscriminate bombs – with walls flattened, roofs
by helicopter could turn multiple-day, arduous
collapsed and the streets littered with trees. So
journeys by foot and canoe across waist deep
severe was it that the road to the airport took
mud, hippo- and crocodile-infested rivers into
three days to be cleared. Mercy Air was able to
smooth and safe minutes-long helicopter rides.
assist immediately by deploying a Squirrel with a
There he met Sarah, an American lass who
team of disaster specialists to aid the many other
humanitarian and government
down-wash of his rotors. Drops
when I received a call from Joel
like these would afford the
out of the blue, in search of an
stranded survivors time to hold
instructor who could assist him
on for boat rescue.
with high altitude (mountain)
The entire district of Buzi around Beira in particular was devastated, with extensive
The team would also
training on the Squirrel. I set
flooding. Here, Mercy Air’s
carefully document what they
him up with my good friend
Kodiak came to the fore, ferrying
had encountered, in order to
Buzz Bezuidenhout, who has
supplies from larger airports
facilitate further rescue missions
been flying since I was minus
to small prepared airstrips that
and more efficiently coordinate
six: a living encyclopaedia of
cargo airliners could not access. From there, Joel’s team was able to shuttle the aid to more remote areas in the Squirrel. The team also managed to rig a long line to the helicopter to carefully lift people, some of whom had been stranded in tree-tops for days, to relative safety. During the helicopter missions, the team was shocked to see the extent of the flooding – encountering community after remote community stranded or cut off from fresh water and
Joel's wife Sarah Bärtschi loves serving the Mozambican communities.
food supplies; people huddled together on any available high
the precious resources.
helicopter experience. While
ground – be it on roofs and
Countless communities were
we were chatting, on the spur
water towers, in trees and on
rescued in this way. Proof of the
of the moment, I invited Joel
sports fields’ tiered stands. Joel
impact to both the communities
to drive up from White River to
recounts how he would hover
and Mercy Air team can be
stay with my family for a week
close to groups of people so
measured by the exuberant
and to enjoy some flying with
that his crew could drop boxes
welcome the helicopter receives
me. Mercy Air’s flight operations
of energy biscuits (which they
whenever they venture back into
had been on hold during the
discovered could float) into
the formerly flood-ravaged area.
Covid-19 pandemic, and he
the water, being careful not to
As Joel says; “Shouts of joy
seemed to be suffering from
swamp the cluster of people and
power that helicopter.”
grave withdrawal symptoms.
their possessions with the heavy
Fast forward to July 2020,
I thought he would um and ah November 2020
A Squirrel providing essential transport for a bush clinic.
and say â€œno thanksâ€? to the opportunity,
The entire district of Buzi was particularly hard-hit, with extensive flooding.
but a week later he was at our front door, ready to fly. What a great privilege, with both of us taking full advantage of the opportunity to glean from each other, having vastly different operational backgrounds. We mostly flew my current craft, the Robinson R44, and I also had the opportunity to introduce him to the Robinson R66 turbine helicopter. This is what really gets me going. I love flying, but flying with friends and sowing into othersâ€™ lives is what floats my boat, what gets me on a high, as the title says. And the other moral of the story? Always be ready to accept help from strangers. You never know the heights the new friendships will take you in your
career, and personally.
Damage caused by hurricane Idai to the hangars at Beira.
A SLIM LOGBOOK - JOHAN WALDEN
GE T T I NG LOS T I’D JUST COMPLETED MY FIRST NIGHT FLIGHT WITH MY INSTRUCTOR OVER A BRILLIANTLY LIT CAPE TOWN. NOW IT WAS TIME TO FLY THE NEST FOR A DUAL CROSS-COUNTRY AND WRAP UP THE NIGHT RATING. BUT AFTER ALL THE GLITTER AND SPARKLES, THE DARK WAS ABOUT TO CATCH ME BY SURPRISE. IT was late evening and the classroom desk
Somersveld (SVV) which lay smack in the middle
was a storm of charts, pencils, and rulers. I was
of my triangle. After seeing Cape Town lit up like
having way too much fun mapping out the route
Christmas the other night, I was confident that the
I was about to fly with my instructor and was
roads and towns dotted around would be plenty
adding the final touches. The flight in our trusty
for me to pick my way. But better to be thorough,
Cessna 172 would take around two hours: from
- and mindful of the 6Ps - that Proper Planning
Morningstar to Gouda (a town just past Voelvlei
Prevents a piss-poor performance, I plotted a
Dam) where we’d make a left overhead and fly
few of my way-points from SVV anyway. Even if I
on to Saldanha. There we planned to do a few
didn’t need them, at least I could check myself in
landings before coming back for a full-stop at
the air. Little did I know these would save my butt
Cape Town Int’l via Darling and Atlantis – a nice
After consulting many bits of paper from the
That was the plan anyway.
weather-gods, my instructor and I had a careful
Being older than my dad, the only nav
look at some spoilsport cloud that was forecast to
equipment our 172 had besides the compass
roll in from the coast later that night. But since we
was a VOR – a tricksy piece of wizard-kit that
planned to be back home before then, we decided
tells you your bearing from a beacon – of which
it wasn’t an issue. We still had plenty of back-
there were plenty around. Especially the one at
doors to choose from if it all went pear-shaped.
So, with the planning done
the Perdeberg on our right and
and the sun having just set, we
“Aviate, navigate, communicate.”
Malmesbury on the left at our
jumped in and fired up the 172’s
– in that order! The aircraft was
8 o’clock. I peered forward and
old O-300 six-cylinder for taxi.
under control, wings level and
spotted the town several miles
We departed Runway 20 and
climbing at a safe speed to
away; it didn’t look at all like the
made a left-hand turnout onto
3500ft. The Direction Indicator
glittering spider’s web I imagined
heading for Gouda. Official night
was stable on 060 degrees and
it to be. Just a ‘blob’ of light in
had just begun and with Cape
I had my ETAs for the various
the middle of blackness – and
Town at our backs the last light
way-points worked out. Comms
no roads. To the right I could just
was fading fast.
were sorted. Cool.
make out some murky shapes
The first few minutes were
On the chart, Malmesbury
that I hoped belonged to the
the busiest; calculating ETAs,
looked like a big yellow tumour
Perdeberg. All the beautiful dusk light had melted away and the cockpit was getting gloomier by
Ready for takeoff as night falls at Cape Town International.
the minute. What happened to all the pretty lights? It was like the Grinch stole Christmas. I held a straight heading and waited for the ‘blob’ to crawl its way just behind the left wing. Once in position I squinted at my watch; we’d reached our ETA and Malmesbury was in the right place. Somewhere in the gloom below us my lost road was hiding. There was nothing else for it but to mark my rough position on the map and follow the compass and other landmarks until the next way-point.
Minimal equipment for night cross-country - a VOR is about all
overhead Gouda a whopping one minute ahead of ETA.
scribbling in my flight log, and
on the paper with roads bursting
On to the next point.
changing frequencies several
out of it like thick red veins – one
Saldanha lay to the northwest
times trying to raise someone
of which I’d chosen as a crossing
across fifty miles of open land,
who could activate our flight
point with an ETA. If I stayed on
with only a few stepping-stone
plan. But my instructor’s words
course, we’d cross the R45 with
towns in between – the first November 2020
being Moorreesburg. I eased into a left turn and
exactly where I was.
watched the lights on the horizon start sliding by.
I looked for towns on my chart, but the red
With the next heading coming up, I soon spotted
cockpit light washed out all the colours and
the ‘blob’ and rolled out. I looked down at the
made yellow invisible. The glowing orbs weren’t
DI again. There was still a bit more to turn, but I
helping much either – they all looked the same,
could clearly see the blob ahead, so I followed it.
and worse, appeared exactly where I expected
My instructor watched for the next couple of
Saldanha Bay to be.
minutes before I frowned at the DI realising I’d
After several minutes of detective work and
made a mistake. I decided to try the original heading, and started turning left. It didn’t feel right. The lights slid by again... and there in front of me appeared another blob – exactly the same as the first! The Grinch was being selective this year. Ten minutes later, as the new
The cockpit was getting gloomier by the minute.
lights slipped under the nose, I made sure this was the correct Moorreesburg. I twiddled the knobs on the VOR to get a radial off SVV.
Finally - heading back to the lights of Cape Town.
Our bearing from the station was the same as the town’s, confirming this was the correct blob – relief. After another half-hour of ‘straightand-level’, I started searching for the shapes of Saldanha Bay. Edging closer I could see orbs of light on the ground ahead... they were glowing milky white... clouds. They weren’t supposed to be here for hours yet. But invited or not, they were here for some fun. Disgruntled at having to entertain an unwanted guest, I looked for something to aim at. But with my last stepping-stone town, Hopefield, now miles behind, I was having a hard time pinpointing
I followed the breadcrumb trail on the taxi way.
VOR wizardry I finally figured out where I was to
point’ and fly the 20 miles back to Hopefield. This
within the size of my thumb on the chart, and that I’d
would take longer, at least then I could accurately
come too far north. I flew back to where Saldanha
plot a course from there to Darling. My gut and my
was, but it was completely overrun with cloud. It
previous instructors’ voices told me to pick Option
was clear to both of us that we weren’t making it
2. I tabled my decision to my instructor... who fully
Crossroads aren’t something you normally meet in the air, but I was at one now into Saldanha tonight and diverting to Cape Town
agreed it was the right choice. Phew! I swung the nose around and put it on Hopefield. Whilst en-route, juggling pencil, protractor, and controls, I plotted the new track and got an ETA. Relieved to be going home, we came overhead and set course for Darling. Looking down I watched the wet blanket of clouds sliding in from the sea at ground level. As we approached Cape Town it looked like we’d left our uninvited guest behind, and the mood in the cockpit brightened as the sparkly suburbs slipped under our wings. Tying the last knot in the exercise, we did a few touch-and-gos at FACT before finally putting wheels down for the last time.
was the obvious choice. I just had to come up with a plan.
I followed the breadcrumb trail of taxiway lights to the parking area and pulled the mixture to idle
Crossroads aren’t something you normally meet
cut-off. The engine ran for another second before
in the air, but I was at one now – and under the eye
giving a final cough and quitting – it’d had enough
of my instructor, waiting to see if I would make the
for one night too. I climbed out and unbent myself in
the cool night air. Struggling to keep my eyes open,
I already had a flight log drawn up for the trip
we piled into the car for the journey home. And as I
from Saldanha to Cape Town. So all I had to do
crawled into bed I knew, tonight at least, I’d earned
from here was get to Darling, which was the first
way-point on that route. I had two choices: I could plot a course from my rough position to Darling and pick up the flight plan from there. This was the fastest, but would involve a considerable uncertainty factor with my thumbnail being 20 odd square miles on a 1:500 000 chart.
Our trusty old Cessna 172 had had enough for one night too.
Option 2 was to get over a ‘known November 2020
REGISTER REVIEW: RAY WATTS
OC T OB ER 2 0 2 0 ZS-SJR Boeing 737-800 FAOR 28-10-2018. Image: Ray Watts.
LAST MONTH WE HAD A LOOK AT THE FLEET OF SA AIRLINK AND THIS MONTH I’M GOING TO HAVE A LOOK AT THE FLEET OF A MAJOR COMPETITOR IN OUR DOMESTIC AIRLINE MARKET, NAMELY FLYSAFAIR.
FLYSAFAIR is the low cost carrier passenger
on the grounds of that FlySafair would have
division of Safair, which started out in 1965
more than 25% of its shares held by holding
with a single Lockheed L100-382E (The civilian
company shareholder Hugh Flynn, who despite
version of the C130 Hercules) and grew from
having a Cape wine farm, was deemed a non-
there with the acquisition of a further sixteen
resident. This was resolved and they started
L382G aircraft. They were at one stage the
operating with just 2 aircraft in 2014 between
largest civilian operator of the L382 aircraft in the
Johannesburg (OR Tambo) and Cape Town.
world. Safair operated many flights for the SAAF
They gathered momentum quickly and became
to the Namibian border during the ‘Border War’
a major competitor in our market. The started
and I was lucky to go on a casevac flight out of
with Boeing 737-200 series aircraft and quickly
Jan Smuts to Rundu and back. The care given to
migrated to the 400 series as these are far more
the wounded troops by the medics on board was
economical and passenger friendly that the old
200 series was.
Safair has continued with cargo flights worldwide, and continue to operate their L382Gs in
which Safair had leased to SAA were returned
to the FlySafair fleet and these became the first
In 2014 Safair branched into the domestic
In 2017, five Boeing 737-800 series aircraft
800 series on their fleet. They have subsequently
scheduled airline market. Their initial scheduled
acquired another five of these very successful
license was opposed by Competitor Comair
aircraft, bringing their total fleet to ten. The
ZS-GSK Lockheed L382E taken in the 1970s. Image: Dave Becker collection
ZS-JIZ L382G. Image: Dave Becker collection.
latest one ZS-FGD was delivered on 1 October
looking at the regional market soon. Travel News
2020 and there is another one on its way soon
Weekly reports that “FlySafair is considering
(ZS-FGE). These last two have been leased from
introducing a number of regional routes and has
Avalon and are ex GOL airlines in Brazil.
applied for rights to fly between Johannesburg’s
On a personal note, I flew Joburg to Port
ORTIA and Mauritius, Zanzibar and Windhoek.
Elizabeth with SAA in early 2017 in ZS-SJT and
The airline has applied for three weekly flights
then again in Sept 2017 with FlySafair. It felt
for all of these destinations and will know if its
strange to fly in the same aircraft in the same year
applications have been approved within the next
on two different airlines and two very different
cabin crews – but that’s progress – and the FlySafair cabin crew were far friendlier. FlySafair now covers all the major domestic
FlySafair’s chief marketing officer, Kirby Gordon, says the airline has been eyeing these routes for a while and decided that it may as well
routes from Johannesburg and Lanseria to Cape
get the ball rolling with the application process
Town, George, Port Elizabeth, East London and
sooner rather than later. Kirby explains that airline
Durban. I wouldn’t be surprised if they started
flight applications are publicly gazetted before
November ZS-RSC L382G taken in the 1970s. Dave Becker2020 collection.53
REGISTER REVIEW: RAY WATTS
ZS-OAF Boeing 737-400. FAOR 14-12-2017. Image: Ray Watts.
being reviewed by the Department of Transport’s
of international currency. “We will only be in
International Air Services Council. This process
a position to look at launching these routes in
usually takes about a month.
2021 at the earliest, and even this is dependent
Kirby stresses that the airline has a lot to do before it would be in a position to launch any of these routes and says that, in many ways, the
on many factors, including the recovery of the domestic market,” says Kirby.” In South Africa they operate as a low cost
flight applications are a way for the airline to keep
carrier (LCC) and have scooped up a large
its options open at a time when the domestic flight
section of the domestic market. They had, until the
market (that it has traditionally played in) is very
Covid-19 lockdown struck, been very active and
depressed. “During August, FlySafair operated
judging from their flight frequency and reported
at about 14% of our August 2019 seat capacity
loads, they are recovering rapidly.
and we continue to suffer losses while so few of our aircraft are in the air. We urgently need to find
As you can see from the fleet list, they still have four L382Gs which operate world-wide.
new opportunities to deploy aircraft and, at a time when so many regional competitors are operating under conditions of business rescue, this may be a good time to expand our route network in this
TAIL PIECE: Now that summer is on its way, watch out for thunderstorms. Be careful and be safe.
direction,” says Kirby. He adds that there would be a lot of work to do before FlySafair was in a position to launch any of these routes. Amongst other things, it would need to correctly equip its aircraft for international trips, establish a presence in the various international departure halls, gear up its technology to be able to collect and process the necessary passport and visa information and put processes in place for the repatriation
ZS-SJT Boeing 737-800 FAOR 28-9-2020. Image: Ray Watts.
A la Carte Restaurant
Weddings & Spa Conferences
Bush Picnics Game Drives
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25% SHARE FOR SALE IN 1979 C210T
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Events by SAPFA WORLD RALLY CHAMPIONSHIPS TRAINING WEEK
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IATA ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING & WORLD AIR TRANSPORT SUMMIT 23 - 24 November Amsterdam
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AIRPORT SHOW, AIRPORT SECURITY & ATC FORUM
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26 - 28 October Dubai https://bit.ly/2SnJ33S
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SAUDI INTERNATIONAL AIRSHOW 16 – 18 February 2021 Thumamah Airport, Riyadh Saudi Arabia https://saudiairshow.aero/
Flying in Africa – that’s what we love 56
Flying in Africa - that’s what we love!
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FLIGHT TEST: GUY LEITCH – WITH GREGORY CLEGG
The no-compromise motor-glider
Aircraft are specialist tools – designed for specific applications – such as low and slow – or sleek and fast. For this reason there have been few, if any, successful hybrids. The most popular and persistent dream remains that of the flying car and, if we are honest, we cannot find any aircraft that is both a useful plane and ground transport – despite James Bond’s famous 1974 AMC Matador coupe/ Cessna 337 bodge job.
PART from the dream
gliders, as they are often not the best of both of
of flying cars, the other
both worlds, but the worst.
great wish has been for a
Perhaps the most successful motor glider
combination of a powered
is the Scheibe SF-25 Falke. But the reality is
plane and a glider. These
that it’s a horrible underpowered plane with a
are not so dissimilar as to be fundamentally
rattly V-Dub in the front hammering away to pull
an absurdly bad idea. And so there have been
an overweight wooden glider with a wing like
countless attempts at building good motor
Brooklyn Bridge and a nose like a bulldog.
gliders. Being both a power and glider pilot, I often
Then the composite gliders came along, and this finally led to a motor glider that worked,
dream about finding the combination of a glider
both as a plane and a glider. The Lambada is
and powered plane, which provides the best
the most successful of these hybrids in South
of both soaring and power flying, i.e. a motor
Africa – and it does a pretty good job – both as
glider. However, I am disappointed by motor
a glider and as a powered plane.
IMAGES: GARTH CALITZ
ABOVE: The Stemme S12 builds on the S10VT's unmatched ability as a high performance glider that is also a useful cross country power plane. LEFT: One of the keys to the Stemme's uncompromising gliding ability is its novel nose dome which houses the retractable propeller BELOW: Beautifully finished cockpit has glider type reclining seats. Headsets come off when the engine is shut down.
The Stemme S12's cockpit is large enough for a full panel of sophisticated gliding and EFIS instrumentation.
A big help to the Lambada’s abilities as a powered plane is removable 1m wingtips which give it almost power plane handling without the
and even with the wing tips off – a big hangar for the 13m wingspan. The need for an uncompressing motor glider
bumpy light wing loading of a glider and the
was clear and so in 1984, Dr Reiner Stemme
adverse yaw from ailerons on the end of long
set about realising his vision of a unique aircraft:
the ultimate motor glider with uncompromised
Although the 100 horsepower Lambada is a
soaring ability. The Stemme website says, “As
hundred knot cross-country cruiser, it really can
an engineer and passionate glider pilot, he set
glide. Turn off the engine, feather the prop and
himself the target of creating an aircraft capable of
soar with a 30:1 glide ratio, which is as good as the
long-distance soaring flights at the highest level –
basic gliders many of us learned to glide on. On
independent of towing vehicles, winches and the
a good soaring day that’s enough performance to
accompanying crews. His design of a retractable
stay airborne until it gets dark. And avgas is really
propeller, which remains unique even today,
cheap when you’re burning 0 gal/hour.
connected by a drive shaft to an engine mounted
By starting with a clean sheet of paper and composites, the Lambada managed to cut almost half the empty weight out of motor gliders such
at the aircraft’s centre of gravity allowed his idea to become reality.” Stemme used the German national aeronautics
as the Scheibe Falke. And even better, they gave
and space research centre (DLR) to build the
it the Rotax 912 with 100 willing ponies, which
prototype. By 1986, the prototype of the S10
means it really does perform like a decent light
embarked on its maiden flight and one year later
sport plane should. But the penalties were still
was unveiled to the public at the AERO trade show
there – a small cockpit, minimal luggage space
in Friedrichshafen. In 1990, type certification was
finally granted, and the first series-production version of the high-performance motor glider was ready for delivery. In 2010 Stemme announced an update of
a red warning light on the panel. Stemme modified the 914 by repositioning the air induction and turbocharger mounting to optimise its installation behind the cockpit – in the
the S10 – the S12 Twin Voyager which retains
busy space beneath the shoulder mounted wing.
the key features of the retractable propellor and
Having the engine at the CofG is good for pitch
undercarriage and the side-by-side-seating of the
control and stability.
The engine is connected to the variable-speed composite propeller (designed by Stemme) with a composite driveshaft. The propeller’s manual pitch change from takeoff to cruise position is accomplished electrically, and from cruise back to the takeoff pitch position by spring force. As with all modern high performance gliders – ‘the wing’s the thing’. The inner wing has both flaps and Schempp-Hirth airbrakes and the outer wing sections are foldable with continuous ailerons, two wing extensions with ailerons and two winglets (see box). Two fuel tanks are located
ABOVE: Wingtips detach and wings fold to fit in a standard 12m wide hangar
at each end of the inner wing, which supply the feeder tank in the fuselage via electric fuel pumps. Fuel is supplied to the engine by a main pump, or with a backup auxiliary pump. Total available fuel
THE WALK AROUND The subject of our test is ZT-GZG a Stemme
The aircraft’s 12-volt battery can be charged by
S12 and is based at Springs Airfield. On initial
a set of solar panels embedded in the turtle deck
approach the S12 is hard to differentiate from the
skin behind the power the avionics during engine-
earlier S10. One of the more significant changes is
off flight. Behind the solar panels is the opening to
that the undercarriage track is 15cm wider, making
a rear baggage compartment capable of holding
it a bit harder to ground loop or scrape one of
44 pounds, turning the S12 into a true cross-
those distant wing tips, which was a trap waiting
country touring machine. The baggage bay also
for the unwary S10 pilot.
includes provisions for two optional oxygen bottles
On the basis of “why mess with a successful and proven design?”, the key features are retained.
capacity is 32.3 gallons.
for high-altitude flight. The tail has adopted the lessons of modern
Buried in the fuselage is still the Rotax 914, whose
gliders (including the South African JS series)
turbocharged induction system requires some
by using the vertical stabiliser for water ballast to
serious attention to heat management. Standard
move the CofG. Stemme added a water ballast
equipment is an engine bay fire warning system
tank in the tail to help with CG control when the
which generates an audible alert and optically with
aircraft is loaded with heavy occupants. Filling is
done by pouring up to 15 litres of water into the vertical tail. A scale shows the corresponding water amount. The S12 has a typical empty weight of 620 kgs
THE COCKPIT As befits is dual role as a high-performance glider and a cross-country tourer, the S12 has
and a maximum takeoff weight of 900 kg, giving a
a busy panel. While buyers can choose the
useful load of 280 kg. Full fuel of 120 litres weighs
avionics fit they want, the Stemme S12 has been
around 72 kg leaving a very useful 210 kg for
type certified with Dynon’s EFIS-D10A and AP74
people and kit.
autopilot, plus an electric trim system.
As a touring motor glider the S12 improves
It was a challenge for Stemme to get an
significantly on the S10 by having a 25 litre
autopilot to work well with a wing of this size, but
baggage bay that’s accessed through a door on
the AP74 autopilot works well cruising in calm air.
Slim high-aspect ratio 25m wingspan gives 53:1 glide ratio.
the tail boom. It holds a maximum of 44 pounds
Since it’s only designed for cruise flight and not for
and can accommodate soft bags. There is a lower
approaches, it won’t engage at speeds under 60
storage compartment located behind each seat
knots. It tracks a course from the NMEA output of
that accommodates 22 pounds of stuff.
a Garmin Aera 660 or GPS796 GPS.
The pitot tube is mounted on the nose on a detachable pitot tube on the propeller dome.
ZT-GZG has a Garmin Aera 660 navigator, a Dynon 10A EFIS with auto pilot, a LxNavigation November 2020
EOS electric variometer and flight recorder, a
collision with another glider sharing a thermal.
LxNavigation Zeus 7-inch gliding flight computer
The seats are very reclined, but you soon get
and moving map. Stemme delivers the S12 with
used to lying on them like a pool lounger and all
ADS-B In and Out, a Becker transceiver, Becker
the controls, such as the flaps, speed brakes and
transponder, a fuel flow computer and round-
switch gear are within easy reach.
gauge backup instruments. On the right side of the instrument binnacle are circular analogue
FLYING THE S12
engine gauges. There is an electric trim switch
Taxiing a motor glider with a 25m wingspan
on the stick. Other notable equipment includes
presents some challenges, especially on narrow
a Mountain High oxygen system and an ELT406
taxiways. There are no toe brakes, so the hydraulic disk brakes are operated with a lever on each CofG range easily handled by 15 litre water ballast in vertical fin.
control stick. However, compared to other taildraggers, the S12 is easy to taxi because it has a large tail boom and a steerable tailwheel. With the propeller in the takeoff position and cowl flaps open, for takeoff from Springs on a hot and high October afternoon, we applied the full 115 percent maximum takeoff power setting (limited to
emergency locator transmitter. Climbing aboard the S12 requires a little
throttle lever has two stops: the first gate gives
practice. The Stemmeâ€™s canopy is hinged at the
100 hp for 100 percent power and then you raise
front, so the trick to climbing in while wearing a
the catch to push the lever slightly to the left and
parachute is to back up to the side of the cockpit
forward for 115 percent power.
and then hoist yourself up with two arms before
For takeoff the tail is usually held down and the
sliding backwards down into the seat and then
S12 flies itself off when itâ€™s ready. Two up with half
swinging your feet over the sill and onto the rudder
tanks, the ground roll was approximately 250m and
the initial climb rate around 600 fpm.
The S12 includes a pair of quick-jettison
five minutes), which is 5500 RPM at 30 Hg. The
Once airborne, establish Vy (best rate of climb)
handles to detach the canopy in case of an
at just 62-knots IAS and then retract the main
emergency requiring a bailout such as a mid-air
landing gear, which takes roughly 40 seconds
to fully retract. Cruise climb needs a fuel burn in the 25 lph range, with a modest 300 fpm up at 90 knots. Despite having three fuel tanks, fuel
SOARING While the S12 may be a more than competent
management is straightforward with a panel-
cross-country tourer, it is first and foremost a
mounted selector valve. The electric fuel pump is
superlative glider. The appeal of the S12 is the
switched off when passing through 1000 feet.
ability to shut its engine down and soar wherever
To accelerate to best cruise speed, the flaps are
and whenever you wish. To do that, the propeller
deflected upward, or in a negative configuration.
is moved into takeoff mode and the power reduced
The flap positions are zero, 5, 10 or 15 degrees
to keep the CHT and oil temperature cool. With
down, with 15 being optimum for landing. But they
the cowl flaps fully open, the Rotax cools quickly,
also reflex 10 degrees up from the streamlined
which helps to reduce the risk of overheating
position. This cuts drag at high speed by reducing
during engine restart. Before shutdown the
unnecessary lift and aligns the fuselage more
airspeed is reduced to approximately 54 knots.
closely with the relative airflow.
Once slowed and cooled, simply turn the
Cycling the propeller into cruise pitch mode (or from cruise to takeoff) takes approximately two minutes. As a genuine cross country tourer, the S12 has easy and benign handling. Stemme has
Solar PV cells keep batteries charged while gliding.
added an electric pitch trim to the S12, which makes it easy to trim for level flight. The flight controls are pushrod driven and the rudder system uses cables. Breakout forces are reasonably light – especially considering the number of connections to the distant ailerons. The rudder pedals are adjustable, but the seating position is not. Once in cruise, the beautifully streamlined S12 has impressive speed and good range. Stemme claims the S12’s maximum cruise speed at 140 knots true at 10,000 feet. Vne is a low 142 KIAS which is a tight safety margin, especially considering the forces on those long wings. Cruising in a no-wind scenario, you could fly for 950 nautical miles. The Rotax can burn as little as 20 lph and it’s approved to run on both mogas and avgas so fuel supplies should not be a problem. November 2020
Taxiing in on Springs' grass taxiway.
ignition off and you’re gliding. The S12 is equipped
Clegg, reports that with the right amount of rudder
with a propeller brake to stop its windmilling, which
input, the S12 is easy to maintain in coordinated
reduces wear on the propeller clutch. Pull the
flight. Having the engine close to the CofG helps.
brake handle, turn off the fuel and close the nose
Less aileron input still results in a decent roll rate,
without the need for lots of rudder input. Plus, it
With the engine off you don’t need headsets – there’s just the sound of the wind flowing
touch of up trim and it will fly in that configuration
over the canopy. Your attention shifts to the LX
hands-off all day long.
eVario which emits a beeping sound that rises in
Unusually for a glider, side or forward slips are
frequency as the aircraft enters an updraft. The
not approved with the gear down because of the
minimum sink speed is between 65 and 70 knots.
gear doors. Also, the S12 is not approved for spins,
The trick then is to circle to find the centre of the
although they have been demonstrated. Aerobatics
column of lift and then stay there, and the vario
helps by beeping happily.
Other reviewers report that at its stall speed of
The amount of adverse yaw from the long
42 knots, the S12 offers plenty of warning before
wings depends on the amount of aileron, but
it stops flying. There’s buffeting, but no dramatic
you need your feet to keep the ball centred. It’s
good technique to make sure that your inputs are
A vulnerability of sophisticated touring motor
harmonised and that you can roll around a point
gliders is getting the engine going again if you
with coordinated aileron and rudder inputs.
need it in a hurry. This challenge was almost
Our formation pilot for the photo shoot, Gregory
has impressive roll stability. Set a roll rate, dial in a
certainly the undoing of the Pipistrel Taurus series
in South Africa. In the S12 you have to slow to 76 knots, which is a Vref of 1.5, a healthy 34 knots above stall speed. To restart, turn the fuel on, open the propeller dome, open the cowl flaps and move the prop to takeoff pitch. Since the Rotax is carburetted, you need to pull the choke on when the engineâ€™s cold. Set the power to idle and turn the ignition key
configuration. The landing gear is extended at 59 knots and total extension time is roughly 30 seconds. On downwind the prop blade pitch to fully fine can take up to five minutes, so you need it full fine in case of a go-around. Like all good gliders, the powerful SchemppHirth air brakes are a wonderful approach control tool and can yield very accurate touch downs. With the air brakes fully extended and the prop
Sturdy gear's wheeltrack now 15cm wider over SV10 for improved ground handling.
idling, the glide ratio is an impressively steep 5:1 at 60 knots. The round out and hold off are normal, but you need to be careful not to flare too low because of its tall landing gear. The best technique is a threepoint touch down attitude. GLIDER OR CROSS COUNTRY TOURER? Thanks to its 1:53 glide ratio, Stemme motor gliders have set world distance gliding records. And a Stemme S10 has soared above Mount Everest. But for more modest pilots who can afford the starting price, the S12 is about convenience. The ability to self-launch and motor at a decent speed to the best soaring conditions you can find without having to trailer it back to the hangar has sizable appeal, and is what prompts aficionados to stump up the not inconsiderable U$380,0000 base
to Start and hold for a few seconds. A timer provides a three-second time delay for the ignition, which allows the propeller blades to fully deploy before the engine fires. Once the engine starts, turn the mags to Both, advance the throttle to 2000 RPM and come off the choke as the engine warms. Landing can be done in powered or gliding
The turbocharged Rotax engine is mounted in the fuselage under the wing spar box.
WHERE TO HANGAR THE S12?
The reality of owning a motor glider with an 25m wingspan is that you’ll have to deal with folding and unfolding the wings, should you want to keep it in a reasonable sized hangar.
HE folding/locking mechanism on the
the tail boom, making it possible to pull the motor
S12 is identical to the one used on
glider in and out of a standard 12m wide hangar.
the S10VT and once you’ve attached
To fold each wing, you unsecure the
and detached the wing sections a few
attachment pin with a lever mounted on the
times, the task can be accomplished in roughly 15
underside of the wing, pull outward and pivot the
wing aft toward the tail boom. To reattach, pick the
What you’re really doing is attaching and detaching the outer wing extensions—not the
wing up, walk it back, slide it into position and lock
it. It really is as easy as Stemme says it is.
SA Flyer 2018|10
entire wing. When folded back, the wing rests on
Length: 8.42m Wingspan: 25m Wing area: 20m2 Empty weight: 1550 lbs Max takeoff weight: 900 kg 1875 lbs Fuel capacity: 120 litres POWERPLANT: 1 Rotax 914 turbo 86 kW (115 hp) PERFORMANCE Maximum speed: 260 km/h 140 KTAS Cruise speed: 230 km/h 120 KTAS Vne: 270 km/h 146 KIAS Stall Speed: 82 km/h 42 KIAS Range: 1,759 km (1,093 sm, 950 nm) Maximum Glide Ratio: 53:1 Rate of climb: 4.21 m/s (829 ft/min) Wing loading: 45.11 kg/m2 (9.24 lb/sq ft) at MTOW
SA Flyer 2020|11
www.sv1.co.za Fuel FuelPrices Pricesasasatat01/09/2020 01/09/2020
Fuel FuelPrices Pricesasasatat01/10/2020 01/10/2020
Pri Prices cesi nclude i ncludeVAT VATbut butexclude excludeany anyservi servicecefees fees AiAirfirfield eld Avgas Avgas Jet JetA1 A1 Baragwanath Baragwanath RR18,50 18,50 Beaufort BeaufortWest West RR18,85 18,85 RR14,85 14,85 Bethlehem Bethlehem RR21,97 21,97 RR15,62 15,62 Bloemfontei Bloemfonteinn RR14,24 14,24 RR7,56 7,56 Brakpan Brakpan RR19,50 19,50 Brits Brits RR16,65 16,65 Cape CapeTown Town RR22,32 22,32 RR8,41 8,41 Eagles EaglesCreek Creek RR19,55 19,55 East EastLondon London RR18,07 18,07 RR8,49 8,49 Ermelo Ermelo RR18,74 18,74 FiFisantekraal santekraal RR21,50 21,50 Fly-In Fly-In RR17,75 17,75 Gari Gariep epDam Dam RR19,00 19,00 RR13,00 13,00 George George R19,17 R19,17 R9,52 R9,52 Grand GrandCentral Central RR19,32 19,32 RR13,57 13,57 Hei Heidelberg delberg RR17,80 17,80 KiKimberley mberley RR14,44 14,44 RR7,76 7,76 Kitty KittyHawk Hawk RR17,60 17,60 Klerksdorp Klerksdorp R21,64 R21,64 R14,80 R14,80 Kroonstad Kroonstad RR16,27 16,27 Kruger KrugerIntl IntlNelspruit Nelspruit RR20,00 20,00 RR15,90 15,90 Krugersdorp Krugersdorp RR16,98 16,98 Lanseri Lanseriaa RR18,63 18,63 RR12,32 12,32 Margate Margate No NoFuel Fuel Avbl Avbl Morningstar Morningstar RR17,95 17,95 Mosselbay Mosselbay RR19,25 19,25 RR11,25 11,25 Nelspruit Nelspruit RR18,86 18,86 RR13,05 13,05 Oudtshoorn Oudtshoorn RR17,10 17,10 RR10,66 10,66 Parys Parys RR17,00 17,00 RR10,40 10,40 Pietermaritzburg Pietermaritzburg RR18,00 18,00 PiPietersburg etersburgCiCivivil l RR17,10 17,10 RR11,00 11,00 Port PortAlfred Alfred RR23,17 23,17 Port PortElizabeth Elizabeth RR17,83 17,83 RR13,67 13,67 Potchefstroom Potchefstroom RR17,00 17,00 RR10,40 10,40 Rand Rand RR19,64 19,64 RR11,88 11,88 Robertson Robertson R17,45 R17,45 Rustenberg Rustenberg RR16,35 16,35 RR11,20 11,20 Secunda Secunda RR18,98 18,98 RR12,19 12,19 Skeerpoort Skeerpoort*** ***Customer Customertotocollect collect RR14,70 14,70 R8,10 R8,10 Springbok Springbok RR19,80 19,80 Springs Springs RR18,60 18,60 RR12,79 12,79 Stellenbosch Stellenbosch RR18,50 18,50 Swellendam Swellendam RR16,50 16,50 RR8,50 8,50 Tempe Tempe RR16,22 16,22 RR11,16 11,16 Thabazimbe Thabazimbe RR17,50 17,50 RR10,90 10,90 Ultimate UltimateHeli Heli(Midrand) (Midrand)*** *** RR18,20 18,20 RR11,60 11,60 Upington Upington RR14,94 14,94 RR8,26 8,26 Vereeni Vereenigiging ng No No Contact Contact ViVirgi rgininiaa RR18,18 18,18 RR10,35 10,35 Welkom Welkom RR16,27 16,27 RR9,98 9,98 Wi Wings ngsPark ParkELEL RR18,75 18,75 Witbank Witbank RR16,75 16,75 No NoFuel Fuel Avbl Avbl Wonderboom Wonderboom Worcester Worcester RR18,80 18,80 *** ***Heli Helicopters coptersonly only
Pri Prices cesi nclude i ncludeVAT VATbut butexclude excludeany anyservi servicecefees fees AiAirfirfield eld Avgas Avgas Jet JetA1 A1 Baragwanath Baragwanath RR18,50 18,50 Beaufort BeaufortWest West RR18,85 18,85 RR14,85 14,85 Bethlehem Bethlehem RR21,97 21,97 RR15,62 15,62 Bloemfontei Bloemfonteinn RR14,01 14,01 RR6,88 6,88 Brakpan Brakpan RR19,50 19,50 Brits Brits RR16,65 16,65 Cape CapeTown Town RR22,77 22,77 RR7,13 7,13 Eagles EaglesCreek Creek RR19,55 19,55 East EastLondon London RR18,69 18,69 RR8,51 8,51 Ermelo Ermelo RR18,75 18,75 FiFisantekraal santekraal RR21,50 21,50 Fly-In Fly-In RR17,75 17,75 Gari Gariep epDam Dam RR20,10 20,10 RR13,00 13,00 George George R19,79 R19,79 R9,48 R9,48 Grand GrandCentral Central RR19,32 19,32 RR12,42 12,42 Hei Heidelberg delberg RR18,00 18,00 KiKimberley mberley RR14,21 14,21 RR7,08 7,08 Kitty KittyHawk Hawk RR18,10 18,10 Klerksdorp Klerksdorp R21,64 R21,64 R14,80 R14,80 Kroonstad Kroonstad RR16,27 16,27 RR9,98 9,98 Kruger KrugerIntl IntlNelspruit Nelspruit RR20,00 20,00 RR13,90 13,90 Krugersdorp Krugersdorp RR18,50 18,50 Lanseri Lanseriaa RR18,29 18,29 RR13,32 13,32 Margate Margate RR20,20 20,20 Morningstar Morningstar RR18,25 18,25 Mosselbay Mosselbay RR19,52 19,52 RR11,25 11,25 Nelspruit Nelspruit RR18,86 18,86 RR12,94 12,94 Oudtshoorn Oudtshoorn RR17,10 17,10 RR10,66 10,66 Parys Parys RR16,40 16,40 RR10,20 10,20 Pietermaritzburg Pietermaritzburg RR18,00 18,00 PiPietersburg etersburgCiCivivil l RR17,10 17,10 RR11,00 11,00 Port PortAlfred Alfred RR23,17 23,17 Port PortElizabeth Elizabeth RR17,83 17,83 RR12,98 12,98 Potchefstroom Potchefstroom RR16,40 16,40 RR10,20 10,20 Rand Rand RR19,91 19,91 RR11,98 11,98 Robertson Robertson R17,45 R17,45 Rustenberg Rustenberg RR16,35 16,35 RR11,20 11,20 Secunda Secunda RR18,96 18,96 RR12,19 12,19 Skeerpoort Skeerpoort*** ***Customer Customertotocollect collect RR14,20 14,20 R7,90 R7,90 Springbok Springbok RR19,80 19,80 Springs Springs RR18,60 18,60 RR12,79 12,79 Stellenbosch Stellenbosch RR18,50 18,50 Swellendam Swellendam RR16,50 16,50 RR8,56 8,56 Tempe Tempe RR16,22 16,22 RR11,16 11,16 Thabazimbe Thabazimbe RR16,90 16,90 RR10,90 10,90 Ultimate UltimateHeli Heli(Midrand) (Midrand)*** *** RR17,60 17,60 RR11,40 11,40 Upington Upington RR14,71 14,71 RR7,58 7,58 Vereeni Vereenigiging ng No NoFuel Fuel Avbl Avbl ViVirgi rgininiaa RR18,18 18,18 RR10,35 10,35 Welkom Welkom RR16,27 16,27 RR9,98 9,98 Wi Wings ngsPark ParkELEL RR18,75 18,75 Witbank Witbank RR16,75 16,75 RR14,70 14,70 RR8,40 8,40 Wonderboom Wonderboom Worcester Worcester RR18,10 18,10 *** ***Heli Helicopters coptersonly only
Tel: +27 14 576 2522 Ina: +27 82 553 9611 Email: email@example.com Marina: +27 82 924 3015
Co-ordinates: S25°50’37 E27°41’28 70 GPS November 2020 Import/Export no. 21343829
SKEERPOORT THABAZIMBI PARYS AIRFIELD ULTIMATE HELIPORT, MIDRAND POTCHEFSTROOM AIRPORT
Tel: +27 14 576 2522 Ina: +27 82 553 9611 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Marina: +27 82 924 3015
WE ALSO HAVE AN ON-SITE HELI-PAD FOR CONVENIENT REFUELING. CALL US FOR A QUOTE OR VISIT OUR WEBSITE FOR MORE INFORMATION.
SEALED 200L AVGAS DRUMS • SEALED 200L JET A1 DRUMS • AVGAS 100LL • JET A1 • PETROL • ILLUMINATING PARAFFIN • DIESEL • LUBRICANTS
SA Flyer 2016|11
• • • • •
Time for an honest conversation about SA’s future
WORDS: PIERRE CLOETE, CEO INTERNATIONAL WEALTH & PROSPERITY
No-one likes to be the one who says “I told you so” 10 years after the fact and then gloat about it. But have a look at the accompanying graph which shows the S&P 500 index shooting up nearly three-fold gaining 264% over the last 10 years while the JSE Top 40 index (in US dollars) struggled to gain just 4.7%.
Investment Growth Time Period: 2010/10/17 to 2020/10/16 Currency: US Dollar 280.0% 260.0% 240.0% 220.0% 200.0% 180.0% 160.0% 140.0% 120.0% 100.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% -20.0% -40.0%
S&P 500 TR (1989)
FTSE/JSE Top 40 TR ZAR
Source: Morningstar Direct
ABOVE: Difference between S&P 500 and JSE Top 40 indices in USD
won’t be so bold as to say the next 10 years will be a repeat of this pattern, but I would
recipients of this larceny walk around unmolested. Make no mistake – SA is still a great country
not discount it either. The lesson is clear:
with some of the sharpest and most enterprising
those who bet on a rosy future for SA are
people in the world.
likely to be disappointed. You’re betting on a
But to live comfortably in this country you need
miraculous and almost religious conversion in the
to protect and grow your wealth. As the graph
ruling party to the virtues of free enterprise and
shows, investing in SA Inc. is a lost cause. Your
light-touch policy. That’s unlikely to happen. After
JSE investments in USD are unable even to keep
25 years in power, the ANC has shown no real
pace with inflation. It’s a toss-up between investing
willingness to embrace the harsh reality that it is
in the JSE and holding cash in the bank.
business that makes the economy function, not a meddling bureaucracy. Just look at the scandals now erupting around
To protect and grow your wealth you need to invest in offshore markets to gain access to the likes of Microsoft, Amazon, Apple and the universe
Covid contracts, though this is small change
of global stocks that are simply not available on the
compared to the monstrous debt levels that lie in
our near future: Bank of America expects debt-
Consider that Amazon’s share price is up an
to-GDP to sail past 100% by 2024 from the 62%
astonishing 61% since the start of lockdown in
at the start of 2020. That will impact all South
March 2020. Microsoft is up 57%. Apple has more
Africans in the form of higher taxes and ultimately
inflation. Then there is the prescribed assets
These extraordinary gains have been denied
issue – which could lock more of your savings into
South Africans pinning their hopes on a JSE with
government-backed projects and state-owned
a tiny pool of 400-odd stocks, accounting for less
companies, with the possibility that the returns will
than 2% of the world market.
not even keep pace with inflation.
I’ve been advocating an aggressive offshore
The same old hacks are out in front for
investment approach using low-cost passive index
Covid contracts, and – as should have been
funds for the best part of a decade. And the graph
expected – the Department of Labour was ill-
above illustrates the wisdom of this advice. Need I
equipped to handle the tsunami of applications
for UIF payments during lockdown. Given this
Many South Africans have demurred about
government’s track record in failing to track down
taking a more aggressive offshore position
and prosecute a single culprit in the grand larceny
believing that the country would eventually come
that has taken place over the last decade, why do
right. While I certainly hope this is true, I am not
we expect a change in behaviour now?
prepared to bet on it. The World Bank forecasts an
Non-profit organisation Open Secrets estimates
economic contraction for South Africa of more than
that state capture has cost the economy R5
7% this year as a result of the pandemic, while
trillion and cost the country 5 million jobs. Yet the
others expect it could even contract 10%. November 2020
Companies Compare this with the agility of the Chinese economy, as large as it is, which grew 3.2% in the second quarter after a 6.8% decline in the first quarter. China is experiencing a V-shaped recovery by doing all in its power to get the country back to work, by keeping businesses afloat, and providing whatever assistance is needed to minimise harm to the economy as a result of Covid. Leaving your savings in SA exposes you to all sorts of risks: that the rand will remain relatively strong (it will not); that the JSE will rebound on the back of a strong economic recovery (there are too many structural problems for this to be anything but a flash in the pan); that the fiscal cliff facing the country will be masterfully navigated by the Department of Finance (doubtful). And that the thieves who stole the state capture jewels will be sent to jail (also doubtful). My view today is the same as it was 10 years ago: move as much funds offshore as you are legally allowed if you want to protect and grow your wealth by investing in high quality, income producing assets (in hard currencies). Those South Africans who have achieved wealth have done so in precisely this manner. Donâ€™t wait another 10 years to learn this lesson. INTERNATIONAL WEALTH & PROSPERITY International Wealth & Prosperity (IWP) are independent offshore investment specialists. Director, Pierre Cloete has focused on the offshore investment arena for the last 25 years. International Wealth & Prosperity is a licensed Financial Service Provider, FSP No. 43982.
For an independent no-cost review of your current portfolio click here and we will contact you. For more information contact: Pierre Cloete Cell: 0836011380 Email : email@example.com
LETTER TO THE EDITOR DIGITAL SA FLYER I write this to you in the hope of some available option or resolution of a problem I am having. I am a 68 year old “ol f@rt” with an absolute
half pay or less and so there is no way they can justify spending money on advertising. Advertising is what keeps the magazines alive – and we don’t have enough income to cover a print bill. I
fascination for all things aviation. I have been
suppose we could do a limited run of a nasty skinny
purchasing SA Flyer Magazine for many years and
thing on cheap paper. But many retail outlets no longer
enjoying reading it from cover to cover in the comfort of
want to give shelf space to magazines. Also the unit
my easy chair and at my leisure.
cost goes up even higher. It cost us around R30 to print
This all changed (thanks Covid) when, without warning, the magazine disappeared off the shelves and I eventually discovered I would need to go the
a copy and we got less than 50% of the cover price from the shops - so we sold every copy at a loss. Another huge problem with print was subscriptions
digital route. By some divine intervention I was able to
- we had to employ a full-time staff member just to
download a couple of editions onto my laptop which I
deal with complaints of non-delivery and then courier
could read at my leisure although now sitting at a table
replacement mags – which also didn’t arrive etc.
staring at a computer screen. This capability of downloading the magazine now
Truth be told; we will probably never go back to print. Yet by being digital, we have the luxury of space – we
seems to have been withdrawn as I am now only
have made the font big and easy to read and include
able to view it as “The publisher chose not to allow
more and larger pictures. And we can include stories
downloads of the publication”. This means that for
and reports that would otherwise have been left out.
every minute I want to spend reading the magazine I
So digital gives us far more opportunity to give you the
am now required to be logged onto the internet and
reader far more value – and give to you for free!
subject to good old SA’s expensive (outrageous?) data
It also means that we can give you much more –
costs. And herein lies my dilemma - not all retirees can
this edition is a colossal 236 pages! But we are not
afford uncapped data and we have to juggle our data
deaf to the pleas of our older readers – like Jim Davis,
useage for what is necessary and what we can afford.
who hates “the ghastly page turner” on his computer
Is there please not some way that we may be able to
monitor. So we will be providing a PDF version that is
download the magazine onto our computers so that we
downloadable – and time and technology permitting,
can read them while off-line and at our leisure?
we will also break the magazine into pages that you
Hoping that some solution may be found, I look forward to your response.
Craig Bullock GUY LEITCH REPLIES: I sympathise with those missing the printed mag – and I admit that I too prefer print. The problem is - the General Aviation industry is screwed as people are just not spending money. Many companies have staff on
can scroll down. The reality is the many digital platforms also provide far more value to our advertisers in terms of links to their websites and embedded videos of their business and latest products etc. Plus, we are able to provide daily news - just spend a few minutes on our great new website - www.saflyer.com Bottom line – it looks like print has become as obsolete as film cameras and LPs.
Starlite buys ALSIM Simulator
French simulator builder ALSIM continues to build on its success in the South African market. ALSIM has announced the sale of an AL250
certification requirements, played a big role in our
state-of-the art flight simulator to Starlite Aviation
choice of selecting the AL250. We are extremely
Training Academy, based in Durban and Mossel
satisfied with our decision to purchase the AL250
Bay, South Africa.
and look forward to a long-standing relationship
Impressed by all the possibilities offered by this fast reconfigurable and very compact simulator, Starlite decided to choose ALSIM’s solutions to
Klara Fouché. “We are very glad to welcome Starlite Aviation
respond to the growing demand for single and
Training Academy among our customers and
multi-engine instrument simulator training at their
would like to thank them for their confidence. We
campus in Durban.
are looking forward to installing the simulator
The AL250 simulator addresses initial phase
in Durban’s region and to starting a successful
training needs (PPL, CPL, IR/ME) and offers both
cooperation between our two companies,” says
classic and glass cockpit instrumentation for each
Nicolas de Lassus, Alsim Sales Account Manager.
flight model at the simple flick of a switch. This
Starlite Aviation Training Academy is a division
device has been extremely well received since its
of Starlite Aviation Group, a multi-facet and diverse
creation and more than 65 of these have already
aviation company offering a range of helicopter
been installed and are in successful operation
and fixed wing services world-wide.
worldwide. “After looking at various options, the AL250's
with ALSIM” explains Starlite Managing Director
Established in 1999, Starlite Aviation Training Academy is synonymous with some of the
ability to simulate analogue or glass cockpit at
finest pilot training schools world-wide, offering
the touch of a button, the instrument and R/
both helicopter and aeroplane training to local,
Nav capability and various other aspects like
international and contract students in Durban and
the fact that it fully also satisfies EASA and FAA
Mossel Bay, South Africa.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
CONFIDENCE AND CHOOSING ALSIM “After looking at various options, the options of simulating analogue or glass cockpit at the touch of a button, the instrument and in R/Nav capability and various other aspects like the fact that it fully also satisfies EASA and FAA certification requirements, played a big role in our choice of selecting the AL250. We are extremely satisfied with our decision to purchase the AL250 and look forward to a long-standing relationship with ALSIM” Klara Fouché, Managing director Starlite Aviation Training Academy
ALSIM PEACE OF MIND
400+ CERTIFIED SIMS 350+ CUSTOMERS 50 COUNTRIES SINCE 1994
STORY & IMAGES: GARTH CALITZ
After the lock-down that had kept the majority of pilots grounded for months, the aviation community were hungry for a reason to get out flying and meet up with old friends. The Sling Aircraft Breakfast Fly-in in October presented the perfect opportunity to do just that.
The Sling Tedderfield Fly-in was a welcome diversion and an unqualified success. Image: Andre Venter.
Prominent American social media influencer Max Maxwel with his Sling TSi.
CAREFUL to be compliant, all visiting aviators
Significantly, most of the sales are now outside of
and their pax were requested to pre-register
South Africa – and the Sling 4 is rapidly catching
in keeping with all COVID-19 Protocols and on
up to the total Sling 2 sales numbers.
arrival all visitors filled in a COVID register with the normal temperature recordings and contact details. The Sling Aircraft history is a South African success story. It began with one man’s dream to create the most practical and desirable light sport aircraft in the world. Mike Blyth founder of the company that was called until recently ‘The Airplane Factory’, and the initial designer of the
If they are not making the news with daring circumnavigation flights, it’s the latest announcement of their long awaited Sling 4 TSi High Wing. The Sling High Wing has yet to be flown and the aim is to get one in the air before the end of the year. This however did not stop ten impressed buyers placing orders for this as yet untested aircraft –a testament to the faith the industry has in Sling Aircraft. Sling Aircraft have always practiced “giving
Sling 2, was joined by James Pitman and ever
back” to the community and this fly-in breakfast
since the two have been making waves throughout
was no exception. Rise Above Aviators, an
the light sport aircraft world.
organisation that prides itself in providing access
At the Fly-in the Sling team announced that
to flying for the underprivileged and creating
they had delivered 609 aircraft – a colossal
a foundation for aviation transformation, was
achievement for a South African start-up.
invited to use one of the Sling 4 factory aircraft to November 2020
Jumping for joy - the Rise Above Aviators. Image: Andre Venter.
The long awaited Sling 4 TSi High Wing begins to take shape - first flight is planned for this year.
The Sling 4 TSi High Wing has a composite cockpit area - here being strength tested.
introduce young ones to the wonderful
YouTube sensations, Max Maxwell and
world of aviation. The flipping of these
MojoGrip both purchased Sling 4 TSis.
wide-eyed children was unfortunately
Max happened to see MojoGrips video
cut short due to the extremely bumpy
of a Sling and then and there decided
to buy one himself. Max is currently at
While enjoining good food and
the Sling factory busy assembling his
great company, all the visitors were
aircraft, which he will airfreight to his
encouraged to take a tour through the
home in North Carolina as soon as it is
factory, located in hangars at Tedderfield.
The factory is divided into sections,
This major publicity coup coupled with
each with their own specific function.
the burgeoning US Sling Academy has
The ability to see the journey taken by
significantly increased sales to the USA.
the aircraft from initial layout to final
The recently formed Sling Academy has
assembly impressed all who saw it.
a standing order for what is colloquially
The US market was recently been given a major shot in the arm when
known as a “Mac Sling” every month. The “Mac Sling” is a standard Sling 2 which is November 2020
used for Ab Intio training at the
Sling CEO Andrew Pitman with a Sling 4 due to be exported to the UK.
academy. Sling Aircraft is one of the very few aviation manufacturers worldwide that can boast a productive
Visitors had a factory tour - here is the wing assembly section.
past eight months. General Manager Andrew Pitman says that the past eight months were the best eight months of the companyâ€™s history. The impact of COVID-19 on their production has been almost negligible, resulting in only slight delays on delivery of some orders. The fly-in was an unqualified success, so much so that Mike Blyth suggested that this should become a biannual event. In total 240 people enjoyed the great day with like-minded people who will no doubt be back for the next Sling Fly-in Breakfast.
Well thought-out installation and craftmanship evident in this Rotax 915 TSi installation.
Nico van Staden Tel: +27 (0) 083 321 0916 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gerhard Mouton Tel: +27 (0) 82 458 3736 E-mail: email@example.com
1968 Cherokee 180
1980 Turbo Arrow IV
1964 Cherokee 28-235
2008 Piper Seneca V
2750 Hrs TT, 800 SMOH King VFR; Neat; R650,000.00 excl VAT
3600 Hrs TT, 1430 SMOH King / Collins w Storm scope Bargain â€“ plse enquire
3360 Hrs TT, 870 SMOH King VFR, Good P & Int R675,000.00 excl VAT
520 Hrs TT since new Garmin1000, Radar, very clean; Please enquire
1968 Piper Arrow 180
1971 Cessna 182
1981 Saratoga TSP
1980 Bonanza A36TC
2630 Hrs TT, 670 SMOH King & Garmin VFR, Very Neat; R680,000 excl VAT
4350 Hrs TT, 1475 SMOH Cessna/King VFR; New paint & interior R780,000. excl VAT
3250 Hrs TT, 300 SMOH King IF equipped, very sound unit: R1,500,000.00 excl VAT
4100 Hrs TT, 660 Hrs SMOH King & Garmin IF equipped. Very neat: R2,200,000 excl VAT
1978 Cessna Hawk XP
1981 Mooney M20K
2006 Piper Meridian
1984 Baron B58
3550 Hrs TT. 355 SMOH Garmin Equipped w S-Tec ap Priced to sell
2300 Hrs TT, 980 SMOH King / S-Tec; Recent MPI, Neat; Please enquire
380 Hrs TT S/new Avidyne Entegra, Showroom, Please enquire
1780 Hrs TT, 160 Hrs SFRM King IF Panel, Very neat Plse enquire
1967 Baron B56TC
1971 Piper Aztec 250
1980 King Air F-90
2790 Hrs TT, 790 Hrs SMOH King IF; Clean; Offers
5540 Hrs TT, 985 & 1820 Hrs SMOH King IF equipped, Very clean; Bargain
5510 Hrs TT; 1695 & 190 SMOH King IF equipped Please enquire
1969 Cessna 180
100 Hrs TT since new Garmin equipped, Please enquire
4320 Hrs TT, 85 Hrs SMOH Terra Nav / Comm, New interior; R850,000 excl VAT
ASSISTANCE WITH IMPORTS, EXPORTS & VALUATIONS. aircraft shipping worldwide!!! November 2020
SA Flyer 2020|11
Specializing in turnkey
‘Pilot fund raising’ Campaign SUPPORTING PILOTS AND THEIR FAMILIES AFFECTED BY CORONAVIRUS
THE ‘COVID-19 PILOT FUND RAISING FOUNDATION’ IS REBUILDING A GLOBE SWIFT TO TAKE TO OSHKOSH 2021, AND WILL BE FLYING IT AROUND THE WORLD RAISING FUNDS FOR PILOTS WHO HAVE BEEN AFFECTED BY THE CORONAVIRUS, WHETHER BY DEATH, LOSS OF INCOME, LOSS OF EMPLOYMENT AND HELPING THE FAMILIES WHO ARE SUFFERING. WE NEED YOUR DONATIONS.
“We need PILOTS, now PILOTS need us. Help us to help them”. AIRCRAFT helped spread the disease, NOW…
AIRCRAFT are helping to win the fight with supplying medicines and food. AIRCRAFT are the international symbol of HOPE, FAITH and LOVE. COVID-19 PILOT FUND RAISING FOUNDATION FNB NEWTON PARK ACC NUMBER: 6287 4540 208 Branch Code: 261050 Swift Code: FIRNZAJJ 86
Tel: +27 (0) 73 500 5704
MOST RELIABLE PROPELLER FOR CESSNA AIRCRAFT Operating in Africa requires aircraft and products that are reliable and durable. Whether it’s an Air Safari to the remotest game preserve, or delivering critical medical supplies to an isolated village, you want a propeller that you can count on, one that’s Built on Honor. Our Top Prop program offers proven 2-, 3-, and 4-blade propeller conversions featuring the latest in blended airfoil scimitar technology for all single engine Cessnas. Check out our entire selection of Top Prop conversions including Cessna 206, 208, and 210.
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PETER GARRISON’S NEW BOOK! Acclaimed SA Flyer (and Flying magazine) columnist Peter Garrison has just released a book of noteworthy accident analyses, and lessons to be learned, from his ‘Aftermath’ series. He writes: “I’ve put a bunch of slightly used but still serviceable Aftermaths into a book called “Why? Thinking About Plane Crashes”, which is for sale on Amazon Books as both a Kindle ebook and a paperback.” Guy Leitch highly recommends it; “I downloaded it for just US$5.75 on kindle and the profound insights to be gained from these accidents will make us all better pilots. From the risks of ‘taking a look’ at dubious VFR conditions, to showing-off in front of our friends, there are 32 invaluable lessons. This book should be part of every pilot’s prescribed reading list.”
Bailey Cars - beyond this modest entrance in Boksburg lies a world class builder of sports racing cars and replicas of classic winners.
One of the hugely in demand Baileys 917 replicas being built.
BAILEYS CARS Better Cars than the Originals A South African glider pilot Peter Bailey has quietly gone about
BELOW: The replicas are better than the originals thanks to modern brakes and other safety improvements.
becoming the world leader in top end replica cars.
MOTOR racing enthusiasts around the world have long dreamed about owning a Le Mans 24 Hour endurance race winning racing car. The recent rise in collectable car prices has seen the original race winners achieve prices of over $50 million dollars, so the dream is a little out of the price range of the average mortal. In 2003 two South African motor racing fanatics brought the dream a lot closer for many. Father and son team Peter and Greg Bailey began producing an excellent recreation of the four times Le Mans wining Ford GT40, the car that ended the six year winning streak of Ferrari in the late 1960s. The success of the Baileyâ€™s initial GT40 design resulted in demand for not only the Bailey GT40, but replicas of other legendary cars as well. Bailey Cars began work on a replica of the Ferrari 330 P4, Lola T70 and the car that over the years has November 2020
Hand crafted compound curve aluminium going into an Alfa Romeo Tipo 33.
become their flagship; the Bailey Porsche 917
produce a vehicle that is many ways superior to
the icon it was based upon, especially in terms of
Bailey Cars are not just beautiful ‘trailer queen’ skin deep recreations of these legendary cars,
Due to the confidence and knowledge
but each Bailey replica has been designed for
that Bailey Cars has gained from building
hard racing by true enthusiasts on real race tracks
and successfully racing cars, which are true
around the world. Under the leadership of Peter
recreations of the cars that were built in 60’s and
Bailey the company has earned the respect of the
70’s, they decided to build and design their own
racing community internationally and has built a
modern albeit retro race cars. The Bailey GT1 is a
customer base in the USA, Sweden, Australia,
modern day version of the iconic Ford GT40 sports
Germany, Finland, Holland, England, Zambia and
car, capable of racing in national championships
most recently, Japan and India.
against the likes of famous marques such as the
Forty years ago these racing cars were built with just one goal in mind – to “win at any cost.”
safety, reliability and driver ergonomics.
Porsche GT3 Cup and Ferrari 430 challenge cars. The most advanced car Bailey Cars has
Unfortunately driver safety was not high on the
produced is their LMP2 which is designed to the
priority list. Bailey Cars have therefore addressed
latest ACO, Le Mans 24 hour race rules. The
many of the original shortcomings in these
ultimate goal for the car is to take on the greats at
machines. In addition, engineering has come a
Le Mans. Bailey Cars have made this incredible
long way in 40 years. Peter and his team have
racing machine available to the South African
taken full advantage of this progress and now
market specifically to compete in the newly formed
RIGHT: Perfect attention to detail - a Ferrari P4 engine.
South Africa Endurance series. Bailey Cars are currently recreating an Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 from scratch as a ‘once-off’ build. The bodywork of this 1960’s Italian racing prototype is being hand crafted from 1.6mm aluminium sheets using the traditional English Wheel Method, a skill that is unfortunately dying as not many capable craftsman are around to pass on this art. When Baileys Cars are not building new high performance cars, they take on refurbishment projects of classic and historic cars. On our visit to the factory in Jet Park Gauteng we were shown a Corvette, Mercedes-Benz 190SL as well as a few Porsche 911s, among others that were in various stages of restoration. After many years in the industry, ranging from international race event
Bailey replicas compete on race tracks around the world.
management and coordination right through to competing at the highest level in some of the world’s top racing series, the Bailey Cars team have gained a wealth of motor-sport expertise. Peter Bailey, as the man in the driving seat of Baileys Cars, does not only enjoy racing high performance cars he balances the rough and ready raw power of racing cars by flying gliders, yet ever the competitor – he competes in most regional and
Classic cars are also restored - here's an owners Mercedes SL190.
national glider competitions.
ACCIDENT REPORT: JIM DAVIS
P R OP EL LOR S UR P R I S E S SYNOPSIS On a flight from Petrusville to Ermelo the pilot reported a sudden noise from the engine, followed by a severe vibration. The pilot reduced power and adjusted the propeller pitch, but this did not improve the situation. The pilot then cut the engine and force landed the aircraft in an open field. During the landing the left-hand main wheel impacted with an anthill. After the landing the pilot discovered that a piece of the propeller blade had separated from the propeller.
200HP is a massive force for a propellor to have to handle.
THIS REPORT AND DISCUSSION IS COMPILED IN THE INTEREST OF FLIGHT SAFETY NOT TO ESTABLISH LEGAL LIABILITY. PROBABLE CAUSE
buzzing around in soft stuff called air? Actually not
The tip of the propellor blade most probably
– we need to look at it more closely to see what
separated due to the formation of a fatigue crack
it’s really doing. It’s delivering the power that the
in the propellor blade. The pilot had to cut the
engine pushes out. It’s doing much the same job
engine and execute a forced landing due to the
as the driving wheels on your car.
severe vibration that followed. During the forced
Today’s props are about 85% efficient so that
landing in an open field the aircraft impacted with
means that the prop on a 235 Cherokee must
deliver around 200HP – safely, over many years,
JIM’S COMMENTS Okay, all very easy and straightforward. Poor
A small stone chip like this may be fatal if left untreated.
guy was just flying along and the prop broke. He made the best of the forced landing but hit an anthill. Hmmm – actually not really. The aircraft was almost certainly unserviceable when he took off. Propellors don’t just break. But they are very strange animals. They are both unbelievably tough, and incredibly fragile. Tough at doing their job, and fragile in that they will indeed break very easily if they are ignored or maltreated. And think of this, a propellor failure can be a hell of a lot more serious than an engine failure. If the engine fails, the aeroplane will still fly. If a
without breaking. Let’s make it real by putting
prop breaks it can make the aircraft unflyable in a
some numbers to it. One horsepower is defined as
heart-beat. The out-of-balance forces can rip the
the amount of power needed to lift 250kg one foot
engine from the airframe before you have time to
in one second.
yank the throttle back. And once the engine has departed, the C of
Now think about that in terms of stuff we can actually picture. Imagine we have two massive
G moves so far back that you will have as much
rugby players (125kg each) lying on stretchers
control as you would have over a falling leaf.
on the floor. Then one horsepower is what we
This guy was very lucky in that only a small
need to lift them both to knee height in a second.
piece of the prop departed. How do I know it was
That would take quite a bit of doing. I doubt the
a small piece? Well, if it was more than a few
strongest man in the world could do it – but the
inches, he, and both his pax would be dead – it’s
eponymous sturdy horse might just.
that simple. So why would a prop break – after all it’s just
Anyhow that’s just one horsepower. So 10HP will lift 20 rugby players to knee height in a November 2020
second. But hang on, this little aeroplane’s prop
of centrifugal force on each blade as it tries to
is delivering 200 HP. So it is designed to lift 400
pull itself out of its hub. And it suffers massive
rugby players one foot in one second. Or you
gyroscopic loads every time the aircraft pitches or
could say 40 rugby players to roof height in a
second. That’s a hell of a lot of power. And the
While all this is happening it’s being subjected
work of those 200 horses has to be transmitted
to vibrations from the engine’s power pulses
through one bendable piece of soft aluminium
as well as twisting moments and all sorts of
A PROP IS AS FRAGILE AS A MASERATI
harmonics set up by the engine, the airframe and the airflow. A prop is a very specialized piece of machinery. It’s both as tough as a Caterpillar tractor, and as fragile as a Maserati. It can do this massive job, but it will break in an instant if you don’t look after it. So I am using this accident as an excuse to tell you how to avoid prop damage and failure. Basically, a prop blade may be damaged in one
alloy that you can pick up with one hand, and
of two ways. Slowly through corrosion, or instantly
scratch with a coin. And that wouldn’t be too bad
by contact with a sharp object like a stone. Or
if was a smooth, straight pull. But it’s not – while
both. Perhaps instantly is not quite the right
it’s pulling it has to withstanding about 15 tons
word. Stone damage which causes a sharp nick
Pitted corrosion is a particularly severe problem - especially in hard to reach or hidden places.
LEFT: A properly repaired propellor.
CORROSION One of the most insidious causes of propellor damage is corrosion. This includes external corrosion that is visible on the blades, as well as internal corrosion that literally eats away at the components within the hub of a variable-pitch propellor. Regardless of its location, corrosion reduces the structural integrity of the propellor, as well as its performance. There are three distinct types of corrosion relative to propellors: surface corrosion, pitting, and intergranular corrosion. Surface corrosion occurs when the protective coating on the propellor has been removed from the face and leading edge of the propellor, most often by the effects of rain, sand, etc. This is fairly common and can be removed by a mechanic with emery or crocus cloth, followed by re-painting of the in the blade sets up a stress focus point which will produce a crack leading to a blade failure
propellor as required. Pitting is a very specific and serious form of
Physical damage may also remove the protective
corrosion. Pitting corrosion consists of small,
coating and allow corrosion to set in.
visible corrosion cavities extending inward from
YOU WILL BE HORRIFIED TO HEAR HOW SERIOUS EVEN A SMALL CHIP CAN BE
the metal surface of the propellor. Pits can grow
You will generally find corrosion starting where
Intergranular corrosion is a form of corrosion
on the surface, but are more commonly found where moisture is trapped, such as under decals left in place after propellor balancing or improperly installed de-icing boots. Any sign of pitting is serious and should be evaluated quickly in an effort to save the propellor from the junk heap.
the covering has been compromised – for instance
internal to the metal structure itself. It is less
underneath the decal showing the maker’s name
common and more likely to be caused by a
or where the blade has been scratched. Yep, that’s
problem in the metal casting, but it too can be
right – a scratched blade can kill you. Here’s what
caused by trapped moisture under decals or
AOPA has to say on the subject:
around bolt holes. November 2020
I keep using the word sharp – so let me
NICKS AND CHIPS Stone chips in the leading edges are the
explain. When you struggle to open one of those
most common form of damage – and you will be
little packets of stale peanuts they give you on
horrified to hear how serious even a small chip
commercial flights, you quickly find it’s impossible
unless you start the tear at the little “V”. It’s exactly
Any sharp chip over 1 mm deep can set up a stress point from which a crack will from. And this will lead to the blade breaking. Because most
the same with a prop – the crack starts very easily at the apex of a sharp chip. Here’s an interesting extract from the same
metal props are made in the USA – figures are
AOPA document on ‘dressing’ a prop. That means
generally quoted in imperial measurements. These
smoothing out a chip. It’s amazing how much
references refer to chips of 1/32 inch. That’s about
material engineers have to remove before the prop is back to almost its full strength.
A crack such as this must instantly ground an aircraft.
According to the FAA’s Advisory Circular AC 20-37E, “Limited minor repairs may be made on propellors by appropriately rated maintenance technicians either on the aircraft or when the propellor is removed. Minor dents, cuts, scars, scratches, and nicks may be removed providing their removal does not weaken the blade, substantially change weight or balance, or otherwise impair its performance.” It’s important to always use the propellor
Prop tips are particularly vulnerable and have to be checked on every prefligfht and any nicks dressed out.
manufacturer’s maintenance manuals for proper maintenance procedures and limits when working on a propellor. That said, the FAA provides some guidelines for minor repairs in AC 20-37E: Of particular note in these repair guidelines are the rules regarding the transitions and fairing out of the repairs. For leading edge repairs, the total repair length is 10 times longer than the depth of the repair. This is very important. It means that if you need to down 1/8-inch (0.125 inch) to get to the base of a nick, you will need to smooth out the repair over the distance of 1.25 inches. For blade
1 mm in our money. Put it another way a matchstick is roughly 2.5
face repairs, it’s 30 times. For a 1/16-inch deep repair (0.0625 of an inch), that’s a 1.875-inch disk
mm thick, so if you have a sharp chip the depth
of repair area. Those are pretty big dimensions;
of a matchstick you have exceed the limit and are
more than one might assume without proper
looking for trouble.
training. So, it pays to know proper maintenance
practices such as this to ensure that repairs are
aircraft outside on a cold and wet night, it’s a good
idea to leave the prop with one blade vertically
So far we have only looked at the prop blades – the bits you can see on a preflight inspection.
down – this will prevent water accumulating in the spinner.
But if you have a constant speed prop then you also need to grasp each blade firmly to twist it and move it back and forth in its hub to test whether it
WHAT CAN WE LEARN? •
has any play. Also check for oil leaks in the hub. These will show up as streaks of oil along the blades.
YOU CAN BEND A PROP BY PUSHING OR PULLING TOO HARD NEAR THE TIP.
Treat nicks and chips in prop blades very seriously – think of the peanut packet.
The age limit for prop overhauls is important. It is largely about corrosion – not
A C CI DENT R EP OR T S UMM A R Y : Date of Accident Time of Accident: 12 July 1998 1235z Aircraft Registration: ZS-JWT Type of Aircraft: Piper PA28-235
Finally check the spinner for security and make
Pilot-in-command Licence Type: Private
sure all the screws are seated properly. Both the
spinner and the backing plate are made of light,
easily damaged materials. Never try to push an aircraft by the spinner. If a spinner comes adrift in flight it may cause other damage as it departs.
Pilot-in-command Flying Experience: Total Flying Hours 360 Hours on Type Not
It may also cause the engine to overheat as
spinners are designed to smooth the airflow into
Last point of departure: Petrusville
the engine’s cooling ducts.
Next point of intended landing:
If you need to use to prop to manhandle the aircraft on the ground, only use the inner portion next to the spinner. Strangely you can bend a prop by pushing or pulling too hard near the tip. Spinners are also a risk when the aircraft is
Ermelo Aerodrome Location of the accident site: Near the Kalkfontein Dam Meteorological Information:
parked in sub-zero temperatures. It’s possible
Weather was fine
for rainwater to accumulate in the spinner and
Number of people on board: 1 + 2
then freeze. Obviously, this will cause a serious
No. of people injured: Nil
balance problem which is likely to rip the spinner off its mounting plate. If you have to leave the
No. of people killed: Nil November 2020
REPORT BY GARTH CALITZ
S A NAT I ONA L A ER OB AT I C S
Ch a m p i o n s h i p s 2 0 2 0 THE SUCCESS OF THE 2020 SAC NATIONAL AEROBATICS CHAMPIONSHIPS, HELD AT NEW TEMPE AIRFIELD, WAS THE RESULT OF DOGGED DETERMINATION BY SAC CHAIRMAN GARY GLASSON AND CONRAD BOTHA TO OVERCOME ALL ODDS.
ABOVE: Nigel Hopkins knife-edges past Sport Car Club sponsors cars and bikes.
THE COVID-19 pandemic ruined their plans to have the Aerobatic Nationals in May accompanied by an Airshow, but Gary and his team, along with local Bloemfontein pilots, managed to pull off a competition that rivals any in the past. When South Africa moved to Level 1 lock-down only three weeks before the revised competition date, the planning started in earnest. Conrad began by acquiring sponsors for fuel and other essential costs, as many leading aeros pilots in SA have been without a decent pay-cheque since February and the competition just wouldnâ€™t be the same without them. With unwavering determination, the competition came together and on Tuesday 29 September New Tempe Airfield was awakened by the arrival of high-performance aerobatic aircraft from all over South Africa. Everything was in place for a brilliant weekâ€™s competition. But nature was not to be beaten easily as no matter how hard mere mortals try, we cannot control the weather and that did its best to throw a spanner in the works. Wednesday, Day 1 of competition presented far from ideal weather, but it was deemed flyable long enough for all the competitors to get one flight in before all flying was stopped.
A new class that bodes well for the future of competition aerobatics in South Africa is the RV class - here Ian Beaton takes off in his RV7.
Gary Glasson did extraordinarily well to compete in the Unlimited Class in a diminutive Pitts S1.
complaining as they took off in the terrible wind. A late afternoon shower seemed to improve the conditions but by that time the daylight was all but gone and hope was transferred to the following day. Friday morning arrived and conditions looked marginal, raising serious fears that the competition would end without a result, as according to FAI Despite the terrible conditions the pilots
rules each pilot must complete two sequences for
managed respectable scores. The reigning
the competition to be valid. After a deliberation
National Champion, Nigel Hopkins managed a
some of the pilots decided to take on the horrid
lifetime best score of 85,090% a score that would
conditions and attempt to get a sequence done,
put him on top of leader-boards anywhere in the
this, unfortunately, was short-lived as low cloud
rolled in and after only three flights it was back to the Airborne Restaurant for some coffee and commiseration. Later in the afternoon the wind abated and conditions became flyable. The Advanced Class pilots took to the air, fighting a nasty North-Easterly wind and terrible visibility, but they were adamant to get a result in this year, if only to push back against 2020. Four pilots managed to complete their sequences before low cloud once again called a halt to the day’s flying. With heavy hearts the
Once again Nigel Hopkins showed his mastery by dominating the Unlimited Class in his Extra 330Sc.
competitors left the airfield hoping for better weather the following day. We all awoke to conditions that cannot have been better – with a light westerly breeze and not a cloud in sight. After a quick briefing the pilots made their way to the aircraft and the first pilot took to beautiful blue skies just before 8:00, starting off what would be an exceptionally busy day for all.
Day 2 of the competition had to be cancelled
The pace that Day 4 took was blistering: as
as the relentless wind remained well above
soon as one competitor wagged his wings to
acceptable levels, at times gusting close to 40
indicate his sequence was complete the next
knots. The only flying that was witnessed the
entered the “Box” and so it continued the whole
whole day was a bunch of noisy Black Korhaans
day. Each competitor managed to complete two
Jason Beamish gets airborne to compete in the Advanced Class in his Extra 330L.
Jason Beamish side-slipped their Extra 330’s behind a line of parked cars and motorcycles from the Bloemfontein Ferrari, Porsche, Harley Davidson and Sports Car Clubs. Each vehicle owner had paid a sponsorship fee for this photo opportunity of a lifetime which in turn contributed to making the competition happen. Lunch, however, was a very short affair and very soon it was back to serious work of flying aerobatics.
sequences for the day. Unfortunately, the Freestyle competition had
The afternoon session saw the wind increase but nowhere near the previous few days’ levels.
to be scrapped as time didn’t allow for it But the
The flying continued at the blistering pace of
fact that the Aresti section of the competition was
the morning, keeping the guests at the Airborne
completed was nothing short of miraculous. With the fast pace of the competition one would be forgiven if the thought of safety infringements came to mind, nothing could
Conrad Botha competing in his locally designed and built Slick 360.
have been further from the truth as senior judge John Gaillard remarked; “This was the safest competition I have judged in my long career, the airmanship was impeccable.” During the short lunch break, some light entertainment was planned as Nigel Hopkins and
The officials and competitors.
Restaurant entertained throughout the day. All the Classes, baring the newly formed RV Class, managed to fly three sequences during the competition. The RV class was made up mainly of pilots that had been introduced to the sport by Gary Glasson and Eugene du Preezâ€™s RV training camp Once again the Best of The Best - Nigel Hopkins was the Unlimited Class winner.
initiative. With the flying done, it was time for everyone to freshen up before meeting up at a local Game Lodge for the gala evening. Helmut Ludwig welcomed everyone and thanked all involved for their unwavering determination in managing to organise and host such a successful championship despite all the difficulties. Gary, Eugene and Conrad received
Pierre Du Plooy won the Advanced competition.
a special mention as they managed to achieve what many thought was an impossible task. Events like this would never happen if not for the generous sponsors that even in this time of dire economic strain stuck their hands deep in their pockets and contributed unreservedly. WZ Betonwerke, H&L Hardware, Blazecor Crushers, EAA Chapter 503 Bloemfontein, Human Ford, Salleys Yamaha,
Up and coming Tristan Eeles won the Sportsman Class.
Woodlands Hills Checkers and Protein 2 Go sport drinks all joined forces to assist the SAC.
Then the moment arrived that everyone was waiting for, the results of the past few days tight competition. Helmut started with the newly formed RV Class followed by the Sportsman Class, Intermediate Class, Advanced Class and finally the Unlimited Class, the winner of which is also crowned the South African National Aerobatics Champion for 2020.
T HE A DVA NCED CL A S S T OOK T O T HE A I R , F I GHT I NG A NA S T Y NOR T HE A S T ER LY WI ND A ND T ER R I B L E V I S I B I L I T Y In the RV Class Dane Laing managed a very
Nigel Hopkins was once again crowned Unlimited and National Aerobatics Champion 2020 followed by Barrie Eeles and Gary Glasson who competed in a diminutively stubby Pitts S1 –which is no longer a competitive mount for Unlimited aerobatics. Congratulations to all the winners and all the competitors for an outstanding competition. Thank you to Mark Hensman for accepting the role as Contest Director – a function not many people are willing to take on. Also, Natalie Stark for her dedication as Scoring Director, John Gaillard as Chief Judge lead a very capable team of internationally recognised judges and finally Quintin Hawthorne, Laszlo Liszkay, Helmut Ludwig, Johnie Smith, Kelly McAuley and Cindy Weber for a marvellous job judging – under
sometimes terrible conditions.
close second, followed by Ian Beaton in third place. Tristan Eeles was crowned Sportsman National
m haWe ov v ede !
respectable 77.017%, Johan van Zyl came in a
Champion 2020, Wian du Plessis managed a close second place with less than 1% separating the top two. Machiel Du Plessis was placed third behind his brother. In the Intermediate Championships Andrew Blackwood-Murray walked away with the laurels
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Notably, all three of these pilots are from the Western Cape. Pierre Du Plooy was crowned Advanced National Champion which also entitles him to take part in the Advanced World Championships (AWAC) which may be taking place in Malelane in Mpumalanga sometime next year. Glen Warden and Jason Beamish managed second and third respectively.
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No Wing-Stand REQUIRED: During another regional championship in the early 90’s I found myself low near the small town of Koster. Usually the thermal over the township works and failing that, the silos often trigger off something. Not today – the task was too long and somehow the attraction of a safe airfield seems greater than fighting to stay alive. I roll to the end of the runway at Koster and as I
beers. 1 ½ hours later, after several war stories and
climb out of my ASW20 glider I hear another glider
a lot of beer, we decided to walk down and meet
roll up behind me. Out climbs John Mcloughlin
the crew. To our pleasant surprise they had made
and instead of waiting an hour and a half for our
good time, de-rigged the gliders and were driving
crew, we decide to amble into town to buy some
out when we got to the gate. They also had brought
biltong. It just so happened that there was a pub
nearby tucked slightly off the main road and so the
Lesson: Roll to the end of an airfield in case
inevitable order of a quick beer turned into more
someone lands behind you. This is the exact
opposite of what you do when you land in a grass
I had never had a conversation with John, who
field. I have several times seen my glider tracks
was both a very experienced competition pilot and
narrowly miss burrowing holes that could tear off
a great raconteur, especially when plied with a few
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November October 2020 2020
SA Flyer 2020|11
SPECIALIZING IN RAVIN 500, RV RANGE AND TECNAM’S.
AOPA BRIEFING: CHRIS MARTINUS
With the electric power at 65% of fatal dose the tester is still being obedient. Are we victims of pseudoauthority - as was so well demonstrated in the Milgram experiment.
MUNCHHA US EN, MI LGR A M & C OV I D-1 9 We are now many months into lockdown
A fairly benign new respiratory disease
over the Covid-19 pandemic. What started
has become the most-discussed and most
out as no more than a few weeks of
abused and exploited epidemic in human history. Even our own Minister Nkosasana
isolation and restrictions has continued for
Dlamini-Zuma regaled her colleagues about
far longer than the world’s populace ever
how it could be used to impose an obscure
imagined – and there seems to be no end
Marxist ideology on the country – and that this “opportunity” should not be missed.
in sight. Even the most ardent optimists are
Fortunately, that scheme has fallen flat, but
no longer using the term “after Covid” when
Covid-19 continues to be a cudgel to be
they contemplate the future. 106
used by governments the world over to instil fear and submission on their populations.
PRESIDENT: AIRCRAFT OWNERS & PILOTS ASSOCIATION – SOUTH AFRICA
IT’S ALL ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY I’ve long been theorised that psychology is the underlying science for almost everything:
surprised to find that everyone, not just Germans, would be more inclined to obey authority figures than follow their own consciences.
religion, economics, sociology, politics, marketing
His test, for which volunteers would be paid
and perhaps even fundamental sciences such as
$4.50, would be to have them be “teachers” who
physics and chemistry. No matter the discipline,
would punish “learners” if they made mistakes
researchers and practitioners are deeply
by giving them ever-increasing electric shocks.
influenced by it.
The teachers were told that it was an experiment
In the case of the Covid-19 pandemic,
about memory and learning. Unbeknownst to the
there has never been such vast amounts of
teachers, the learner was not a volunteer, but an
misinformation and fearmongering imposed on
accomplice with the experimenter. The learner
an ever more confused public. Take an issue like
would be wired up and strapped down, but was
having to wear masks. There is pitiful evidence
hidden behind a screen and would then be read
either way that masks are or are not effective in
a list of word pairs which they would have to
preventing transmission of the disease, yet that
issue causes such emotion that there are regularly
If the learner got an answer wrong, the teacher
fights amongst aircraft passengers over whether
would apply an electric shock. The voltage would
these bits of cloth should or should not be worn.
then be increased, eventually to a level that could
Presidents of first-world countries use the issue as
be fatal – or so the teachers were told. The learner
the basis of their policies, when one would think
would in fact not be shocked at all, but would
that they should have more important issues to
scream pitifully and beg to be released whenever
he got an answer wrong and the teacher pushed
One thing is for sure though, the wearing of masks has become a universal symbol of
the button. The teachers would be extremely distressed
compliance and submission to authority, no matter
when the voltage was increased and they would
how irrational it may appear.
have to apply shocks. When they asked if the experiment could be stopped, they were sternly
OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY In the 1960s, a psychologist at Yale University,
told that it must go on. All of the participants would continue to 300 volts, the danger level. 65% of
Stanley Milgram, conducted an extensive study
them would go all the way to 450 volts, where the
on this subject. At the post-WWII Nuremberg
shocks could be fatal.
trials, the most common defence against having
The public was shocked to hear that ordinary
committed terrible atrocities was that the offenders
Americans were just as willing to commit atrocities
were merely following orders.
as Germans were, if they were told to do so by an
Milgram wanted to establish if Germans were
authority figure, in this case a man in a white coat.
particularly obedient to authority figures. He was November 2020
MUNCHAUSEN’S SYNDROME This affliction is fairly rare. Munchausen’s
LOCKDOWN REGULATIONS As has been covered in this column before,
syndrome is a psychological disorder where
AOPA has been hard at work since before
someone pretends to be ill or deliberately
lockdown, interpreting and getting clarification
produces symptoms of illness in themselves.
on the various regulations insofar as they affect
Their main intention is to assume the “sick
role” so that people care for them and they are
Briefly, everybody was confined to their homes
the centre of attention. Any practical benefit in
unless they were travelling for a purpose explicitly
pretending to be sick – for example, claiming
permitted by the regulations, such as going to
incapacity benefit – is not the reason for their
the shops or performing “essential services”.
In addition, since air travel was the main vector
This is not the same as hypochondria.
by which the virus was transported across
Munchausen patients are aware that they are
international borders, commercial passenger air
simply fooling doctors, and do so by contaminating
travel was banned, as were other forms of public
urine samples with blood and rubbing dirt into
transport such as buses, trains, etc where there
wounds to cause infection.
is a risk of transmission between passengers. At
The South Af r ican av iat ion communit y has fallen into a carefully orchestrated trap
no time was private aviation or any other form of private transport banned, provided of course that the people themselves were allowed to travel. Ministers and other authorities were required to issue directions to give effect to the lockdown regulations. This did not in any way entitle them to invent new regulations over and above those
Why have I provided this little discourse on these two fascinating psychological conditions?
AOPA let this be known, but we were aghast
Well, it would appear that the South African
at the misinformation that abounded that general
aviation community has fallen into a carefully
aviation was banned. We fielded many enquiries
orchestrated trap that is a pernicious combination
as to how pilots could obtain “permits to fly” when
of both the Milgram experiment and Munchausen’s
there was no restriction in the first place.
promulgated by COGTA.
There were some very poorly worded
AOPA BRIEFING passages in NOTAMs, which were amended from
of their way to find reasons why they were not
time to time – which gave the impression that
allowed to fly – even though they knew full well
private aviation was restricted in some way. We
that flying around the patch would in no way
believe that these parts of NOTAMS emanated
propagate Covid-19 and that the risk of spreading
from SACAA officials who fraudulently wanted
the virus would be far lower if they were to fly their
the public to believe that private flights were
aircraft to provide essential services than if they
b o t h t h e S A CA A a n d Mi n i s t e r must have been aware that they were deliberately misleading us
were to travel by car. In other words, everyone went mad. THE FRAUD This collective madness did not go unnoticed by those who sought, like Dlamini-Zuma, to exploit it for their own purposes. SACAA and the Minister of Transport would issue notices that some aspects of “general aviation” would be “permitted”, but only on application. Of course,
prohibited. They knew full well that they were not
everyone believed that if something specific is
entitled to create such regulations themselves, so
“permitted”, anything else is implicitly prohibited
they relied on subterfuge and providing misleading
– and both SACAA and Minister must have been
aware that they were deliberately misleading us.
NOTAMs are merely information about airports
AOPA sought clarification of this in a formal
and air navigation and do not represent authority
letter to SACAA’s Pierre Laubscher. We did not
any more than Stanley Milgram’s man in the white
expect an answer, since we believed that he
coat, but many entities like airport operators and
was up to no good anyway, but that gave us
flying clubs imposed rules prohibiting flight – in the
the opportunity to escalate our requirement for
false belief that they were obliged, like Milgram’s
clarification to the Minister.
teachers, to apply shocks to the people they felt
The response was rapid and panicked.
were under their control. And they were prepared
SACAA’s Neil de Lange, the Aero Club of SA,
to do so knowing full well that they were severely
the Commercial Aviation Association of SA and
hurting the very people they are supposed to
the opportunistic – or doltish – Pilotinsure quickly
cooked up a ludicrous scheme where they would
The most astonishing behaviour was that
“help” general aviation by setting up an online
pilots and aircraft owners themselves were
system where pilots and owners would enter their
pretending to have problems. In a kind of collective
private information and automatically be issued
Munchausen’s Syndrome, they would go out
with a completely meaningless “permit”. Pilotinsure November 2020
even told pilots that their insurance would be void if they did not have such permits. Now, AOPA is always extremely reluctant to participate in any conflict within the general aviation community, but in this instance we feel it
Many of our members who own and fly nontype-certified aircraft are particularly hard hit. Dozens of them have been waiting months for their ATFs. Are we contemplating the end of general
necessary to express our contempt and disgust
aviation in South Africa – while we persist in giving
at not only SACAA, but also AeCSA, CAASA,
each other electric shocks and deliberately making
Pilotinsure and others who we believe engaged in
a deeply dishonest scheme to exploit pilots’ and aircraft owners’ fears, ignorance and confusion for the purpose of establishing and entrenching a fictitious and probably fraudulent “permit” scheme in which they also collect valuable pilot and aircraft information for their own purposes. Today, we find ourselves with an SACAA which is now probably bankrupt, both morally and financially. They appear unable and unwilling to issue the most basic licences, certificates, permits and other legally required documents within a sensible period of time - or at all.
Munchausen syndrome - are we not as sick as we would like to think we are?
RESPONSE TO CHRIS MARTINUS
L E ON DI L L M A N, CE O o f t h e C o m m e r c i a l Av i a t i o n As s o ciat ion of Sout he r n Af r ica r e p l i e s t o Ch r i s Ma r t i n u s : DEAR GUY,
in which they also collect valuable pilot and aircraft
[Thank you for the opportunity to reply to Chris
information for their own purposes.”
Martinus of AOPA].
To be honest, the statements made by Mr Chris
I assume you are referring to the following
Martinus from AOPA are so far removed from
statements: “The response was rapid and
the truth and reality, that in my view, it does not
panicked. SACAA’s Neil de Lange, the Aero Club
even warrant a reply. Any of the more than 200
of SA, the Commercial Aviation Association of
companies that are members of CAASA can
SA and Pilotinsure quickly cooked up a ludicrous
vouch on this one. We kept our members informed
scheme where they would “help” general aviation
on the Covid-19 response and progress made by
by setting up an online system where pilots and
CAASA on an almost daily basis.
owners would enter their private information
Since the implementation of a the State of
and automatically be issued with a completely
Disaster and straight through the various stages
meaningless “permit”. Pilotinsure even told pilots
of the Lockdown the actual relevant aviation
that their insurance would be void if they did not
entities that makes a difference were hard at
have such permits.
work trying to open-up the aviation industry as
Now, AOPA is always extremely reluctant to
quickly as possible, but within the Regulations and
participate in any conflict within the general
Guidelines as provided by the National Command
aviation community, but in this instance we feel it
necessary to express our contempt and disgust
The obvious absence of AOPA at the forums and
at not only SACAA, but also AeCSA, CAASA,
committees that tried to open-up the aviation
Pilotinsure and others who we believe engaged in
industry, such as the Captains of the Aviation
a deeply dishonest scheme to exploit pilots’ and
Industry Forum (consisting of all the aviation
aircraft owners’ fears, ignorance and confusion
associations, ATNS, SACAA, ACSA and various
for the purpose of establishing and entrenching a
CEO’s within the scheduled and non-scheduled
fictitious and probably fraudulent “permit” scheme
environment), might be an explanation for the November 2020
ill-informed, almost conspiracy theory type
skies across a number of fronts.
statements made by Mr Martinus.
We kept our membership fully informed from
I am not aware of any “deeply dishonest or cooked
the start all the way through to when restrictions
up ludicrous scheme” that was implemented to
were mostly lifted at Level 2. Our Communiques
“exploit pilots’ and aircraft owners’ fears”. I am
from March #3 onwards which can be found here
however well aware of various official requests
from CAASA to the National Command Council
news/ have bearing on what was going on and
and the Minister of Transport to open-up various
what was being negotiated or secured to get
sectors of the aviation industry as quickly as
the GA/RA community airborne again within the
possible and to implement processes and
bounds of Gazetted regulations. As Leon notes,
procedures that resulted directly in allowing for
if we as the collective industry together with the
essential aviation services and maintenance
regulator did not find ways to secure concessions
operations (including cross-border) to continue,
with the DoT based on our proposals of GA type
aviation schools to re-open, business flights to
Aviation being a low risk environment we would
not have had “opened” up skies to the extent as
If this task was left to a one-man- only- a few
to what was achieved – which would have been
members -after- the- fact-complaining-not-
detrimental on a number of aspects, Continued
actually- involved- association, the aviation
Airworthiness of Aircraft and Proficiency of Flight
industry would have “opened-up” much later and it
would have been much more complicated.
To note that the mechanisms put in place to support return-to-flight within the set regulations
were developed and supported by a number of
CEO The Commercial Aviation Association of
our members in their voluntary capacity – with the
common goal of getting us all airborne.
Rob Jonkers Chairman Aeroclub of SA
Mr Rob Jonkers, Chairman of the Aeroclub of South Africa reply to Chris Martinus:
DEAR GUY With reference to statements made by AOPA, I concur fully with what Leon has indicated, we had an industry wide approach to deal with the effects of COGTA imposed regulations for C-19 on Aviation and how to find ways to re-open up the
At time of publication we had not received a reply from Pilot Insure and the SACAA.
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CAPE TOWN REVIEW
COVID-19 HALTS EXPANSION PLANS After a delay of two years, Cape Town International Airport (CTIA) was finally ready to start its huge runway re-alignment and expansion. Then the Covid-19 pandemic stopped all travel and the plans had to once again be put on hold.
IN 2018 ACSA announced the launch of its long awaited R7 Billion capex project. This included upgrades to the international and domestic terminal buildings. Under the Covid-19 pandemic the project has been suspended, as has the R3.8 Billion construction of a new 3200-metre runway. In pre-Covid operations Cape Town International Airport (CTIA) was the third largest airport in Africa, with almost eleven million passengers a year. The recovery in passenger numbers is expected to take to at the earliest mid-2023, so the pressing need for the planned CTIA expansion has waned – for now. THE LOCKDOWN The lockdown had a calamitous effect on the airport’s revenue. However, Deon Cloete, Cape Town International Airport’s General Manager says the Airports Company of South Africa (ACSA) used the lockdown for developing and implementing new procedures and protocols to minimise the risk to passengers in anticipation of a slow return to flying in Quarter 4 this the year. “We have developed these new end-to-end procedures in close collaboration with key industry players i.e. non-ACSA airports such as Lanseria, local and international airlines, government and regulatory bodies. Suffice to say there has been a lot of learning with regular updates and tweaking happening along the
CAPE TOWN REVIEW way. We also leaned heavily on best practices recommended by the likes of IATA, ICAO and ACI.” “While it is still early days we are confident that the new procedures and systems have created the right spaces for safe passenger processing and facilitation. We will keep a beady eye on innovation and new technologies that will further A Covid-19 Monitor screens passengers on arrival at the airport.
improve the effectiveness of passenger health screening, and we will remain current with similar systems being implemented in many airports around the world. These enable us to build our
of Covid Monitor staff easy recognisable by clearly
own best practice solutions that will maintain
safety standards whilst gradually rebuilding passenger volumes,” Cloete says. The key requirements for an airport to be
Cloete says that information technology (I.T.) will play a key role. “Specialised I.T. teams at ACSA are exploring the upgrade of current
operate successfully under Covid restrictions
CCTV systems and technology that potentially
is that it must ‘do an elaborate dance with the
can further scan passengers moving through
airports on the other end of the route.” This
the airport for any sign of fever or high body temperature. This will be in addition to the current
Cape Town was one of the last routes to operate BA 747s.
cameras and temperature screening equipment already deployed at all access point into the terminal,” he says. While it remains important to keep exploring and investigating the best methods of containing Covid, Cloete reiterated that the actual systems deployed to date are already effective in creating and ensuring safe staff operations and passenger processing. A compulsory requirement for passengers departing on domestic flights is to arrive at the airport at least 2 hours before
means that protocols and procedures must be
departure for personal screening procedures
agreed. This applies particularly in regard to
monitored by Covid Monitor staff positioned at the
social distancing and pre-screening requirements.
Compliance monitoring i.e. health screening by
“Travellers are required to make full and honest
Port Health, the wearing of masks and adhering
disclosures about their recent whereabouts and
to social distancing signage and announcements
whether they have had any exposure or contact
are monitored by way of the full-time deployment
with people infected by Covid-19,” Cloete advises.
Cloete says the, “No Touch principle is being
destination, and increasing business between
applied, whereby methods have been put in
Johannesburg and Cape Town, plus the city’s
place so that our airport and airline staff have
increasing popularity as a home town for many
limited contact with passengers or their carry-on
South Africans, Cape Town International Airport
continues to see notable growth in passenger
At the security checkpoints, boarding
numbers, with it maintaining its position as the
passes and travel documents are scanned and
second busiest international airport in South
checked without physical contact or handling of
Africa, and third busiest in Africa.
documents. Using modern methods of issuing
The airport saw a 4 percent increase in
boarding passes on-line encourages tech-savvy
passenger traffic during the past year, to over 11
passengers to adhere to the No Touch method
million, compared to the 2017/18 financial year,
of check-in procedures. For passengers who still
which saw approximately 10,500,000 passengers
need to check baggage, social distancing rules
pass through the airport’s gates.
are rigidly enforced. The manned check-in desks are separated from each another by two unused counters. Cloete and his team remain focused with all key partners on ensuring responsible and safe travel solutions for passengers, in doing so being able to build passenger confidence and a much needed increase in bookings, flights and passengers. TOURISM Cape Town remains one of the best tourist destinations in the world, and so CTIA’s role has had to grow to match the demand. Remarkably, Deon Cloete says that ten years ago the airport was planning for a 90/10 split between international travellers and 90% local travellers. Due to the Cape’s success as a tourist
General Manager of Cape Town International Airport, Deon Cloete.
destination, and in attracting new airlines, this mix is now nearer 25% international and 75% domestic. This is largely due to the airport’s ability
A few years ago, the Johannesburg-Cape
to attract new airlines and expand the routes it
Town route was one of the top 10 busiest
serves. The world renowned Cape Air Access
air routes in the world. It has slipped out to
Initiative has been instrumental in this success.
eleventh, but in 2018, around 8 million of those
Due to Cape Town’s popularity as a tourist
ten million passengers were domestic travellers. November 2020
CAPE TOWN REVIEW
The remainder were made up of nearly 3 million passengers on international flights and
Cape Town International has a dedicated
regional routes, and fewer than just 11,000 from
general aviation area on the airport’s south-
western border. This section is home to the
Interestingly, total aircraft movements were
airport’s commercial non-scheduled operators,
slightly down due to a marked drop, from
flight schools and the Cape Town Flying Club, as
approximately 15,000 unscheduled flights to
well as various GA maintenance facilities. It has
around 11,000. This decrease in unscheduled
its own refuelling facilities as well as hangarage
passenger traffic quantifies what many in Cape
for small aircraft and training establishments, but
Town, and particularly those in the General
lacks a dedicated GA customs and immigration
Aviation area at the airport, know – that general
aviation (GA) has been squeezed out to find
A number of helicopter charter companies,
a space elsewhere. Morningstar Airfield, 20
such as Cape Town Helicopters and NAC, use the
km north of the CBD, and Stellenbosch Flying
V&A Waterfront, near the city centre, as a base for
Club appear to be popular refuges. Cape Town
flips around the peninsula and to wine estates and
International’s new single runway will further
Morningstar Airfield's well managed growth shows that GA is alive and well in the Western Cape.
SA Flyer 2017|04
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Southern Rotorcraft USA, founded in 2001 by Regenald Denysschen of Southern Rotorcraft cc SA, is an FAA Repair Station specializing in Rolls Royce M250 Series engines and Bell components. Southern Rotorcraft occupies a 25000 sq ft. facility and has a state-of-the-art NDT Department, Paint Booth as well as added equipment to it’s Machining Department. These additions have allowed an increase in capabilities as well as decreased turn around times thereby enabling advanced engineering and state of the art repair techniques. Southern Rotorcraft is a stockist of Avid Air Carbon Fibre lined Compressor Cases for the Rolls Royce 250-C20B Compressors. Southern Rotorcraft USA Inc. E-mail: email@example.com 1410 Industrial Drive, Royse City, Texas 75189 Phone: (972)635-7922 Toll Free: (866)4ROTORS Cell: (469)585-2781 Fax: (972)635-7944
Southern Rotorcraft cc - SA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com Tel: 021-935-0980 Fax: 021-935-0981 Cell: 0827770805 www.rotors-r-us.com FAA Approved Repair Station Certiﬁcate #D57R025X
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CAPE TOWN REVIEW AES states that the company is committed
AERO ELECTRICAL SOLUTIONS (AES) AES is an Aircraft Maintenance Organisation, AMO1011, established in October 2004 and
to the principles of honesty, excellence and dedication. All staff at AES are committed to provide its
operating initially from Lanseria airport. The company is growing strongly and has expanded to
clientele with quality service time after time,
Cape Town International.
because flying isn’t JUST flying!
AES prides itself on providing quality and reliable service on most aircraft, including electrical, instruments, avionics, compass systems
CONTACT: Erwin Erasmus (Cape Town)
and all aircraft components.
Cell: 082 494 3722
AES can do your Ni-cad, Lead Acid main batteries, Emergency Batteries, ULB Batteries and
ELT batteries at both Branches.
or Danie van Wyk (Lanseria)
AES has recently acquired the Agency for ACK
Cell: 083 269 8696
AES can do your Inspections and defects away
from base at affordable rates.
T OR ! SP D TO ELD O I E R F V E R A MO AI S EL HA VOG R TE IN W
Cape Town's Premier Flying School We oﬀer the following: LSA MPL Gyrocopter License PPL CPL Instrument rating Night Rating Instructor Rating Tailwheel ConversionsAs well as Hire & Fly Our ﬂight school has on-line exam base for CAA PPL and RAASA NPL exams. OUR FLEET: 2x Cessna 172M Bush Baby Savannah XL Aquila Trike 2x Magni M6 Gyrocopters FNPT 1 Flight Simulator
JOHANNESBURG Hangar M7, Gate 5, Lanseria Airport Tel: 011 701 3200 Danie van Wyk: 083 269 8696 Fax: 011 701 3232 CAPE TOWN Signature Hanger, Beachcraft Road Cape Town International Tel: 021 934 5373 Erwin Erasmus: 082 494 3722 Website: www.aeroelectrical.co.za Email: ofﬁce@aeroelectrical.co.za
SA Flyer 2020|11
WE SPECIALIZE IN: - Avionics - ACK Agents (ELTs') - Repairing and fault ﬁnding in rotor and ﬁxed wing aircraft - Overhaul and repairing of DC/ AC Electrical, Magneto and ignition equipment - Full Battery workshop facilitating NiCad and Lead Acid batteries - Aircraft electrical modiﬁcations and installations - We travel to any destinations for MPI’s and repairs
Join us for an intro flight today! Aerosport Flight Training is located at Wintervogel Airﬁeld Northeast of Cape Town, near Klipheuwel. CONTACT DETAILS: email@example.com Phone: +27 (0)21 001 8802 Mobile: 083 675 3541 www.aerosport.co.za
SA Flyer 2019|10
Ultimax Avition (Pty) Ltd is located at Cape Town International Airport. We are an approved South African Civil Aviation Authority Aircraft Maintenance Organisation (AMO 1426). We oﬀer repair services, specialising in Airbus Helicopter Products.
OVER 20 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE... ULTIMAX AVIATION’S STAFF HAVE THE EXPERIENCE REQUIRED TO DELIVER RELIABLE RESULTS.
Our team of certiﬁed mechanics and engineers, service and repair helicopters. • We oﬀer repairs to engines, structural repairs and refurbishing of helicopters. • We lease all types of helicopters. • We also provide pilots, helicopter tours, helicopters sales and spares.
Mobile: +27 72 878 8786 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.ultimax-aviation.com
Fly in Cape Town! Learn to ﬂy in the most beautiful location in South Africa just outside Cape Town with a school that offers a pool of instructors many whom have 1000’s Hrs of experience.
Training is done 7 days a week We offer ab initio which includes NPL, Gyro, PPL, CPL, Night Ratings and Instructor ratings We have a CAA approved Exam centre Offer all Ground School disciplines FIRST FIVE STUDENTS Offer accommodation for full-time students on any of the Courses Offer Hire to Fly WILL RECEIVE R2000.00 Special Bundled rates for hour Building TOWARDS THEIR PPL Clubhouse with Restaurant facilities AFTER FLYING 10 HOURS Conversions & Renewals - USE REFERENCE ‘PPL’
SA Flyer 2020|11
TRAINING IS DONE BY INSTRUCTORS SOME WHICH ALSO FLY FOR THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY ALL OUR INSTRUCTORS HAVE A PASSION FOR FLYING
Email: ﬂy@msfa.co.za Tel : 021 3000 641 Mark Bunning : 079 529 3592 Morningstar Airﬁeld Van Schoorsdrif Rd Cape Farms
QUOTE OF THE MONTH: The ongoing SAA saga has rendered everyone speechless. So, never short of words on SAA, Guy Leitch provides his own Quote of the Month on why the ANC government is prepared to keep throwing thirty or more billion Rands at the airline:
“Money is no object when it comes to the transformation imperative. SAA cannot be allowed to continue with 80% white pilots but it cannot be allowed to fail for the sake of the 20% non-white pilots". November 2020
FISANTEKRAAL AIRFIELD To be relaunched In a major development
NICK FERGUSON explains that they have
for Western Cape general
exciting new plans to relaunch the Airfield. Under
aviation, the long moribund and mismanaged Fisantekraal Airfield (FAFK) has finally changed hands. The buyer is a consortium of investors lead by well-known aviation investors Rob Hersov and Nick Ferguson.
the guidance of the Netherlands Airport Consulting Group, the four runways will be rebuilt with the longest being the currently overgrown Runway 01 at 1500m. The name will be changed to the Cape Winelands Airfield. Key upgrades will be to improve the infrastructure â€“ which may require demolishing the old structures and rebuilding new hangars to the western side. Alien vegetation will be cleared and the airfield entrance will be made much more welcoming.
join.the.leader Cape Town Flight Training Centre
Private, Commercial & Advanced Pilot Training (021) 976 7053 or (084) 440 7922 www.cape-town-flying.co.za CAA/0188 November 2020
Fisantekraal airfield is now under dynamic new ownership.
It is hoped that a museum will be based there, as the airfield is steeped in history â€“ even the Stellenbosch Flying Club records that it was founded at Fisantekraal. The new lease on life for FAFK is great news for those users of Stellenbosch who are being squeezed out by noise abatement and limited operating hours â€“ such as Working on Fire. In addition, the expansion of Cape Town International will continue to put further pressure on general aviation. There is therefore a ready demand for the new Cape Winelands
An aerial photo from 1944 showing Fisantekraal as a training base with Tiger Moths lining the runways.
New hangars will be built on the western side of the airfield. Image: Simon McDonnell.
Fisantekraal airfield has been allowed to decay. Image: Simon McDonnell.
AVIATION IN THE LOWVELD Until the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, the Lowveld aviation industry was growing strongly as a gateway to international tourism. KRUGER MPUMALANGA Pre-Covid-19 the number of scheduled flights operating out of Kruger Mpumalanga International Airport (KMIA) near Nelspruit and White River was steadily increasing. The KMIA terminal building has its unique charm as one of the largest thatch structures in the country. Tourist cameras come out to capture their first African safari experience before even leaving the terminal to be transported to many world class lodges in the region. A bonus is the wildlife that is kept on the airport property and the abundance of small antelope and monkeys adds to the safari experience at KMIA. KMIAâ€™S location provides an excellent base for international visitors to the Kruger National Park, the Blyde
Kruger Mpumalanga Airport before Covid-19.
Nelspruit Airfield is home to a number of essential service operators such as Working on Fire.
Hoedspruit Civil Airfield is growing strongly.
River National Park, upmarket lodges in the
number of Approved Maintenance Organisations
Hazyview area as well as the tourist attractions
(AMOs) that deliver world class service in both the
and waterfalls that the towns of Sabie, Pilgrims
avionics as well as maintenance services.
Rest and Graskop have to offer.
Nelspruit is an airport with a strong sense of community and a visit normally ends in a few
NELSPRUIT AIRFIELD Before KMIA, Nelspruit Airfield was the hub for regional flights to the Lowveld operated by Airlink. With the move of scheduled carriers to KMIA,
drinks at Lowveld Aero Club. Catching up with old friends and meeting new people is the essence of a flying community. Kishugu have launched their own ATO and
Nelspruit Airfield management needed to rethink
are training private as well as commercial pilots.
their approach to business and the sustainability.
Nelspruit Airfield is also home to a number of Part
The airfield established itself as the first choice
135 private transfer operators, helicopter operators
for general aviation maintenance , the base for a
and scenic flight services.
number of Approved Training Organisations (ATO) and home to the Kishugu (Working on Fire) group with a large fleet of Huey rotary wing and Cessna fixed wing aircraft. Nelspruit Airfield is home to a
GENERAL AVIATION Apart from KMIA and Nelspruit Airfields, there is an abundance of general aviation operations.
A strong sense of community - here are the Working on Fire pilots.
Micro Aviation has built an excellent track record building and supporting the large number of Bat Hawk microlights.
much for the growth of the club. Eastgate Airport has been enjoying steady expansion under the sway of Ms Lente Roode of nearby Kapama Game Lodge. Airlink and
HOEDSPRUIT Further north, Hoedspruit is growing fast.
CemAir are providing scheduled flights across Southern Africa. The terminal drop-off and parking
Almost all the available space on the east side
areas have been substantially enlarged and the
of the Hoedspruit Civil runway has now been
passenger numbers are already putting the small
developed for large hangars. This growth has
facility leased from the military base under strain.
been particularly evident since the Hoedspruit
A further characteristic of the Lowveld GA
Flying Club tarred the Hoedspruit Civil runway
environment is the plethora of private airfields
in 2016. Also, in 2016 well-known AME Ian
that service the game lodges, again testimony to
Greenwood has now established himself as
how strongly the aviation industry is thriving in the
Afritech AMO at Hoedspruit Civil. Having a tarred
runway and an AMO plus fuel on hand has done
Leading Edge Helicopters Air charter at a different level CessZani Aviation is an owner-operated licensed air charter company that offers air charter services to any destination, lodge transfers, adventure packages, helicopter transfers and scenic flights. Bell 407 Bell 206 A/B 206L /L1 / L3/ L4 Bell 205 UH - 1H Bell 222 UT/SP Robinson R22 / R44 / R66 Airbus AS 350 SERIES
T: +27 (0) 13 741 4651/0 email@example.com
a/h +27 (0)82 893 5743 www.cesszani.co.za
SA Flyer 2020|11
BELL 206 SERIES COMPONENT OVERHAUL
AMO 1184 Ryan: +27 83 233 2057 Mark: +27 82 450 2097 firstname.lastname@example.org | email@example.com Tel: +27 13 741 5582 | Fax: +27 13 741 8188
RAPTOR’S VIEW WILDLIFE ESTATE EXQUISITE PROPERTY
PRICE: R8 300 000
SA Flyer 2019|06
Nestled among the majestic trees on a river bed, be prepared to be engulfed by pure luxury and serenity. In this sought-after wildlife estate of Hoedspruit you’ll have your own hectare of African bush with unparalleled privacy. The house offers 4 spacious bedrooms and an office. The interior epitomes class and space with the main bedroom not only boasting views, outside shower, but also “his and hers” bathrooms. The house further offers superb entertainment areas inside and out, including a modern bar and cosy fire-pit with spectacular views. Privacy for guests are ensured by the three separate suites with en-suite bathrooms and decks. Security features include the estate’s electric fence and guard house, manned 24/7. Truly an entertainers’ dream in an idyllic setting. There is also a registered traverse right onto the adjacent Big Game Estate, giving you the best of both worlds.
Annie vd Berg 082 643 3776 firstname.lastname@example.org 015 793 0181
INTERNATIONALLY ACCREDITED LEADING ACMI LEASING COMPANY
Specialists in providing ACMI leasing services for the Embraer E120 & ERJ145 Sahara Africa Aviation is a leading, internationally accredited ACMI leasing company who offer exceptional end-to-end services, allowing clients to focus on growing and managing their business
Sahara owns and operates the largest fleet of Embraer E120s in the world and has expanded their fleet to include the Embraer ERJ145 to meet client demand
Sahara has their own AMO and AOC with dedicated engineers, crew and operational support staff, ensuring an unprecedented 99.8% dispatch rate
Contact us to discuss your aviation requirements Trevor Brotherton +27 83 3054508 email@example.com Lisa Constable +27 81 0107920 firstname.lastname@example.org November 2020
NORTH EAST AVIONICS CC Established in 1996, North East Avionics has earned a proud reputation as one of the leading avionics service and installation facilities in Southern Africa. BASED at Nelspruit Airfield, the company is
training and certification with original equipment
based in a large and modern 950 sq metre
hangar and workshop facility. North East Avionics therefore has the space and the facilities to
distributors for all the major avionics
accomodatre all the specialist equipment required
manufacturers including: Garmin, Avidyne, L-3,
to undertake any large or small avionics upgrade
JPI, Insight, Sandel, Bose and David Clarke. In
or repair project.
addition, the numerous compliance requirements
The company prides itself on its institutional
from the South African and other Civil Aviation
skills and experience which are combined with
authorities are zealously maintained. North East
uncompromising professional workmanship and
Avionics is particularly proud of the constructive
backed by excellent customer service.
working relationship, based on mutual respect,
Over the 24 years since the company was
the company has as an Approved Maintenance
established they have earned the trust of many
Organisation holding many licenses and approvals
loyal customers who attest to their reliable service,
from the various Civil Aviation Authorities.
delivered on time and to the agreed cost –
By staying completely up to date, North East
excluding unforeseen additions or variations to the
Avionics is able deliver to its customers a safe,
original job description!
reliable and functional avionics solution to meet
Because the avionics industry is fast moving
North East Avionics are factory approved
the customer’s precise needs. Thanks to North
and technology driven, aircraft owners and
East Avionics’ experience and skills, all work
operators demand an avionics maintenance
including major and minor avionics upgrades, is
organisation with a highly level of understanding
undertaken completely in-house. The company’s
of modern aircraft instrument and avionic
workshop is one the very few remaining in
installations as well as the latest new equipment
Southern Africa which is still able to repair older
technology. North East Avionics works hard to stay
generation units where replacement is not an
ahead of these challenges, which entails regular
Congratulations! The staff at SA Flyer want to congratulate our editor and publisher Guy Leitch on graduating as a Doctor of Philosophy in Management of Technology and Innovation - THESIS: Air connectivity conceptual models to address the allocation of resources to African air transport.
LEADING EDGE HELICOPTERS Leading Edge Helicopters is an SACAA
Vermooten, in partnership with Mark Jackson (AME and Pilot), Mike Rochat (AME and Component Licence) and Tosh Ross (SAA
approved Aircraft Maintenance Organisation
Pilot), all of whom have extensive experience
based at Nelspruit Airfield, Mpumalanga.
in the aviation industry and more specifically
Specialising in helicopter maintenance, they
aircraft maintenance. Together, the team
service the complete Robinson range namely,
ensures that they keep abreast of all the
the R22, R44 and the turbine R66. The Bell
latest relevant technology and innovations,
range, namely the Bell 407, Bell 206 Jet
guaranteeing that your aircraft will always
Ranger and Long Ranger, and Bell 205/UH-1H
receive the highest quality maintenance.
and Bell 222 SP and UT. They also cater for re-builds on the Bell &
Leading Edge Helicopters is led by Ryan
With Leading Edge Helicopters you are never just a number.
Robinson models, and carry a Category B
Contact Leading Edge Helicopters on:
(component overhaul) licence for the Bell 206
Tel: +27 13Â 741 5582
Jet Ranger and Long Ranger series.
GRAND CENTRAL REVIEW
GRAND CENTRAL REVIEW
CENTRAL AIRPORT Grand Central was once one of the busiest General aviation airports in South Africa. Unfortunately, bad management in the past few years has meant that many of its tenants are leaving. One of the more recent departures has been the key tenant Safomar who moved to the more accommodating Rand Airport, and other helicopter operators who have moved to the nearby Ultimate Heliport. The large terminal building – which was once famously described as having the architecture of Lenin’s tomb – is now looking worryingly deserted.
A combination of high rents and poor management has pushed many of the larger tenants out of 142 November 2020 Grand Central.
The terminal building - architecture reminiscent of Lenin's tomb.
FOR an ideally located general aviation airport,
currently park in the open. However, this idea
the potential should be huge. Recognising this the
will only see fruition once there is a recognised
owners made a significant investment in August
demand from enough charter companies to
2014 when the runway was redone. But unlike
support a complete large scale building plan in
Rand Airport, in terms of future development,
order to prevent having to redo work at a later
Grand Central can’t expand because the
stage. The plan also has to be approved by
surrounding land is owned by Old Mutual.
the shareholders of the airport, a consortium
The running down of the airport plays into the
of companies mainly with a property and
hands of Old Mutual Properties which is reportedly
investment background. In the current constrained
looking quite seriously at using the land for the
environment this has to be considered unlikely.
development of their multi-billion Rand Zonk’izizwe project. Pre-Covid-19 they were however, still in serious discussions with airport management to
INTERNATIONAL STATUS Grand Central has long hoped to regain its
find out how best to use the land for offices, taking
international status, which its lost in 1998, but
into consideration the aircraft movements.
the security requirements are too considered too
Like all other GA facilities Grand Central has
cumbersome for the diminished airport.
been hard it by Covid-19. Part of the 2020 ‘master plan’ was to build hangars and do renovations on the southern end of the airport where aircraft
TENANT RELATIONS A challenge for any airport is balancing November 2020
relationships with tenants while remembering that an airport is ultimately a business. One of the biggest issues for the tenants has been the rentals that Grand Central charges. But for the convenience of having a 1850 m tarred runway, air traffic control, fuel available seven days a week and maintenance staff on hand five days a week, the airport maintains that the rates are market related.
ABOVE: Under Covid-19 pressures and the loss of tenants the main building is worringly empty.
Grand Central currently has a generator that powers the runway lights and control tower in the
there are now signs warning people who park their
event of a power failure, but is looking at getting
cars on the side of Grand Central Boulevard of
enough generators to power the entire airport.
the risk. This is largely due to the open land being
Security is another challenge. The airport is
used as a thoroughfare and the police refusing to
guarded 24/7 â€“ but there is a crime problem right
enter into any joint venture patrols. Old Mutual has
outside the gates. There have been a number of
erected fences around some of the open land, and
incidents where cars parked outside the premises
the airport has engaged with them about putting
have been broken into or stolen, to the extent that
up more fencing.
Central Aerospace Medicine
r KA Ingham is a Senior Aviation Medical Examiner with rooms situated in the immediate vicinity of OR Tambo International Airport, Johannesburg and Grand Central, Midrand.Dr Ingham is an experience Aviation Medical Examiner with a career beginning in 1969 as a Flight Surgeon at Langebaan Air Force Base. As a registered Senior SACAA Aviation Medical Examiner, Dr Inghamâ€™s practice (Central Aerospace Medicine) is suitably equipped to carry out the full range of medical examinations necessary for aviation relevant to pilots, operating under licences issued in South Africa, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and all European States (EASA).
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A NOTE FROM
THE EDITOR: There seems to be no relief from the endless barrage of bad news about the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, particularly on African airlines. And now there is increasing evidence the whole world has over-reacted – prevention is worse than the disease?
N late October the International Air Transport
Association (IATA) downgraded its bellweather traffic forecast for Africa for 2020 to reflect a weaker-than-expected recovery. IATA now expects full-year 2020 passenger numbers in Africa to reach just 30% of 2019 levels, down significantly from the 45% that was projected in July. In absolute numbers, the region is expected to see around 45 million travellers in 2020 compared to the 155 million in 2019 The recovery will be even slower than hoped. In 2021, demand is expected to recover to 45% of 2019
levels to reach close to 70 million travellers. But a full return to 2019 levels is not expected until late 2023 – a full three years – just to get back to previous levels, and not to the additional 15% growth that had been expected. IATA reports that forward bookings for air travel in the fourth quarter show that the recovery continues to falter. While domestic travel is picking up across Africa as countries re-open their borders, international travel is heavily constrained as major markets including the EU remain closed to citizens of African nations. Currently, residents from only two African countries – Rwanda and Tunisia – are permitted to enter EU borders. Muhammad Albakri, IATA’s Regional Vice President for Africa and the Middle East notes that the further fall in passenger traffic in 2020 is more bad news for the African aviation industry. IATA had hoped that “demand of just 45% across the continent in 2020 compared to 2019 was as bad as it would get. But with international travel remaining virtually non-existent and a slower than expected pick up in domestic travel, IATA has revised its expectations downward to 30%.” As a consequence, more African airlines are expected to collapse unless they get large scale government support. South African Airways and three other airlines across Africa have already ceased operations due to the impact of COVID-19 and two are in voluntary administration, with many more in serious financial distress. IATA notes that “without urgent financial relief more carriers and their employees are at risk, as is the wider African
air transport industry, which supports 7.7 million jobs on the continent.” Assistance has been made available by some airline-owner governments, but it now appears to be insufficient – and maybe even too little too late. Rwanda, Senegal, Côte D’Ivoire and Burkina Faso have pledged a total of U$D 311 million in direct financial support to their airlines. A further U$D 30 billion has been promised by some governments, international finance bodies and other institutions
in severe distress to resurrection from bankruptcy,” said Albakri. IATA calculates that millions of African jobs and billions in GDP are at risk. Job losses include the 4.5 million jobs which will be lost in aviation and the industries supported by aviation. This is well over half of the region’s 7.7 million aviation related employment. In terms of direct job losses IATA estimates that 172,00 jobs will be lost in aviation alone in 2020. This is about 40% of the region’s 440,000 direct aviation jobs. More importantly IATA calculates the loss to the continent’s GDP at around $37 billion, which is almost 60% less
Over-reaction against the spread of Covid-19 will harm far more people than the actual disease including the African Development Bank, African Export Import Bank, African Union and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for air transport and tourism. However, most of this relief is yet to reach those in need. “Hundreds of thousands of airline jobs are at risk if there is a systemic failure in African aviation. And this is not just in aviation, but across industries that depend on efficient global connectivity. Much needed financial relief has been pledged, but little has materialised. The situation is critical. Governments and donor organizations need to act fast or the challenge will move from supporting an industry 6
than pre COVID-19 levels. There are increasing calls from African airline chief executives, such as Miles van der Molen of CemAir, that the world has over-reacted to the threat of Covid-19. Their view is supported by data emerging that shows that the pandemic has a far lower death rate than was initially anticipated. Given the many millions of people that will be pushed over the edge into hunger and starvation, Van der Molen appears vindicated. It is becoming increasingly evident that worldwide – and specifically African – government over-reaction against the spread of Covid-19 will harm far more people than the actual disease.
BUSH PILOT HUGH PRYOR
CANADIAN PILOTS IN AFRICA Bob has asked me tell you about Canadian pilots who came to work in Africa and I was initially QWERTYjammed....I didn’t know any Canadian pilots who had worked in Africa. Then I thought back a bit.....and suddenly I realised that quite a lot of my mates were actually Canadians. So....here we go........
have spent most of my professional life in the wilds of Africa and the Middle East and, since flying has been my privilege, I have had the good fortune to have run into some really memorable characters of all shapes, sizes, nationalities, and genders...yes...and even one or two of ‘those’ too......but you’re bound to get the ‘odd’ one in any profession. Since most of my flying career
has been in remote areas, the colleagues with whom I have worked have tended to come from the less sophisticated corners of the world, where self-reliance is a more important requirement than, say, an intimate knowledge of late nineteenth century preRaphaelite art. Canadians, I say with the greatest respect, fall comfortably into the first category. Having had to sort out their own problems,
frequently without direct access to the internet, they become more resourceful than your average city Walla. Bob’s books will tell you why. That’s not to say that all Canadian pilots are unsophisticated slobs, it’s just that their priorities put practicality on primary and politics on a very poorly placed secondary, in a two-horse race. So I have chosen a couple or six examples to attempt to illustrate the kind of qualities I have encountered amongst the Canadian pilots I have worked with here in Africa ART
Art is in no way a preRaphaelite painting. Art (full name Arthur) is enormous and I have known him for over twenty years. He has a lovely red-haired Syrian wife who has brought him a beautiful family. Art is a good cook and a good host and he shares his skills very
BUSH PILOT HUGH PRYOR generously. So if you are stuck in some dump like Khartoum, where any food is a luxury and relaxing beverages are considered by the country’s leaders to be an invention of the devil, you can rely on Art to keep the communal spirits from flagging. On the other hand, if you are in an aeroplane, half way across Africa and half way up to the top of a towering and intimidatingly turbulent cumulonimbus line squall, with rain and hail lashing the airframe and lightning flashing and exploding against the windows, you could not do better than to have Art sitting in the left hand seat. He’s much more worried about tonight’s menu. If, God forbid, you have a middle-aged female
with a thirty knot crosswind and the VHF’s dead and the GPS is on the blink French tourist who swears (in French) that she left her lipstick and sun glasses in the aft luggage bay and she’s not going on safari without them or her little coochy poochy poodle, then it would probably be better to leave Art in the driving seat and get somebody better qualified to handle the problem, unless of course you want to end up in jail, or alternatively in hospital. JIM
Jim’s different from Art, but you can spot the Canadian in him just like you can in Art. If, for example, you are planning to fly from Brussels in Belgium, to Lyon in France, at flight 10
level two-one-zero, across the Paris Air Traffic Zone in an ATR 72 with dual EFIS and FMS. coupled to the IRS and the GPS and RNAV, it’s probably better to send Jim by train with somebody to shepherd him between the terminals in the city. He’s probably forgotten his glasses anyway. If, however, you are trying to get into TFT camp in the middle of the Algerian Sahara at night in a Twin Otter and the visibility’s one and a half kilometres, with a thirty knot cross-wind and the VHF’s dead and the GPS is on the blink, then Jim’s probably your man...particularly if he’s flying with that attractive little girl whom we just hired on as a co-pilot. Jim’s an incurable romantic. ERNIE
Ernie’s a bit different again. He rides around the Sahara with four turbo-props outside the windows and enough buttons and switches in the cockpit to confuse an astronaut. Sophisticated stuff indeed, but luckily a lot of it goes wrong on a regular basis, otherwise Ernie would lose interest, because at heart, he is a Fire Bomber Pilot and he would actually prefer to have the old R-2800’s banging away out there on the wing, rather than those smooth turbines. Call him old-fashioned if you like, but I know who I would rather be with when things unexpectedly start to depart from the Hollywood script. JONATHAN
Jonathan is ex-Canadian military and drives the same machinery. He knows more about those four turboprops than the manufacturer and he is generous with his knowledge to a fault. He’s also a brilliant and entrepreneurial cook, if you like your food thermo-nuclear. It is essential though that you keep more toilet paper than you thought you needed in the freezer, for the melt down which normally follows one of Jonathan’s tours de force.
He also has a wife who, to put it as politely as I can, keeps him on his toes. I well remember meeting Jonathan at the door of our company apartment in Geneva. He was wearing a knotted black nylon stocking tightly forced down over his head...and not much else except for a black T-shirt and a fairly cosy pair of underpants. Not sure whether I was prepared to risk my virginity for an evening with someone who was so bizarrely accoutred, I enquired what the game was. Jonathan, suddenly realising the reason for my reticence, burst into a gale of laughter and informed me that his wife had told him that, unless he got a decent parting in his unruly hair she would not be seen in public with him and this was his final attempt to satisfy her demands! Oh yes....and then there’s another Classic Canadian that I remember,.. VICTOR STIRLING MCGUIRE.
Tall, massively gentle, with white curly hair and shy to the point of almost total silence. Victor lost everything in Eritrea, which was part of the Ethiopian Empire when Emperor Haillie Selassie was murdered. The ‘Communist’ dictator, Mengistu Hailie Mariam, who replaced him and who still cowers under the protection of another dictator in Zimbabwe, took everything Victor owned, except for his Italian wife. Vic’s VIP, air-conditioned, (would you believe,) Beech 18 still sits in Asmara, where he left it when he was forced to run, at gun point. I saw it just a couple of years ago. It’s a bit ragged round the edges, but the props still turn. Fabric needs replacing for sure, but with the almost zero-corrosion climate that they have at that altitude, I’m sure that a fabricand-radial-engine-friendly engineer could make that aeroplane fly again. Vic’s Italian wife moved in when he got an apartment in Port Sudan while he was flying for the Port Sudan-Khartoum Pipeline Project. So did her
mother and father, grandmother and grandfather. The wife then produced a baby daughter who screamed so loud during the night that they had to put her out on the roof which was cooler and quieter.
the guys in the Mosque wrote a note to Vic Well, the Mosque across the street didn’t think so, even though they also traditionally scream in the night, with the aid of Bang and Olufsen. Anyway the
guys in the Mosque wrote a note to Vic complaining that the noise was disturbing the faithful in their prayers. Maybe they didn’t like the competition. Fairly soon after that the pipeline job collapsed along with almost everything else in Sudan, and Vic once again had to move, this time to Mombasa in Kenya, where he got a job flying for some multimillionaire who had businesses in the Comores Islands. Eventually the financial demands of the Italian side of the family became unsupportable and Vic finally sought a bit of peace and quiet back in Canada where, as far as I am aware, he still lives. That Beech 18 (air conditioned) is quite a tempting project, isn’t it…. As you can see, Victor is a comparatively detribalized Canadian, but he still exhibits that quality of calm in crisis which comes from having your roots buried in some remote corner of the world where the only person who is going to get you out of a jam is you. Sorry? You wanted to hear about Canadian Engineers in Africa too? Well, all I can say is that Canadian Engineers are the industry benchmark. But that’s another story.
AIRLINES MIKE GOUGH
RE-INVENTING THE WHEEL Reinventing the wheel is something we tend to do here in South Africa when
Regulations – or CARs as we refer to them. We may not necessarily be outstandingly good at this, but we are doggedly determined, as Frank would have said, to do it our way.
country has never had Multicrew Pilot Licence (MPL) legislation included in our CARs, and to my immense disappointment, apparently does not consider this worthy of our time and effort. I have spent a considerable amount of my time researching this, mainly through the existing, somewhat amended, European legislation and it is absolutely light years ahead of where our 12
1940s era training philosophy is. As always, when a topic is mostly disregarded and misunderstood in certain circles, it becomes associated with certain pre-conceived mindsets that tend to discount it in its entirety. This is most definitely the position that I pick up from those who should be championing this at our Civil Aviation Authority. I was informed it would possibly be detrimental to our training industry – a view point I have yet to encounter elsewhere.
The old school pilots and instructors here are (generally) of a similar opinion. The very process of having become ‘set in our ways’ is directly attributable to the rigidly regulated environment that exists in the civil aviation industry. Let’s re-wind all the way back to 1913, when public interest in aviation was gaining momentum. There was no plan for training aspiring aviators and certainly no form of licencing. A Mr. von Porat, while purchasing a flying machine and being shown how to operate it, was quoted in a New York publication as saying: “I was instructed to ascend and fly on a straight line along the runway, but I cannot recall any instruction on the hereafter necessary landing.” So much for early training techniques… As with many industries, the process of war forces massive advances in all technologies, and we all saw what the two
The massive new SACAA head office but the organisation is still stuck in outdated training programmes.
World Wars of the last century did for aviation. The requirement to train as many candidates as rapidly as possible led to the first basic lesson plans, some of which made their way into civilian training in the years between the wars. In 1926, the Air Commerce Act was introduced in the US as the regulation of the rapidly evolving technology of flight was recognised by the Federal Government as requiring some form of control. Prior to this, the Aero Club of America would issue ‘licences’ to those who wanted them, primarily as a symbol of prestige. In 1927, Private Pilot Licence (PPL) Number One was issued to Mr. William P. McCracken Jr. in the state of New York. McCracken did offer this first licence to be issued to Orville Wright, who apparently refused the honour as he was no longer actively flying, and also saw no need for such formality in the aviation world. Some years later it became apparent that the war machine was coming back to life in Europe, and this prompted the US Government to establish the Civil
Pilot Training Program (CPTP). This consisted of creating airfields close to 11 universities and financing these institutions to provide flight training to as many individuals who would sign up.
A complete lack of progressive thinking, or a case of “if it’s not broken, don’t fix it”…? This first formal course in the civilian world consisted of 72 hours of ground school, and 35 to 50 hours of flight training, of which 15 hours should be as ‘sole occupant of the airplane’. That, ladies and gentlemen, is where we get our current hour-based training outline from, and are still using it today, 82 years later. A complete lack of
AIRLINES MIKE GOUGH
progressive thinking, or a case of “if it’s not broken, don’t fix it”…? Getting back to that early programme – it was a huge success, although viewed with a jaundiced eye by the military as they had little regard for a civilian programme, run by civilians. That all changed in
ABOVE: ICAO Annexure 1 sets the worldwide Personnel Licensing standards.
1939 when war broke out in Europe, and the US military took over the programme and renamed it the War Training Service. This was the main source of pilots and instructors during the first year of ramping up aviation preparations, which stood the US in good stead when they were forced to join the war effort in 1941. 14
The end of the Second World War saw an even greater need for the world to manage this now highly developed, complex international aviation phenomenon. Through the United Nations, and as a result of the 1944 Chicago Convention, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organisation (PICAO) was born. Canada inherited this new organisation, and decided in 1946 to headquarter it in Montreal, as at the time this was the most cosmopolitan city in the country, and it also happened to have the largest and most advanced airport. Our now-defunct national carrier, South African Airways, was one of the founder members of this organisation. As we know, to this day, this is where ICAO resides with the mandate to unify and harmonise aviation globally. In that year of 1946, four areas of expertise were established, namely: 1. Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) 2. Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) 3. Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPs) 4. Guidance Material For those of us involved in commercial aviation, those titles should look familiar. The SARPs specifically gave rise to the ICAO Annexes, of which originally there were 12 and now total 19. These recommended practices have allowed world aviation to develop in a coordinated, internationally cohesive and safe manner. This essentially provided the foundation for the regulations that would allow an aircraft to take off from Johannesburg and land in New York, with everybody on the same page, so to speak.
Annex 1: Personnel Licencing, covers pilot training, and is primarily aimed at reducing, as far as possible, regional differences in standards and procedures. Their initial point of departure was informed by the success of the previously mentioned CPTP – the basic hours which have become to define the minimum for a PPL. All additional add-ons, such as the Commercial, Instrument and Airline Transport ratings were also defined internationally through this Annex 1. ICAO member states – which total 190 out of the world’s 196 countries – are obliged to comply with the content of all Annexes, or file a difference detailing the alternate regulation or procedure. Radical departures from any particular SARP would jeopardise the ICAO member status. An ICAO statement on their view of training regulations: “As long as air travel cannot do without pilots and other air and ground personnel, their competence, skill and training will remain the essential guarantee for efficient and safe operations.” The adoption of Annex 1 in 1948 by all ICAO states introduced the task-orientated, hour-based pilot training syllabus that we use to this day.
As far back as 1982 it was recognised that process changes would be required as Generation 2 (For example Boeing 747 Classic) aircraft started to give way to planned Generation 3 (747-400) and ICAO formed a panel to research the required changes, primarily from evidence contained in pilot training records and accident data.
first officer was ever widening. Similarly, the process of acting completely independently in a small cockpit compared to the multi-faceted processes in a heavy, fast turbine aircraft underscored the lack of ‘soft skill’ training in General Aviation. This was the birth of the Multi-crew Pilot Licence, and this completely revised process
Our now-defunct national carrier, South African Airways, was one of the founder members of this organisation. The recommendations produced from this panel in 1986 were not accepted by the ICAO Council, and the whole project lost momentum. This was revisited in 2000, as Generation 4 aircraft (Airbus 320) were now firmly part of the aviation landscape, and the gap between basic training in single crew, single engine piston aircraft and the target position of jet transport
was adopted by ICAO in 2006. The emphasis with this program is Competency Based Training (CBT) as opposed to ploughing through hundreds of relatively irrelevant piston single hours, simply to meet the outdated hourbased requirements. Significant research by a team of aviation and behavioural experts resulted in the identification of nine core
AIRLINES MIKE GOUGH competencies necessary for the safe and efficient operation of a modern commercial airliner. These competencies can be divided into technical and nontechnical aspects, which further illustrates the major differences between this approach and good-old logbook filling exercises. The Technical Competencies are: • Aircraft Flight Path Management – Manual • Aircraft Flight Path Management – Automatic • Application of Procedures • Knowledge • Non-Technical Competencies: • Communication • Leadership and Teamwork • Situational Awareness • Problem Solving and Decision Making • Workload Management All the ICAO Annexures that control our lives.
The first four are more in line with our traditional thinking: steep turns, using the autopilot, following manufacturer’s procedures and exhibiting knowledge of all aspects relevant to the operation. These are also fairly “black and white” to train and assess. The last five is where we are training for our airline environment from the outset of basic training. One cannot specifically teach Leadership, but it can certainly be developed in line with the future prospect of Command training. Similarly, assessing these soft skills requires new instructor and assessor ability. This competency-based philosophy was incorporated into a program that made significant use of simulators and reduced actual flight times. Typical values, depending on the program, requires 70 hours total flight time, of which 15 are solo,
Building hours to an ATPL by flying as a bush pilot is no longer the best way to the cockpit of an airliner.
and then between 170 and 200 hours on various simulators, culminating in a specific type rating in a Level D full flight simulator. Thus, the candidate is beholden to a particular operator and a particular aircraft type. A partner airline must be onboard with the programme, as the end recipient of the trained individual. The operator’s Procedures and Operations Manual, as well as the end-aircraft type philosophy is trained from day one, and all non-technical competencies are honed from the start. This individual, once the course is successfully completed, is truly an airline ready First Officer. A far cry from the 250 odd-hour CPL product we are currently producing in this country. I have done extensive work on this MPL project and have a potentially interested airline candidate in the wings (pun intended), only to have CAA do a complete 180 on their interest in this legislation and, as mentioned at the beginning of this article, to the
extent of receiving a comment that it could well be detrimental to training in South Africa. Good grief, people – let’s just stick with our 1938 concocted plan to produce airline pilots. Don’t get me wrong – the hour-based process can and does produce a competent PPL or CPL – depending on the individual concerned. However, a whole bunch of add-on modules and a complete type rating (which would be extremely difficult to complete successfully, from such a low skills base), would be required to get near any aircraft used commercially in a multi-crew environment. Now, I am adapting my Integrated ATP course to culminate in a type rating, with Multi-Crew Cooperation and all the core competencies integrated. Once again, a mish-mash of training procedures will need to be used to achieve a partially similar goal. Why do we continuously need to re-invent the wheel in this country?
Defence - Darren Olivier Part of the impromptu 100th Centenary Celebrations.
NOTHING TO CELEBRATE? The SAAF’s Centenary non celebration This year, the South African Air Force (SAAF) turned 100. However you will find no mention of this remarkable milestone on any official websites or media releases, or at any official events, where instead there is only talk of celebrating the Air Force’s ‘Collective Heritage in 2020’. Even this, it turns out, was a compromise and a win against those in the military’s high command who wished for there to be no commemoration of the SAAF’s pre-1994 history at all. 18
The unofficial SAAF Centenary badge.
did we get here, and is there any justification for the idea of a ‘clean break’ in the SAAF’s history after 1994? History is neither simple nor static. As a study of the world in all its complexities, it must constantly be revisited, re-examined, and revised in order to build on itself and slowly become a better reflection and analysis of what actually happened. Sometimes this involves adding more context by bringing in the experiences and views of those who may have been excluded before as a result of contemporary prejudices, closed archives, and similar restrictions. At other times it may involve using new modes of analysis on the same old material, such as applying new understandings of economics and other sciences to analyses of old wars. The most difficult task for historians is to unify a contested history, where two or more opposing sides must find a way to merge two completely separate and wildly different historical conceptions of the same events, and where each side’s understanding of that history forms a key part of their present identity and legitimacy. It takes immense courage for anyone to accept a challenge to their memory of the past. But it’s vitally important that we make the effort to do so, because without a shared history there is no shared future. Orwell was right when he said “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past”, because so much of the legitimacy of our parties, political identities, institutions, rules, norms, and all the rest, depend on our conception of the past. If we don’t agree at least mostly on the past, we can’t agree on what its effects mean in the present, and on how we want it to be in the future. This is most acute when it comes to commemorations or celebrations of past events or institutions. What is it that we are commemorating OW
or celebrating? For instance, after the Second World War, many Allied countries remembered the events through a mixture of commemorations for the fallen and celebrations of the victory. Over time though, as the world changed and the former enemies of Germany, Italy, and Japan became modern allies,
The SAAF had no trouble celebrating its 80th anniversary.
those events shifted to become more sombre commemorations only, the triumphant aspects removed to create something that could be shared with former enemies and friends alike. We need to do something similar for the history of the South African National Defence Force’s constituent services and units, so as to create a way for us all to be able to commemorate their long histories, and the proud moments within them, while also making space to recognise that for most of the times those institutions actively excluded the majority of the population, and were at times responsible for severe hurt and harm to many who now form part of them. We can’t expect those to commemorate
Australian Air Force’s Air Power Development Centre once issuing a pamphlet claiming that van Ryneveld’s appointment did not create an air force truly separate from the army, and therefore the RAAF is older than the SAAF. It’s not the most credible argument as it doesn’t properly account for the loose structure of the Union Defence Force at the time, but it’s a great example of how even seemingly established facts can be open to legitimate challenge. Yet the SAAF is nonetheless one of the oldest air forces in the world, with a history that contains many proud moments such as its mammoth contribution in the East African, North African, and Italian campaigns of the Second World War,
the sterling performance of 2 Squadron during the Korean War, and numerous remarkable rescues and humanitarian aid missions ranging from the Berlin Airlift, through to the Oceanos rescue, and the response to devastating floods in Mozambique. It would be wrong of us though to ignore the moments that were less proud. The very first action of the SAAF, for instance, was to drop bombs on striking miners in Johannesburg, an action that would be considered unspeakably terrible today. And while for the most part, the SAAF’s actions during the Border War were legitimate, it did take part in several actions that were morally questionable such as reportedly playing a role in Dr Wouter Basson’s experiments on prisoners as part of Project Coast. For some countries, resolving that sort of a difficult history is considered more effort than it’s worth, and they’ve opted for clean breaks from the past and starting all over again. This means they have no obligation to celebrate or commemorate any history but that of the modern and untainted
The very first action of the SAAF was to drop bombs on striking miners in Johannesburg an uncomplicated and sanitised history of those institutions, just as we can’t expect those who were part of those services in the past to accept an overly simplistic view of their actions. THE SAAF’S FIRST HUNDRED YEARS
1 February 1920 is generally accepted as the formation date of the South African Air Force, as that was the date on which General Sir Pierre van Ryneveld was appointed as the Director Air Service with the task of creating an air force. Aptly enough, even this has been contested by some, with the Royal 20
successor. Thus the German Air Force dates its arose as to whether to apply the same naming to the founding to 1956, when it was formed anew after arms of service. At the JMCC meeting on 13 April its predecessor had been disbanded at the end of 1994, the SAAF formally requested that it be allowed the war. While it might be argued that historical to retain its name, with the following recorded: discontinuity was necessary in that case given the “Gen Mortimer said that the South African Air 11 year gap, the Germans did it again when the Force (SAAF) has requested that the name saaf be East German Air Force was disbanded during the retained. The main reason was that the SAAF was country’s reunification and merely absorbed into the world’s second oldest air force and would loose West Germany’s Air Force without any of its history, [sic] its status if the SAAF is to be renamed, e.g. units or institutions preserved. So why didn’t South Africa opt for the same sort of historical discontinuity in 1994, with the changeover to a full democratic government? After all, the SANDF itself is officially a clean break from the SADF that preceded it as the country’s defence force, with the name intentionally Spontaneous 100th celebrations sprang up around the air forces bases. changed to reflect that. The clean break was not applied equally though, as the Air Force, Army, the South African National Air Force (SANAF). and Navy, along with all their units, were brought Although a discussion followed on the renaming across with full historical continuity. It wasn’t clear of the other arms of the service as well and a real why this was done, until Dean Wingrin unearthed difference in opinion occurred, the JMCC decided minutes from the Joint Military Co-ordinating that the name SAAF is to be retained, but that the Council (JMCC) meetings held in early 1994, where matter of the names of the remainder of the arms the question about the SAAF’s historical continuity of the service be deferred for later discussion and was explicitly addressed. decision taking.” The JMCC was part of the Transitional Executive The decision was sent up to the Sub-Council Council (TEC), a multiparty governance and on Defence, which unanimously agreed with the negotiation structure formed in 1993 to oversee decision being recorded in the minutes of the South Africa’s transition to its first democratic eleventh JMCC meeting on 22 April 1994: elections. The JMCC in turn was overseen by the “The SCD stressed the fact that it took pride in TEC’s Sub-Council on Defence, to which decisions the status of the SAAF as the world’s second oldest could be referred. air force and has decided to retain the name SA On 22 March 1994 at the seventh JMCC meeting, Air Force (SAAF), due to its status. The SCD has the proposal to use the name SANDF for the new strongly recommended that the name of the SA defence force was accepted, after which the question Army, SA Navy and SA Medical Service be retained,
without the addition of the term “National” in front of the arm of the service.” There should therefore be no confusion over whether or not
and explicit explanations for why they’re doing it, but behind closed doors in secret where they can’t be openly challenged. It’s even more tragic that such
It is wrong for senior SANDF officers or politicians to pretend that the SAAF is not 100 years old the SAAF retains its pre-1994 history, because that question was decisively settled by the JMCC and SCD during the transition period. While those decisions can obviously be changed later, it would require an explicit action by the government to overturn them. In other words, it’s wrong for senior SANDF officers or politicians to pretend that the SAAF is not 100 years old, that it’s a continuation of its pre-1994 self, and to therefore ignore the centenary. In doing so they are explicitly ignoring the decisions and wishes of their predecessors. Worse, they’re not doing so out in the open with public statements 22
backroom dealing means that those within the SAAF who did want to see a commemoration of the centenary, including many who were formerly part of Umkhonto we-Sizwe and
other liberation movements, were unable to do so or speak openly. Lt Gen Msimang, who retired as Chief of the Air Force in October, evidently tried to tread the fine line between commemorating the centenary and respecting the wishes of his superiors. There had been rumours that he was trying to organise a much stronger celebration of the SAAF’s milestone at this year’s Africa Aerospace & Defence exhibition, but as that was cancelled by the COVID-19 pandemic, we’ll never know what that may have looked like. With hope though, sense will one day prevail and it will become possible for the South African Air Force to commemorate its long history in a way that’s acceptable to all, and which neither shies away from nor downplays the difficult parts.
A C-130 Hercules painted to celebrate the SAAF's 75th anniversary.
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Helicopters S teve T richard
helicopters have hoists The S.A. Seafarer, with 75 people on board, ran aground near the Cape Town harbour in the early morning hours of 1 July 1966. The weather conditions were severe, with huge waves crashing into the ship. The force of the waves broke the ship in two.
hree South African Air Force (SAAF) Alouette III helicopters successfully rescued everybody by hoisting them to safety, working under extreme conditions. Monster Wilkins, piloting the first Alo overhead, wrote in his book “Chopper Pilot”, that “.... the spray from some waves crashing against the side of the ship would climb above 110 ft, to be blown over us by the gale force wind! That was not fun....” The rescue was completed in just over two hours. To many people, the most significant loss was the thousands of bottles of White Horse whisky that was on board! 24
THE OCEANOS The Oceanos rescue is one of the greatest and most successful maritime rescues ever undertaken – anywhere in the world. In August 1991, the SAAF was involved in the Oceanos passenger ship rescue when nine Puma helicopters hoisted 225 passengers and crew to safety. The Oceanos lost power near Coffee Bay along the coast of the Eastern Cape. Onboard an almost unbelievable situation developed. No alarm was raised, and passengers remained ignorant of any problems until the first signs of flooding in the lower
The NSRI book on the sinking Oceanos with SA Air Force helicopters.
decks. The captain abdicated his responsibilities, but to no one, and most of the crew abandoned ship, leaving the passengers to fend for themselves. The onboard entertainment team (consisting of band members and magicians) took charge of the situation and successfully dealt with all challenges that confronted them. Most passengers and crew were accommodated in lifeboats, but 225 were trapped on board the Oceanos. The first Puma helicopters arrived just before dawn. The before-takeoff briefing was sketchy, as no one knew exactly what the situation was. The Puma crews were not expecting what awaited them. The ship was listing at 30 degrees, with the bow so low in the water that the propellers were visible. The realisation that more than 200 people were still on the Oceanos came as a shock. The conditions were appalling with 60-knot winds, and 9 m swells. The flying operations and procedures were implemented and adapted as the very fluid situation
required. What was accomplished in the next few hours was beyond any expectations, a testament to excellent training of aircrew and divers and the determination of all involved. The last people were rescued less than 90 minutes before the ship sunk. THE FIRST REAL HELICOPTER Igor Sikorsky said “If a man is in need of rescue, an airplane can come in and throw flowers on him, and that’s just about all. But a direct lift aircraft could come in and save his life.” It is therefore fitting that the first hoist rescue was accomplished with a Sikorsky helicopter.
The rescue occurred on 29 November 1945, when an oil barge ran aground at Penfield Reef, during heavy weather, very near to the Sikorsky factory. The emergency services ran out of options to save the men on the barge, and they requested support from Sikorsky. Jimmy Viner, Sikorsky’s chief pilot, flew to the scene with the first available helicopter,
Early success - a SAAF Alouette III rescues crew from the stranded Seafarer in Cape Town in 1966.
but his attempts to land on the barge failed. Viner returned to the factory, where a R-5 had recently been equipped with an experimental external rescue hoist. The helicopter was quickly prepared for flight, which involved installing a main rotor blade! The hoist malfunctioned during the second rescue, but both men were brought to safety. Igor Sikorsky, born in Kyiv, Ukraine, is considered the father of helicopters. His innovative design, comprising a single main rotor and a single anti-torque tail rotor, remains the preferred configuration layout. In 1940 Sikorsky’s designs came together in the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300. The Sikorsky name will forever be linked to helicopters. However, he was a brilliant and versatile aviation designer and developer spanning a 50-year career. He is credited with many other outstanding accomplishments in the field of aircraft design. He designed and built the first heavy four-engine aircraft in 1913, before reaching the age of 30. The Sikorsky Ilya Muromets, the world’s first multiengine aircraft in production, was a revolutionary design, intended to be a multi-passenger luxurious airliner. With war inevitable, it evolved into the very successful Sikorsky S-25 heavy bomber. It was utilised during WW1 as a strategic bomber, a world first. Forty years after his death, Russia officially acknowledged the impact that Sikorsky had on Russian aircraft development. In 2012, the Tupolev Tu-160 “Blackjack” strategic bomber, tail number Red 14, received the name “Igor Sikorsky” (И́горь Сико́рский). It was controversial, and the official response was that “We can justly name Sikorsky the father of the Russian long-range aviation, because it was founded thanks to Ilya Muromets aircraft”. Red 14 disappeared from public view soon after and resurfaced in February
A Sikorsky R-5 performed the first helicopter hoist rescue in aviation history. Image - Sikorsky archives.
2020 as the extensively upgraded Tu-160M.
The Technical University in Kyiv was renamed “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, and in 2018 the Kyiv International Airport was renamed to “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv International Airport Zhuliany”. Sikorsky immigrated to America after the
Sikorsky piloting the VS-300 on its first flight, wearing his trademark Fedora hat he considered a lucky charm.
Russian Revolution, where he successfully designed multi-engine flying boats, notably the Sikorsky VS44. The VS-44 was a large four-engined flying boat, designed for the transatlantic passenger market. He then shifted his attention back to his dream of creating a direct lift aircraft. The success of the VS-300 led to the development
of the Sikorsky R-4, which became the world’s first massproduced helicopter in 1942. The Sikorsky S-51 was the first helicopter on SAAF inventory. It was a modification of the R-5, designed as a four-
“The S-51 however, had a very critical C of G movement, was top heavy and particularly prone to severe ground resonance. This led to all three S-51’s being badly damaged at one time or another when the aircraft took over
A volunteer being hoisted by a SAAF S-51, a real helicopter. (SAAF Museum).
place commercial helicopter, and a hoist was standard equipment. The three helicopters (with tail numbers A1, A2 and A3) were acquired in 1948 for spraying insecticides to control the Tsetse Fly in Northern Natal. The S-51s entered service with 12 Squadron, and, therefore, 12 Squadron became the first SAAF Squadron to operate helicopters! On the archived 17 Squadron website, edited by Crow Stannard, the following paragraph refers to the S-51.
control from the pilot.” A private company bought Sikorsky S-51 A1 in 1964 and registered it as ZS-HBT. In 1976, a scrapyard in Cape Town offered A1’s wreck to the SAAF Museum. It was restored and is now on static display at the SAAF Museum in Pretoria. HUMOUR HOISTING No helicopter article is complete without relating the funny side of situations that helicopter crews encounters.
I had the enjoyable experience of working with Monster Wilkins in a staff post. First, some background and scene-setting. The SAAF received the first Alouette III helicopters, from France, in 1962. Monster was one of the first pilots to convert onto the Alo. The Alo 3, being a real helicopter, was fitted with a hoist. The rescue strop is a nylon webbing loop placed over the head of the ‘survivor’, positioned around the back and under the arms, with the hoist attachment above and in front of their face. That same year, in June 1962 Playboy magazine featured a bikini on its cover for the first time so in 1963 the bikini was still a very risky outfit, and in South Africa a rarity. Monster was flying low level along the coastline in Natal when he saw three girls with bikinis walking on the beach. The Alo 3, what a smart helicopter (!), went into an immediate steep turn and came to a hover next to the girls. The hoist went down, and to their astonishment, one of the girls got into the rescue strop. What else to do than to hoist her? They were in the hover for a while and then the flight engineer said on the intercom. “Luitenant al prang ons, nou moet jy kyk!” (Lieutenant even if we crash, now you have to
look!). Monster looked to his left just as the girl appeared “topless” in the door of the Alo. The strop pushed the bikini top all the way up to her neck. The next few seconds was probably the worst hover Monster ever did! And, as a final note - the Cambridge Business English Dictionary has a somewhat elementary “viewpoint”. It defines a helicopter as “A type of aircraft without wings, that has long flat parts on top that go round very fast. Helicopters take off and land vertically”.
A SAAF Puma lowering a SA Navy diver onto the Oceanos. The photo is not a true reflection of the conditions. The diver was banged against the superstructure.
RIGHT: The first time a bikini featured on a Playboy cover was June 1962. It places the Monster story in time-perspective! BELOW: Sikorsky Ilya Muromets – the in-flight access to the engines was unique.
S tory & I mages : G arth C alitz
The Chief of the South African Airforce, Lt Gen Fabian “Zakes” Msimang was bid farewell at a retreat parade held at AFB Zwartkop on Wednesday 30 September, eight years and two days after accepting command from Lt Gen Carlo Gagiano.
ABOVE: The Chief of the South African Air Force received a muted but warm retirement parade.
retirement celebration was by Msimang’s own admission, fraught with “deliberate uncertainty.” Notably there was no announcement as to who would replace Msimang at the top position at the HE
SAAF. Lt Gen. Msimang was integrated into the SANDF in 1994 as a qualified helicopter pilot. He underwent his initial flight training in Frunze 1 Central Officers Training Centre in Kirghizstan in the USSR between 1986 and 1991. He graduated with a diploma in Command and Tactics of Military Aviation. In his early career, he flew Russian Mi8 and Mi25 helicopters. After joining the SAAF he flew Alouette III and Oryx Helicopters as well as completing a factory conversion on the A109E in Italy. Gen Msimang saw action in Angola, as a member of Umkhonto We Sizwe, in 1986. In 1994 he completed the Junior Staff Officer Course in Zimbabwe before being operationally deployed, as a directly commissioned
Major, in both maritime and inland helicopter was a light transport formation made up of a Pilatus operations in South Africa. After completing his PC12, two Beechcraft King Airs and five Cessna Senior Staff Officer’s Course at the Italian Air Caravans. Force War School, he was appointed as Officer A maritime patrol Douglas TP47 accompanied Commanding 87 Helicopter Flying School at AFB by a Casa 212 was followed closely by two Hercules Bloemspruit. The following year he completed the C130s in tight formation with four Pilatus PC7 Joint Senior Command and Staff Programme at the MkII trainers. The fly-pasts were closed off with South African National War College. a formation of two SAAB Gripens and four BAE Msimang was promoted to Colonel in 2005 and Hawk Mk 120s. assumed command of AFB Bloemspruit. After a A notable feature was the absence of senior two year tour as OC Bloemspruit, he was promoted military representation, the Chief of the SA Navy, to Brigadier General and Last flight - Gen Msimang lands an appointed as Director Alouette III to arrive at the parade. Helicopter Systems. Towards the end of 2010 he was once again promoted - to Chief Director Air Policy and Plans, as a Major General. In September 2012 he accepted the position as Chief of the South African Air Force, a position that carries the rank of Lieutenant General. Shortly after 17.00Z the General led the mass flypasts in the SAAF Museum’s Alouette III. He had regained Currency on the Allo III two months before the parade. While Gen Msimang was landing and disembarking the Alouette, the mass fly-pasts continued. The SAAF museum’s T55 Vampire was followed by a formation of two SAAF Museum helicopters, the Puma and an Alouette II. They were followed by an impressive formation of ten currently operational helicopters. The formation was led by the Rooivalk followed by Oryxes, A109’s and two Super Lynxes from Cape Town. Moving to the fixed-wing component of the SAAF, a formation of four Harvards from both the SAAF museum and The Harvard Club of South Africa growled through the skies. Next on the cards
Vice Admiral Samuel Hlongwane was the only head of a military arm that was present. One would have expected the Chief of the SANDF, General Solly Shoke and the heads of the SA Army and Military Medical Services to have attended this auspicious occasion, not to mention the Minister of Defence herself. Once the outgoing Chief of the SAAF had been welcomed, the guard of honour marched onto the parade ground accompanied by the SAAF Band. The National Anthem was then played followed by the “Retreat” accompanied by the symbolic lowering of the national flag. As is customary at military events, the SANDF code of conduct was recited as all uniformed members stood to attention. Chaplain
General Msimang salutes his Flight Engineer.
The helicopter formation.
Martie Smit officially opened the event with scripture reading and prayer. Lt Gen Msimang then took to the podium and acknowledged the slow and fast march past by the guard of honour and colours group. The parade was then concluded with the marching off of the guard of honour and an “Upper Charlie” flare drop performed by a Gripen from 2 Squadron. Guests were then ushered
to Hangar 4 for a light meal and the speech by the outgoing CAF. Consensus was that Gen Buthelezi will succeed Gen Msimang. However the difficulties of the job were highlighted by a media relations failure which realised a draft of Gen Msimang’s speech – which controversially raised once again the expectation that the SAAF would acquire three of South African Airways now almost worthless Airbus A340s. There would be used for strategic troop transport and possibly for maritime patrol of the EEZ – a capability the de-funded SAAF sorely lacks. However Msimang made no reference to it in his address and so that possibility remains just an intriguing idea. Further, it was roundly repudiated by the SAA Business Rescue Practitioners.
The Gripen and Hawk formation was precise.
The SAAF museum's Vampie made a welcome flying appearance.
The flag lowering ceremony, with a non-SAAF Soviet era Mi-24 Hind behind - perhaps a reminder of his Umkonto we Sizwe days.
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FLIGHT SAFETY THROUGH MAINTENANCE
Historic S tory : D es B arker
SPITFIRE vs HURRICANE Which is better?
Even though the Hurricane was designed just a few years before the Spitfire, the more modern lineage of the Spitfire is evident.
The Battle of Britain was arguably the most important battle during WWII and the forerunner to the successes that routed the German forces and ended Hitlerâ€™s diabolical plans. Historians, aviation enthusiasts and air force officers on Staff Courses worldwide, have in their Air Power studies of the Battle of Britain, long debated which of the two aircraft contributed the most, the Spitfire, or the Hurricane. Des Barker offers his own subjective opinion.
A wonderfully gritty image of pilots scrambling to their Hurricanes.
The Battle of Britain was most probably the best time in history to be a fighter pilot. There was technological parity; guns only with no missiles, so pilots pitted their individual warrior skills against each other using an aircraft as a weapons platform. In 1940 there was no multi-role fighter capability; a fighter was designed to conduct air combat, and only that. In terms of aircraft evaluation, the performance must then be assessed against the mission design goals for air combat. In the specific case of the Battle of Britain, the Messerschmitt Bf109 was the opponent against which the Spitfire and Hurricane should be considered. A commonly used measure to argue the best fighter has been the number of kills. But that is not a fair criterion. At the commencement of the Battle of Britain Fighter Command fielded approximately two Hurricanes for each Spitfire, so it would not be fair to use number of kills. Also, the number of engagements differed vastly, so once again it would not be a fair metric. PILOTS
By design, fighter pilots were developed to be competitive and trained to be aggressive in pursuit; their lives depended on it. There is no second chance in air combat; get it wrong, and you’re dead! And air combat still remains one of the deadliest games in
this lethal regime – very similar to Russian Roulette. Fighter pilots must be the best to survive in battle. But aggression, fighting spirit and courage are not
enough. They must have fine motor skills and the appropriate level of technology provided by the aerial weapons platform. In 1940 fighter tactics were not nearly as scientifically developed as they are today. There were no high and low speed yoyos, scissors, etc. There was no OODA Loop and Energy Management taught at
There is no second chance in air combat; get it wrong, and you’re dead! fighter training schools and with insufficient excess power to take the ‘fight’ into the vertical, air combat rather developed into a turning fight using spiral defensive turns in converting the potential energy to sustain the energy in the turn. Turning performance was thus a critical factor in combat manoeuvring. During one-against-one (1V1) engagements, the tactics of the day were lead pursuit curves for the attacker and defensive turning/circles for the defender, or high-speed disengagement runs.
To win in air combat, the essential elements required are superior training, equipment and tactics – it’s as simple as that. Considering the period of the Battle, the technological know-how of both Britain and Germany were essentially equal and there was not one of the Spitfire, Hurricane or Messerschmitt Bf109 that was technologically, significantly different from the others – they all had their weak and strong points. The secret was their utilisation within a specific optimum performance regime. From a fighter pilot’s perspective, the primary aim is to shoot down the enemy while simultaneously surviving the fight. Enhancing features that will facilitate the kill are aircraft performance, visibility from the cockpit, armament and the ability to bring the guns to bear on the target i.e. stability and control. LOCATION
Combat in defence of the homeland is most probably the biggest single motivator for any fighter pilot to ‘fight to the death’ – much greater than interdiction into a foreign country driven by political agendas. Being witness to the daily death and destruction inflicted on Britain would have made the RAF pilots extremely aggressive and persistent with a strong will to win and equally, to sacrifice their lives if necessary. One of the biggest challenges faced by Bf109 pilots was their limited persistence due to the 109’s limited endurance of just over an hour and, for the 109E, a 370 mile range with approximately 10 mins of loiter/combat time before leaving the bomber force undefended.
A 109 pilot had to keep an eye on a red ‘low fuel’ light because once this was illuminated, he was forced to turn back and head for France. With the prospect of two long flights over water, and knowing their range was substantially reduced when escorting bombers, the Jagdflieger coined the term Kanalkrankheit or ‘Channel sickness’. An advantage for RAF pilots was that being shot down over one’s own country enabled such pilots to be recycled back into operations as soon as they were physically and mentally able, which in many cases, was quite rapidly, whereas Luftwaffe pilots were taken prisoner of war with no further role to play in the Battle. In terms of losses then, a downed Bf109 constituted the loss of pilot and aircraft, whereas for the RAF, it could have been only the aircraft. Considering the rate of fighter production of the RAF at approximately 1,100 per month, the availability of pilots was critical; aircraft losses were less critical than pilot losses. AIRCRAFT
Force levels at any given point in the Battle varied on an hourly basis, but on 30 August 1940, 19 Hurricanes were more numerous than Spitfires which means they carried most of the workload.
Spitfire squadrons (372 aircraft) and 33 Hurricane squadrons (709 aircraft) faced the overwhelming odds of the Luftwaffe. The Luftwaffe single-engine fighter was the Messerschmitt Bf109, of which there were more than 1000 available. The Hurricane was essentially a low wing Hawker monoplane developed from the biplane Fury with a rear fuselage of metal longerons, struts and tierods with wooden formers and stringers, covered in doped fabric. Technologically, it was between the old Fury biplane and the stressed metal skins of the Spitfire and the Bf109. This meant that the damage tolerance of a Hurricane to exploding cannon shells was superior to that of the Spitfire. The Hurricane could sustain significantly more structural damage than a Spitfire and could be repaired and turned-around quicker at squadron level than a Spitfire with the equivalent damage which required maintenance units’ skills. This was a huge bonus factor in the intense air combat in which the numbers game was so critical. The Spitfire was later technology, based on the streamlined Supermarine Racer. Its sleek
A key advantage that Britain had was fighting over it's own homeland - which meant that downed enemy aircraft and pilots could not return to battle
lines created a large amount of ‘pop star’ status. Serviceability rates of the Hurricanes were always higher than the complex and more advanced Spitfire. The turn-around time, re-arm and refuel for the Spitfire, was 26 minutes, while the Hurricane’s was 9 minutes, which further increased its availability in the heat of battle. The wing loadings of both the Spitfire and the Hurricane were identical at 25 lb/sq. ft while the Bf109 with its considerably smaller wing area of only 174 sq. ft resulted in a relatively high wing loading of 34 lb/sq. ft. Wing loading translates into sustained turning capability. The Hurricane had an advantage over the Spitfire with a slightly greater turn rate, 26 deg/sec vs the 25deg/sec for the Spitfire and the 24deg/sec for the Bf109 which implied that in a turning fight, both the Spitfire and Hurricane could take on the Bf109. The question then became energy bleed during sustained turns. In air combat manoeuvring, maximum acceleration is obtained by ‘bunting’ the aircraft to zero ‘g’ at full power. The Merlin engine had a serious drawback by being equipped with a float-
type carburettor which cut out under negative ‘g’ forces while the fuel injected Daimler Benz DB601 engine gave the 109 an advantage over the carburettor-equipped engine. When RAF fighters attempted to “bunt” and dive away from an opponent as the Bf109 could, their engines would temporarily cut out for the duration of the negative-g forces, thereby facilitating the disengagement of the Bf109. Ergonomically, the pilot at the controls of a Hurricane, Spitfire or Bf109 was not the most comfortable person in the world, none of the aircraft were ever praised for comfort or luxury. The cockpits were narrow and shoulders brushed against the sides whenever ‘rubbernecking’ for enemy fighters; the wind noise levels even muffled the engine noise and the field of view was severely restricted. The all-round view from the ‘blown’ clear cockpit hood of the Spitfire was considered fair, however, the curved plexiglass windscreen caused considerable optical distortion which made long-distance visual scanning difficult. The Hurricane on the other hand, had a higher seating position which gave the pilot a better view over the nose than the Spitfire did. Douglas Bader commented that the Hurricane cockpit had more room and a better field of view and was easier to land than the narrow undercarriage tracked Spitfire. Both RAF fighters were armed with eight .303 Browning machine guns in the wings; the ‘point harmonised’, Hurricane’s twin batteries of four Browning machine guns was preferred to the paralleled harmonised guns of the Spitfire. The Brownings had a firing rate of 1150 rounds/ minute and a one second burst fired approximately 153 rounds. Although efficient against many aircraft, the small calibre bullets were often unable to penetrate the armour plating which was being increasingly used in Luftwaffe aircraft. An incendiary round, called the ‘De Wilde’ was provided which could do more damage than the standard ‘ball’ rounds.
The Bf109 Emil’s main armament depended on the subtype, but it was typically armed with four MG 17 7.92 mm machine guns. These were two cowl guns above the engine with 1,000 rounds per gun, and two in the wings with 500 rounds per gun. The E-3, E-4 and E-7s retained the fuselage armament of the E-1 but replaced the MG 17 wing guns with two MG FF/M 20 mm cannons, one in each wing with 60 rpg. Although the explosive cannon shells had great destructive power, the MG FF’s low muzzle velocity and the limited ammunition capacity of its drum
A Hurricane prototype shows its early 1930's design and thick wing The Hurricane was able to withstand considerably more battle damage than the Spitfire.
magazines meant the armament was not markedly superior to the RAF fighter’s eight machine guns. Three or four hits from the cannons were usually enough to bring down an enemy fighter and, even if the fighter was able to return to base, it would often be written off. For example, on 18 August a brand new Spitfire of 603 Squadron was hit by
20 mm shells which exploded in the structure of the rear fuselage. Although the crippled aircraft was successfully landed back at its airfield, it was subsequently deemed to be unrepairable. Both the Spitfire and Hurricane were equally vulnerable to enemy guns and had 73 lbs of armoured steel plating in the form of head (6.5 mm thickness) and back protection on the seat bulkhead (4.5 mm) and covering the forward face of the glycol header tank. The problem of a fuel tank just behind the engine firewall in the Hurricane which could catch fire and within a few seconds incinerate the pilot was later partly solved by fitting a layer of “Linatex” fireresistant material to the tanks, and an armoured panel forward of the instrument panel. Another hazard was presented by the main wing root mounted fuel tanks of the Hurricane, which were vulnerable to bullets fired from behind, contrary to the main fuel tanks of the Spitfire, which were mounted in the fuselage forward of the cockpit and which were better protected than that of the Hurricane. The lower tank was self-sealing and a 3 mm thick aluminium panel, sufficient to deflect small calibre bullets, was wrapped externally over the top tanks. Internally they were coated with layers of “Linatex” and the cockpit bulkhead was fireproofed with a thick panel of asbestos. FIGHTER PERFORMANCE
The relatively limited technology of the day restricted the aircrafts’ performance and the handling qualities did not necessarily produce ‘care free handling’, while the ergonomics produced its own set of man-machine interface challenges that increased pilot workload. Air combat manoeuvres were therefore rather limited to basic 1v1 tactics in which the power to weight ratio and the specific excess power available were critical factors for air combat. These performance parameters directly influenced the ability to climb rapidly, accelerate, 46
maximum airspeed, and sustained turning capability, all critical elements of aerial combat. Both the Hurricane and the Spitfire shared the same Rolls Royce Merlin III 1030 hp engine in contrast, the 1150 HP Daimler-Benz powered the Bf109. The weight of the Hurricane at 6,600 lbs, was higher than the Spitfire’s 6,000 lbs and the Bf109’s 5,600 lbs MAUW. The power to weight ratio for the Hurricane at maximum all up weight was only 0.156 hp/lb, the Spitfire slightly higher at 0.171 hp/lb and the Bf109 significantly higher at 0.205. From the foregoing it is clear to see the performance advantage the Bf109 had over both the Spitfire and the Hurricane which was manifested in a time to climb to 20,000 ft of 8:30 for the Hurricane,
7:30 for the Spitfire and only 7 minutes for the Bf109. For combat in which potential energy had to be exchanged continuously to maintain corner velocity during manoeuvring, this was tactically critical, and attacks were always conducted from a height advantage. The attacking Bf109s were always at an advantage having established their ingress height mostly at approximately 30,000 ft providing escort sweeps for the bomber formations. Benefitting from their lower wing loadings, the Spitfires and Hurricanes could out turn the Bf109. Deighton noted that at 12,000 ft, the Hurricane had a tighter turn radius than the Spitfire, 800 feet compared to 880 ft for the Spitfire and 890 ft for the Bf109; the Hurricane could turn inside the Spitfire and the Bf109, a vital attribute in air combat. What was a concern at the time was that British testing in September 1940 revealed that some Bf109 pilots succeeded in keeping on the tail of the Spitfire, despite the latter aircraft’s superior turning performance, because several of the Spitfire pilots failed to tighten up the turn sufficiently. The gentle stall and good control under “g” of the Bf109 was important as it enabled the Luftwaffe pilots to get the most out of the aircraft in a turning dog-fight by flying very near the stall. The Bf109
used leading edge slats which automatically deployed at high angles of attack, but also made it much more difficult to accelerate out of the turn in a chase or disengagement. HANDLING QUALITIES
From a stability and control perspective, stick force per ‘g’, instantaneous turn rate, agility and high angle of attack were important parameters for controlling the trajectory and attitude of the aircraft in manoeuvring the aircraft to bring the guns to bear on the target. Equally important was the stability of the aircraft during gun firing. From a systems perspective, the gun calibre, gunsight, the command and control system, including early warning and fighter controlling, was critically
important. An eternal truth is that first visual acquisition is worth its weight in gold in enabling the pilot to assess the dynamics and geometry of the fight which directly affects the attack axis and the decision to engage or not to engage. The old adage “never take a knife to a gunfight” was as relevant then as it is today. In some cases, tactically it may be necessary to ‘take a rain cheque’ and live to fight another day. For attacking formations of bombers, the Hurricane offered better visibility to the pilot and a noticeably steadier weapons platform for gun firing. However, the Spitfire had a better rate of climb, was faster and was more responsive and agile than the Hurricane, which automatically led to it being utilised in the air defence role. Importantly, they
Britain's early warning system using radar and observers such as these provided a key homeground advantage.
complemented each other; the Spitfire providing the high altitude combat capability and the Hurricane the medium altitude capability. Although, in handling, there was little to choose between the two, the Spitfire was praised by its pilots for its agility and the Hurricane praised for its stability as a gunnery platform, ideal for attacking less manoeuvrable bombers. According to pilots that had flown both types, the Hurricane’s control harmony was not at all as
their height, speed and numerical advantage but, provided the Spitfire pilots were aware of the threat axis and could visually acquire the Bf109s, the only counter would be to force the Bf109 to overshoot by breaking into the attacker at maximum g loading, a sort of ‘last ditch’ manoeuvre – the fight was now on! It is here where the Spitfire and the Hurricane came into their own. Although the Spitfires’ mission was to engage the enemy’s fighters and to draw them away from the German
Spitfire snobbery’ – no Luftwaffe pilot would admit that they had been shot up by a fabric and wood fighter
balanced as that of the Spitfire. The Hurricane was relatively stable while the Spitfire less stable about all axes and exhibited light, sensitive control forces, one of the reasons for the pilots referring to the Spitfire as ‘delightful’ to fly. Peter Townsend, who flew both Spitfires and Hurricanes operationally, felt that the Spitfire was more agile and faster, but that the Hurricane was more manoeuvrable at corner speed and undoubtedly, a better gun platform. At high speeds, the mechanical flight controls stiffened considerably, and the Bf109E needed more strength to manoeuvre than either of its main opponents. Of all three fighters, the Bf109E possessed the highest roll rate, with the aileron controls being brisk and responsive; the Spitfire had the highest aileron forces, but both the Spitfire and the Messerschmitt’s rate of roll suffered at high speed. TACTICAL APPLICATION
The dynamics of the Battle usually involved the Bf109s ‘bouncing’ the Spitfires from above due to 48
bomber formations, this of course did not always happen. It was much a case of ‘cat and mouse’; the Hurricanes would attack the bombers while the Spitfires engaged the Bf109s. After the first merge between the outnumbered Spitfires however, the Bf109s would ‘blow through’ and attack the Hurricanes that were attacking the bombers; so, air combat between Hurricanes and Messerschmitts was as regular as for the Spitfires. The British used the tactically inflexible tight ‘Vic’ formation with weavers at the back. However the weavers often got caught which was not good at all and placed the Hurricanes and Spitfires at a tactical disadvantage; only after many losses did the RAF adopt the fluid ‘finger-four’ battle formation offering maximum visual coverage for the formation. It is here where early warning by the Home Chain radar was critical. It is doubtful whether the Hurricane or Spitfire would have had the successes they had if it were not for the early warning provided by radars. An air defence system is a system which includes the sensors, aircraft and Dowding’s
command and control capability which the British had created in the build-up to the Battle. The air defence network provided Fighter Command with a defining advantage since it unified four geographical Groups and sectors with a main fighter airfield in each Sector. The Hurricane with its relatively low power to weight ratio and its thick wing section and relatively higher zero lift drag, had the lowest performance which was also manifested in the maximum speed of only 325 mph versus the 350 mph for the Spitfire and the Messerschmitt. Maximum speed was especially important in both the attack phase during interceptions and then of course defensively, to disengage to ‘fight another day’. It is clear that the Hurricane’s role and employment regime would have to be optimised to attacking bombers, while using the Spitfire for interceptions – there really wasn’t another option. The lower power to weight ratio of the Hurricane meant that in a sustained engagement, the higher induced drag Hurricane was less effective than the elliptical wing design of the Spitfire; the energy bleed of the Hurricane was higher – also one of the reasons that the Hurricane pilots used a spiralling defensive turn to sustain energy; the Spitfire was generally able to maintain energy during high g turning at corner speed and as such, the Hurricane pilot was forced to be more defensive than a Spitfire pilot. Once Hitler dictated that the Bf109s were no longer to act as fighter sweep but rather bomber escort, the Bf109 pilots were unable to maximise their aircraft’s performance which played into the hands of the RAF pilots. This was another
catastrophic decision by the German High Command indicating a complete lack of strategic or operational understanding of ‘modern’ air power doctrine. Göring believed that not only the Hurricane, but also the Spitfire was inferior to the Bf109 and as such, wanted to engage, fighter to fighter. However, the RAF would not waste time doing this, quite correctly going instead for the bombers which posed the greater threat. A downside for the German bombers was that, caught by either a Hurricane or a Spitfire having burst through the protective German fighter screen, the bombers were easy targets. German pilots had a great deal more respect for the Spitfire than for the Hurricane but much of that was ‘Spitfire snobbery’ since no Luftwaffe pilot would admit that they had been shot up by a fabric and wood fighter. CONCLUSION
The Battle of Britain was a defensive victory for Britain. Ultimately, the Luftwaffe failed to achieve the primary objective of defeating the RAF by fighting a strategic battle with a tactical air force. This resulted in the postponing of Operation Sea Lion, the German invasion of Britain in October 1940. Instead of ‘annihilating’ Fighter Command, the Germans had to settle for bombing British cities. Overall, in the Battle, approximately 1,977 Luftwaffe aircraft were shot down compared to approximately 1,087 RAF aircraft in which 2,700 German airmen perished compared to 544 British airmen. Each aircraft had its own particular strengths and weaknesses and the RAF quite correctly employed them to optimise their particular capabilities.
Pilots were developed to be competitive and trained to be aggressive
The Hurricanes to attack the slower and less manoeuvrable bombers and the more manoeuvrable and higher performance Spitfires against the equally manoeuvrable Bf109. Hurricanes were more common, and its stability and concentrated firepower allowed it to be a more effective bomber killer, whereas the Spitfire’s mobility and agility made it a better dogfighter. There is no doubt that the Hurricanes were the unsung aircraft of the Battle and are credited with shooting down more enemy aircraft than the Spitfire; the number of aircraft brought down by single seat fighters was in the proportion of 3 by Hurricanes to 2 by Spitfires. But it is necessary to note that the serviceability each morning was approximately 63% Hurricanes and 37% Spitfires - and without the Spitfires to fight off the Bf109s, the Hurricanes would not have had been able to inflict damage on the bombers. The differences between the
SO WHICH WAS THE BETTER FIGHTER?
Before the Battle of Britain, a practice air raid between a Spitfire squadron and a Hurricane squadron took place. The Hurricane’s would simulate the bomber force attacking RAF Kenley while 64 Squadron dispatched six Spitfires to intercept the incoming attackers. Predictably, the rivalry between the fighter pilots led to the simulated exercise developing into a full on ‘fight’; each squadron trying to prove a point; which fighter was superior? The exercise fell apart when the Hurricane ‘bombers’ countered the Spitfire attack – bombers
were not supposed to attack the attackers. The exercise proved futile as the ego driven fighter pilots tried to show off their respective aircraft’s performance, although neither side could claim a clear-cut victory over the other – and so the question remains unanswered. The Battle of Britain was lost by the Luftwaffe who failed to hand out the ‘knock out’ blow when Hitler’s emotive strategy changed to moving away from destroying the RAF on the ground and in the air, to the bombing of London. What is for certain though is that both the Hurricane and the Spitfire played the critical role of defending the RAF against the Luftwaffe against all odds. It took both to win the Battle, neither could have achieved it on their own.
Aircraft losses were less critical than pilot losses.
Spitfire and the Bf109 in performance and handling were only marginal, and in combat they were almost always surmounted by tactical considerations of which side had seen the other first, which had the advantage of sun, altitude, numbers, pilot ability, tactical situation, tactical co-ordination and the amount of fuel remaining. Historically, commentators romanticised the Spitfire’s graceful silhouette and romantic legend; glamour usually outshone performance in war. 50
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Bizjet & Commercial Jets REVIEW
INTRO: Much like other sectors
of the aviation industry, business aviation is undergoing unique and unprecedented challenges arising from Covid-19.
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African flight activity, in every region, contracted considerably in late-March 2020 and remains well down as seen in year-over-year levels. International travel in particular remains severely restricted as many countries remain in various states of lockdown. In Southern Africa the crisis was somewhat ameliorated by the crisis at SAA which left the door open for private sector operators such as Global Airways to step in a operate routes for SAA subsidiary mango Airlines using ACMI leased Airbus A320s. EGIONAL
In addition private sector commercial operators such as Star Air Cargo have had to work at 100 percent capacity, and in some cases expanded their operations, to meet the demand for pure cargo flights in the absence of belly cargo space on airline flights. The question being asked is – how long with the industry take to recover? Honeywell forecasts business jet usage will recover to 2019 levels by the second half of 2021. In an industry survey they found that 80% of operators say purchase plans have not been affected by Covid-19. Notably, the 29th annual Global Business Aviation Outlook forecasts 7,300 new business jet deliveries over next decade valued at $235 billion. This indicates that the five-year purchase plans for new business jets are largely unchanged from a year ago. In a surprisingly optimistic outlook, Honeywell’s Global Business Aviation Outlook forecasts more than 7,000 new business jet deliveries worth $235 billion from 2021 to 2030. This is down 4% in deliveries from the same 10-year forecast a year ago. Despite the dip, 4 of 5 business jet operators in the survey indicate that purchase plans have not been affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. Short-term reductions in both deliveries and expenditures due to the pandemic aren’t expected to have a lasting impact on the business jet industry. “Business jet usage is expected to rebound to 80% to 85% of 2019 levels in the 4th quarter of 2020 and fully rebound by the middle of 2021, indicating demand for business jet travel is returning after the global pandemic caused a slowdown in the industry earlier this year,” said Heath Patrick, president, Americas Aftermarket, Honeywell Aerospace. “The information we gleaned from operators shows a less than 1% decline in five-year purchase plans, so despite the short-term effects of the pandemic, we don’t expect long-term changes to purchase plans or to the overall health of the business jet market.”
• Key findings in the 2020 Honeywell Global Business Aviation Outlook include: • Five-year purchase plans for new business jets are down less than one percentage point compared with last year’s survey. Among those purchase plans of new business jets over the next five years, 30% are expected to occur in the next two years. This is 5 percentage points lower than last year’s survey, due mainly to near-term uncertainty. • Business jet deliveries in 2021 are expected to be up 13% from a Covid-impacted 2020. • Operators plan to make new jet purchases equivalent to about 16% of their fleets over the next five years as replacements or additions to their current fleet, in line with 2019 survey results. • Operators continue to focus on largercabin aircraft classes, from large cabin through ultralong- range aircraft, which are expected to account for more than 70% of all expenditures of new business jets in the next five years. The longer-range forecast to 2030 projects a 4% to 5% average annual growth rate of deliveries in line with expected worldwide economic recovery. This figure is higher than in 2019 due in part to Covid-related declines in 2020. Purchase plans for used jets show a moderate decline in this year’s survey. Operators worldwide indicated that 25% of their fleet is expected to be replaced or expanded by used jets over the next five years, down 6 percentage points compared with survey results from 2019. EFFECTS OF COVID-19 ON THE INDUSTRY:
• 4 of 5 operators in the survey said their buying plans have not been affected by COVID-19. Most of the operators who indicated their
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buying plans have been affected say they now plan to hold onto their current aircraft longer. • 82% of respondents in North America expect to operate their business jets less frequently in 2020 versus 2019. Other regions are seeing similar declines. Global business jet usage is expected to recover to 2019 levels by the second half of 2021. • Survey respondents did not signal sales of latemodel aircraft due to Covid-19. Specifically, only 10% of all respondents in the survey are planning to sell one or more aircraft without replacement in the next five years compared with 8% in last year’s survey. • Survey responses do not support the hypothesis that a decline in commercial travel has led 56
to an increase in purchases of business jets. More than 95% of operators expect no change to fleet size due to a decrease in commercial travel. BREAKDOWN BY REGION
Middle East and Africa – Higher purchase plans were reported, following a five-year low in 2019. • 16% of respondents said they will replace or add to their fleet with a new jet purchase, up from 12% last year. • Respondents plan to schedule more new business jet purchases within the first year of the survey compared with 2019. About 26% of operators in this year’s survey plan to purchase new business jets within the next
than in last year’s survey. • Purchase plans for used jets are lower, down 8 percentage points when compared with last year’s survey but back to historical levels as last year saw a five-year high. • An estimated 64% of worldwide demand for new jets will come from North American operators over the next five years, up 4 percentage points compared with last year’s survey. Europe – Operators have slowly been replacing
year, up from 20% in last year’s survey. • The share of projected five-year global demand attributed to the Middle East and Africa is 4%, in line with the historical range of 4% to 6%. North America – Compared with last year, new aircraft acquisition plans in North America are flat. • New jet purchase plans remain unchanged in North America in this year’s survey. Over the next five years, 15% of the fleet is expected to be replaced or supplemented with a new jet purchase. • About 32% of operators responding to the survey plan to schedule their new purchases within the first two years of the five-year horizon. This is 4 percentage points lower
aging aircraft in the fleet. • Europe’s purchase expectations decreased this year to roughly 24% of the fleet, down 4 percentage points compared with last year’s results. • About 24% of operators plan to schedule their new purchases within the next two years, down 6 percentage points and below the worldwide average of 30%. • Europe’s share of global demand over the next five years is estimated to be 18%, 1 percentage point lower than last year. USED JETS
Plans to acquire used jets in the next five years dropped by about 6 percentage points from last year’s survey. Twenty-five percent of used business jets will trade hands over the next five years, compared with a five-year projection of 31% in 2019. CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the Global Business Aviation Outlook reflects current operator concerns and also identifies longer-cycle trends. However, compared to the airline industry the Honeywell research is surprisingly positive.
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THE REGIONâ€™S LEADING BUSINESS JET MRO PROVIDER ExecuJet MRO Services consists of group of companies specialising in Business and General Aviation maintenance services founded in 1991 with its headquarters at Lanseria International Airport in Johannesburg, South Africa and with operating bases in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe and the Middle East. ExecuJet MRO Services was acquired by Dassault Aviation in March 2019 and whilst it is wholly owned by Dassault, it retained and operates under the ExecuJet brand. 60
EXECUJET has a world class maintenance hangar at Lanseria International Airport (FALA) encompassing 9,000m2 of floor space and associated workshops, capable of accommodating aircraft such as the Dassault Falcon 8X and Bombardier Global Series with ease. The company has been supporting international business jet travellers’ and regional aircraft owners for over 29 years, as an approved or authorised service centre for leading manufacturers such as Bombardier and Dassault. The Lanseria facility is also an authorised service centre for Honeywell avionics, engines and APUs, Rolls Royce BR710 and AE3007 engines and General Electric CF34 engines, in addition to being accredited as a Collins Aerospace Authorised Dealership amongst many others. The facility holds SACAA certification, various worldwide CAA accreditations as well as an EASA 145 approval. As a Honeywell and Collins Aerospace Authorised avionics facility, ExecuJet is capable of providing support for all large business jets equipped with their products. ExecuJet is also able to perform installations of glass cockpits, Jetwave Systems (Ka Band), ADS-B and any major Avionic system required by the 2020 Avionics Mandate requirement. The company also offers full electrical workshop facilities, sheet metal and composite repairs, as well as Honeywell TPE 331 Engine overhauls and TFE 731 engine Major repairs. ExecuJet’s Lanseria facility has the only authorised Honeywell and Pratt & Whitney Engine Turboprop test cell facility in Africa. Committed to providing the highest level of service excellence with uncompromised levels of safety and quality, the company’s workmanship is governed by stringent internal quality standards
and is regularly audited by the various aviation regulatory bodies. ExecuJet’s highly qualified, experienced and trained technical staff ensures specialised airframe, engine and avionics services that are performed to the highest exacting international industry standards. ExecuJet MRO Services South Africa Continues to Provide Exceptional Service During COVID-19 2020 has been a particularly trying year amid the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in a worldwide shift in how the company does business. ExecuJet has adapted and continues to provide an exemplary service whilst adhering to the international COVID-19 protocols and safety standards. ExecuJet has been able to complete a Scheduled
Phase inspection on a Hawker 900XP with defect rectification during the most extreme levels of lock down with minimal added downtime for one of our essential service customers. During lockdown levels 4 and 3, our Avionics engineers installed ADS-B on a Hawker HS125800XP, Dassault Falcon 900EX, Bombardier Challenger 604 and a Hawker HS125-900XP. This brings the total to 23 ADS-B installations since the mandate was announced with further installations expected in the near future. Our production team have been working hard
to complete all maintenance events expeditiously without compromise to quality. A 96-Month inspection on an Embraer Legacy 650, absorbing in excess of 2,000 labour hours, was successfully completed during these trying times. Delivery of parts was more than challenging with freight companies experiencing difficulties due to COVID related restrictions. ExecuJet has also successfully completed maintenance and refurbishment of the cabin interior on a Dassault Falcon 900EX. This included the ADS-B Out (DO260B) compliance upgrade with WAAS capability, 12/24 months, B1/B2 and CAMP due maintenance inspections. ExecuJet offers the following high level quality services: • Line and Base Maintenance • Airframe, Engine, APU, Avionics and Warranty Repair • AOG Support and Mobile Repair Teams (MRT) • Spare Parts (Extensive stock levels for various aircraft types) • Modifications and Upgrades • Hangarage • Aircraft Cleaning, Polishing and Protecting • Component Maintenance (Wheels, Batteries and Emergency Power Packs, Artex and Kannad ELT Beacons) • Electrical/ Avionics Workshop • Sheet Metal services
ExecuJet has also partnered with Flight Safety International and established an onsite maintenance training facility at Lanseria Airport. This service is provided to the aviation industry illustrating ExecuJet’s commitment to the future of aviation in Africa. “We pride ourselves in providing the customer with the best possible service, including the best options or solutions for their aircraft, in the shortest possible time. We consider our customers to be our partners and all efforts are focussed in supporting them to strengthen these relationships.” The company has a total of over 120 personnel at Lanseria with in excess of 60 type-rated licensed engineers, all of which have OEM accredited training and extensive experience on the product types supported. We also offer a 24/7 AOG hotline for unexpected maintenance services. In addition, ExecuJet is fully capable of extending our services to the ExecuJet Cape Town facility. The wider group has the expertise and resources to handle virtually any maintenance task, caring for business aircraft across Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe and the Middle East. ontact: Tel: 082 411 1746 C E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.execujet-mro.com AOG: firstname.lastname@example.org
AIRLINK INTERLINES WITH QATAR South African regional carrier Airlink has formally changed its name from SA Airlink to just Airlink. A rebranding is also in progress. In addition, the airline has commenced replacing the codeshare and interline agreements it lost when it removed itself from the moribund SAA booking system.
N late October Airlink announced it had signed an interline agreement with Qatar Airways which provides passengers with seamless connectivity via Cape Town, and Johannesburg to more than 20 regional destinations in Southern Africa. Airlink's exceptionally good on time performance no doubt helped persuade Qatar that it was a reliable feeder carrier for its long haul flights. Airlink CEO, Rodger Foster said, “We are confident that the relationship will deliver enhanced travel options to customers given the designed interconnectivity that will be enabled at OR Tambo International Airport and Cape Town International Airport. Airlink’s offering of connectable destinations includes most key points within Southern Africa such as; Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, East London, Bloemfontein, Harare, Lusaka, Maputo, Gaborone, Windhoek, amongst many others”.
Qatar Airways Vice President Africa, Hendrik Du Preez, said: “As the most connected airline during the pandemic with a network that never fell below 30 destinations, we strive to continue to offer more flexibility and options for our passengers. We are delighted to sign this interline agreement with Airlink to further expand our network in the region connecting passengers to more than 25 domestic and more than 20 regional destinations. With the borders in South Africa being closed for five months, we are thrilled to re-enter the market with additional connections in South Africa and beyond.”
The Industry Flagship Longest range | Largest cabin | Smoothest ride
Bombardier, Global, GlobalÂ 7500 and Exceptional by design are registered or unregistered trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. All information above is true at the time of publication. ÂŠ 2020 Bombardier Inc.
PC-24 PROVES ITSELF IN AFRICA
A Pilatus PC-24 doing what it was designed to do on a rough dirt airstrip.
As the first business jet specifically designed to handle the vast number of short and austere airstrips in Africa, the Pilatus PC-24 is revolutionising access to many previously hard to reach places.
FRICA’S Rand Airport based Pilatus agents Pilatus Centre in Johannesburg have delivered three PC-24s into Southern Africa and delivery of the fourth is pending Covid-19 travel restriction relaxation. The PC-24 is the first jet aircraft from Pilatus – which has established a rock-solid track record on the back of its very successful PC-12 single engine turboprop.
The PC-24 achieved European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) type certification in December 2017. The first PC-24 was delivered to South Africa in October 2018 and has been dubbed the ‘Super Versatile Jet’ due to its flexibility and ability to operate in and out of short unpaved runways. With six passengers, departing Cape Town, the aircraft can reach Angola, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique. Flying from Lanseria International
D ESIGNED FOR PASSENGERS WHO COME WITH EXTRA BAGGAGE The world’s first Super Versatile Jet takes off! No other business jet features an enormous cargo door integral to its design, which is exactly why Pilatus made it standard in the new PC-24. Whether it’s a bulky prototype to show your top client or your favourite mountain bike, we just removed the words “it won’t fit” from your pilot’s vocabulary. Load whatever you want and fly PC-24 – contact us now! www.pilatus-aircraft.com Contact Pilatus PC-12 Centre Southern Africa, your nearest Authorised Pilatus PC-24 Sales Centre for further information on Tel: +27 11 383 0800 or Email: email@example.com
Airport in Johannesburg, the aircraft can reach DRC, Tanzania, Kenya and Mauritius, according to Pilatus. The PC-24 has been approved for ‘rough field’ approval to its basic type certification, which will enable it to land on gravel airstrips. The jet can operate out of runways as short as 820 metres (2,690ft) and that includes, grass, gravel or dirt surfaces. Pilatus has estimated that rough field capability opens up almost 2,500 austere airstrips in Africa, whereas the nearest competing jet aircraft can operate from just 815 African airports. A typical example of how the PC-24 will open up Africa’s unimproved airfields to pure jet operations is the Seronera airstrip in Tanzania’s Serengeti National Park. Seronera is a 2 km gravel airstrip 5,080ft amsl. A classic hot and high airfield, it is comfortably within the PC-24s capability and the undercarriage and engine design are designed to handle debris from a loose gravel surface. Of particular note is the large chine flange built into the nosewheel tyre to deflect stones and debris.
Pilatus has built a great track record handling rough airfields – particularly with its iconic Porter PC-6 and PC-12 single-engine turboprops. Oscar Schwenk, chairman of Pilatus, explained how the company has achieved this. “This sort of mission would not be conceivable without the PC-24’s rugged landing gear, clever flap systems and special wing design,” he said. Pilatus Centre’s Gerry Wyss says that they have sold a total of five PC-24s, with three already delivered of which two are available for charter. “The aircraft is available for all charter operations, from VIP to government and tourist flights. The cabin lends itself to various layouts through quick change options. For example, if all eight seats are not required, two can be removed through the large cargo door at the back (as seen on the PC-12 turboprop), expanding the cargo area and thus its utility,” Wyss says. BELOW: The designer interior makes getting to the most hard to reach places a pleasure.
MAINTENANCE Star Air Maintenance Pty Ltd (SAM) is a subsidiary company of Star Air Cargo Pty Ltd, that provides all the AOCâ€™s maintenance requirements up to C check. We are based at O R Tambo International Airport and our team of highly qualified engineers offer line maintenance to third parties. Boeing 737-200 Boeing 737 Classics Based at OR Tambo International Airport, Johannesburg South Africa. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Tel: 011 395 3756 and 011 973 5512
Guardian Air is a trusted aircraft management, maintenance and VIP air charter company. Providing a suite of specialised services to meet the discerning needs of aircraft owners, global business travellers, tourists and adventurers. GUARDIAN AIR, operating from Lanseria International Airport in South Africa, offers Global VIP charter, comprehensive aircraft management and maintenance solutions to aircraft owners and organisations alike, as well as air ambulance services to two major, private emergency medical care companies. Guardian Air (PTY) Ltd started as an aviation asset management company in 2009. Today through their subsidiary, Guardian Air Asset Management, have international and domestic operating licences issued by the South African Department of Transport as well as a non-scheduled Aircraft Operating Certificate which is endorsed for aeromedical transfers. As aircraft owners themselves, they can identify with their customers’ needs. Guardian Air aircraft is serviced by their own in-house maintenance division, Guardian Air Maintenance (PTY) Ltd. Aircraft types endorsed on the operating licence: Beechcraft King Air 200 Hawker 700A/800A Dassault Falcon 20 Dassault Falcon 50EX Dassault Falcon 900EX Please contact our 24/7 operations team for VIP charter, air ambulance services or any other enquiries.
Guardian Air lives by this motto: “Throughout the company, there has been a big push in being transparent.”
Guardian Air is a trusted VIP air charter and aircraftmanagement company, providing a suite of specialised services to meet the discerning needs of global business travellers,tourists and adventurers. WeFlightCom work closelyMagazine with clients to find the best solutions for their needs.
loc Lanseria International Airport Tel +27 11 701 3011 27/7 +27 82 521 2394 Web www.guardianair.co.za lic CAA/I/N283, AMO1401GUARDIAN
A LEADING AIRCRAFT SALES COMPANY IN AFRICA
The return to flight of the Boeing 737MAX will be a much needed boost for Boeing deliveries.
NO NEW Airbus and Boeing orders in September The Seattle Times reports that, as the COVID-19 global pandemic continues to depress the aviation market, neither Boeing nor Airbus booked a single new jet order in September.
OEING delivered just 11 planes in September, while Airbus delivered 57, its highest monthly delivery so far this year. Boeing has delivered just 98 commercial aircraft for the year to September, a reduction of about two-thirds compared with the 301 delivered in the first nine months of 2019. So far this year, Airbus has delivered a total of 341 commercial aircraft, a reduction of around 40% compared with the 571 jets delivered in the first nine months of 2019.
In addition to the hit from the pandemic, Boeing hasn’t been able, since March 2019, to deliver any 737 MAXes. For Boeing, the number of MAX orders that so far this year have been either cancelled outright or removed from the official backlog as doubtful, rose past 1,000 aircraft. The recent lifting of the grounding by the FAA and EASA will be a much-needed boost for Boeing’s deliveries.
INTERNATIONALLY ACCREDITED LEADING ACMI LEASING COMPANY
Specialists in providing ACMI leasing services for the Embraer E120 & ERJ145 Sahara Africa Aviation is a leading, internationally accredited ACMI leasing company who offer exceptional end-to-end services, allowing clients to focus on growing and managing their business
Sahara owns and operates the largest fleet of Embraer E120s in the world and has expanded their fleet to include the Embraer ERJ145 to meet client demand
Sahara has their own AMO and AOC with dedicated engineers, crew and operational support staff, ensuring an unprecedented 99.8% dispatch rate
Contact us to discuss your aviation requirements Trevor Brotherton +27 83 3054508 firstname.lastname@example.org Lisa Constable +27 81 0107920 email@example.com
Where romance meets nature
Located in South Africaâ€™s Safari hub of Hoedspruit, Safari Moon is a boutique base from which to discover the wonders of South Africaâ€™s Lowveld region. Explore a range of nearby attractions from the famed Kruger National park to the scenic Panorama Route, or simply chose to relax and unwind in nature, making the most of private piece of Wildlife Estate wilderness. 74 yourFlightCom Magazine
CONTACT: firstname.lastname@example.org 083 449 5868
OR Tambo REVIEW
OR TAMBO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Africa’s Biggest and Busiest
Despite the trauma of the Covid-19 pandemic, OR Tambo International Airport remains Africa’s biggest and busiest airport. At its peak it handled almost 20 million passengers a year, which is more than half of South Africa’s total air travelling passengers. With the resumption of both domestic and limited international flights OR Tambo is on the rebound but it is expected to take three to five years to recover to previous levels. 76
ABOVE: The impressive new SACAA and ACSA head office as it will appear when complete.
is the commercial aviation hub for Southern Africa and serves as the primary airport for domestic and international travel to and from South Africa. Although it is only expected to handle around 10 million passengers this year, the airport has the capacity to handle up to 28 million passengers each year. It is also one of the few airports in the world to host non-stop flights to all continents (except R TAMBO
Antarctica, which Cape Town International does). In 1996, OR Tambo overtook Cairo International Airport as the busiest in Africa, and across the whole of the Middle East and Africa OR Tambo airport is the fourth-busiest after Dubai, Doha and Abu Dhabi Airports. In the 2015 World Airport Awards, OR Tambo was named the best airport in Africa, with Cape Town coming in second, and King Shaka in Durban finishing third. This is a tribute to ACSA – the Airport Company of South Africa, which operates these airports. Situated almost 1,700 metres (5,500 feet) above sea level and with temperatures often climbing above 30 degrees Celsius, OR Tambo, with its ‘hot and high’ conditions, is an ideal destination for airliners conducting weight and temperature (WAT) certification and proving flights. Notably, it was used as a test airport for the Concorde during the 1970s, to determine how the aircraft would perform while taking off and landing at high altitude. Similarly, on 26 November 2006, the airport became the first in Africa to host the Airbus A380. The aircraft landed in Johannesburg on its way to Sydney via the South Pole on a test flight. In 2014, Airbus returned to OR Tambo to test its next clean sheet design – the A350. As part of its certification flights for the A350, Airbus conducted hot and high performance as well as auto-landing trials on Runway 03R. Although the 4,4 km long Runway 03L/21R is one of the longest commercial international airport runways in the world, aircraft taking off from OR Tambo must often reduce weight by loading less fuel than they would otherwise. In particular, second segment climb performance for twin engine jets can be a limiting factor. On some of the longer routes, such as flights from Johannesburg to North America, some aircraft types have to refuel en-route, while for
the return flight, because takeoff from New York is from a lower altitude airport, they can upload enough fuel to reach Johannesburg non-stop. AIRSIDE
There are two parallel north/south runways and a disused cross runway. Both runways are equipped with Instrument Landing Systems (ILS). Furthermore, all runways are equipped with Approach Lighting Systems with sequenced
expansion of the international terminal, with the new international pier (opened in 2009) increasing capacity and accommodating the Airbus A380. A new Central Terminal building was completed on April 1, 2009. An additional multi-storey parkade was built in January 2010, at a cost of R470 million, opposite the Central Terminal Building. Terminal A was also upgraded and the associated roadways realigned to accommodate more International Departures space.
OR Tambo GM Bongiwe Pityi-Vokwana has big plans despite Covid-19.
flashers, and touchdown zone (TDZ) lighting. The cross runway is now a taxiway. During busy periods, outbound flights use the western runway, 03L/21R, for takeoff, while inbound flights use the eastern runway, 03R/21L, for landing. Naturally wind direction is a determining factor; however, due to the prevailing conditions, on most days, flights takeoff to the north and land from the south. UPGRADE DEVELOPMENTS
The airportâ€™s most recent major development was done for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. These included 78
This massive upgrade has proved to be sufficient to meet the growth in passenger numbers since the World Cup. The Central Terminal Building, which cost R2 billion, boosted passenger capacity at the landside of the terminal, additional luggage carousels were added and the terminal now allows direct access for both international and domestic travellers. The new International Pier, which cost R535 million to build, increased international arrivals and departures capacity in a two-storey structure and added nine airside contact stands, four of which are Airbus A380 compatible. To develop the key non-
airside revenue, the large duty-free mall has been extended into this area, and additional lounges and passenger-holding areas have been constructed on the upper level. There was a proposal for a second ‘midfield’ terminal to be built between the two runways, but this has been cancelled. It would have contained its own domestic and international check-in facilities, shops and lounges and was projected to cost R8 billion. The terminal would have been designed for power in power out operations for low cost carriers, thus reducing the costs of airport handling with air bridges and aircraft tugs for push back.
Although under previous growth projections OR Tambo was scheduled for further expansion, these plans have been put on hold due to the Covid-19 pandemic. In 2019 OR Tambo unveiled the first phase of a R4.5 billion mixed-use development that will form part of a massive seven-phase plan to revamp the airport. The first phase will see the construction of three six-storey office buildings with a floor area of 33,000 square metres. Construction began in February 2020 with an anticipated completion date for the first phase at the end of 2020. This
21R IS ONE OF THE LONGEST COMMERCIAL INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT RUNWAYS IN THE WORLD To accommodate the increase in car traffic, a multi-story parkade was built and the airport now has more than 16,300 parking bays, when combining the parking available in the parkade, shade parking, carports and open parking. Although not airside development related a massive new building to house the ACSA head office and the Civil Aviation Authority is being completed in the airport precinct Terminals A and B host over 140 retail stores, with Duty Free stores based airside in Terminal A. The stores are open daily from 06h00 to 22h00. These extended hours include the banks, pharmacy, post office and bureau de change. There is a 24hour travel clinic, and the airport’s police station also operates around the clock.
has now been pushed out. OR Tambo GM Bongiwe PityiVokwana, said that the airport plans a further 180,000 square metres for a mixed-use development to be located on the northern precinct of the airport. She added that the mixed-use development will consist of a variety of buildings which are framed in such a way as to form a boulevard at the international departures level, where a variety of retail commercial and ancillary buildings each open onto a vibrant energetic ‘street’ environment serviced by lively restaurants, corner cafes and bars. It will also improve the airport’s connectivity from the Gautrain station and to existing hotels and facilities via pedestrian-friendly connections to the international terminal building. FURTHER BROAD DEVELOPMENT
In addition to this development, O.R Tambo International’s long-term infrastructure plan features midfield cargo and midfield passenger terminals, each requiring several billion Rands in further investment, said Pityi-Vokwana. These developments
will accommodate growing passenger demand and expand the midfield cargo facilities at the airport to accommodate up to two million tonnes of air cargo annually, she said. “At the same time, airport users will start to see Covid-19 and the SAA debacle has reduced OR Tambo operations by approximately 50%.
upgrades to the existing terminal buildings,” she said. “So, we are entering a very exciting period in the life of our airport which supports about 38,000 jobs in and around the precinct,” said Pityi-Vokwana. “We are excited about the upliftment that the Western Precinct development which will act as a catalyst to create a new multi-functional node where big businesses will ultimately migrate in terms of office and hotel accommodation,” she said. “This node will be made more attractive by the intermodal connectivity offered by Gautrain and Bus Rapid Transport stations within a precinct, the ultimate development of which, will allow for easy access to hotels, restaurants, fast food facilities, outdoor seating, retail, offices and a world-class conference centre.”
Your one-stop-shop for repairs and overhauls of aviation rotables and special processes. BNT International (PTY) Ltd. Unit D3, Denel Industrial Park, Denel North Entrance (oﬀ Atlas Road), Kempton Park, Gauteng, South Africa, 1619 Tel. +27 11 395 1677 Email: email@example.com Website: www.bnt-int.co.za
SA Flyer 2020|03
Aviation Services • Composites & Aircraft Structures • Wheel overhaul and Repair Services • Brake Overhaul and Repair Services • Non-Destructive Testing on Aircraft • Hydro Static Testing • Oxygen bottles • Fire Extinguishers • Safety Equipment • Aircraft Weighing o Small aircrafts up to larger B737, A320, L-382
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Boeing 737-300 Cargo Aircraft available for wet (ACMI) lease.
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Based at OR Tambo International Airport, Johannesburg South Africa.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Tel: +27 11 234 7038 www.starair.co.za
Mistral Aviation Services Mistral Aviation was founded in 2002 with the aim of addressing the high cost of operating aircraft thousands of miles from the original equipment manufacturers. (OEM).
Mistral we believe that by utilising the favorable labor rate and local expertise within South Africa, the cost of importing the spares can be offset whilst producing a product comparable to that of the European and US facilities. Mistral Aviation is an independently owned T
Address Unit 2B,46 Kelly Rd. Jet Park, Gauteng South Africa ďƒź
SA Flyer 2017|07
company and has always traded as Mistral Aviation Services. We are in no way linked with Mistral Aviation, based in the DRC, or any other companies with similar names.
Contact Details Telephone: (27) 011 397 7Â 478 Fax: (27) 011 397 1143 E-Mail: Peter@mistral.co.za Website: www. mistral.co.za
WE OFFER THE INDUSTRY INTEGRITY, RELIABILITY, EXPERIENCE AND A DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE
We overhaul, repair, test and modify wheels, brakes and land ing gears
Safair North Perimeter Road, OR Tambo International Airport, Bonaero Park, 1619 Tel: 081 755 2534 Fax: 011 395 1291 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
To your lodge
PAFURI WELGEVONDEN GAME RESERVE
OR TAMBO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
TIMBAVATI PRIVATE GAME RESERVE
SABI SANDS PRIVATE GAME RESERVE PHINDA
Federal Airlines Bases Major Destinations
Shuttle Routes Chartered Routes
We’re for the journey Federal Airlines provides a direct ﬂight service to Southern Africa’s most exclusive and luxurious lodges with shuttle and private charter ﬂights. Choose Federal Airlines and enjoy the beneﬁts of bespoke ﬂight transfers, seamless connections, express check-in, our exclusive passenger lounge and direct airside boarding.
Flights can be booked through your travel agent or through one of our partner lodges.
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Airlines Unable to Cut Costs Deep Enough to Save Jobs The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has presented analysis showing that the airline industry cannot slash costs sufficiently to neutralise severe cash burn to avoid bankruptcies and preserve jobs in 2021.
used the findings of its study to repeat its call for government relief measures to sustain airlines financially and avoid massive employment terminations. IATA also called for pre-flight COVID-19 testing to open borders and enable travel without quarantine. IATA has revised its earlier projections of recovery downwards. Total industry revenues in 2021 are now expected to be down 46% compared to the 2019 figure of $838 billion. The previous analysis was for 2021 revenues to be down around 29% compared to 2019. This was based on expectations for a demand recovery commencing in the fourth quarter of 2020. Recovery has been delayed due to new ‘second wave’ COVID-19
outbreaks, and government mandated travel restrictions including border closings and quarantine measures. IATA now expects full year 2020 traffic to be down 66% compared to 2019, with December demand down 68%.
remain in place. Without additional government financial relief, the median airline has just 8.5 months of cash remaining at current burn rates. And we can’t cut costs fast enough to catch up with shrunken revenues,” said Alexandre de Juniac, IATA’s Director General and CEO. Although airlines have taken drastic steps to reduce costs, around 50% of airlines’ costs are
Costs have not fallen as fast as revenues.
“The fourth quarter of 2020 will be extremely difficult and there is little indication the first half of 2021 will be significantly better, so long as borders remain closed and/or arrival quarantines
fixed or semi-fixed, at least in the shortterm. The result is that costs have not fallen as fast as revenues. For example, the yearon-year decline in operating costs for the second quarter was 48% compared with a 73% decline in operating revenues, based on a sample of 76 airlines.
Parked airliners - the second Covid-19 wave has made IATA projections even worse.
Furthermore, as airlines have reduced capacity (available seat kilometres, or ASKs) in response to the collapse in travel demand, unit costs (cost per ASK, or CASK) have risen, since there are fewer seat kilometres to ‘spread’ costs over. Preliminary results for the third quarter show that unit costs rose around 40% compared to the year-ago period. Looking forward to 2021, IATA estimates that to achieve a breakeven operating result and neutralize cash burn, unit costs will need to fall by 30% compared to average CASK for 2020. Such a decline is without precedent. Factors contributing to this analysis include: • With international demand down nearly 90%, airlines have parked thousands of mostly long-haul aircraft and shifted their operations to short haul flying where possible. However, because the average distance flown has fallen sharply, more aircraft are required to operate the network. Thus, flown capacity (ASKs) is down 62% compared to January 2019, but the in-service fleet is down just 21%.
Aircraft lease costs have dropped less than 10% over the past year. • Around 60% of the world aircraft fleet is leased. While airlines have received some reductions from lessors, aircraft lease costs have dropped less than 10% over the past year. • It is critical that airports and air navigation service providers avoid cost increases to fill gaps in budgets that are dependent on pre-crisis traffic levels. Infrastructure costs have fallen sharply because of fewer flights and passengers. Infrastructure providers could cut costs, defer capital expenditures, borrow on capital markets to cover losses or seek government financial relief. • Fuel is the only bright spot with prices down
42% on 2019. Unfortunately, they are expected to rise next year as increased economic activity raises energy demand. • While IATA is not advocating specific workforce reductions, maintaining last year’s level of labour productivity (ASKs/employee), would require employment to be cut 40%. Further jobs losses or pay cuts would be required to bring unit labour costs down to the lowest point of recent years, a reduction of 52% from 2020 Q3 levels. • Even if that unprecedented reduction in labour costs were to be achieved, total costs will still be higher than revenues in 2021, and airlines will continue to burn through cash. “There is little good news on the cost front in 2021. Even if we maximise our cost cutting, we still won’t have a financially sustainable industry in 2021,” said de Juniac.
Yields are not profitable
“The handwriting is on the wall. For each day that the crisis continues, the potential for job losses and economic devastation grows. Unless governments act fast, some 1.3 million airline jobs are at risk. And that would have a domino effect, putting 3.5 million additional jobs in the aviation sector in jeopardy along with a total of 46 million people in the broader economy whose jobs are supported by aviation. Moreover, the loss of aviation connectivity will have a dramatic impact on global GDP, threatening $1.8 trillion in economic activity. Governments must take firm action to avert this impending economic and labour catastrophe. They must step forward with additional financial relief measures. And they must use systematic COVID-19 testing to safely reopen borders without quarantine,” said de Juniac.
MAINTENANCE Star Air Maintenance Pty Ltd (SAM) is a subsidiary company of Star Air Cargo Pty Ltd, that provides all the AOCâ€™s maintenance requirements up to C check. We are based at O R Tambo International Airport and our team of highly qualified engineers offer line maintenance to third parties. Boeing 737-200 Boeing 737 Classics Based at OR Tambo International Airport, Johannesburg South Africa. Contact: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 011 395 3756 and 011 973 5512
BACKPAGE DIR DIRECT ECTORY ORY A1A Flight Examiner (Loutzavia) Jannie Loutzis 012 567 6775 / 082 416 4069 email@example.com www.loutzavia.co.za
Alpi Aviation SA Dale De Klerk 082 556 3592 firstname.lastname@example.org www.alpiaviation.co.za
Adventure Air Lande Milne 012 543 3196 / Cell: 066 4727 848 email@example.com www.ventureglobal.biz
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Comporob Composite Repair & Manufacture Felix Robertson 072 940 4447 083 265 3602 email@example.com www.comporob.co.za Corporate-Aviators/Affordable Jet Sales Mike Helm 082 442 6239 firstname.lastname@example.org www.corporate-aviators.com
Flying Frontiers Craig Lang 082 459 0760 CraigL@fairfield.co.za C. W. Price & Co www.flyingfrontiers.com AES (Cape Town) Aref Avionics Kelvin L. 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Kit Planes for Africa Stefan Coetzee 013 793 7013 email@example.com www.saplanes.co.za
MS Aviation Gary Templeton 082 563 9639 firstname.lastname@example.org www.msaviation.co.za
Kzn Aviation (Pty) Ltd Melanie Jordaan 031 564 6215 email@example.com www.kznaviation.co.za
Skyhorse Aviation Ryan Louw 012 809 3571 firstname.lastname@example.org www.skyhorse.co.za
United Flight Support Clinton Moodley/Jonathan Wolpe 076 813 7754 / 011 788 0813 email@example.com www.unitedflightsupport.com
North East Avionics Keith Robertson +27 13 741 2986 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.northeastavionics.co.za Landing Eyes Gavin Brown Orsmond Aviation 031 202 5703 058 303 5261 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.landingeyes.com www.orsmondaviation.co.za Lanseria Aircraft Interiors Owenair (Pty) Ltd Francois Denton Clive Skinner 011 659 1962 / 076 810 9751 082 923 9580 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.owenwair.co.za Lanseria International Airport Mike Christoph Pacair 011 367 0300 Wayne Bond firstname.lastname@example.org 033 386 6027 www.lanseria.co.za email@example.com
Skyworx Aviation Kevin Hopper firstname.lastname@example.org www.skyworxaviation.co.za
Legend Sky 083 860 5225 / 086 600 7285 email@example.com www.legendsky.co.za
PFERD-South Africa (Pty) Ltd Hannes Nortman 011 230 4000 firstname.lastname@example.org www.pferd.com
Southern Energy Company (Pty) Ltd Elke Bertram +264 8114 29958 email@example.com www.sec.com.na
Litson & Associates (Pty) Ltd OGP, BARS, Resources Auditing & Aviation Training firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 27 (0) 21 8517187 www.litson.co.za
Pipistrel Kobus Nel 083 231 4296 email@example.com www.pipistrelsa.co.za
Southern Rotorcraft cc Mr Reg Denysschen Tel no: 0219350980 firstname.lastname@example.org www.rotors-r-us.com
Plane Maintenance Facility Johan 083 300 3619 email@example.com
Sport Plane Builders Pierre Van Der Walt 083 361 3181 firstname.lastname@example.org
Precision Aviation Services Marnix Hulleman 012 543 0371 email@example.com www.pasaviation.co.za PSG Aviation Reon Wiese 0861 284 284 firstname.lastname@example.org www.psg aviation.co.za
Starlite Aero Sales Klara Fouché +27 83 324 8530 / +27 31 571 6600 email@example.com www.starliteaviation.com
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Starlite Aviation Training Academy Durban: +27 31 571 6600 Mossel Bay: +27 44 692 0006 firstname.lastname@example.org www.starliteaviation.com
Litson & Associates Risk Management Services (Pty) Ltd. eSMS-S/eTENDER/ eREPORT/Advisory Services email@example.com Phone: 27 (0) 8517187 www.litson.co.za Loutzavia Aircraft Sales Henry Miles 082 966 0911 firstname.lastname@example.org www.loutzavia.co.za Loutzavia Flight Training Gerhardt Botha 012 567 6775 email@example.com www.loutzavia.co.za Loutzavia-Pilots and Planes Maria Loutzis 012 567 6775 firstname.lastname@example.org www.pilotsnplanes.co.za Loutzavia Rand Frans Pretorius 011 824 3804 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Lowveld Aero Club Pugs Steyn 013 741 3636 Flynow@lac.co.za Marshall Eagle Les Lebenon 011 958 1567 email@example.com www.marshalleagle.co.za Maverick Air Charters Chad Clark 083 292 2270 Charters@maverickair.co.za www.maverickair.co.za MCC Aviation Pty Ltd Claude Oberholzer 011 701 2332 firstname.lastname@example.org www.flymcc.co.za MH Aviation Services (Pty) Ltd Marc Pienaar 011 609 0123 / 082 940 5437 email@example.com www.mhaviation.co.za M and N Acoustic Services cc Martin de Beer 012 689 2007/8 firstname.lastname@example.org Metropolitan Aviation (Pty) Ltd Gert Mouton 082 458 3736 email@example.com Money Aviation Angus Money 083 263 2934 firstname.lastname@example.org www.moneyaviation.co.za
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Starlite Aviation Operations Trisha Andhee +27 82 660 3018/ +27 31 571 6600 email@example.com www.starliteaviation.com
Status Aviation (Pty) Ltd Richard Donian 074 587 5978 / 086 673 5266 firstname.lastname@example.org www.statusaviation.co.za Superior Pilot Services Liana Jansen van Rensburg 0118050605/2247 email@example.com www.superiorair.co.za The Copter Shop Bill Olmsted 082 454 8555 firstname.lastname@example.org www.execheli.wixsite.com/the-coptershop-sa Titan Helicopter Group 044 878 0453 email@example.com www.titanhelicopters.com TPSC Dennis Byrne 011 701 3210 firstname.lastname@example.org Trio Helicopters & Aviation cc CR Botha or FJ Grobbelaar 011 659 1022
Vortx Aviation Bredell Roux 072 480 0359 email@example.com www.vortxaviation.com Wagtail Aviation Johan van Ludwig 082 452 8194 firstname.lastname@example.org www.wagtail.co.za Wanafly Adrian Barry 082 493 9101 email@example.com www.wanafly.co.za Windhoek Flight Training Centre Thinus Dreyer 0026 40 811284 180 firstname.lastname@example.org www.flywftc.com Wings n Things Wendy Thatcher 011 701 3209 email@example.com www.wingsnthings.co.za Witbank Flight School Andre De Villiers 083 604 1718 firstname.lastname@example.org www.waaflyingclub.co.za Wonderboom Airport Peet van Rensburg 012 567 1188/9 email@example.com www.wonderboomairport.co.za Zandspruit Bush & Aero Estate Martin Den Dunnen 082 449 8895 firstname.lastname@example.org www.zandspruit.co.za Zebula Golf Estate & SPA Reservations 014 734 7700 email@example.com www.zebula.co.za
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