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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD At Home and Away What Every Parent Should Know about: Poison Prevention Car Safety Seats Stranger Safety and more...

A Community Public Service from the SAFETY-ID Company


A Parent’s Guide to the Safe Child At Home and Away

What every Parent should know about Poison Prevention, Car Safety Seats, Stranger Safety, and more...

The Safety-ID Company Rockville MD


Safety-ID Copyright Š 2001, 2014 Safety-ID LLC All rights reserved. The material contained in this book is for information and reference purposes only and is not intended as medical, legal or other professional advice. Please consult with a qualiďŹ ed professional to obtain the advice you require. Safety-ID LLC does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, or usefulness of any information contained in this book and shall not be responsible or liable, directly or indirectly, in any way, for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of, or in connection with the use of, or reliance on, any such content. Any and all information contained in this book is subject to change without notice.


Special thanks to all the wonderful people at the National Crime Prevention Council, Consumer Product Safety Commission, University of Maryland and National Capital Poison Centers, Montgomery County, Maryland Police Community Outreach Program and the American Red Cross for all their kind help and support.


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents Introduction Part 1: At Home

Baby Safety ......................................................................................... 2 Cribs and Mattresses .......................................................................... 5 Stroller, HIghchairs, Playpens and Playards.......................................... 8 Baby Gates ......................................................................................... 11 Burn Prevention ..................................................................................13 Drowning Hazards .............................................................................. 15 Falling Furniture and Televisions ....................................................... 17 Bunk Beds .......................................................................................... 19 Window Coverings .............................................................................. 23 Toy Safety .......................................................................................... 25 Poison Prevention .............................................................................. 29 Food Safety ....................................................................................... 33

Part 2: Away from Home

Car Safety Seats ................................................................................. 40 Danger of Heatstroke ....................................................................... 43 Traffic Safety ....................................................................................... 46 Bicycle Safety .................................................................................... 48 Safe Playgrounds .................................................................................53 Personal Safety .................................................................................. 56

Part 3: In the Event of a Lost or Missing Child

What to do.......................................................................................... Tips to Keep your Child Safe............................................................... The Safety-ID App ............................................................................. Sample Document .............................................................................

Part 4: Planning for Emergencies

66 67 68 69

Create a Disaster Plan .........................................................................72 Safe Areas and Safe Rooms .................................................................75 Water/Food Supplies .........................................................................]77 First Aid Kit/Supplies .......................................................................... 80 Emergency Planning Resources ........................................................ 82


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME AND AWAY

Dear Parents, Child Safety is an important issue for all of us. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), unintentional injuries, such as those caused by burns, drowning, falls, poisoning and road traffic, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in the US. Each year, among those from birth to nineteen years of age, more than 12,000 die from unintentional injuries and more than 9.2 million are treated in emergency departments for nonfatal injuries. In this booklet, you will find vital safety information on how to protect your young child at home and in public places. A free, online version of this booklet is available at our website, safety-id.com. And don’t forget to check out our new Safety-id App which allows you to make an instant “real time” photo-id document of your child using your smartphone camera. It’s an excellent way to organize vital health and safety information, which can then be easily updated, stored and if necessary, emailed to law enforcement personnel in an emergency. Our children are our future. Let’s work together to make this a safer world .... for them. Sincerely, The Safety-ID Company Rockville, MD


Part 1

At Home


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Baby Safety For children less than one year of age, two–thirds of injury deaths are due to suffocation. Infants are most at risk for suffocation while sleeping. Toddlers are more likely to suffocate from choking on food and other objects, like small toys. Here are some common sense precautions that all parents can do to prevent these tragedies from occurring: • Always put your baby to sleep on his or her back, face up on a firm, tight fitting mattress, cover and sheet. • Always keep your baby’s head uncovered during sleep, and always keep the temperature of the room where your baby sleeps between 61-68ᴼF. • Once your baby is one month old , stop swaddling your baby when sleeping. It hinders mobility and can cause overheating. • Do not use sleep positioners. They are unnecessary and can cause suffocation. • Make sure the mattress in your baby’s crib is firm and fits properly. You should not be able to slide more than two fingers between the crib mattress and crib. • Only use fitted crib sheets that fit snugly. Crib sheets must extend at least two inches under the mattress on all sides and corners. Never use flat sheets or ones for a larger bed. An ill fitting or oversized sheet can loosen and strangle or suffocate a baby. Page 2


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• Pillows, quilted comforters, sheepskins, stuffed animals, and any other pillowlike soft products are a dangerous suffocation hazard when a baby can’t raise or turn his or her head. Remove them from the crib! • Don’t use crib bumper pads. Their actual protection value is minimal, and a baby can suffocate against the soft padding or strangle on loose pad strings. • Never put your baby on a beanbag chair, water bed, or other surface which would be soft enough to cover their face and block air from getting to their nose or mouth. • Keep all plastic bags and wrappers away and out of reach of your child. Children have suffocated when dry plastic cleaning or trash bags have blocked their nose and mouth and prevented breathing. Never use a dry cleaning bag as a mattress cover! • Never let strings or cords dangle in your child’s crib. Crib toys strung across cribs and playpens are a dangerous strangulation hazard to a baby. Remove all hanging crib toys from your child’s playpen or crib as soon as he or she is five months old, or is able to push up on hand and knees, whichever comes first. • Take all rattles, teethers, squeeze toys and any other small objects out of the crib or playpen when your baby sleeps. Babies can choke on toys left in their crib or playpen during sleep and suffocate. • If using a baby sling, be aware that the sling's fabric can press against an infant's nose and mouth, blocking their breathing, while at the same time restricting their airway by keeping them in a curled position. Infants under four months of age have suffocated when being carried in baby slings. Page 3


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• When you put your baby to bed, use a sleeper instead of a blanket, with no other covering. If using a blanket, position your baby with his or her feet at the foot of the crib. Tuck a thin blanket around the crib mattress, only as far up as your baby’s chest. • As soon as your child is able to stand up in their crib, adjust the mattress height to the lowest setting. Remove all toys or any other items that could be used by your child to stand on to climb out of the crib. • Never hang a pacifier, teether, or any jewel around your baby’s neck. Necklaces, ribbons, or string cords that are put around a baby’s neck to hold a pacifier or teether can become caught in household furniture or other objects and cause strangulation. If you want to keep a pacifier or teether with your child, use a holder designed to pin or clip to their shirt or dress. • Do not allow anyone to smoke near your baby! Secondhand smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds are toxic and seventy can cause cancer. Exposure can cause numerous health problems in your child; more frequent and severe asthma attacks, respiratory infections, ear infections, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Resources for Parents: NIH Safe to Sleep® http://www.cpsc.gov//PageFiles/118802/204.pdf CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission) http://www.keepingbabiessafe.org/ http://www.cpsc.gov/Safety-Education/Safety-Education-Centers/cribs/ Page 4


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Cribs and Mattresses On December 15, 2010, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) voted unanimously to approve new mandatory crib standards, establishing the most stringent crib safety standards in the world. All importers, distributors, manufacturers, and retailers must offer only cribs that meet the CPSC's new and improved full-size and non-full-size crib standards. The new standard, which took effect on June 28, 2011, applies to full-size and non full-size cribs, and does the following: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Prohibits the manufacture or sale of traditional drop-side rail cribs. Strengthens crib slats and mattress supports. Improves the quality of hardware and require more rigorous testing. Requires wood slats be made of stronger woods to prevent breakage. Requires crib hardware to have anti-loosening devices to keep it from coming loose or falling off.

Safety Tip: Cribs made or sold before June 28, 2011 may be unsafe! • Older cribs may have cut-out designs on the end panels, high corner posts, slats that are missing, cracked, or too far apart, or a drop rail side, all or any of which can create a dangerous entrapment and/or strangulation hazard to a baby moving inside the crib or trying to climb out. • Hand-me-down cribs probably don’t meet this new standard and therefore unsafe and should not be used!

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

Cribs and Mattresses cont. • Only use a crib that meets the new CPSC June 28, 2011 standard (made or sold after that date.) Look for this label:

• A mattress that is not properly supported can collapse and severely injure or kill a baby. The mattress on your child’s crib must fit snugly and be properly supported to the crib’s frame. Make sure all matttress support hangers that attach the mattress to the crib frame are supported by a closed hook. • If you can fit more than two fingers between the edge of the mattress and crib side, the mattress is too small. An infant can suffocate if his or her head or body becomes wedged between the mattress and crib sides. • Never place your infant to sleep on air mattresses or other soft surfaces (such as water beds and adult beds), which are not specifically designed or safe for infant use.

.

Infants younger than eight months of age have suffocated after being placed to sleep in a face down position on an air mattress or have died from suffocation after falling into gaps between the mattress and bed frame or gaps between the mattress and adjacent furniture or a wall. Page 6

AT HOME


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• Check all crib hardware; tighten all nuts, bolts, and screws frequently. Cribs that are incorrectly assembled, have missing, loose or broken hardware or broken slats can result in entrapment or suffocation deaths. Infants can strangle when their head and neck become entrapped in gaps created by missing, loose or broken hardware or broken slats. After a crib is moved, be sure all mattress support hangers are secure. Check hooks regularly to be sure none are broken or bent. Open hooks may allow the mattress to fall.

Safety Tip: When your child reaches 35 inches in height, he or she has outgrown their crib and should sleep in a bed.

Resources for Parents: The Safe Nursery www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/202.pdf

Choosing a Crib

http://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety -prevention/at-home/pages/Choosing-a-Crib.aspx

On Safety (CPSC)

http://www.cpsc.gov/onsafety/2010/06/watch-and-share-checkyour-crib-for-safety/ Page 7


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Strollers, Highchairs, Playpens and Playyards A safe baby stroller will have a wide sturdy base to prevent tipping over and a latching device to prevent it from accidentally folding. • Seat belt and crotch strap securely attached to frame. • Seat belt buckle is easy to use. • Brakes securely lock the wheels. • Shopping basket is low on the back and located directly over or in front of wheels. • When used in carriage position, leg hole openings can be closed.

A safe highchair will have a wide sturdy base, locking tray, and a restraining safety belt with crotch strap. • Restraining straps independent of tray. • Straps easy to fasten and unfasten. • Highchair tray locks securely. • Caps or plugs on tubing are firmly attached and cannot be pulled off and choke a child. Never leave your baby unattended in a highchair, even with the safety belt fastened!

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Playpens and Playyards A Safe Playpen or play yard will have sides at least twenty inches high and a firm, cushioned floor. • The holes in the mesh should be no larger than 1/4 inch (O.6 cm) to keep small fingers from getting caught. • Slat spaces on a wooden playpen should be no more than 2 and 3/8 inch (60 mm) in width. • The sides should be at least 20 inches (51 cm) high, measured from the floor of the playpen.

• Never use a playpen with holes in the mesh sides. These could entrap a child’s head and cause strangulation. • To avoid the danger of suffocation, do not put toys and blankets in your baby’s playpen until your baby can sit or stand. • Remove large toys, bumper pads, or boxes from inside the playpen; they can be used for climbing out. • Avoid tying any items across the top or corner of the playpen; they can be a strangulation hazard. • Keep the playpen away from dangling cords of blinds and curtains, as these may catch around the baby’s neck and cause strangulation.

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Safe Playpens • Never use a floor pad that does not fit snugly and never add a second pad or mattress. Babies have suffocated when trapped between mattresses or between the playpen side and a mattress that was too small. • Never leave an infant in a mesh playpen or crib with the dropside down. Infants can roll into the space between the mattress and loose mesh side and suffocate. • Even when a child is not in a playpen, leave the drop-side up. Children may try to climb back into a playpen and cut or pinch their fingers on the unlocked hinge mechanism. • Do not add blankets, pillows, pillow-like toys or an extra mattress to a playpen. The use of these items could lead to suffocation. Soft bedding should be avoided in the playpen at all times.

Resources for Parents: A Safe High Chair http://www.whattoexpect.com/first-year/baby-gear/high-chair-safety.aspx A Safe Baby Stroller http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/infant-and-toddlerhealth/in-depth/stroller-safety/art-20043967 A Safe Playpen http://www.momtricks.com/playpens-playards/ http://www.cpsc.gov//PageFiles/118802/204.pdf Page 10


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Baby Gates Unsafe baby gates or baby gates that have been improperly installed cause serious injuries to numerous children in the United States every year. Child safety gates are intended for children between 6 months and 2 years of age. Once a child learns how to open a gate, or can climb over it, it should no longer be relied upon as a safety device. Pressure mounted, expanding baby gates are available as a rigid mesh or accordion type, and are safe only at the bottom of stairs! • To block off an opening at the top of stairs, use a rigid, permanent screw-in baby gate. The gate should be no less than 22 inches tall, with the distance between the bottom of the gate and the floor no more than 3 inches. • Wooden accordion-style baby gates made before 1985 may have large V-shaped openings along the top edge and diamond-shaped openings between the slats large enough to trap a child’s head or clothing, and cause strangulation. Although these hazardous accordian-style baby gates are no longer sold, you may still find them at yard sales or in thrift stores. Do not use them! Entrapment areas

This gate is unsafe for your child. Do not use!

No head entrapment risk. This gate is much safer.

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Baby Gates cont: When using an expanding baby gate, whether it is the rigid mesh or accordion type, it must be properly installed! • If the gate Is retained by means of an expanding pressure bar, it must be installed so that a child will not be able to use it as a foothold to climb over the gate. • Set up the gate so that the bar is on the side of that is away from (ie: not facing) the child. • If possible, buy a new gate that bears the Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA) certification label and install the gate according to the enclosed instructions.

Resources for Parents: Consumer Reports http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/safety-gates/buying-guide.htm http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/2012/05/13-dangerous-babyproducts-to-avoid/index.htm CPSC http://www.cpsc.gov//PageFiles/113138/252.pdf http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-Guides/Kidsand-Babies/Childproofing-Your-Home--12-Safety-Devices-ToProtect-Your-Children/

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Burn Prevention Most burns in children are caused by hot liquids in the kitchen or bath. One spilled cup of hot tea, coffee or soup can cause serious burns to a young child. Here’s what you can do to prevent burns to your child:

SafetyTips: • Never carry your child and

hot liquids at the same time.

• Cook on the back burners of stove and turn pot handles toward the side of the stove out of reach of your child.

• Keep all electrical appliances and their cords out of your child’s reach and climbing range.

• Turn down your hot water heater temperature to 120°F to prevent scalding water from coming out of kitchen and bathroom faucets. You can test your water heater by letting hot water run from the tap for three minutes, then check the temperature with a candy thermometer; if it's too hot, lower the gauge on the heater.

• Keep your child’s playpen, crib, and high chair away from all electrical

wires and outlets. Cover all unused electrical outlets with safety covers and cover all unused outlet holes in extension cords with safety plugs.

• Always keep a vaporizer and its electrical cord out of your child’s

reach. Severe facial burns can occur when a child tries to pull a hot mist vaporizer down from a table or shelf by its electrical cord.

• Loose fitting, billowy pajamas or nightshirts are a dangerous burn

hazard for your child. Always dress your child for bed in snug, proper fitting sleepwear. Page 13


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What to do if your child gets burned: • Remove child from contact with hot water or hot object. If clothing is burning, smother any flames and wet the clothes immediately, but do not remove the clothing. • Run cool water over burned skin until pain stops. • Cover the burn loosely with a bandage or clean cloth. • Do not apply ice directly to the skin or apply any medication or ointment to the burn area. • Call physician immediately.

Do not try to treat serious burns yourself. Call 911 or a doctor immediately! Resources for parents: WebMD http://firstaid.webmd.com/treating-burns-and-scalds-in-children Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-burns/FA00022 Burn Awareness and Prevention for Children Guide http://www.uichildrens.org/childrens-content.aspx?id=229994 CDC http://www.cdc.gov/safechild/burns/ Page 14


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Drowning Hazards About two-thirds of the drowning deaths in the home, not including pools, occur in bathtubs. A baby can drown in only two inches of water. All it takes is enough water to cover their nose and mouth. Drownings and near drownings occur when children accidently fall into open toilets, liquid filled buckets or diaper pails, swimming pools, or are left alone in the bathtub. • Baby bath rings and seat suction cups can unexpectedly release, causing both the baby bath ring or seat and your baby to tip over in the tub. A baby left alone in a bathtub, even for just a few minutes can slip between the legs of a bath ring, become trapped under water, and drown. • 5-gallon buckets, often used for household chores, pose a serious threat to toddlers. Their tall, straight sides combined with their stability make it nearly impossible for top-heavy infants to free themselves when they topple in head first. • Toilets are often overlooked as a drowning hazard in the home. The typical scenario involves a child under 3 years old falling head first into the toilet. • Spas and hot tubs pose another drowning hazard. A solar cover can allow children to slip into the water while the cover appears to stay in place, hiding the child. • Childhood drowning deaths also occur in other containers with liquids, including pails, coolers, sinks, fish tanks and landscape ponds. Page 15


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What you can do to prevent drownings: • NEVER leave a baby alone, or with young siblings, in a bathtub even for a second. Always keep baby within arm’s reach. Children can drown quickly and silently. • Keep the toilet lid down, and keep young children out of the bathroom room unless you are watching them closely. • Use toilet lid locks and keep all bathroom doors closed. • Empty all buckets of liquid after use. Do not leave empty containers in yards or around the house where they may accumulate water and attract young children. • Always secure the safety cover on your spa or hot tub. • Learn CPR -- cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For information, visit the American Heart Association website.

Resources for Parents: CPSC http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/consumerawareness/a/homedrowning.htm CPSC Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGhKgq9ige0 Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/child-safety/CC00045 Page 16


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The Danger of Falling Furniture and Televisions On average one child dies every two weeks when a TV, a piece of furniture, or an appliance falls on him or her, according to reports received by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) between 2000 and 2010. • The most common tip-over scenarios involve toddlers who have climbed onto, fallen against, or pulled themselves up on furniture. • Many TV tip-overs are a result of unsteady TVs that are not secured to the wall. Flat screen TVs that are top heavy and built with narrow bases can be easily pulled off an entertainment center or table. • The majority of fatalities where furniture fell by itself or fell along with a TV involved a chest, dresser, or a bureau. • In a typical case, parents purchase a new flat screen television and decide to keep the family’s old CRT television, placing it on a high piece of furniture in their child’s bedroom or play area. Often these pieces of furniture have drawers that children can use to climb. They will try to use them as a staircase to reach the television, causing both the dresser and the television to tip over and fall on top of them, causing injury, and in some cases, death.

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What Parents can do: • Always strap or mount TVs to the wall - and strap the entertainment

unit to the wall as well. If you do not mount the TV directly to the wall, consider placing it on a lower stand, still strapping the stand to the wall and then pushing the TV as far back as possible - and securing the TV to the stand.

Photos courtesy of Kidco, Inc.

• Bookshelves and dressers in your child’s room should be securely

attached to the wall - even if the dresser seems too big or heavy for the child to move. If you decide to put a television in your child’s room, place it on a sturdy low stand or dresser, and mount both the television and stand securely to the wall and/or floor.

• Always supervise children around furniture and TVs that have the potential to tip over! Do not place toys, stuffed animals or other items that are attractive to your child on top of furniture. Keep toys at their level to prevent children from attempting to climb up furniture to reach them.

Resources for Parents: CPSC http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-EducationCenters/Tipover-Information-Center/ Safe Kids Worldwide http://www.safekids.org/tv Page 18


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Bunk Beds The CPSC defines a bunk bed as any bed that is over 30 inches off the floor. Bunk beds are frequently used as a child’s first regular bed after outgrowing their crib, commonly at age 2, or when they become 35 inches tall.

Each year, thousands of children receive emergency room treatment for injuries associated with bunkbeds. Most of these injuries are fairly minor and occur when children fall from their beds.

Serious Bunk Bed Hazards There are however, other less obvious, yet potentially more serious hazards associated with bunk bed structures that have entrapped children and resulted in suffocation and strangulation deaths. Here are some of them: • • • • •

Guard rail head entrapment hazard Bed and wall entrapment hazard Mattress support collapse Wrong size bunk bed mattress Defective imported tubular bunk beds Page 19


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• Guard rail head entrapment hazard Deaths to children under six years of age have occurred from head entrapment under bed guard rails, when they slipped feet first into the space between the lower edge of a guardrail and the top surface of the bunk bed mattress. Although mandatory industry standards set in 1999 have eliminated this hazard for newer bunk beds, many older bunk beds may still be unsafe for your child. What to do: Check the space between the lower edge of the guard rail and the upper edge of the bed frame. This space must be 3 and ½ inches or less. If not, close up this space to the proper distance by attaching additional boards to the guard rail and the bed frame. Do not use hooks alone or simply rest boards across the opening and hope they will stay in place. Fasten any additional boards securely to the bunk bed with screws or bolts.

• Bunk Bed Bed and Wall Entrapment Hazard Most bunk beds are used with only one side located against a wall, and are sold with only one guard rail to prevent falls from the side located away from the wall. Children age one and under have died when they became trapped between the wall and the side of the bed not having a guardrail. What to do: Attach an extra guard rail next to the wall, on both the lower and upper bunk. Page 20


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• Mattress Support Collapse On certain bunk beds, the mattress is supported soley by small ledges attached to the bunk bed frame, with no other support. If a child lying underneath the bunk, pushes or kicks upwards on the mattress, it can be dislodged, falling on the child and any other children playing underneath the bed or occupying the lower bunk, Children have suffocated and died from this hazard. What to do: Fasten supports, such as wood slats, metal straps, or sturdy cross wires to the ledges of both beds with screws or bolts.

• Wrong size bunk Bed Mattress Bunk bed structures come in two lengths - regular and extra long. If a regular size mattress is used on an extra long bed, there can be a 5 inch space between the mattress and the headboard or footboard. Strangulation deaths have occurred when children have fallen through this space and then become entangled. What to do: Ensure that the mattress is the right size for the bed and fits securely. Measure here

Mattress

To be safe, your child’s bunk bed must have only a narrow space (a space that is 3 and 1/2 inches or less) between the bed guard rails and mattress. This mattress is unsafe and should be replaced!

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• Defective Imported Tubular Bunk Beds Numerous injuries to children have been reported from the collapse of imported tubular metal bunk beds. These accidents were mostly due to poor welds or inadequate material thickness around support fins, which insert into pockets near the bunk bed corners. What to do: Check for breaks or cracks in these areas. Repair or replace immediately!

Safety Tip:

Check for recalls at the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) website before and after purchasing a bunk bed for your child. For online information, go to: http://www.cpsc.gov/Recalls/

Resources for Parents: American Academy of Pediatrics: http://aapnews.aappublications.org/content/33/7/22.6.full http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/ aap-press-room-media-center/Pages/Bunk-Bed-Safety.aspx CPSC: https://www.cpsc.gov/en/Business--Manufacturing/BusinessEducation/Business-Guidance/Bunk-Beds/ Kids in Danger: http://www.kidsindanger.org/?s=bunk+beds Page 22


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Window Coverings with Cords About once a month a child between 7 months and 10 years old dies from window cord strangulation and another child suffers a near strangulation. These incidents happen quickly and silently. Strangulation deaths and injuries can occur anywhere in the house where a window covering with a cord is installed. Children can wrap window covering cords around their necks or can pull cords that are not clearly visible but are accessible, and become entangled in the loops.

Window covering cords present the following four deadly hazards: • Pull Cords Children can strangle when they wrap the cord around their necks or become trapped in the loop created when loose cords get entangled. • Looped Bead Chains or Nylon Cords Children can strangle in the free-standing loops • Inner Cords of Roman Shades Children can pull out an exposed inner cord on the back side of Roman shades, wrap it around their necks and strangle. Children can place their necks in the opening between the fabric and cord and strangle. • Lifting Loops of Roll-up Blinds If the lifting loops (that raise and lower the blinds) slide off the side of the blind, they form a free-standing loop in which a child can become entangled and strangle. Children can place their necks between the lifting loop and the roll-up blind material and strangle.

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What Parents can do: • Examine all shades and blinds in your home. Check the front, back and sides of all window coverings for exposed or dangling cords. All loose cords and chains must be completely out of reach of children. If possible, use only cordless window coverings in your home. • Position your child’s crib or bed as far away as possible from window blind and drapery cords. Do not leave furniture or any object that can be climbed on near a window. • If a window shade has looped bead chains or nylon cords, install a tension device to keep the cord taut. • Hang all curtains and draperies out of a crawling child’s reach so they can’t be grabbed and pulled down. • Keep all your child’s climbing toys and play stations as far away as possible from window blinds and drapes.

Safety Tip: Most window blinds sold prior to November 2000 have inner cords (for raising the slats of the blinds) that can be pulled by a child and form a loop in which the child’s neck can entangle. For a free repair kit, call the Window Covering Safety Council at 800-506-4636 or visit windowcoverings.org Consumers should know that WCSC’s retrofit kits do not address the dangling pull cord hazard associated with many common window blinds. Resources for Parents: CPSC Window Covering InformationCenter: http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-EducationCenters/Window-Covering/ CPSC Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mVSQcFduNac Page 24


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Toy Safety Young children typically explore objects in their environment by mouthing them. Tiny toys, and toys that have small removable parts are especially dangerous to small children. These toys and other small objects such as paper clips, nails, tacks, and small batteries can be swallowed or become lodged in a child’s throat, windpipe, ears or nose. Broken seams from old or damaged stuffed dolls or animals can release small pellets that can be swallowed or inhaled. Although toys intended for young children should be free of small parts that could cause a choking incident, toys intended for older children may find their way into the hands of younger children, especially in in cases of “giveaway” kids meals toys from fast food chains.

What Parents can do: • Supervise your children during play and check your child’s toys periodically for breakage and any potential safety hazards. Throw away all damaged or dangerous toys. • Never give toys with small or rounded parts such as marbles or balls, to children under three years old, or to any child that still puts small things in their mouth. • Instruct older children to keep these items, as well as any other inappropriate and dangerous objects out of reach of younger children. Page 25


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Toy Safety Cont: • Do not allow children under 8 years old to play with balloons without adult supervision. Balloons are responsible for more choking deaths among children than any other toy or children’s product. Keep uninflated balloons and any broken balloon pieces away from young children!

(CPSC Pub 5087)

• Check your child’s toys, regardless of size or shape, for possible choking hazards. Small parts from a child’s toys or games can get stuck in their throat and be deadly. Purchase a small parts tester; this will tell you if they are small enough to be a choking hazard. “The cylinder (of the small parts tester) is 2.25 inches long by 1.25 inches wide. That’s about the size of a 3-year-old’s throat. The opening is slightly wider than a quarter or about the width of two fingers. Note: Some parents use a toilet paper roll as a practical alternative to a small parts tester. Parents should be aware that a toilet paper roll is wider and longer than the official tester.” (CPSC Blogger, Dec 20, 2011)

Resources for Parents: CPSC http://www.cpsc.gov/onsafety/2011/12/small-parts-whatparents-need-to-know/ US PIRG http://www.uspirg.org/reports/usf/trouble-toyland-2014 10 Worst Toys List http://toysafety.org/toy-safety/2014-10-worst-toy-list/

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An unsafe storage or toy chest can injure or kill a child.

Babies and toddlers can suffer brain damage and die if a storage, cedar, hope or toy chest lid falls on their head or neck. Children have suffocated after climbing in a storage chest to hide or sleep.

“Lids on millions of storage chests and trunks can automatically latch shut, locking children inside and suffocating them. In addition, the lid supports on older toy chests can fail to prevent the lid from closing suddenly, entrapping or strangling children by the head or neck. Storage and toy chest incidents have occurred when children climbed into chests to hide or sleep. The children could not get out and then suffocated in the enclosed space because these spaces are airtight with no ventilation. Other children were strangled while reaching for items in a chest and the lid fell onto them or because their necks became entrapped between the chest’s walls and its lid. Types of chests with these hazards include toy chests, cedar chests, cedar trunks, cedar boxes, hope chests, blanket chests, storage benches, and storage trunks. These chests may be located in living areas or bedrooms and used daily, or stored in attics, basements or garages. They often are passed down as family heirlooms or found in resale stores.” Source: United States Consumer Product Safety Commission http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Newsroom/News-Releases/2014/CPSCWarns-Consumers-of-the-Deadly-Dangers-of-Storage-and-Toy-Chests/ Page 27


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What Parents can do: Check all storage benches, trunks, boxes, or chests in your home for safety hazards. Repair or replace immediately!

A safe chest or trunk will have: • A lid support that is spring loaded,

will stay open in any position, and does not require periodic adjustment.

• Ventilation holes or air spaces in the front, sides, or under the lid in case a child becomes trapped inside.

Image courtesy Woodworker.com

A safe chest or trunk will not have: • A freely falling hinged lid or lid latch.

Safety Tip: If you own a chest or trunk that has a freely falling, hinged lid, CPSC recommends completely removing the lid or installing a lid support which will hold the lid open in any position.

Resources for Parents: CPSC http://www.cpsc.gov/PageFiles/113408/5099.pdf Hotline: (800) 638-2772 or teletypewriter: (301) 595-7054 Woodworker.com http://woodworker.com/toyboxlid.htm Page 28


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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Poison Prevention Most accidental poisonings occur in children under the age of five years. Children at this age think that anything in a cup, bottle or glass is safe to eat or drink, and will put anything and everything into their mouths. Serious injury or death can occur when young children swallow common household items such as liquid drain cleaners or furniture polish.

What you can do: Keep all poisonous substances properly closed and stored in their original containers, out of sight and reach of children! Here is a list of some common everyday, household products that are poisonous: • Kitchen Ant/roach/water bug killers, oven cleaners, automatic dishwasher detergent liquid, powder, and soap pods, furniture polish, carpet/ upholstery cleaners, ammonia drain openers, metal cleaners, all medicines. • Bedroom Perfumes, cosmetics, baby products, nail polish/removers, jewelry cleaners, all medicines. • Bathroom Aftershave lotion, baby oil, bath oil, cleaners, eye makeup removers, hair removers, toilet bowl cleaners, deodorizers, mouthwash, shampoo, hair products, permanent wave solutions, all medicines. • Laundry Bleaches, disinfectants, soaps/detergents, laundry detergent pods. Page 29


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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Prevent Medication Poisonings Child resistant does not mean child proof. If your child finds your medicine containers, they will most likely find a way to open them. Never leave a bottle of medication where your child can reach it!

Safety Tips: • Make sure all your family’s prescription and over-the-counter medications are always dispensed in child resistant bottles or vials. • Always re-secure the child resistant cap on a medicine container after using it. Return the medicine bottle or vial to a safe place immediately after using it. • Keep all medications in their original child resistant containers with all product labels in place. • Never call medicine “candy”. When left alone, your child may locate the bottle and eat or drink the contents. • Never take oral medications, use eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops in front of young children. Children will copy what they see. • Never store your child’s medications in their bedroom. • Never store old medications in a purse, duffel bag, handbag or suitcase.

Poison Center National Toll Free Hotline 1-800-222-1222 Page 30


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• When hazardous products are in use, never let young children out of your sight, even if it means you must take them along when answering the phone or doorbell. • Always leave the light on when giving or taking medicine so you can see that you are administering the proper medicine, and be sure to check the dosage every time. • Clean out your home medicine cabinet periodically. Destroy or return (contact your local fire or health department for information on community medicine take back programs) all expired, unused, or unwanted over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.

Resources for Parents: FDA: Information for Consumers

www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/

National Capital Poison Center http://www.poison.org/

CPSC http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-EducationCenters/Poison-Prevention-Information-Center/ Kids Health.org http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/home/safety _poisoning.html

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD In Case of Poisoning:

AT HOME

AT HOME

For a poison splashed in the eye:

Rinse eye with lukewarm water poured from a large glass 2 to 3 inches from the eye. Repeat for 15 minutes. Have the child blink as much as possible while flooding the eye with water. Do not touch or rub the injured eye. Do not try to force the eye open. Do not apply medication to the eye. Call the Poison Center immediately at 1-800-222-1222.

For a poison splashed on the skin:

Remove any contaminated clothing, then flood the skin with water for 10 minutes. Gently wash with soap and water. Call the Poison Center immediately at 1-800-222-1222.

For a poison that has been inhaled:

Get into fresh air. Open doors and windows wide. If child has trouble breathing, call 911; if child is breathing normally, call the Poison Center immediately at 1-800-222-1222.

For a swallowed poison:

Remove any remaining poison from the mouth. If child is unconscious, cannot swallow, is having trouble breathing, or is having convulsions, call 911 immediately, otherwise; • If swallowed poison is a chemical or household product: Give child one glass of milk or water to drink, and then Call the Poison Center immediately at 1-800-222-1222 and wait for instructions. • If swallowed poison is a medication or plant: Do not give anything by mouth. Call the Poison Center immediately at 1-800-222-1222. Bring the plant, plant’s container, or label of the ingested poison to the phone and give the Poison Center the following information: • Exact name of product or medicine • Amount of ingested poison taken • When the poisoning occurred Listen carefully and follow their instructions. Page 32


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

JUNE 14, Safety 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Food

AT HOME

AT HOME

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), food poisoning illnesses cause 76 million intestinal infections, 30,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the US each year. These Illnesses are usually caused by bacteria or toxins produced by these bacteria. The bacteria that generate food poisoning exist in all phases of food production – in the soil, in the barnyard, in the crevices of cutting boards, counter tops and on the hands of those who prepare food. The bacteria that cause food poisoning are spread through hand and mouth, and object to mouth contact. They are harmless until they get into warm moist food where they can multiply. Within a few hours, one single bacterium can reproduce over one million times. Food containing this much bacteria, or the toxin produced by them will cause the symptoms of food poisoning. How do children get food poisoning? Children, like adults, can get food poisoning from eating improperly prepared foods, or foods that have been kept at room temperature too long. A child can also get food poisoning by touching bacteria contaminated objects, and then putting their hands directly into their mouth. This means that your child could become ill from food poisoning without having eaten or even touched any contaminated food. It only takes one infected child to cause a food poisoning epidemic in a day care. Page 33


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

What are theAsymptoms of foodTO poisoning? JUNE 14, 2013 PARENT’S GUIDE THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

AT HOME

Symptoms of food poisoning are very similar to the flu; stomach aches, fever, headaches, forceful vomiting and diarrhea. These symptoms can occur anywhere from 6 hours to 2 days after eating contaminated food or touching a bacteria contaminated object. You can suspect food poisoning when more than one person shows the same symptoms after eating the same food.

Is food poisoning serious? Yes. Food poisoning in young children is a very serious medical condition that can lead to severe dehydration and kidney failure. If food poisoning occurs in your child, call your family doctor immediately and follow their instructions. Infants and young children are particularly vulnerable to foodborne illness because their immune systems are not developed enough to fight off infections. That's why extra care should be taken when handling and preparing their food and formula.

Wash your hands! The most important action that you can take to prevent foodborne illness in your babies and children is to wash your hands. Your hands can pick up harmful bacteria from pets, raw foods (meat, poultry, seafood, eggs), soil, and diapers. Always wash your hands: • Before and after handling food • After using the bathroom, changing diapers, or handling pets.

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

How keep your baby’sGUIDE food safe: JUNE 14,to 2013 A PARENT’S TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

AT HOME

• Check the packaging of commercial baby food before serving: For jars: Make sure that the safety button on the lid is down. Discard any jars that don’t “pop” when opened or that have chipped glass or rusty lids. For plastic pouches: Discard any packages that are swelling or leaking. • Don’t “double dip” with baby food: Never put baby food in the refrigerator if the baby doesn’t finish it. Don’t feed your baby directly from the jar of baby food. Instead, put a small serving of food on a clean dish and refrigerate the remaining food in the jar. If the baby needs more food, use a clean spoon to serve another portion. Throw away any food in the dish that’s not eaten. If you do feed a baby from a jar, always discard any remaining food. • Don’t share spoons: Don’t put the baby’s spoon in your mouth or anyone else’s mouth – or vice versa. If you want to demonstrate eating for your baby, get a separate serving dish and spoon for yourself • Never leave any open containers of liquid or pureed baby food out at room temperature for more than two hours: Harmful bacteria grows rapidly in food at room temperature. • Store opened baby food in the refrigerator for no more than three days: If you’re not sure that the food is safe, remember this saying: “If in doubt, throw it out.” Page 35


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

JUNE 14,Choking 2013 AHazards PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Food

AT HOME

AT HOME

At least one child dies from choking on food every five days in the U.S., and more than 10,000 children are taken to a hospital emergency room each year for food-choking injuries. Choking hazards include foods like hot dogs, popcorn, hard candy, pretzel nuggets, peanuts, peanut butter, ice cubes, cheese cubes, whole grapes, raw vegetables, fish with bones, and fruits with skins. What parents can do: • Supervise meal times. Encourage children to chew food well. • Keep foods that are choking hazards; such as grapes, hot dogs, raw carrots, hard candy, away from babies and young children. • Cut food for babies and young children into bite size pieces no larger than one-half inch. • Have children sit while eating. Children should never run, walk, play, or lie down with food in their mouths. • Be aware of older children’s actions. Many choking incidents are caused when an older child gives a dangerous toy or food to a younger child. • Become familiar with life-saving techniques such as child cardiopulmonary resuscitation, abdominal thrusts (Heimlich Maneuver), Automated External Defibrillators (AED) or calling 911. If you are unfamiliar with life-saving techniques, get trained in CPR either online or in a classroom. Resources for Parents: American Red Cross: http://www.redcross.org/lp/take-a-class Mayo Clinic: Infant choking: How to keep your baby safe http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/infant-and-toddlerhealth/in-depth/infant-choking/art-20044661 Page 36


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JUNE 14,Your 2013Family’s A PARENT’S GUIDE TO these THE SAFE CHILD AT HOME A:T HOME Keep Food Safe with 4 Basic Steps:

Resources for Parents: FDA: Food Facts http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllness Contaminants/UCM257049.pdf Food Safety.gov http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/basics/ http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/categories/babypregnancy Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/ Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/foodpoisoning/basics/prevention/con-20031705 Clemson Coperative Extension Food Safety for Pregnant Women & Their Babies http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/food/food _safety/illnesses/hgic3640.html Nutrition.gov http://www.nutrition.gov/life-stages/children/kids-food-safety

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Part 2

Away from Home


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNE 14,Safety 2013 Seats A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Car

AT HOME

According to National Highway Transportation statistics, each year over 250,000 children are injured and more than 2000 are killed in car accidents in the United States. For children between the ages of two and 14, motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death. Car accidents are the leading cause of acquired disability (e.g., brain injury, paralysis, etc.) for children nationwide. Many of these terrible tragedies could have been prevented with the proper use of seat belts and car safety seats. What to do: • Babies who are improperly restrained in a forward facing position can sustain serious neck and spinal cord injuries in a crash. Infants under one year old must always be placed in a car safety seat in the back seat, at a 45 degree angle, facing the rear of the car. • Keep your 1 to 3 year old children in REAR-FACING car seats for as long as possible. Once they have outgrown the rear-facing car seat, they are ready to travel in a forward-facing car seat with a harness. • Keep your 4 to 7 year old children in FORWARD-FACING car seats with a harness until they reach the top height or weight limit that is allowed by your car seat's manufacturer. • Once children outgrow their forward-facing car seat with a harness, they should ride in a BOOSTER SEAT, using the car’s lap and shoulder belt, in the back seat of the car. Page 40


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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JUNE 2013 Seats A PARENT’S Car14, Safety cont. GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

• Keep your 8 to 12 year old children in BOOSTER SEATS until they are big enough to fit in a seat belt properly. Even with a seat belt, the safest place for your child to ride is in the back seat of the car. • Children under twelve can be killed or injured by air bags inflated in a crash. The safest place for your child to ride is in the back seat, away from all air bags. Car safety seats and car booster seats should always be installed in the back seat of the car. • For a seat belt to fit properly the lap belt must lie snugly across the upper thighs, not the stomach. The shoulder belt should lie snugly across the shoulder and chest and not cross the neck or face. • Never allow two children to share a seat belt. Each child riding in a car must use their own separate seat belt. • It is estimated that 70% of all car safety seats installed by parents are installed incorrectly. SeatCheck is a national safety campaign to help parents properly secure their children in motor vehicles. Central to the program is a free child safety seat NHTSA inspection locator service (available in both Spanish and English) which provides a listing of over 4,000 local inspection locations staffed by trained and certified child safety seat inspectors. For more information, call toll-free at 1-866-SEAT-CHECK, or go to the Seatcheck website at: http://www.seatcheck.org/

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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JUNE Summary 14, 2013 of A PARENT’S TO THE SAFE CHILD Car SafetyGUIDE Restraints

AT HOME

A REAR-FACING CAR SEAT is the best seat for your young child to use. It has a harness and in a crash, cradles and moves with your child to reduce the stress to the child’s fragile neck and spinal cord. A FORWARD-FACING CAR SEAT has a harness and tether that limits your child’s forward movement during a crash. A BOOSTER SEAT positions the seat belt so that it fits properly over the stronger parts of your child’s body. A SEAT BELT should lie across the upper thighs and be snug across the shoulder and chest to restrain the child safely in a crash. It should not rest on the stomach area or across the neck.

Resources for Parents: CDC http://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/child_passenger_ safety/cps-factsheet.html AAP: Car Safety Seats: A Guide for Families 2014 http://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/onthe-go/pages/Car-Safety-Seats-Information-for-Families.aspx NHTA: Information and instructional videos http://www.safercar.gov/parents/CarSeats.htm Parents Central From Car Seats to Car Keys: Keeping Kids Safe http://www.safercar.gov/parents/index.htm Page 42


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JUNE 2013 ofAHeatstroke PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD The14, Danger

AT HOME

Heatstroke is one of the leading causes of death among children. At least 44 children in the United States lost their lives in 2013 after being left in unattended motor vehicles, and an unknown number of others were moderately to severely injured.

Leaving a child unattended in a vehicle can lead to heatstroke and can kill in minutes! Nearly every 10 days, a child dies from being left in a hot vehicle. Children overheat up to five times faster than adults. • In 10 minutes, a car’s temperature can rise over 20 degrees. • Even at an outside temperature of 60 degrees, your car’s inside temperature can reach 110 degrees. • A child dies when their body temperature reaches 107 degrees. Warning signs of heatstroke: • • • • •

Red, hot, and moist or dry skin No sweating Strong, rapid pulse or a slow, weak pulse Nausea Confusion or strange behavior

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

What Can ADoPARENT’S to Prevent ChildTOHeatstroke: JUNE 14,You 2013 GUIDE THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Never Leave Your Child Alone in a Car • It’s never OK to leave a child alone in a car, even for a few minutes, and even if the car is on. • Opening windows will not prevent heatstroke. • Heatstroke happens even on cloudy days and in outside temperatures below 70 degrees. • Don’t let kids play in an unattended vehicle.

Look Before You Lock • Always check the back seats of your vehicle before your lock it and walk away. • Keep a stuffed animal or other memento in your child’s car seat when it’s empty, and move it to the front seat as a visual reminder when your child is in the back seat. • If someone else is driving your child, or your daily routine has been altered, always check that your child arrived safely.

Take Action if You See a Child Alone in a Car • Don’t wait more than a few minutes for the driver to return. • Don’t worry about getting involved in someone else’s business; protecting children is everyone’s business. • "Good Samaritan" laws offer legal protection for those who offer assistance in an emergency. • If the Child Is Not Responsive or is in Distress, - Immediately Call 911. - Get the child out of the car. - Spray the child with cool water • If the Child is Responsive: - Stay with the child until help arrives. - Have someone else search for the driver or ask the facility to page them. Page 44


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

JUNE 14, 2013

AWAY FROM HOME

A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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Resources for Parents: KidsandCars http://www.kidsandcars.org/ A nonprofit child safety organization dedicated to preventing injuries and death to children in or around motor vehicles. Topics: Backovers, Frontovers, Heat Stroke, Power Windows, Trunk Entrapment, Vehicle set in Motion, Other Dangers Emergency Trunk Release Kit can be ordered directly from site NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) http://www.safercar.gov/ http://www.safercar.gov/parents/heatstroke.htm Heatstroke Deaths of Children in Vehicles Jan Null CCM (San Jose State University) http://www.ggweather.com/heat/ National Weather Service: Heat: A Major Killer http://www.nws.noaa.gov/os/heat/index.shtml Page 45


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNE 14, 2013 Traffic SafetyA PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Never let your child play in or near the street. Most traffic injuries to children occur when a child suddenly darts into the street or directly into the path of an oncoming car, truck, or bus. Children who are under seven years old cannot properly judge the distance and speed of moving vehicles and should never be allowed to cross the street alone. Teach your child how to safely cross the street: • Stop - Look - Listen. Stop at curb – 2 steps back from street. Look 3 ways – left, right, and left. Listen 3 ways – left, right, and left. • Wait until you are sure it’s safe. • Keep looking both ways as you cross. • Never enter the street from behind a parked car, truck or bus. • Never assume that a car, truck or bus driver can see you.

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD School Bus Safety

AT HOME

Accidents involving children and school buses usually happen getting on or off the bus or running to catch a missed bus. Teach your child the following rules about school bus safety:

• Wait for the school bus at a safe distance, which is at least 5 giant steps from where the bus stops. • Do not go to the school bus until it has come to a complete stop. • If you get off the bus and think you have left something behind, leave it there. Do not run after the bus to get it! • If you have to cross a street before getting on or after getting off the bus, wait until the bus is fully stopped, its red lights are flashing, and the bus driver has signaled to you that it is safe to cross. Then, and only then, cross at the crosswalk, at a distance of 10 giant steps past the front bumper of the bus. Resources for Parents: Green Light Animation http://www.youtube.com/user/GreenLightanimation? feature=watch NHTSA http://www.safercar.gov/parents/SchoolBuses.htm http://www.a2bsafely.com/resource/index.html http://www.nhtsa.gov/ChildPedestrianSafetyCurriculum Page 47


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNEBicycle 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Safety

AT HOME

Bicycle accidents seriously injure hundreds of thousands of children each year. Over 70 per cent of car-bicycle crashes occur at driveways or other intersections. Children under nine years old are not able to identify and adjust to many dangerous traffic situations, and should never be allowed to ride in the street unsupervised.

Bicycle Safety tips Your child as passenger: • Children under one year old are too young to sit in a rear bicycle seat and are therefore too young to be carried safely on a bicycle. Do not carry infants in backpacks or front packs on a bike. • Children one to 4 years of age, and whose necks are strong enough to support a lightweight bicycle helmet can be safely carried in a rear mounted bicycle safety seat. • A rear mounted bicycle safety seat should have a high back, shoulder harness, and a lap belt. It must be attached securely to the bicycle, and be equpped with spoke guards to protect a child’s hands and feet from being caught in the wheels. • A lightweight infant bike helmet should always be worn by a young passenger to prevent or minimize head injury.

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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JUNEYour 14, 2013 PARENT’S child’s Afirst bike: GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Children’s bikes are measured by the diameter of the wheel, with sizes ranging from 12 inches to 24 inches. The appropriate size depends on the child’s age and height or leg length. Your child will be ready for their first bike when they are 5 or 6 years old.

Safety Tip Do not purchase a bike for your child to “grow into”. Oversize bikes are unsafe, and often lead to accidents and serious injuries. Pick the proper size bike for your child’s age and size: • Your child should be able to place the balls of both feet on the ground while sitting on the bicycle seat with both hands comfortably holding the handlebar of the bike. • While straddling the center bar, your child should be able to keep both feet flat on the ground with one inch clearance between crotch and the bar. • When your child is old enough to ride a bike with hand brakes, make sure he or she can comfortably grasp the brakes and apply sufficient pressure to immediately stop the bike when necessary. • Your child’s bike should have a bell or horn that can be heard 100 feet away, (sirens and whistles are prohibited by law) and also permanently installed safety reflectors that meet all U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission requirements. Page 49


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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JUNEBicycle 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Helmets

AT HOME

Severe head injuries to children can occur from bicycle and skating accidents when they are not wearing safety helmets. These types of injuries are especially dangerous in younger children. Using bicycle safety helmets can reduce the risk of these injuries by 85%.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Tips • The Consumer Product Safety Commission bike helmet standard is required by law in the US. Look for the certification label inside the helmet before you buy it. • Your child’s safety helmet must fit properly to be effective. A properly fitting safety helmet will feel comfortable, will not slide around, and will not pull off with the chin strap hooked. • Your child’s safety helmet should be worn squarely on top of the head, covering and protecting the top of the forehead. It should not be tipped back, as this leaves the forehead areas exposed to injury in the event of an accident. • Your child’s helmet should have fitting pads, which can be replaced with thinner ones as your child’s head grows. • When you buy your child a bike, skateboard, roller blades, ice skates, or a scooter, purchase a safety helmet for your child at the same time. Protect your child by making sure they wear a safety helmet whenever participating in these activities. Page 50


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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JUNE 14, 2013 Safety A PARENT’S Bicycle Rules GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Children who are permitted to ride in the street without supervision must have the necessary skills to safely follow the “rules of the road.”

• Always ride on the right side of the street in a straight and predictable path. • Always go single file in the same direction as other vehicles. • Before entering any street on intersection, check for traffic. Look left-right-left, then walk your bicycle into the street to begin your ride. • Cross all railroad tracks at a 90 degree angle and proceed slowly. Use special care on bridges. • Never wear headphones, use a cell phone, or text while riding, as this impairs your ability to hear and see traffic. For more safe riding tips for kids, go to NHTSA at: http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/bike/ kidsandbikesafetyweb/

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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Bicycle Safety Resources for Parents: Safe Kids USA http://www.safekids.org/bike Kids Health http://kidshealth.org/kid/watch/out/bike_safety.html# Bicycle Topics http://depts.washington.edu/hiprc/about/topics/web/bicycle.html NHTSA - Bicycle Safety Kit http://icsw.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/bike/bskitboth/ Difference Between a Bicycle Helmet and a Skateboard Helmet http://www.livestrong.com/article/345930-difference-betweena-bicycle-helmet-a-skateboard-helmet/ NHTSA Instructional Video http://www.nhtsa.gov/Driving+Safety/Bicycles/Bike+Safe++Bike+Smart+%2825MB+and+146MB,+WMV+format%29 Page 52


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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Safe JUNE 14, Playgrounds 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Each year in the US, about 200,000 children are treated in hospital emergency rooms for playground equipment related injuries that occur in public and home playgrounds. Most of these injuries are the result of falls to the ground below equipment or from falling from one piece of equipment to another. About fifteen children die each year from falls and from strangulation accidents that involved unsafe play equipment. A safe playground for your child will have the following: • Cushioned protective surfacing To cushion falls, all surfaces under and around all playground equipment should contain 12 inches of loose-fill surfacing materials such as wood chips, double shredded bark mulch, fine sand, or pea gravel. Grass or turf should not be used. • Adequate fall zones Shock absorbing material must extend at least six feet in all directions from play equipment. In front of and behind swings, it should extend a distance equal to twice the height of the suspending bar. • Guard rails on elevated surfaces Any platforms more than 30 inches above the ground should have guard rails to prevent falls. Page 53


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

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JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S • Proper equipment spacing GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Play structures should be spaced at least two feet apart to allow children space to circulate or fall without hitting another structure. Moving pieces of play equipment should be far enough away from all other structures so that children have enough room to pass from one play area to another without being struck by a moving swing or by another child exiting from a slide. The space between swings must be a minimum of 24 inches between adjacent swing seats and at least 30 inches between the seat and the rest of the structure. • No potential head entrapment hazards Any openings that are closed on all sides should be less than 3 and ½ inches or greater than 9 inches. Openings between this distance that are large enough for a child body, but not their head, create an entrapment and strangulation hazard if entered feet first. • No potential entanglement hazards Open S hooks, especially on swings, or any protruding hardware can act as hooks or catch points to catch children’s clothing and cause strangulation. Repair or replace immediately. • No pinch or crush points There should be no exposed moving parts which may present a pinching or crushing hazard. Page 54


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNE 14,Contained 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Soft Play Equipment (SCPE)

AT HOME

SCPE is a type of playground characterized by ball pools, crawl through tubes, slides, and padded floors. Although it is a safe alternative to the traditional playground, there are still many potential hazards present, especially for infants and younger children. Toddlers standing or sitting in the SCPE play area can be accidently hit and injured by older children jumping or climbing near them. Slides that exit into ball pools and climbing apparatus located inside of ball pools can be dangerous as well. Be particularly wary of SCPE located in any fast food restaurants and public areas. Sharp objects, used hypodermic needles and drugs have been found in these areas. What Parents can do: • Inspect playground areas and equipment for hazardous conditions or dangerous objects that may cause accidental injury to your child. • Supervise your children at all times while on play equipment. Make sure they are using all equipment properly and within their physical abilities. Resources for parents: CPSC http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-Guides/SportsFitness-and-Recreation/Playground-Safety/ Kids Health http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/outdoor/playground.html Child Safety Link http://www.childsafetylink.ca/child-safety-3-5/playground-safety.html

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

Personal Safety JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

We teach our children to always listen and be respectful to adults. Unfortunately, this learned behavior makes them vulnerable to the manipulation of adults intent upon perpetrating crimes against them. In her book, The Danger Zone, veteran police officer, Patricia Harman, talks about what children need to know about protecting themselves; “You will have to decide when your child is mature enough to handle the most sensitive issues. They will probably need the information sooner than you would like to believe. You want your child to grow up happy and carefree. You might feel like you are taking that away if you tell them of bad people who might want to hurt them, but it is a fact that must be dealt with. If you do not tell them how to protect themselves, you leave them defenseless.” Officer Harman gives the following recommendations: • Personal Information As soon as they are able, children should know their address, phone number, and how to pronounce and spell their last name. They should be cautioned against giving this information to anyone without their parent’s permission with the exception of a doctor or nurse at a hospital or a uniformed police officer. • Using the Telephone Your child should know how to dial 9-1-1 or the appropriate emergency phone number in case of an emergency. Practice on a play phone; you pretend to be the emergency operator. Keep the number posted next to the phone or an automatic dialer; caution them not to practice on a real phone. Page 56


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAYAWAY FROMFROM HOMEHOME

• Using the Telephone Teach your child not to give out information on the phone about themselves or your family. If a child answers the phone, it should be only to identify the caller and nothing more. Role play this situation. Children learn faster by doing than by listening. Page 54

Teach your child how to use the telephone and how to call for help: 1) Be Calm. 2) Wait for the dial tone. 3) Tell the emergency person what is wrong. 4) Give your name, address, and phone number. 5) Don’t hang up until the other person hangs up.

• Authority Figures Your child should know how to identify an authority figure in case they are ever in need of assistance. Many parents make the mistake of pointing out a police officer and saying, “If you don’t behave, the police officers will take you to jail.” Even if you do not like the police, they are who you would want your children to come to if they were ever lost or hurt. Take your child to a local police station in your area and let them see the officers’ uniforms and police cars. Make sure that they know it is always okay to go to these uniformed persons if they need help. Point out other uniforms; remind them of the difference between other uniforms and a police uniform. Teach them how to signal to an officer if they need help. They should bring their arm to their chest in a “come here” motion. If they merely wave, the officer might not realize they need assistance.

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD • Molestation

AT HOME

Teach your child about good touching and bad touching. A good rule for your child is to never agree to keep a secret from Mommy and Daddy, no matter what anyone tells them. Don’t confuse them by asking them to keep a secret, regardless of how minor, from your spouse.

• Public Restrooms Public restrooms are dangerous for adults, but are even more hazardous for children. Do not send your child into a public bathroom alone. Your little boy may be uncomfortable going into the ladies room with mom, but that is the way it should be done until he is old enough to recognize danger.

• Strangers The concept of a “stranger” can be a confusing one, especially to a young child. In a child’s mind, an adult who they may have seen before, or calls them by their first name, is not a stranger. The reality is that abductions and molestations of children are often by individuals who may be familiar to a child, but are unfamiliar to the child’s parents. It is imperative for your child to know exactly what to do when confronted with a dangerous stranger situation. Explain to your child that a trustworthy adult will never need to ask them for help or directions. “Teach your child how to protect his own body space. If a car pulls up or a person approaches them on foot, your child should know how to back away and not let the person get close enough to touch.” Page 58


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNE• 14, 2013yourA child PARENT’S GUIDE TO of THEa SAFE CHILD Teach the definition stranger:

AT HOME

1. Who is a stranger? A stranger can be described as someone who has never been over to your home for dinner and met your parent or parents. 2. When is a person not a stranger? A person is not a stranger only when your parents have told you that this person is someone they know and trust. 3. How can I tell if a stranger is a good person or a bad person? It is very hard to tell. People who do bad things to children do not always look bad, evil or ugly. The only way to be sure is to always check first with your parents.

• Code words Some families set up code words to be used in the rare case their child ever has to be picked up by a stranger in an emergency. Safety experts have differing opinions on whether this is, or is not, a good idea. For an excellent and informative discussion of this issue by Mr. Stu Auty, founder and president of the Canadian Safe Schools Network, go to: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/the-hot-button/qa-a-code word-saved-a-girl-from-abductors-but-its-not-the-best-protectionfrom-stranger-danger/article10060397/

• Listen to your child! All things considered, children have a very reliable gut instinct for danger. If something about another person doesn’t feel right to them, they will try to tell you. If this happens, it is imperative you listen to them and, if necessary, take immediate action. Page 59


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’Swith GUIDE TO child: THE SAFE CHILD Have this conversation your

AT HOME

What should I do if? Q: A stranger asks me for help or directions. A: Say NO and get away. Q: A stranger offers me candy or gifts. A: Say NO and get away. Q: A stranger in a car wants to speak with me. A: Say NO and get away. Q: A stranger asks me to help find a missing kitten. A: Say NO and get away. Q: A stranger tells me someone in my family is sick or injured and needs my help. A: Say NO and get away. Q: A stranger tries to make me go with him or her. A: Scream NO as loud as you can. Scream, kick, and keep fighting until you are free. Keep yelling and run away as fast as you can. Q: A stranger has a knife or gun and threatens to kill me unless I keep quiet and go with him or her. A: You must get away immediately. Scream NO as loud as you can, keep screaming, and run away as fast as you can to a safe area. Find an adult and tell them what has happened. Q: Is it ever okay to get in a car with a stranger? A: No! It is never okay to get in a car with a stranger – not even for a second – not ever! If you ever get into a car with a stranger, you may never see your parents again! Page 60


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S Safety in Public Places GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

Always carry a recent picture of your child with you. In the event of a lost or missing child, a clear and easily reproducible digital photo is essential for any search efforts. Fingerprints, dental bite impressions, and DNA samples, typical of many community Child-ID programs, are of very little use in these situations. The best form of emergency identification for your child is a digital, high resolution, head and shoulder ID photo. Keep one in your wallet or purse at all times. If you have a Smartphone, we highly recommend using the FBI Child ID App or Safety-ID Photo/Form Child ID App for this purpose, which allow parents to easily take, store, update, and if necessary, email ID photos of their child in any emergency situation.

Safety Tips • Dress your child in bright colors and an easily recognizable shirt. • Remember what color clothes and what type of shoes they are wearing. Make a practice of using your cell phone to take a full figure digital snapshot of your child whenever your child leaves home. • Do not advertise your child’s name on clothing, hats, school supplies, or backpacks. A potential abductor will use this information to call your child by name to gain their confidence. • If your child becomes lost or missing at a public place, every second counts! Immediately contact the proper authorities, police, store personnel, or mall security and provide them with your child’s picture and physical description. Page 61


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AWAY FROM HOME

JUNETalk 14, to 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD your child

AT HOME

Teach your child what to do if they ever become separated from you in a crowd, store, or other public place. • Your child must stay in the last place they saw you. • Your child should ask for help from a low risk adult. A low risk adult can be a mother, grandmother with small children, or someone wearing a uniform, name badge, or a person who is working behind a counter. Resources for Parents: National Crime Prevention Council http://www.ncpc.org/topics/violent-crime-and-personal-safety/strangers Poly Klaas Foundation http://www.pollyklaas.org/ Kidpower http://www.kidpower.org/library/article/getting-lost/ Safetytat http://www.safetytat.com/safety_tips/ Netmums http://www.netmums.com/lifestyle/house-and-home/essential -safety-for-kids/essential-safety-for-kids-if-a-child-gets-lost

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

Notes

AWAY FROM HOME

________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________


Part 3

In the Event of a Lost or Missing Child


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

LOST OR MISSING CHILD

JUNE What 14, 2013 A PARENT’S TO THE SAFE CHILD AT HOME would you do if GUIDE your child became lost or missing? It’s a nightmare scenario that most parents would prefer not to think about, let alone plan for. Yet it is a reality that could happen, and if it does, it is something that must be dealt with. In the emergency situation of a missing child, every second counts! If you believe your child is lost or missing: • Act immediately • If your child is missing from home Search through anwhere a child may crawl or hide, this includes: Closets Piles of laundry In and under beds Inside large appliances Vehicles – including trunks • If you cannot find the child - immediately call 911. Provide the operator with your child's name, date of birth, height, weight, and any other unique identifiers such as eyeglasses and braces. Tell them when you noticed your child was missing and what clothing he or she was wearing. • If your child disappears in a store - notify the store manager or security office then immediately call 911. • Request that your child's name and identifying information be immediately entered into the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Missing Person File. • After you have reported your child missing to law enforcement, call the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) at 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678). Page 66


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

LOST OR MISSING CHILD

JUNE 2013 your A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Tips 14, to keep Child Safe • Teach your child to be aware and informed: Children should know their full name, address, and phone number. Teach your child to call for help, dial 911, and make long distance calls. • Always know where your child is and the routes your child takes to and from school. • As a parent, you should know your child's friends, their addresses and phone numbers. Resources for Parents: The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children If you think you have seen a missing child, contact the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children 24 hour Hotline: 1-800-THE LOST (1-800-843-5678) http://www.missingkids.com/home The Polly Klaas® Foundation Dedicated to the safety of all children, the recovery of missing children, and public policies that keep children safe in their communities. 24/7 Hot-Line: 1-800-587-4357 http://www.pollyklaas.org/ The Missing Child Emergency Response Quick Reference Guide for Families http://www.missingkids.com/en_US/publications/NC198.pdf

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AT HOME


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

LOST OR MISSING CHILD

The14, Safety-ID JUNE 2013 Photo/Form A PARENT’SApp GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

“It’s all about parent awareness, and being prepared,” says Brian Swartz, President of Safety-ID. “In the emergency situation of a lost or missing child, every second counts. That’s why we created the Safety-ID Photo/ Form App. Our goal was to make a simple and affordable smartphone app for parents that would enable them to make instant photo IDs of their children, that could be stored, updated, and in an emergency, emailed to the proper law enforcement authorities.” The application user interface is the Safety-ID photo/form, which, when completed, will contain the ID information most needed by police (digital photo, physical characteristics, caregiver’s names, phone numbers, special needs, etc.) to best help them locate a lost or missing child. A navigation bar at the bottom of the screen, allows parents to make edit, copy, delete, or electronically send this information to wherever it is needed as a universally recognized PDF file. The cost of the Safety-ID/Photo form app is 99 cents. It can be purchased from the Apple Store (iOS) or Google Apps (Android) via a direct link from the Safety-ID website. Whether you are a parent, grandparent, or just a concerned relative, please take a few minutes to visit us at www.safety-id.com. It may be the most important thing you do today. Page 68


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

Safety-ID

LOST OR MISSING CHILD

SM

Child Identification Document Because we care about the health and safety of our children.

Personal Information

Medical Care Information

Name: _________________ Nickname: ______________ Optional SS#: ___________ Sex: ____ Date of Birth: ____________ Height:____ Weight: _____ Hair color: ______________ Eye color: ______________

Doctor: _________________ Doctor’s Phone: __________ Dentist: _________________ Dentist’s Phone: __________ Pharmacy: _______________ Pharmacy Phone: _________ Medication Child is taking: ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Home Information Street: _________________ City: ___________________ State: ____ Zip: __________ Email: _________________ Home Phone: ___________ Mother’s Cell: ___________ Father’s Cell: ____________ Mother’s Name: _________ Her work phone: _________ Father’s Name: __________ His work phone: _________

School Information Name of Child’s School: _______________________ School Address: _______________________ School Phone: ___________ School Bus Number:______ Emergency Contact Person: _______________________ Contact’s Phone: _________

Date of Photo: _________

Identifying Features ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Ethnic Group: __________ Child is verbal? Y N Can read/write? Y N Language(s) spoken: ______________________

Special Needs ____________________

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ Page 74 ______________________ ______________________

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Child’s Blood Type: ________ Allergies:________________ ________________________ ________________________

_______________________ Optional Health Ins. Carrier:_________ Optional Insurance ID#: ____________ Insurance Group #: Optional ________

Relatives/Neighbors Name: __________________ Relationship: _____________ Phone: __________________ Name: __________________ Relationship: _____________ Phone: __________________ Name: __________________ Relationship: _____________ Phone: __________________


Part 4

Planning for Emergencies


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

JUNE 14, 2013for Emergencies A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Planning

AT HOME

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recommends that “all members of a family, even small children, need to know how to react in case of an emergency.”

Create a Disaster Plan Meet with your family and discuss why you need to prepare. Sit down and go through all possible scenarios and explain what to do in each case. Plan to share responsibilities and work together as a team. Determine the best escape routes from your home. Find two ways out of each room. Contact your local fire department for information and training on what to do in a fire and how to use a fire extinguisher. All family members should know this life saving information. Pick two places for your family to meet in an emergency: • A place directly outside or near your home (in case of a sudden unexpected emergency such as a fire or an explosion.) • A place outside your neighborhood, such as a library, a friend’s house or other location with a landline or cellular phone (in case you cannot return home.) Make sure everyone knows the arranged meeting place and phone number. Teach your children how and when to call 911 or your local Emergency Medical Services number. Show family members how to use text messaging (SMS or Short Message Service). Text messages can often get around network disruptions when a phone call might not be able to get through. Page 72


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE Prepare an emergency escape planTO on THE whatSAFE everyCHILD memberAT of HOME your family should do in case of fire. Plan several different fire escape routes from your house and practice them with your children. In case of fire: 1) Leave house immediately. 2) Go to planned meeting place. 3) Call the fire department from a neighbor’s house. 4) Never return to a burning house! Safety Tips: • Install smoke detectors in the furnace area, on every floor and outside all sleeping areas in your home. • Install carbon monoxide detectors on each level of your home, within close earshot of bedrooms. Place them at least six inches below the ceiling and six inches above the floor, and at least 15 feet away from any gas or wood burning appliance such as a furnace, stove or fireplace. If you use a gas appliance, a methane gas leak detector is strongly recommended. • Check all smoke and carbon monoxide detector’s batteries in your home at least once a month. • Replace batteries in all battery powered and hard wired smoke and carbon monoxide detectors at least twice a year, whether still good or not. • Place fire extinguishers where the risk of fire is greatest; in the kitchen, utility or furnace room, and in any room with a fireplace or wood burning stove. Keep at least one multipurpose, dry chemical fire extinguisher on each floor of your home. Page 73


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

Learn about your community’s warning signals; JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD what they sound like and what you should do when you hear them. During an emergency situation,you may be required to evacuate or stay at home. Radio and television stations are the quickest means to obtain reliable information. Keep a battery powered radio ready and tuned to a designated emergency station for instructions in case power is lost.

AT HOME

Discuss what you must do if you must evacuate, including what to bring and how to deal with family pets. (Animals are not allowed inside emergency shelters.) Older children can be given tasks such as locating important items, shutting off utilities, or watching out for younger brothers and sisters. Decide what each family member should do if a disaster occurs when they are away from home. Designate an out-of-state relative or friend as a contact person. Everyone must know their contact’s name and phone number. That, way, each member will be able to check in with the contact person if they become separtated during or after a disaster. Younger children should have this information written in indelible ink inside their shoes along with their own name, phone number, and address. Find out about emergency plans for a disaster at your workplace and your child’s school or daycare. If an emergency occurs, public safety officials will evaluate the situation and may use radio broadcasts, a central phone number, internet site, or parent telephone trees to communicate with families of schoolchildren. Follow their instructions. Depending on the situation, you may or may not be asked to pick up your children at their school. The safest place for them might be inside the school, where they can remain under close supervision and be protected from any outside hazards until the danger has passed. Page 74


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

JUNE 14,Areas 2013 and A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Safe Safe Rooms

AT HOME

A safe area is a specific location in your home where you can store emergency supplies, and where your family can stay and be protected during a disaster. Your safe area should be located as far as possible away from the main electrical circuit box and any gas lines. This area can be located in the basement, under stairs, or in a storage room, but never in a utility or furnace room. What is a safe room? A safe room is a hardened structure specifically designed to meet the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) criteria and provide "near-absolute protection" in extreme weather events, including tornadoes and hurricanes. To be considered a FEMA safe room, the structure must be designed and constructed to the guidelines specified in FEMA P-320, Taking Shelter from the Storm: Building a Safe Room for Your Home or Small Business (FEMA, third edition, 2008a) For more information about safe rooms, go to: http://www.fema.gov/safe-rooms What should I store in my safe area or safe room? • Water • Food • First Aid supplies • Emergency tools/supplies • Special needs items Safety Tip: Keep the items that you would most likely need in an evacuation in an easy-to-carry container such as a camping backpack, duffel bag, or a large covered trash container in your safe area or safe room. If you go to an emergency public shelter, you will need to bring a change of clothing, bathing and sanitary supplies, pre-filled prescriptions, denture and eye care materials, and any other special medical supplies or dietary requirements.

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

JUNE 14, 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Water Supplies

AT HOME

Store water in plastic containers Avoid using containers that will decompose or break, such as milk cartons or glass bottles. Tap water generally may be stored up to two weeks without further disinfection. Keep at least a three day supply of water per person (one gallon per person per day) The average person needs two quarts of water per day to drink and 2 quarts for sanitation. Hot environments and intense physical activity can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers, and people who are sick will need more. Store extra water for pets, and don’t forget to replace stored water supplies every 6 months. Untreated water may contain toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and germs that cause diseases like dysentery, typhoid, and hepatitis. If you run out of safe drinking water in an emergency, there are steps you can take to make contaminated water safe to use. Never drink flood water. Resources for Parents: CDC: Emergency Preparedness and Response http://emergency.cdc.gov/preparedness/kit/water/ FEMA http://www.ready.gov/water http://www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProduct Catalog/m4440181_Food_and_Water-English.revised_7-09.pdf

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A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

JUNE 14,Supplies 2013 A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Food

AT HOME

Store at least a 3 day supply of non-perishable foods. Select foods that will require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking, and little or no water. Store foods that are compact and lightweight • Ready to eat canned meats, fruits and vegetables, canned or boxed juices, powdered milk and soup. • Condiments such as salt,sugar, pepper and spices. • High energy foods: peanut butter, jelly, trail mix, granola bars, low sodium crackers. • Prepackaged beverages in foil packets and boxes. • Comfort foods: sweetened cereals, hard candy, lollipops. • Foods for infants, the elderly, and those on special diets. Store canned foods in a dry place where the temperature is not above 70 degress Fahrenheit and not below freezing. Store boxed foods in tightly closed cans or metal containers. Foods to avoid: commercially dehydrated foods should be avoided since they require water for reconstitution. Bottle food and meal sized canned foods are bulky and heavy. Whole grains, dried beans and pasta are complicated to prepare. Salty foods increase thirst and unnecessarily deplete stored water supplies. Resources for Parents: Emergency Food Supplies http://www.nutrition.gov/shopping-cooking -meal-planning/emergency-food-supplies FEMA: Ready http://www.ready.gov/food Page 77


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

Aid KitAand Supplies JUNEFirst 14, 2013 PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

• Bandage and Accessories:

Sterile Adhesive bandages Sterile gauze pads Non adhering dressings Sterile roller bandages Triangular and ace bandages Waterproof surgical tape Disposable latex gloves Surgical and nail scissors, tweezers Safety pins, splints, petroleum jelly Hot water bottle, ice bag, chemical hot/cold packs Digital thermometer, tongue blades, surgical dust masks

• Cleansing solutions and medications:

Hydrogen Peroxide, rubbing alcohol Antiseptic solution, antibiotic ointment Cleansing agent/soap, moistened towelettes Eye wash (2 bottles), eye drops Antihistamines, cough drops, cough syrups Antacids, laxatives, anti-diarrheals. activated charcoal Fever reducers/pain relievers (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen)

• Emergency sanitary supplies:

Paper towels, toilet paper, disinfectant solution or spray Liquid detergent, personal hygiene items, sanitary supplies Plastic bucket with tight lid, plastic heavy duty garbage bags

• Special Items:

Baby: formula, diapers, wipes, month supply RX/OTC meds Adult: One month supply RX/OTC maintenance medications Denture needs, extra eye glasses, contac lenses/lens supplies Sunglasses, sturdy shoes/work boots, sleeping bags, blankets Insect repellant, hats, gloves, rain gear, thermal underwear Two complete changes of clothing and footware per person Page 78


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

Emergency and Supplies JUNE 14, 2013 Tools A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

AT HOME

• For Home:

Battery powered radio, flashlights, batteries Solar battery charger, rechargeable batteries Shut off wrench to turn off gas and water Safety lights (turn on when power goes off) Propane heater (approved for indoor use) Camping cook stove (suitable for indoor use) Household Bleach (to sterilize water) Generator (run outdoors) Maps of area (to locate shelters and evacuation routes) Matches in waterproof container, tube tent, compass Mess kits or paper cups, plates, plastic utensils, trash bags Non-electric can opener. Empty containers for food and waste Emergency tool kit: Hammer, nails, crowbar, wrenches, socket set, screwdrivers, pliers Duct tape, multi-purpose tool, electrical tape, hacksaw, utility knife

• For the Car:

Extra set of keys, GPS unit, 12v adapter to recharge cell phone Road Hazard Kit: Emergency tool kit, reflectors, flares, jumper cables Folding shovel, gas can (empty), tire pump and gauge, tire patch kit Gas siphon pump, extra fuses. headlight/taillight bulbs, wiper blades 12 volt flashlight (plugs in car cigarette lighter) and battery flashlights, Extra flashlight bulbs and batteries, electrical and duct tape Extra fan belts, radiator and heater hoses, hose clamps, motor oil Radiator and windshield wiper fluid, portable car battery recharger

• Important Family Documents:

Immunization records, copies of insurance policies, passports, social security cards, bank account and credit card information

Resource for Parents: FEMA Emergency Supply List http://www.ready.gov/sites/default/files/documents/files/checklist_1.pdf Page 79


A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD

EMERGENCY PLANNING

JUNE 14, 2013 Planning A PARENT’S GUIDE TO THE SAFE CHILD Emergency Resources

AT HOME

Homeland Security http://www.dhs.gov/ CDC http://www.bt.cdc.gov/preparedness/plan/ FEMA http://www.ready.gov/basic-disaster-supplies-kit Red Cross Safe and Well Website https://safeandwell.communityos.org/zf/safesearch/search Access to Disaster Help and Assistance http://www.disasterassistance.gov/ EPA http://water.epa.gov/drink/emerprep/emergencydisinfection.cfm Page 80


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A Must for Every Parent: the new Safety-ID App!

Organize your child’s vital health and safety information on your personal Smartphone! Use the camera function of your iphone, ipad, or mobile Android™ device to create an instant “real time” digital photo-identification document for your child. This document can be electronically stored, updated, and in case of an emergency, immediately emailed to any desired location directly from your Smartphone. Available now at Safety-id.com


A Parent's Guide to the Safe Child, At Home and Away