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2009

Kirsten Fugl

Teaching Art and Aesthetic Learning

Teaching Methods Theoretical aspects to consider when planning lessons in Art


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Indholdsfortegnelse INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 3 THE LEARNING PROCESS ............................................................................................... 4 Prerequisite for learning .................................................................................................. 4 Conditions for learning..................................................................................................... 4 PLANNING A LESSON ....................................................................................................... 5 The five competence areas ............................................................................................. 5 1. The competence of Experience ................................................................................... 5 2. The competence of Skills and Techniques .................................................................. 6 3. The competence of Expression ................................................................................... 6 4. The competence of Analysis and Interpretation .......................................................... 7 5. The competence of Communication and Evaluation ................................................... 7 Development and learning............................................................................................... 9 AESTHETIC LEARNING ................................................................................................... 11 THE THEORY OF LEARNING STYLES ........................................................................... 12 Three ways of adapting information .............................................................................. 12 Four main sense modalities/four different learning channels ........................................ 12 THE THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES (MI) ...................................................... 14 What is intelligence?...................................................................................................... 14 Different intelligences .................................................................................................... 14 Children have different dominating intelligences ........................................................... 16 MAKING LEARNING MORE MEANINGFUL AND ENJOYABLE ...................................... 18 Seven strategies for learning ......................................................................................... 18 Building new lessons on the previous knowledge of students....................................... 18 Brainstorming ................................................................................................................ 18 Problem solving ............................................................................................................. 18 Sharing with another student ......................................................................................... 19 Observation ................................................................................................................... 19 The teacher makes detailed observations of the students ............................................ 19 Using the student’s daily experiences ........................................................................... 19 Making learning functional ............................................................................................. 19 Raising interest in the content by using stories ............................................................. 19 Relating learning to other subjects ................................................................................ 19 Field trips and project work............................................................................................ 19 Games ........................................................................................................................... 19 Children´s Visual-Spatial Development………………………………………………………..20

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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INTRODUCTION What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember What I do, I understand

This material is meant to be a short presentation of different theories that lie behind the integrated approach to teaching art. The theories will not be presented in their full extend, but simply as a general overview – and as an appetizer for further study. The theories have been developed in different contexts. Some of the theories are particularly developed for art, while others are general teaching methods that can be applied to all subjects in school.

• • • •

A teacher is able to lift the student from one level to a higher level. A teacher is able to encourage differentiation and integration A teacher is concerned about “getting out of the way” for something that is bigger A teacher is engaged in, involved in the experiences and processes

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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THE LEARNING PROCESS Prerequisite for learning It is difficult to establish learning processes if the basic needs in children and adults life are not satisfied. If the teacher does not consider the children’s basic needs even the best education will fail as the lack or shortage of supply will take up all the children’s attention. Children and adults as well have a need for food, have a need for drinking, have a need for rest and have a need for shelter. They also have a need for feeling safe and secure. If these needs are not fulfilled to some extent, they will become barriers to learning. It is very important that the teacher accepts that it is part of his or her responsibility to try to change the children’s daily life so they can develop their competence without barriers for learning. This demands that the teacher co-operate with the parents, community, different organizations and other stakeholders in order to find solutions to these problems.

Conditions for learning Children as well as adults bring very different prerequisites to a learning situation which will affect learning and make it slow or quick, easy or difficult. Some children need the classroom to be quiet, while other children can work well in noise. Some children need to work alone, while some children need to work together with other children. The light in the room also influences the learning process. Some children need strong light while other children can do with less light. The colors in the room are also important. Some colors calm down the children, while other colors have exciting effect. In the same way temperature plays a role. If the classroom is too warm the children may become drowsy, and if it is too cold the children cannot concentrate. The teacher has to be aware of the effect of the different conditions. Teachers cannot always change the conditions, but awareness of the various effects will help teachers adapt their demands to the condition and as far as it is possible try to change the adverse conditions.

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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PLANNING A LESSON Art Education in Vietnamese schools is based on a guiding material Ve Trang Tri with a number of lessons with single non-attached exercises each with their own headline. During a school year the teacher will cover topics and exercises within the areas of “picture drawing”, “object drawing”, “decoration”, “appreciating art” and “sculpture”. The overall goal of this project is to look at all these exercises and ask ourselves, if we can integrate the lessons and connect them to each other in theme-based processes that are meaningful to the students? By tying the lessons together in overall themes and by working learner-centred in open processes we will also experience how the students develop and qualify their pictorial expression, because of the method. When planning a lesson in detail, you might use the theory of the five competence areas, developed by the Danish Professor of Art Education, Kristian Pedersen in 1991. The five competence areas are guidelines to help you plan your lesson, so that all the prepositions to aesthetic learning are present.

The five competence areas 1. The competence of Experience The topic of the teaching must be based on the experience of the student, or else he/she will feel no real interest when working with the topic. Key Questions to Experience To support the reflections before choosing a relevant topic or theme, the teacher can ask him/herself: • What do we want to say something about? • Which experiences of the children’s lives are relevant to work with? • What topic/theme is relevant for the specific grade? • Why do we want to work with this topic? What are our goals? • Do we need to use books or pictures on the topic? (indirect experiences) • Do we need to make an excursion or a visit relevant to the theme? (direct experiences) • Do we need to dramatize? • What pictures from our surrounding world could be brought in, in order to: 1. Differentiate the chosen topic/theme (differentiated experiences)? 2. Inspire the practical work (differentiated production)?

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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What is a Thematic Approach? An idea can lead to choice of topic like e.g. “Our Class”. Such a topic is just one of many topics that can be chosen. The class will together create a mind map concerning the many different thematic approaches to the topic. It is essential to get the attention of the students and motivate them to think about and elaborate on exciting and relevant themes. At last the class agrees on a theme for the learning process in Arts Each student draft his/her individual motif

2. The competence of Skills and Techniques When working with a topic of interest, the student will be naturally inspired to improve his/her skills, and the teacher must be ready to suggest that the student explore new techniques. Skill is a means to an end, - not a goal in itself. Key Questions to Skills and techniques • • • •

What media do we want to say it with? How many kinds of media and sorts of materials are we going to use? How do we present the use and the possibilities of the different media and materials? Why do we use these media and materials? What are our goals?

3. The competence of Expression The student must be inspired to explore his/her own capacity of expression. The aim is independent and unique expression, - not to copy the works of others but be inspired by works of other students, classes as well as national and international artists. In art education there are no precise or limited answers or solutions. Key Questions to Expression • •

How do we encourage the student’s own personal expression? How do we guide – and not judge?

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4. The competence of Analysis and Interpretation The world surrounding us consists of pictures, which we must be able to analyze in order to understand them and their social context. A picture, a visual impression, has its own language, just like in verbal language, that we must be able to “read” if we want to understand it. Key Questions to Analysis and interpretation •

What questions do we ask the student, in order to make him/her reflect upon own work and make choices that will lead him/her deeper into the process? How can we ask open questions?

Why?

Materials - techniques

Function

How?

Form

What do you want to say?

Pictorial Language: Composition Lines Colors Contrasts

What do the observe see? For whom?

What?

Meaning - theme - topic - motif

5. The competence of Communication and Evaluation All activities in the art class must be discussed and evaluated. Continuously the teacher and the students must discuss the value of what is being done, the purpose of it, and how to use it when teaching children. When finishing a topic or a course the students and the teacher must evaluate the quality of what has been done and evaluate the beneficial outcome of it. Key Questions to Communication and Evaluation •

Ending the process: - Who do we want to say it to?” - Exhibition? - Oral, dramatic, visual presentation?

Evaluating the process and the results: - What goals did we have and what are our results? - Could the evaluation be the beginning of the next process?

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

kirstenfugl1@gmail.com


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UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

Teaching Art and Aesthetic Learning

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kirstenfugl1@gmail.com


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Development and learning We know the distinction between teaching and learning. Although they often are considered to be two sides of the same coin we know that sometimes teaching takes place without the intended learning outcome. I’ve taught my donkey how to whistle!

Whau!

Show us??!!

I only said that I taught it. I didn’t say that he has learnt it yet!

A teacher can help students learn, but a teacher cannot do the learning for them. We can provide the supportive learning environment in (and sometimes outside) the classroom. Learning something new means that we engage with something we don't know or we don't master. This can cause fear. To do something or to engage with something we do not know properly can even make us panic. As an adult person, have you recently engaged yourself in something new or unknown? Do you remember when you learnt how to ride the bicycle? Certainly, it was exiting and scaring at the same time. You might fall and hurt yourself! In most cases we learn to ride the bicycle while an adult person helps by holding the bicycle and running beside it and supporting when necessary, while we struggle to find the balance. And then - suddenly, we are able to do it on our own! In our schools it is important that we provide the same supportive environment for learning. How could this be done? How do we create an environment where learners feel safe and confident to engage in learning and developing new knowledge, skills they do not master yet? Before planning what kind of activities are going to be introduced and unfolded in the classroom, the teacher could reflect on the following posters:

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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The poster about development and learning explains which aspects, activities and values the teacher should consider bringing into the learning process. The poster with the learning pyramid explains how big a percentage of a classroom of pupils will learn anything when being lectured to, when reading, when listening, when receiving a demonstration and so on.

• • • •

Key questions What can you gain from the poster about Development & Learning? What do you gain from the Learning Pyramid? What is the difference between teaching and learning? How can you use this knowledge in your lesson plan for a specific grade in primary education?

“The one that is active and works, is the one who learns and develops”

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

kirstenfugl1@gmail.com


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AESTHETIC LEARNING What does Aesthetics mean? Aesthetics, in its original Greek form, means knowledge of that, which is perceived and sensed. Sometimes people confuse the meaning of aesthetics and think that it means “knowledge of that which is beautiful�. That is not the correct and original meaning of the term. It does not make any sense to talk about what is beautiful, since the notion of beauty is individual from one person to another. What is beautiful to one person is ugly to another. If we want to have a qualified discussion on aesthetics, we have to agree on its meaning, which is knowledge of that, which is perceived and sensed. This means that aesthetics can be both beautiful and ugly. The idea of aesthetic learning favors learning through mediated pictorial/creative work. This basically means, that there can be NO aesthetic learning until the student has commented and interpreted his/her perception/sense/impression through an art process (see model below). It means that there can be NO aesthetic learning if a person e.g. only sees and enjoys a sunset. The sunset has to be the topic of an art process. Not until then does aesthetic learning occur. Aesthetic learning occurs when the person has interpreted his/her experience through practical work, added his/her own expression been inspired by other expressions of sunsets from visual culture, has had hands on experience with a chosen material, has analyzed, and been aware of the different choices during the process The process can be explained like this:

The model is based on the Danish professor Kristian Pedersens theory on aesthetic learning.

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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THE THEORY OF LEARNING STYLES The Theory of Learning Styles is a general teaching methodology, developed by Americans Dunn and Dunn, to explain how we all learn in different ways, how we all have different learning-styles. Learning-style is the way you • Concentrate • Absorb/take in new information • Adapt new information • Keep new information All information has to be worked on and processed in the brain.

Three ways of adapting information Holistic learning is when you think in a unified whole. Some individuals want to have the unified whole presented before the details. They are often emotionally engaged in the subjects. These persons often want to work in groups. They prefer to work with background music, pleasant lightning and with the possibility to have something to drink and eat. Sequential learning is when you think analytically. Some individuals want the information step by step. They need the details first in order to understand the unified whole. They want information to be presented sequentially and rather with a specification of what come first and what comes last and what is important. These persons often want to work alone. They prefer to work in quiet environments. Flexible learning is when you adapt your way of thinking to the situation. Some individuals have the competence to integrate and alternate between the two ways of learning, the holistic way and the sequential way. They adapt their way of learning to the environment and the persons in the situation.

Four main sense modalities/four different learning channels The learning process is based on collecting information from sources in the external environment and from sources within the body. In the learning process there are four main sense modalities that are important in adapting information. The kinesthetic sense The body is part of the learning process. The children learn better when they move. They learn best in concrete situations. The tactile sense There is a need to touch. Children learn better when they work with their hands in practical activities.

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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The visual sense There is a need for watching, seeing while you learn. The children learn better through observation of either words or pictures or objects. The auditory sense There is a need for talking, listening and discussing. The children learn better by listening and discussing. We all use more than one sense modality/learning channel in the learning process. But we usually prefer one or two dominant sense modalities. In school situations it is important that teachers are aware that students will represent all sense of modalities. They will have different needs in their learning process. Therefore teachers need to plan and carry out their teaching in ways that use more than one sense modality. Teacher themselves have one or two preferred sense modalities. It is important that teachers are aware of their own learning-styles. When teachers plan their lessons they should first of all have in mind that the emphasis should be on children’s learning and not on teachers teaching. Teachers have to remember that it is not only a question of how to teach. It is a question of how to plan for the children’s learning. The students have to be active learners and to be responsible for their own learning. When teachers plan the learning situation they have to remember their own learning styles, because their own preferred learning styles will often determine how they arrange and organize the children’s learning. They also have to remember that in all classrooms there will be children with different learning style. Therefore teachers have to take into account their own learning style that will determine the way they like to teach and at the same time take into account all four different learning styles that the children represent. Key question about The Theory of Learning StylesTo what degree should we as teachers try to make teaching and learning diverse (differentiated) and suitable for the different learning styles?

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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THE THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES (MI) The psychologist Howard Gardner has developed a theory on human intelligence, which identifies seven distinct intelligences. He defines 'intelligence' as a core set of information-processing operations. This means that we, as individuals, use different strategies or methods when we interact with our environment and try to make sense of all the impressions we get. In 1985 Howard Gardner presented his theory of multiple intelligences in his book “Frames of Mind”. The theory builds on 3 fundamental principles: Intelligence is not a single factor you possess or don’t possess. Intelligence consists of several factors that can be separated. Each intelligence is relatively independent of the others. One developed skill within one area does not automatically results in good skills in other areas. The intelligences work together in interaction and co-operate, each one using its knowledge in order to solve a problem common to all of them.

What is intelligence? Intelligence is the power and ability to solve problems or create products that are valued within one or more cultural areas. Intelligence in modern psychology is not just a fixed or static figure (IQ) but a dynamic concept, i.e. it can be developed and it is multi-faceted (multi-sided).

Different intelligences Howard Gardner distinguishes between the following intelligences: Verbal-linguistic is the ability to use words and language. The learner likes to express ideas and feelings in words; likes to make poems and communicate in original and precise ways. Logical-Mathematical is the capacity to apply logical thinking, use numbers and recognise abstract patterns. The learner likes to play with – and think about numbers; to solve problems using Mathematics. Visual-spatial is the ability to visualise objects and spatial dimensions, and to create images and pictures. The learner enjoys arts and crafts activities; likes to draw and create. Body-kinesthetic is the wisdom of the body and the ability to control physical motion. The learner likes dancing, athletics; uses easily the body to send messages (‘body language’). Musical-rhythmic is the ability to recognise tonal patterns and sounds as well as sensitivity to rhythms and beats. The learner likes to sing, hum, chant or rap; remembers melodies and likes to play music.

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Interpersonal is the capacity for person-to-person communications and relationships. The learner makes friends easily; likes cooperative games and being in groups; feels a lot for others. Intra-personal is the spiritual, inner states of being, self-reflection, and awareness. The learner likes to think about own feelings and thoughts; likes to understand own problem solving patterns and reactions. It is Howard Gardner's judgment that most curricula favour the two first mentioned intelligences: verbal-linguistic and logical-mathematical. He suggests a more balanced curriculum, which will incorporate – and take seriously (!) – areas like 'Arts', 'Physical Education', 'Communication' and 'Self-Awareness'. In too many schools areas like PE, Music, Arts etc. are not on the time table. Or, they are not taught, even if they are on the timetable. Normally we do not call ‘Self-Awareness’ a subject. It is a cross-cutting issue, relevant for all subjects. In all subjects we should also strive at developing the students’ responsibility and self-reliance. Development of communication and cooperation skills should as well be considered as integrated efforts in all subjects.

• • • •

Key questions about The Theory of Multiple Intelligences How should classroom organisation and interaction between learners and teachers be developed to encompass these ideas? How would assessment be affected? How does the theory affect planning lessons? To what degree should teaching and learning approaches such as o Role-play o Musical performance o Physical performance o Cooperative learning o Reflection o Visualization o Story-telling be promoted to play a bigger role in order to support the different learning styles or intelligences?

If we compare The Theory of Learning Styles with The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, we could argue that we have different learning styles, based on the intelligences we display or master. You might be good at drawing but your verballinguistic intelligence is weaker. Albert Einstein was, in fact, excellent (genius) in the logical-mathematical area, but he performed poorly in the verbal-linguistic area. In fact, he performed so badly during his school years that he could have been told to repeat classes if evaluation was solely based on his verbal-linguistic performances.

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David Beckham, it could be argued, performs (mostly) very well on the football pitch, displaying excellently the body-kinaesthetic intelligence (body and leg control). Maybe his logical-mathematical area is poor?

Children have different dominating intelligences Some children learn best through reading and taking notes, others through visual stimulation, still others through rhythms and tempos of body movement or musical activities. Some like to work on problems individually while others like to interact with others to find a solution. The issue for teachers is to ensure that the children are allowed to learn according both to their individual learning style including their preferred sense modality and their dominating intelligences. The development of the seven intelligences built on learning through different learning styles/sense modalities. In their daily work teachers can use the knowledge about the seven intelligences in planning and organizing the learning situation for the children. It is an advantage if teachers know their own strengths in intelligences, their dominant intelligences. Teachers can use the knowledge about the seven intelligences in planning and carrying out their lessons. A broad and balanced curriculum will still require that we as teachers facilitate the development of all areas of intelligence. The point is, however, that we could use areas of strength to motivate the individual learner and that we at the same time utilise a variety of senses, concepts and learning approaches to make the learning experience richer and more practical for all learners in our classrooms. Let’s say that in our class we have some learners who are doing very well in athletics (P.E.). Mathematics, however, is rather poor. Could we use their ‘Body-kinaesthetic intelligence’ as the ‘port of entry’ for improving Mathematics? We might think about physical activities, which could illustrate mathematical concepts. I might let the learners jump and measure the lengths of different jumps. We could together make mathematical operations using the measurements, e.g. elaborate on fractions or make additions and subtractions. We could also let the learners physically form different patterns, e.g. triangles, squares either while standing or lying on the floor. This would also help learners with strong visual-spatial capacity to learn better. Howard Gardner argues that self-assessment tools and practices must be developed to take account of the intelligences and learning styles. Learners must learn how to assess their own learning progress. They should be able to understand and utilise properly their specific intelligences. This would contribute to the development of the ‘Intra-personal intelligence’.

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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It is also most likely that we can help learners improve on the commitment and responsibility for their learning progress when we promote the students’ self assessment. We simply encourage them to think about their own learning, i.e. what they learn and how they manage to learn! In modern literature about learning this process is called ‘meta-cognition’. This means that we are able to think about our own thinking.

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

kirstenfugl1@gmail.com


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MAKING LEARNING MORE MEANINGFUL AND ENJOYABLE When planning any lesson or activity, a teacher has to consider many teaching strategies so that the teaching will be effective and learning will be successful. Some of these strategies have been described above. As mentioned earlier, an important aspect of teaching is how to plan activities and lessons that are meaningful for the students, so that they understand the purpose of what they are doing. When this is done, not only will students be more motivated to learn, but they will also enjoy the learning process more. Below seven concrete strategies are described which can help a teacher plan lessons/activities that are meaningful. With each strategy a few examples are provided. It is worth mentioning that These strategies are not the only ones to be used when planning lessons but they are to be incorporated into the lesson alongside strategies that may not seem that meaningful for students but are necessary such as drill, memorizing facts, etc. Not all the strategies have to be used every time a new lesson is planned for, but as many as possible should be included The strategies mentioned below can be used across all subjects taught in schools like mathematics, science, social studies, reading, etc.

Seven strategies for learning Building new lessons on the previous knowledge of students Every student, no matter how little she or he knows, has gained some information about any given topic either from daily experience or from previous learning at school. It is necessary for a teacher to give students an opportunity to show what they know, so that they may make significant contributions to the lesson and be more active. It also gives the teacher a good idea of the achievement level of the students. This can be done by: Brainstorming Brainstorming with the students on a specific topic and letting them relate what they know. For example when starting a topic on animals, students can name as many animals as they can as the teacher writes them on the board. Later, students can tell what they know about the animals and what they have in common and the teacher will build on from there. Problem solving Given a problem, the student has to use whatever he already knows to solve it. After this is done, the teacher will introduce the new concept or skill needed to solve the problem at hand. This procedure will make the student more curious and clarify the purpose for learning the new concept and the skill.

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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Sharing with another student Before tackling a new topic, the student is asked to jot down his knowledge, thoughts and/or feelings about the topic and then exchange his ideas with another student. Observation The teacher makes detailed observations of the students through their in-class work, answers and participation. Using the student’s daily experiences When teaching a new concept, teachers should include examples from the students’ daily experiences to clarify the concept. This will bring out the relevancy of what the students are being taught. Making learning functional One way of making learning more meaningful and purposeful is by giving the student a chance to apply what he is learning in his everyday life. When a student is able to use a new skill practically, the student will remember it better and be more interested to learn it. When a student sees the purpose of learning a new topic, she will be able to put up with what seems to her as more difficult and less meaningful tasks. Raising interest in the content by using stories Stories of any kind raise the interest of children of all ages. Many stories are available for the various topics that students are exposed to. In every subject area that is taught, many stories are available if one takes the time to look them up from various resources. It makes it more fun and interesting not only for the students but for the teacher as well. Relating learning to other subjects We teach different subject matters as if they were completely independent one from one another. However, they are often interrelated and interdependent. In order that the student should not acquire a compartmentalized idea of knowledge, teachers have to point out as often as possible how new learning is related to other areas of learning: Field trips and project work There are hundreds of examples of how field trips and projects can be incorporated into the curriculum. They should be included on a regular basis throughout the year. Field trips not only are fun for the students but, if planned appropriately, can be used to show applications of what the students are learning in real life situations. Projects are interesting for students especially if they give them the opportunity to apply what they have learned. Games Many resources are available that include both ideas for games and how to make games that apply learning in fun ways for the classroom. The more experience

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teachers have in using games, the more apt they become in making up their own games. Making games available and using them as rewards can be an incentive for students to finish their work in class quickly and accurately. Games with educational content also give the teacher possibility for repeating new knowledge and skills in a different and enjoyable way for students that need more training.

TuLeigh 5 years old: A car with light and exhaust………………and …..TuLeigh’s very first airoplain

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Children´s Visual-Spatial Development From early childhood human beings express themselves if they get the opportunity. They have different expressive languages and use them in different ways according to their life situation, their surroundings, their age and the purpose. Comparative studies of children worldwide show general steps and similarities in their expressive development. Researchers like Vygotsky, Piaget, June King Mc Fee(Preparation for Art), Gustav Britsch, Rohda Kellogg, Helga Eng, and Arne Trageton, just to mention a few, have from different point of views studied children’s visual and spatial development. Arnheim and Gibson work from a more psychological angel. Vygoysk y

Practical thinking

Piaget

Sensemotorist

Preoperati onal, separate concepts, egocentric Concrete operational , combining concepts, social

Linguistic thinking

Formal operational

4 dimensional

3 dimensional

2 dimensional

Trageton, Norway

Trageton, Norway

Lowenfelt & Brittain

Rhoda Kellogg

“Crab” walking, crawling, rolling, jumping, seesaw, swinging…… The child moves around on all four saying vov-vov like a dog….

Knocking, piling, knocking over, joining, separating: Sensemotorist Building a tower, a boat, a house, a human being: Divergent symbols

Scribbling

20 fundamental scribblings

Pre scheme

Regular role play: We are going to play dentist – you are the dentist and I am the patient

Building with symbols. The door must be place here so it is our house. Convergent symbols

Scheme

Fundament al schemes and combination s/ aggregates of schemes Fundament al pictorial clichés

“Realism” “Naturalism”

Children will reach the different stages according to practice and maturity. Therefore no age is attached to the different stages.

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With inspiration from Rhoda Kellogg (22-60 months) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

20 different fundamental scribbling 6 fundamental schematic drawings Combination of two schematic drawings Aggregates: more than two schematic drawings are combined Fundamental pictorial clichĂŠs

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Scribbling develops from casual over controlled to named activity and pictorial items (Rhoda Kellogg) Follow a to b to c to d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p. What is casual? What is controlled? When named activity?

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Pictorial development with inspiration from Lowenfelt & Brittain Name

Characteristics

Scribbling

The children discoverer that the pencil makes marks on the paper. The development goes from casual marks and swinging movements in shoulder to more controlled lines, crossing lines and marks. At last coordinated movements lead to circles. The child discovers that the marks can be combined with a story/content. Figurers occur by coincidence and often the first figure is a person. “A round one” with legs. Favorite/subjective colors. The child begins to decide what to draw and how to do it. They develop a scheme for e.g. a person, an animal, a house, a tree, a flower The child places figures on a basic line: the edge of the paper or a drawn line. Schema colors: the grass is green, the sun is yellow, the sky is…… The child deals with more details and describes differences between men and woman, boys and girls ex. The figures are placed behind and in front of each other. Visual experiences have big influence on the pictorial development. The youngster is interested in making a representation of the world. The expressions tend to develop towards a naturalistic and/or expressive direction. If not stimulated many children do not develop their talent and interest for expressive art.

Preschematic Schematic

Beginning realism Beginning naturalism

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With inspiration from Helga Eng A human figure – haptisk (kinaestetic)

An animal – here a horse

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

Human figure - visual

A house

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SAEPS

Teaching Art and Aesthetic Learning

26

Combining elements – spatial development – Helga Eng 1. Elements without connection 2. Elements are up and down oriented 3. Elements are besides each other on the edge of the paper 4. Elements are besides each other on a drawn basic line 5. Basic lines on which the elements are down folded 6. Curved basic line 7. Two basic lines give an illusion of space 8. Two curved basic lines give an illusion of space 9. Overlapping give an illusion of space 10. Differences in size give an illusion of space 11. Perspective give an illusion of space

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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SAEPS

Teaching Art and Aesthetic Learning

27

With Inspiration from Gustav Britsch From synonymous to differentiated 1. The relation between figure and background A: the intended/meant form U: the background on which it is seen

2. Forming directions a. Separation directions b. Differentiating directions c. Changing relations in directions 3. Forming dimensions a. Borderline b. Differentiating the borderline c. Changing the borderline 4. Coloring a. Separation of colors b. Differentiating colors c. Changing the combinations of colors, vary the same color

The phenomenon of constants Arnheim mentions that the human being has a tendency to restrain the variations in his/her surroundings, so the result of his/her experiences is kept constant. We can talk about 1. Constants in sizes 2. Constants in forms 3. Constants in colors

Ways of visual experiences Gibson mentions two different ways of visual experiences: 1. The visual world: constants

the world of our everyday life with the phenomenon of Aesthetic - perceiving

2. The visual field:

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

this field is subject to a more analytic approach Rational – logical

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SAEPS

Teaching Art and Aesthetic Learning

28

Collection of children’s works Start collecting children’s artistic works so you put focus on and get a broader understanding of children’s approach to fine arts. 1. You can collect pictures and art works from one child. Hereby you follow and document one child’s development over a longer period. Remember to make notes about their comments and mark the date. Your research here is concentrated on the development of one child. 2. You can also choose to collect pictures or works from one class in primary school. Here your research must be concentrated on comparing the different children’s interpretation of a specific topic and level of artistic development. Collected material/documentation from this research might be included in student teachers’ exhibition for final assessment.

Natnael, 7 years old. September 1. 2003 “This is a picture of my mother who is resting on the couch. One of her arms is under her head and the other is on her stomach. The round circle is her breast and the stripes over her legs are the blanket”

Wonderful stories can be experienced if you take your time to listen. Remember to write down the date and the content of the story.

UCSJ, Kirsten Fugl

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Theoretical aspects to consider when planning lessons in Art  

This material is meant to be a short presentation of different theories that lie behind the integrated approach to teaching art.

Theoretical aspects to consider when planning lessons in Art  

This material is meant to be a short presentation of different theories that lie behind the integrated approach to teaching art.

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