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Vietnam Urban Study

Vietnam Urban Study A study of District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with particular in depth analysis of one sector within District 4.

S.Khan, M.Shaheen, A.Perry, Z.Zheleva, I.Novoselska, D.Lyn, R.Hiwa, A.Alfakhuri BA (HONS) International Architecture RIBA Part 1



JOT Bindery Dunn & Mills Business Park Red Doles Lane, Huddersfield, England, HD2 1YE This book was formatted by Sadia Khan and Muneebah Shaheen and contributed to, furthering the field of kn-owledge of a particular area within District 4, HCMC, Vietnam by the whole urban study team. Published in 2016 Produced by JOT Bindery. Printed in Hudderfield


ACKNOWLEGEMENTS The completion and success of this venture could not have been possible without the participation and hard work of the urban study team. We thank the tutors for their continual support and also are thankful to the tutors and student of Ho Chi Minh City University for their warm welcome and guidance during our time in Vietnam.





Development of Urban Patterns and Landscapes


Location Views in and out Edges and Boundaries Massing Solids and Voids Building Types Street Legibility Rhythm and Proportion Lynch Analysis Promenades Glances of the site Shelter and Exposure City Life - People Night Cycle/Activity

Architectural Developments and Typologies


Trade, Economy and Industry


Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses




Building Topography Analysis of Massing Building Relationship by Vertical Use Detailed Elevation Building Heights

Population Transport Future Development Climate Adaption Child Friendly District Pollution Saigon River Imports and Exports Drainage and Sewage

Climate Sun Movement Environmental Design Trees/Green Space Hard and Soft Landscape Architectural Character Buildings in state of repair Doors/Gates Windows Construction Techniques Colour Palette Building Regulations



Development of Urban Patterns and Landscapes


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

World Map - Asia

Vietnam - Ho Chi Minh

Asia - Vietnam

Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh 11


Development of urban patterns and landscapes


SCALE: 1:1250

The maps firstly show Asia in relation to the rest of the world (as Vietnam is in Asia), it then shows a second map which shows Vietnam within Asia, and lastly shows a map of Vietnam with the location of Ho Chi Minh, further on the maps show the districts and study areas. 13


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Vietnam is the Easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia, and is approximately 1,650 Km tall and 50Km wide (at its narrowest point). It is surrounded by Thailand, Laos, Cambodia in the West and is surrounded by China on the North. Ho Chi Minh (formally known as Saigon before independence), is the largest city in the South of Vietnam. The city itself is divided into Districts, with 12 districts within Ho Chi Minh, the district being studied, is district 4.

Views in and out The area being studied has unique dense to void proportions, often revealing huge gaps for roads then condensed spacing for residential areas. Due to these large gaps however, scenes of beauty can be seen throughout the roads leading out of the district and even inside of it.


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

A. View from corner Cau Calmette street facing North - West

B. View Hoang Dieu street of incoming traffic from the North - East 17


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

E. View from Hoang Dieu street facing East

C. View from Doan Van Bo street facing North - West

F. View from Hoang Dieu street facing West

D. View Hoang Dieu street of incoming traffic from the North - East 19


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

G. View from Hoang Dieu street facing Kim Lien Chua (A Buddhist temple)

H. View from Ben Van Don road facing North East 21

G. View from Doan Van Bo, Adjacent to the elevated Cau Calmette road (right) and facing South

H. View from Ben Van Don road facing North East 22

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

J. View from Vinh Khanh street facing North East 23


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Compared to the typical European society that we all know well and love, Vietnam has a much stronger aroma. Immediately noticable differences can be noten on many varying aspects. Among these aspects are traffic. Traffic can be seen in almost every corner, alley and turn. The fluidity of the traffic is an outlining aspect.

Cau Calmette 25


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Another noticeable characteristic of the in the district is the parsimonious, yet reasonable use of space. Urban areas are hugely condensed. The houses stack vertically almost evenly, yet inconsistently row wise.

Doan Van Bo 27


Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Ben Van Don

29 30

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Vinh Khanh

31 32

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Vinh Khanh

33 34

Edges and Boundaries

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The site has two major boundaries (where the junctions are), the junctions mark the ends of the site (as shown in red), whereas the boundaries for the actual study area are less defined. The canal acts as a boundary too. All major roads can be seen as boundaries and edges to the site, whereas smaller roads between dwellings cant be.




Edges The main physical edges in and around the site are outlined in red. All the edges follow the grid shaped street layout, with each ‘block’ having its own edges surrounding it; this is the same throughout Ho Chi Minh as this is how the city is designed, in a grid form layout, meaning that all blocks have their own physical edges. The study area is largely a residential area (dense grey shaded block), with commercial and public buildings surrounding it, but both commercial and residential buildings have a physical edge that ends at a road. Residential buildings are separated into smaller blocks with narrow streets between them, however all these streets still all connect to the main surrounding roads.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes


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Defined Boundaries


The defined boundaries in and around the site have been identified and outlined in yellow. The river is the most important defined boundary as it restricts people from people going into the actual water by having a bridge with railings to protect as the boundaries, it is defined as it means there is no access or room for extending the boundary here. The same goes for the other defined boundaries, many edges and boundaries can be extended (as shops spill out onto the pavements), however these particular boundaries cannot be extended, nor do they contain any street vendors.


Development of urban patterns and landscapes








Major Boundaries The major boundaries of the site have been outlined in this map, the boundaries separate the site and allow access in and out the site, the major boundaries are all large roads and junctions; one that made access to the site difficult by foot as it is a task in itself crossing such large roads, it however can be seen as beneficial as the roads all lead directly onto the site, which is good for those travelling via moped or car. The site contains two large junctions (one on either side), with very busy roads surrounding it. These are major boundaries as they are restricting.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes


3 2




Blurred Boundaries Many of the alleyways and paths within Ho Chi Minh are used by shops and residents; our study area is no different. Residents can be seen sat on the path playing games with their hammocks and mopeds parked beside them, they have ‘claimed’ the pathway, thus making the boundary blurred as there is no defined boundary/edge. Mopeds are also often parked on the paths and within alleyways between dwellings, again producing blurred boundaries. Many shops and especially restaurants have eating/sitting space on the paths too, so these areas can also be seen as blurred boundaries. 2/3

Development of urban patterns and landscapes





Development of urban patterns and landscapes

This grid-like street design can be seen in the entire city, it shows how the buildings (the solids) and the streets (voids) are connected together. The dwellings are separated into very compact blocks, with narrow alleys connecting all the blocks together; these blocks in turn create one larger block that is surrounded by larger roads, thus creating a grid like layout. The main roads create the larger voids, with the narrow alleys and side streets creating far smaller voids. Larger roads usually contain junctions, the study zone however contains two large junctions, one on either side, this allows ease of access to all proposed sites. The larger roads often contain commercial buildings, as this is better for the businesses (ease of access for people and visible enough to attract more people to it). The zone being studied is also very close to the river, this can be seen as advantageous (for climatic purposes, as it will help with cooling breezes), however it can also be seen as a disadvantage (due to issues with flooding). The river can be seen as a large void, as it allows the study zone to have more of an ‘openness’ as opposed to the enclosed and ‘trapped’ domestic space that can be seen in Ho Chi Minh.



Solids and voids

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

This diagram shows the relation between the solids and the voids, the solids being the buildings and the streets and roads between the buildings being the voids. Different types of voids can be found in the city, voids include alleys, streets, commercial and domestic spaces (parks, green space/sitting space, garden space). All voids have a purpose, whether they are big, small or narrow and wide; most voids are used for circulation and methods of access, with some being larger to accommodate for cars as well as bikes, while others only allow pedestrian access and bikes. Between the dwellings the dense streets create very narrow voids, allowing only bike and pedestrian access. Since many people travel via bike or car (mainly bike), there is little requirement for actual paths, this is evident in the city as many bikers can be seen through the streets and pedestrians walking through them. There is a relationship between the voids and the solids; around the commercial area (closer to the junctions), the voids are much larger, whereas in the less commercial area (residential area), the voids are much more narrow. It is these voids that connect the spaces, creating different experiences, spaces and shortcuts. The massing map also shows the large use of tall buildings within Ho Chi Minh, and how they are linked to one another, thus allowing the streets, pavements, alleyways and smaller promenades below to be shaded. The grid-like street design can be seen in the entire city, it shows how the buildings (solids) and the streets (voids) are connected together.



Development of urban patterns and landscapes

49 50

Building Types This specific zone is developing from the typical District 4 rows of houses to a more commercial and community orientated area, which can be seen through the new school and bank . The tight spaces and small alleyways give a clear impression on how family life and community is a big part of their lifestyle.

Some of the different types of voids that can be found in Ho Chi Minh; the residential streets create narrow voids, whereas roads and river create much larger voids. The voids also have different purposes, some are used for driving upon only, others as outdoor sitting space, and some for shading purposes.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

There is clear spatial definition between the private and public. The faรงades of the street are open to the public and cage in the enclosed private residential spaces, separating home, family and work life from the busy streets of Ho Chi Minh.



Building Type

Cãu Calmette street public space

People living and working on the same place

EDUCATION Development of urban patterns and landscapes



Private space only for people who live there


Public / Private Space

Cãu Calmette street view from the bridge

Vĩnh Khán street view next to the bank

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Public Space Semi Public Space Private Space

The Primary School

Privatize Space


57 56

Street Legibility This map shows the legibility of the zone being studied, and its surroundings. The map shows how streets and spaces are connected, with all smaller roads/alleys having quick access to the main roads and junctions. When looking at Ho Chi Minh/the site in plan view, as a whole, it looks to be very legible and easy to navigate through with wide open spaces. The plan shows a clear grid-like layout, with small and large roads for access. In reality however, this isn’t quite the case, the grid like layout does not seem as simple as it looks in plan view, in fact, one would not be able to tell that the city layout was a grid unless looked at in plan view. Instead it is complicated and difficult to travel through, and one could easily get lost there. The traffic is intense, making the roads and spaces seem overcrowded and hectic. The buildings are also closely packed together, with narrow streets running between them. Although very clear and legible in plan view, this is untrue, in reality it is very confusing and unclear, making it difficult to remember areas and how to get there.



Rhythm and Repetition

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The grid like layout within Ho Chi Minh makes the city very repetitive, and as the study area contains many dwellings, our site is very repetitive in the centre, development seems possible only on the exterior



Master Map

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The master map shows the important nodes, landmarks, views and paths that can be found in and around the site. These factors can therefore be used to relate to the site, for example Ree Tower is an important landmark, as people will associate the site with it, they will also be able to navigate themselves around the site from the tower. In this sense, the nodes and landmarks are important in allowing people to recognise the site. Views are important as it means people may want to visit the area just for the views, paths are equally as important as it is the means of access to and from the site. The master map shows all the important factors that ‘promote’ the site, as they attract people to the place. It is useful showing all the site attractions as there is a link between them all; the nodes and landmarks are similar and close to one another, with the views being of them too, paths connect them all together.



Paths The site contains two major junctions on either side of it with paths for pedestrians to walk on, these major roads and paths can be seen in pictures 1, 2 and 7. Pictures 3, 4, 5 and 6 show the paths in and around the site, these paths are more commercial and contain many shops and restaurants. The paths here are covered by restaurant seating and mopeds, so the paths are often difficult to walk on, meaning one would have to walk on the actual road, this therefore means the road can be seen as paths too. Dwellings are separated by narrow roads and alleyways, these paths can be described as private and residential paths.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The major roads and paths are all connected, allowing easy access to and from the site, at first glance it doesn’t seem as though the private paths and roads are connected, but on closer inspection, it can be seen that they are, as some roads connect all the way through one end to the other. Although these private paths are connected, they are largely considered as private by those that live in the dwellings surrounding them as they are the main users of the path. There are also some paths that come to a dead end, these paths can be seen as entirely private spaces.



Development of urban patterns and landscapes





1 2

3 4

4 8




Development of urban patterns and landscapes

5 6

7 8





Pedestrian Nodes:

Religious Nodes:

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The study area contains three different pedestrian nodes, these pedestrian nodes are areas of importance that pedestrians will recognise and associate with the study area. The pedestrians can navigate themselves to and from the site with these three nodes. The three nodes are all junctions, two of which can be found on corners (13 and 15), whereas one (14) is direct access into the study area. Because the site is so close to the junctions it means there is easy access to and from the site, making it a good location for designing something in.

The church and Buddhist temple are two important nodes, as religion for many is a very part of their lives. It is important for those living there, however it is also a place of interest for tourists too. The nodes provide a little more footfall into the district.




Tourist Nodes:

Commercial Nodes:

The river, Ree tower and the school are all places that stand apart in the district, hence why they are tourist points of interest. The river/ canal is interesting as it provides a different experience depending on the time of day that you are. Ree tower is an unusual building for the location and the school is innovative and fresh, these factors, thus make each place desirable for tourists to visit, making them important nodes.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Restaurants and small shops are important nodes as they are known by the locals, and when directing a tourist, these nodes can be used to explain how to get to a certain place. The nodes are also important for tourists as they are restaurants and cafes that they may want to eat at, to try new things and new experiences. As a result the nodes are important in bringing in more customers/income to the district.




Access Nodes:

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

These nodes are very important as they all provide direct access to the site, the spaces and buildings surrounding them act as a reference point so people can navigate around them and get to the site.



2.Nguyen Van Troi Primary School In the developing country the desire for educating the growing youth has become larger, seeing a vast expansion in the education system over the past few decades.

1. REE Tower

This school is located in a residential area (on the edge of our study area). The location is well thought out, as it sits next to houses, meaning students can travel to and from it easily. There is also a waiting area for parents to pick up their children, making it a safer place for young children (as opposed to the busy streets); other schools within Ho Chi Minh are on main roads (or very close to them), making it a dangerous drop off/pick up zone.

REE Tower is a grade office tower strategically located just inside district four, less than five minutes from the central business district of Ho Chi Minh City.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The Ree tower was initially in the study area, however the area was altered slightly, so now the tower is just outside of the boundary of the site. Although not in the study area any longer, the tower hangs over the buildings surrounding it, thus effectively dominating part of the skyline making it a key landmark, as it marks the beginning of the site. The tower is easily recognisable, making it advantageous for the site, as recognisable buildings mean access to the site will be easier, since one can easily navigate themselves around the building. The glazed tower is very prominent as it is very unlike the other buildings in Vietnam, looking as if it has been placed into the location with no attempt at making it fit into its surrounding environment, it is what one would call an ‘imported model’.

The school, after 15 years of construction and development, (the school named after national hero Nguyen Van Troi), was built. The school has become the bright spot with education achievements for the children living in the district. The school is contemporary and innovative, and shows the progression of development within the area, it stands proud within the area, in turn making it an important landmark, as this too is a building that will be remembered and associated with the area, thus effectively allowing people to navigate themselves around it.




A Protestant Church that sits in the initial study area (until we altered the study area), and is now just outside the boundary of our site. It can be seen as a key landmark, as there are not many Churches within the area, making its existence within the area important. It means there is a church for those who require it within the district. The reason that this landmark has been included (even though it is not in the study area), is to show that this is the only church within the area, and perhaps another church may actually be required.



Buddhism is the one of the biggest religion sects in Vietnam, so naturally there are many Buddhist temples within Vietnam, with two temples in District 4. Although there are two temples already in the District, there still is potential to design another one in the District, one that stands alone and more prominently (like the church and school do). The temple is a key landmark due to religious factors, and because its faรงade makes the building easily recognisable, again making it easier to navigate around.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Calmette bridge spans over the canal Ben Nghe, connecting District 1 and District 4 together, this connection makes it a landmark, as people can navigate themselves around it easily, and can easily get to the study area from here. The canal marks one of the access points to the study area, which again makes it an important landmark.







3 5

The different views surrounding the area that is being studied. it can be seen that although there are many junctions surrounding the area, there are also beautiful views. if a building was to be created (similar to the tall Vietnamese building), then views overlooking the city would be provided. However even on ground level the views are admirable.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes





Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The promenades located in District 4, similar to the rest of Ho Chi Minh, are hugely inconsistent in terms of depth, height and curvature; and in some spaces, non existant.



Development of urban patterns and landscapes

C. View from Doan Van Bo street

B. View from Nyugen Thanh and Hoang Dieu corner facing South

C. View from Nyugen Thanh street Facing North

D. View from Hoang Dieu facing North West

Glances of the site

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

These sketches express the relationship between the buildings and public spaces. The building users use the public space in their residential and commercial activities, as well as for disposing of food waste and parking space.

E. View from upper Hoang Dieu facing North West



Development of urban patterns and landscapes

87 88

Shelter and Exposure

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

The relationship between shelter and exposure is a successful one; there is clear balance between the two, as spaces are created with the help of the other (exposure has been considered when designing a sheltered area and vice versa). the climate of Ho chi minh is very hot and humid, requiring methods of shading, and also exposure to the sun (for natural daylight and vegetation etc). the trees are an effective method of shading, as they block excessive sunlight from entering buildings, and can be seen throughout the streets of the city. the streets are also very narrow, and contain tall buildings, again creating shadows in the alleyways and pavements, thus effectively shading spaces, and making it more bearable to be out in such a climate. buildings also have balconies and overhangs to provide shading, effectively allowing the interior space to not overheat. ground floor shops also have canopies that can be opened and closed, these canopies provide shading on the pavement, and allow the shop owners and customers to stay cool. the map below shows the pavements as being sheltered as most are shaded by the canopies. many of the smaller roads and alleyways therefore are sheltered fairly well,, however the larger roads and spaces offer far less shelter, thus making them much more exposed.



City life – People

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Despite being known for its gang related past, District 4, today, is no longer affected by this. There is an aura of warmth and happiness within the community.



Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Boy and Old woman talking while riding along together


Elderly and young men caught playing a game of chess together, no discrimination between ages. 94

Boy riding bike to school despite traffic hazards.

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Wife supporting husband’s family business along with future successor

Little boy of the restaurant owner was eager to have his picture taken


It seems that no one is exempt from hard work, not even the elderly Two youngsters asked to take a photo, later, they came back with a third friend to take another photo (not shown). 96

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Night Cycle

District 1 links to District 4

Night Activity

Development of urban patterns and landscapes

During the night, businesses are still blooming with enthusiasm and people are still active, in contrast to what we commonly see back home. Children are still outside and active despite it being past what one would consider ‘bedtime’. During these time, leisure and relaxation spots are open due to the slightly cooler temperatures and lack of sunlight. Not only are the stores open, but vendors are also available during these night hours. Some will actively travel while others sit in relaxation while awaiting customers.



Development of urban patterns and landscapes

Families are open and welcoming to taking pictures which contrasts to the UK



Architectural Developments and Typologies

Building Topography Ho Chi Minh City is located in the Southeastern region of Vietnam. Topography has lowered from North to South and from East to West. Area with an elevation of less than 2 meters accounts for 60 % of the city (Figure 1). Its dense network of canals is influenced by the ocean tide regime, so it often causes flooding to low-lying areas.


Analysis Of Massing

Architectural Developments and Typologies

The massing of Cau Calmette is incredibly dense, with vibrant ally ways you can barley pass through without feeling like you are in the homes of the locals around you. Each block is different, consisting of mainly retail stores on the ground floor and residential housing above, with the buildings behind almost towering over from above as a form of stability. W



Architectural Developments and Typologies

Retail Residential Religious / Co operate 109


Analysis of Massing

Architectural Developments and Typologies

The massing of Hoang Dieu is also incredibly dense, however as it is a ‘main road’ street the space does not seem as enclosed as others. On the ground floor there are many retail shops/restaurants which is common in Vietnam with residential space above, many of the retail shops are workshops/bike repair shops, as this location is ideal for a quick stop.



Architectural Developments and Typologies

Retail Residential Religious / Co operate 113


Building Relationship by Vertical Use


Architectural Developments and Typologies

The use of all flloors of the buildings on this street have been explored to see what the relationship of usage is of all the buildings.


Retail/Commercial 115


From right to left The first building has a triangle shaped floor plan as it sits on the edge of the street, with equal proportion from ground to top floor. Commercial and Cooperate use through out, with a motorbike repair shop on the ground floor. Caved in balconies to avoid direct sunlight. Open air roof terrace. Users: Adults with faulty bikes, as it’s a motor bike repair shop. The second, is a rundown derelict building, now uninhabited, and was previously residential space. Architectural elements; Steel shuttering gates glazed windows and external balconies. Regular rectangular proportions Light blue and white façade to reflect solar radiation and keep interior space cool. The third building is a helmet shop for motorbikes and cyclists. Irregular building proportions, as the first is a little bit smaller than others. Blue glazing on the external façade with no balconies, although light vegetation has been used for natural shading. Architectural elements include: a semi circular roof that protrudes out to provide shading. Primary users; All ages as kids have access to bicycles and adults have motor bikes. With it having residential floors above.

Architectural Developments and Typologies

The forth, is a semi detached building with two commercial businesses on the ground floor and residential apartments above. The first being a little café with a hot food stand outside. This cafe caters a wide variety of people, from children before and after they go to school, adults before and after they go to work and tourists. On the other side is a children’s toy shop. On the upper floors you are drawn in by the Roman style architecture, glazed windows and open air roof terrace, with a triangle face roof and suspended floors. The fifth building is another motorbike shop, this time selling seats and accessories such as body work casing and mirrors. The design contains regular geometric shapes with basic and functional architectural elements. Two large glazed windows allow natural light in, as well as reflecting the solar radiation. With large balconies and local needs as most of Vietnam gets around on motorcycles. The last building that was analysed was a phone shop and electronic repair shop. With the first floor slightly lower then the others. the building has glazing on both the windows and doors, with shading over the balconies and a flat roof.



Architectural Developments and Typologies

Hoang Dieu

119 120

Architectural Developments and Typologies

Detailed Elevation Cau Calmette

121 122

Building Heights

6 Storeys and Above 5 Storeys 4 Storeys 3 Storeys

Architectural Developments and Typologies

2 Storeys


and Below


Building Heights – Street Analysis

Architectural Developments and Typologies

Cau Calmette Street



Building Heights – Street Analysis

Architectural Developments and Typologies

Vinh Khanh Street



Trade, Economy and Industry

Trade, Economy and Industry

Population - Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh


Transport The expanding population has demanded necessary improvement in transportation networks for both pedestrians and the growing number of motor vehicles. The most popular form of transport is mopeds, but there has also been an increase in the number of private cars. Congestion means that traffic rarely exceeds 20-30km/h in central parts of the city. Traffic and pedestrians are not adequately separated creating hazards at crossroads, especially tourists unfamiliar with the system and unaccustomed to the regulation of traffic.

Trade, Economy and Industry

Statistics There are approximately 340,000 cars and 3.5 million motorcycles in the city.



Mopeds Mopeds and taxis are plentiful, cheap and are genrally quite safe. Driving in Ho Chi Minh is best left to the experienced drivers. The traffic is intense and has its own rhythm and fluidity.

Trade, Economy and Industry

However, a few things to consider; drivers with limited experience should consider renting an automatic bike. They are not an ideal method of transport for a nervous passenger.



Trade, Economy and Industry

137 138


Trade, Economy and Industry

The cyclo, a pedaled tricycle provides an interesting and pollution free way to travel. It revolves around transporting tourists who are looking for a slow paced tour of the city. However, the drivers have a bad reputation due to the scams inflicted by some drivers on unwary tourists, who may be charged unreasonable prices and are sometimes even threatened or have money taken from them. Both the cyclo association and the police are attempting to clamp down on this abuse and the associations members have agreed a fixed rate of 50,000 VND per hour, which is just under ÂŁ2.



Trade, Economy and Industry

141 142


Trade, Economy and Industry

Ho Chi Minh’s taxi industry dates from 1992 and since then has grown in a rapid and unregulated fashion. Between 2002 and 2008 the number of cabs grew from less than 5,000 to around 13,000, run by nearly 40 firms. Fares are fixed by the Ministry of Transport in agreement with Ho Chi Minh’s Taxi Association. As well as the registered taxis run by recognized firms there are a number of ‘ghost taxis’ which provide a poor service and charge high fares, particularly taking advantage of tourists.



Trade, Economy and Industry

145 146


Trade, Economy and Industry

There are shuttle services for commuters, to schools, factories as well as for passengers on suburban and interprovincial routes. There are also charter services for tourist groups, but most tourist destinations can also be reached by scheduled services which covers 152 routes in and around the city. Although some tourists are deferred from using these due to distances between bus stops and the waiting time. Buses are air-conditioned, but can also sometimes be crowded. There are around 3,000 buses serving the city's population of 9 million people.



Trade, Economy and Industry

149 150

Ho Chi Minh City – New Metro Raid System

Trade, Economy and Industry

A new metro route is under construction linking downtown with District 9; financed by the World Bank, but will not be opened until 2018. The City’s Urban Transport Master Plan aims to increase public transport use and reduce private vehicles. Ho Chi Minh City’s Integrated Public Transport Investment Program aims to create an efficient, integrated and sustainable public transport system for Ho Chi Minh City and improve the extent and connectivity between bus systems proposed and other modes of public transport, while also strengthening urban transport policies and regulations.



Bus Rapid Transport System (BRT)

Trade, Economy and Industry

The city has received loans from the World Bank for a new transport system. They have been given a 124 million dollar loan in order to develop the Bus Rapid Transport System (BRT) and it is envisaged that this will be up and running in the year 2018. The line will run along An Lac to District 2, to then be further developed into a six line system. Once the system is up and running it is estimated to carry 28,300 passengers a day.



Trade, Economy and Industry

155 156

Railway System and other Future Plans The railways in Vietnam are state owned The main railway station was built in the 1930’s by the French. Trains run on the 1600km single track ‘Reunification Line’ (named after the countries reunification in 1976). In order to attract more passengers and as part of the modernization of the service it has been proposed to introduce free Wi-Fi on express trains by 2016, There is a proposal to relocate the main railway to the outskirts of the city.

Trade, Economy and Industry

New urban lines for HCMC are also being considered including light rail and light metro or monorail. According to the 2007 transport plan for Ho Chi Minh, the city aims to build 6 urban railway lines and 3 light rail, light metro or monorail lines. Much of the funding has been provided by Japan.



Airport Ho Chi Minh’s role as an economic and transport hub for the whole country means that international air links are vital. Tan Son Nhat International Airport developed on the site of a French colonial airfield built in the 1930’s which later served as a US military airbase during the war is the main airport.

Trade, Economy and Industry

It now covers 2,100 acres and has the capacity to handle 25 million passengers per year compared with Hanoi’s Noi Bai airport with 19 million passengers and Da Nang’s 6 million. It is in the top 50 busiest airports in the world. In 2007 a new international terminal opened to help cope with the growth of tourism which is now increasing by 15-20% annually.



Future Development

Trade, Economy and Industry

To cope with the increase in passengers a new international Airport at Long Thanh, 40km North East of Ho Chi Minh is to be built.



Development - Vietnams tallest skyscraper in Ho Chi Minh The population of Ho Chi Minh is about 9 million. The city is vibrant and is a commercial hub, including business towers, shopping malls, urban projects and new bridges.

Trade, Economy and Industry

A new sky scraper is in the process of being built, designed by British Architects, Atkins. The challenge was to build a unique structure to reflect the Vingroups vision for a mixed use and high end development. It is to be the tallest building in Vietnam at 460 meters with 81 stories. Located on the bank of the Saigon river, this building will function as a hotel, hold residential buildings, a shopping centre and a roof top garden.



Development - The Crescent

Trade, Economy and Industry

The city is growing and development means the city is moving southwards. There is a 2,630 hectare South plan which involves creating new international communities and commercial Districts South of the city. It is envisaged this community will be self contained and will have extensive networks of waterways and each area will have it own unique identity. The area will include recreational facilities alongside cultural hubs. The area will expand further in the future.



District 4 - Climate Change Adaptation Strategy There are plans to create new reservoirs to control flooding in Ho Chi Minh, starting with a pilot project, a reservoir in Khanh Hoi in District 4. Plans are also being considered to widen several existing lakes to create further storm and flood water storage. Some of the new reservoirs could be built underground.

Trade, Economy and Industry

On this topic Leon Valkenburg said: “Plans are being prepared to create a water storage area (or reservoir) near Khanh Hoi in District 4. This water storage area is to be built above ground and is planned to be combined with green space. It is a water retention area to store excess rain water and to block high tides from entering District 4 that causes backflow in the sewer system. Generally speaking, creating water storage areas will alleviate flooding substantially. Fewer streets, businesses and houses will be flooded. The reservoir in District 4 will reduce flooding caused by both rainfall and high tides. At the moment, local flooding by high tide occurs every spring tide (at least twice a month�.



Trade, Economy and Industry

Canals around District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, the location of the new flood prevention reservoir


Future water retention area in district 4


Developing a child friendly District A four year plan was made to tackle these issues within the District.

Trade, Economy and Industry

Issues 1. School: Too many and too high fees; too much corporal punishment and degrading behavior by teachers; too demanding a curriculum that oblige children to attend evening tuition classes; fear of sexual harassment, causing children to drop out. 2. Recreation: Very few playgrounds or safe places where children can play; no organized activities except in summer holidays; no time to play due to school homework.  3. Environment: Dirty streets, markets, toilets, rivers and canals; no dustbins in houses, resulting in people throwing their garbage on to the street; pollution from factories; pavements used as toilets and also blocked by parked motorcycles and street vendors.  4. The family: Parents don’t listen to their children; too much corporal punishment, abuse and neglect; children in poor families have to work instead of going to school.  5. Social problems: Too much gambling, drug addiction, theft, fighting on the street; children are lured into taking and selling drugs; drug addicts throw their used needles on the street; no help given to drug addicted children in the District.  6. Children’s status in society: Nobody gives children a voice; parents divorce without thinking of the future of their children; street children are ignored by society. 7. Facilities & infrastructure: Children’s learning aids are insufficient or broken; there is poor lighting and ventilation in many classrooms; school desks, chairs, blackboards are often left unrepaired; the playgrounds are too small; school canteen food is too expensive; the toilets are dirty and often without water. 8. The learning environment: The amount of time that children have to study in the classroom (including Saturdays), doing homework, in private tuition is too much; there is not enough time to relax or play sports or do any hobbies; teachers beat children unfairly. 9. Safety: It is dangerous on the road because nobody follows traffic regulations; outside people try to exploit, corrupt and steal from school children; schools should provide sex education; teachers deal out too many long or severe punishments in school; school food should be better and more nutritious; the school health insurance is too expensive. 10. Child-teacher, child-child & parent-child relations: Some teachers force children to have private tuition; many punishments/detentions are unfair; parents do not listen to their children and force them to study excessively; older children often bully younger children. 11. Environment: Everybody’s health in school is endangered by factory pollution; toilets are dirty and smell bad; playgrounds are almost bare of trees/plants and often covered with children’s litter; canteen food is unhealthy and expensive. 12. Child participation: Children want to take part in leisure/sport/camping activities and make new friends; children want teachers to read or explain to them more about real life.

Future water retention area in district 4




Trade, Economy and Industry

According to the worlds health organization, the pollution levels in Ho Chi Minh city reached heights of up to 80,000 particles per litre, which is considered 10 times the limit of what is considered ‘safe’ by their standards. This is due to the growth of the urban environment that was in dire need for motarized vehicles. Unfortunately, the most common use of these vehicles are mopeds, which can only hold two occupants. They are the most commonly used vehicles and are the main source of pollution.



Sources of Pollution

Privately Owned Cars Amount : 200,000

Moped Amount: 3.5 Million

Trade, Economy and Industry

Source of Pollution (Darker areas are more intense)

Taxi Amount : 240,000


Bus Amount:: 10,000


Saigon River The Saigon river is 280km in length. It flows in a South Easterly direction from its source in Cambodia and it flows into the Nha Be River.

Trade, Economy and Industry

In the past a lot of travellers arrived in Saigon along the river and the French planners had left their mark on the city with tree lined boulevards and French style buildings.



Trade, Economy and Industry

179 180

Import and Export

Trade, Economy and Industry

In the past the river provided routes for trade as it still does today. You can see many cargo ships come and go, importing and exporting goods along the river. The river is a valuable source for seafood and fisherman frequently fish in the shallow waters. Today it is the main water source for Ho Chi Minh and supplies domestic water, however, it is quite polluted and its quality continues to decrease. Some say it is a dying river due to the vast amounts of pollution that are placed in it every day. It contains high levels of organic matter, metals and nutrients and some of which are detrimental to human health. It is also the main water supply for Saigon port. Unfortunately, the river is not remarkable unlike other rivers that are associated with their cities, like the Seine in Paris. The river often breaks its banks and the area along the river often floods. Trees are used as a flood defense, and because of its reputation for flooding the river has become unpopular with the locals.



District 4 - Drainage and Sewage

Trade, Economy and Industry

A number of different drainage systems can be observed within area 1. Square gutters are often seen at the ends of the roads. The drainage system that is located on the inside edge of the road is used by the local businesses to pour water or rubbish. The other type of drainage systems is situated within the private areas and is used to allow the excess water to run down into small graved paths. The drainage system, however, seems to not be entirely efficient as flooding often occurs in the monsoon season.



Trade, Economy and Industry

185 186

Trade, Economy and Industry

187 188

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses


Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Ho Chi Minh is located in the tropical climatic zone. The year is divided into two seasons: wet, which lasts from May to September and dry, from October to April. The average temperature is 28 C and slight varies during the year. The highest temperature is 40 C, in April and the lowest is 13.8 C in January. The city experiences between 2400 to 2700 hours of sunshine. The longest day is 20th of June and the shortest is 21st December, but the overall day duration doesn’t change very much as the variation is only 45 minutes.


Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses



30 25



10 5 0




193 194

Sun Movement The diagram shows the pattern of movement of the sun in relation to area 1. Fig. A shows the sun position at 9 am Fig. B indicates how the shading of the area changes 4 hours later when it’s past midday and the shadowing has slightly changed it’s direction. At that point, the amount of heat is almost at it’s peak while it’s just the opposite with the amount of shading.

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Fig. C shows how the sun has already changed it’s direction and the buildings are casting shadows on the East side as it’s already close to the sunset when the maximum amount of shadow’s occur.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Fig. A - 9am

197 198

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Fig. B - 1pm Fig. C - 5am

199 200

100% 80%

The humidity during the year ranges between 46 % to 98 %, which classifies the city as a very humid one. The humidity doesn’t normally drop under 36 %. The driest time is March, 2nd with humidity under 58 % and the month with most humid weather is October – 95 %.

60% 40% 20%


360 315 270 225

Light and moderate thunderstorms are the most common types of rainfall in Ho Chi Minh City. During the rain season – May – September, the amount of rain reaches it’s climax as there is more than 315 mm of rainfall per a square m.

180 135 90 45 0

30 Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

25 20 During the dry season, rainfalls are unlikely and at the occasions when they happen, their duration is not long. The annual amount of rainfall, as it is visible from the diagram, is sufficient, exceeding 1000 mm .

15 10

The months between May and September, winds blow from the South and the Southeast direction. From October to April, it is North and NorthWest winds that are more dominant. The speed of the winds varies between 0 m/s and 7 m/s. The most dominant winds are from SouthWest, SouthEast and South directions. A vital climatic factor for area 1 is the river. Due to it’s close position, the breezes, which blow from the water to the land (diagram) provide constant airflow. This feature was used in the urban planning and layout of the buildings.

5 0



Another benefit from the winds was taken by building the edifices at different heights. Taller buildings capture winds at higher levels and channel it to the levels below. For this reason, are situated downwind of lower buildings.

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Wind Speed

Fresh air supply was provided by orientating the streets to the direction of the prevailing winds. Therefore, the streets are either parallel or 30 to 60 degrees angled. Narrow wind channels ( streets) are also a common practice to ensure ventilation is provided.



Environmental Design: Cross Ventilation

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Natural ventilation is a major goal for buildings in Vietnam. This is achieved by positioning large windows on the North side of the edifices. In comparison, the windows around the rest of the building facades are smaller. In this way, cross ventilation with fresh air comes from the wider windows and leaves through the more narrower ones. Cross ventilation is also achieved with high level vents as cold air comes from windows and doors and warm air leaves through the vents.

Breeze winds (river)



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

207 208

Environmental Design: Shading

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Shading within area 1 is achieved in a number of ways, it is achieved by: using the overhanging of the roofs and balconies, extended eaves as well as the difference in heights between the buildings. The narrow gaps between the edifices keep the streets cool in the hot climate and also provide shading from the taller buildings.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

211 212

Environmental Responses

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

A number of features for climate control can be observed within the buildings in area 1. Due to those climatic adaptations, the edifices take advantage of the environmental conditions. An example for that is the usage of natural ventilation within most of the households as mechanical facilities are needed only in commercial buildings such as restaurants and hotels.



Sun – Shades: To prevent overheating

Window Shutters: To control the airflow

Balconies - set back for cross ventilation and prevent overheating

Canopies - To provide shading over the entrances

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses


Narrow Gaps: To allow the airflow

Skylights: For shading at the top of the buildings 215

Raised floor - As a prevention from monsoons

High level vents - To provide air flow between floors 216

Trees and Green Spaces One of the main features in Vietnam is the nature. People are trying to somehow adapt every building to the nature by putting flowers and trees everywhere. This also helps in creating natural ventilation and natural shading for the hot weather. There are no open green spaces within this study area, and the trees are the only greenery for this area. The trees on the street are of various heights which create high and low

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

shading from the heat.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Hard and Soft Landscape

219 220

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

221 222

Architectural Character

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

The rapid development of Ho Chi Minh City and District 4 had a strong influence on the architectural character of the place. It is a mixture between Chinese, French, Vernacular and Ethnic Architecture. This mixed usage of two or more style on a simple facade can be observed in a number of buildings in area 1. This is done with a view of positively correlating with the rest of the surroundings. The result of this mixing is the existence of edifices with Chinese patterns on the windows and tiled roof for example. The architectural character also tells the story of the past and future of Ho Chi Minh City. Apart from the new buildings with modern features, there are a number of old almost ruined edifices that are waiting for either renovation or complete demolishment.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses


Vernacular Vietnamese architecture showing mixed styles influence

A door showing the Chinese influence

Modern Influence

French Influence 226

Chinese Influence

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Undoubtedly, China and Vietnam’s historical relation had a big influence on the Vietnamese architecture in a number of ways. China’s dominance over the centuries resulted in pagodas and heavy ornamentation and decoration on the buildings. The typical Chinese characteristics became the basis of the formation of traditional Vietnamese architecture. An example for Chinese featured elements are the large fan-shape windows, decorated with wooden louvers, that face the Saigon River. The incorporation of certain principles from the popular Feng – Shui, such as the facing towards the water, are part of Vietnam’s traditions when it comes to not only building design but also urban pattern. The layout of the buildings in area 1 are an excellent example for that as the edifices are facing the river in order to bring good luck and abundance.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

229 230

French Influence Apart from China, Vietnam is also historically connected with France. The 19th century was the time of French occupation in Vietnam and that directly resulted in the incorporation of French featured elements in the Vietnamese architecture. Examples for that are the ubiquitous usage of balconies, the use of high ceilings and large windows, which however, were adapted to the local climatic conditions with overhanging and shutters.

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Other typical features from the French influence is the symmetrical design, the rectangular shapes, narrow windows and doors, steep hailed roofs and shutters as well as the usage of concrete frame. Concrete is also used as finishing and painted in bright colours afterwards.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

233 234

Modern Influence

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

As it could be observed from the images, Modern Architecture also had in influence in the development in District 4. Features such as simple forms, rectangular forms, horizontal and vertical lines, flat roofs, usage of windows (to provide more natural light) as well as the usage of modern materials can be noticed in number of buildings within area 1. Due to the lack of control in building regulations and the recently started period of development in the area, various materials and construction techniques could be seen within the area and the whole District. Concrete, glass and aluminum are the most commonly used materials in such types of buildings. Another distinctive feature of modern edifices in zone 1 is their height as most of them are substantially taller than the rest of the buildings. In a way, this characteristic shows the future of zone 1 and District 4 as an area of progress and abundance.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

237 238

Buildings in a state of repair Despite the fast development of the area, there is still a large number of features in District 4 that signify the low economic status of the area. Within area 1 there are a lot of buildings in a state of repair. The map underneath indicates their location. Most of these buildings have residential purposes and therefore they are often not carefully taken care of.

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Most of them have light weight structure such as timber and therefore, their lifespan turns out to be quite short. In a number of cases, renovation was attempted to be done using metal sheets, but to a very basic level.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

241 242

Doors/Gates Within area 1, the majority of the doors were made out of steel. A great deal of the ground floor space is for commercial use, which is the reason why this type of doors are used as they provide good protection.

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

A variety of ornamentation with Chinese motives can be observed on a large number of doors with both residential and commercial buildings. Some of the doors have steel shutters and are located after the door study, which provides further security for the indoor spaces. Another reason for that is the usage of the doors as part of the ventilation system of the edifices.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

245 246


Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

In terms of positioning, most of the windows are part of the balcony. The North and South location is specifically preferred in order to take advantage of the prevailing winds. In addition, the majority of the windows have louvers as part of their framework to provide sunlight, shading and prevent overheating. The designs are also created to provide cross ventilation for the indoor spaces. The windows in area 1 vary in shapes and ornamentation. The influence of French and Modernist architecture are particularly visible.



Construction Techniques - Traditional Construction Techniques A traditional Vietnamese house is known as a tube house, these are long narrow like structures that usually go up as high as the tenant can afford normally. This is due to the fact that a plot of land is taxed in relationship to the width it occupies of the street. So you often have vey narrow tall buildings. Vietnamese traditional housing has been constructed based on the use and availability of local materials and semi-open spaces.In detail, typical characteristics identified in Vietnamese traditional housing are presented from the following points of view: Using local materials Applying a high roof pitch Employing semi-open spaces Optimising an appropriate orientation Integration with the natural landscape.

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Use of local available materials are a unique feature of vernacular Vietnamese houses, however they also reveal the owner’s wealth potential and economic prosperity. Prosperous owners obtained the house with wall and roof frames made of forest timber found in the vicinity of the site. In some farming areas, available rustic materials were combined together for construction; for example, bamboo and rattan for framing, coir and coconut husks for wall insulation, and thatch and rice stems for roofing. These woodless timbers were popularly used because they are available and able to grow quickly in normal conditions. Earth materials in many forms such as compressed dried clay brick, fired brick, and earth covers on timber frames were used to make walls and partitions of housing in most regions of Vietnam. However, due to rapid influences from the current economic development and globalisation, imported materials and borrowed methods from the outside world have been used in the construction.



New Construction Techniques

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

There is quiet a bit of on-going construction for a fairly built up residential area in District 4, Ho chi minh City. The site has a diverse category of buildings, with the main split being a highly dense sky rise residential area to fairly spread out cooperate blocks with schools and religious centres.The main material used in construction in District 4 is brick and concrete, although being non structural walls, they are cost efficient and flexible in construction. Most buildings in the area go by the same vertical layout proportion. With retail shops on the ground floor and living quarters on the upper floors. This layout works well in the area as there is limited space and extremely repetitive making it easy to construct, as floors can just be put on top of one another with the exact same floor plan.




Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Adhering to the climate conditions White, reflective roofs and faรงades are used to lower the indoor temperature and to reduce solar radiation. However it should be noted that, while helpful, the roof temperature reduction efficiency of reflective roof materials is less than that of green roofs. The use of steel and some types of glass as faรงade construction materials should be limited, because these materials warm up to a large extent when exposed to direct solar radiation. Natural materials like wood or bamboo warm up significantly less.


Shade in this District is mainly provided by natural vegetation and buildings to avoid direct sunlight in public open spaces, especially the afternoon sun between 12pm and 3pm, buildings situated to the west and south should be tall enough to provide the most efficient shading.



Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

Colour Palette

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Building Regulations



The Building Control Decree states that the Building Code of Vietnam (BCV) is the mandatory code. The code is divided into the following:  BCV part 1, 2, and 3 (structural, mechanical, plumbing and excavation)  Construction accessibility for people with disabilities  Natural physical and climatic data for construction  Urban underground structures  Classifications and grading of civil and industrial buildings and urban infrastructures.

REGULATORY SYSTEM Vietnam takes a centralized approach to its building and construction regulatory system. The central government issues building and construction decrees and the Ministry of Construction converts them into building codes. The Ministry administers decrees, codes, and construction standards through its employees and through consultants. Other ministries whose functions affect building controls provide input as well. For example, some building permits are issued only after the codes of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment are complied with. Building code enforcers are involved in the revision of codes, standards, and decrees. The building code is enforced by the Provincial People’s Committees. Enforcement includes employing and/ or contracting building officials, issuing permits, and issuing approvals, etc. The People’s Committees may not modify the code but propose local modifications to the Ministry of Construction and develop approved modifications into Local National Technical Regulations for local enforcement.

TYPES OF BUILDINGS Building are divided by type of use: hotels, high-grade office, foreign affairs office, retail, high-grade condominium, dwelling houses, public buildings (education buildings, cultural buildings, medical buildings, sports buildings, commercial buildings, and office buildings), and industrial buildings. V I E T N A M | 200 3. Code Details MINIMUM CODES Electrical. The mandatory electrical codes in Vietnam are as follows:  Code on Electric Facility- Part I: General Regulation  Code on Electric Facility- Part II: Electric Network  Code on Electric Facility- Part III: Distribution Facility & Transformer

GREENING OF BUILDING CODES IN VIETNAM Energy efficiency is already part of Vietnam’s building code, and is introduced into the code by a decree of the central government. The central government has made extensive plans to introduce green standards into future building codes in the form of national laws and regulations that affect all industries. Vietnam also has a voluntary green building rating system driven by the private sector and government.

Materials, Environmental and Climatic Responses

CODE DEVELOPMENT Administration, and Enforcement Building regulations in Vietnam are called building decrees. A decree is issued by the Prime Minister. A construction control decree is converted into building construction codes by the Ministry of Construction. The Ministry is responsible for building and construction control functions. It develops, reviews, revises, and issues construction and design codes and guidelines; issues licenses and permits pertaining to building and construction; enforces building decrees; applies technology to ensure uniform implementation across the economy; organizes training, testing, and inspection to validate code conformance; enforces building code compliance, conducting violation inspections and imposing penalties; and reviews building permits for the entire economy. Other ministries work hand in hand with the Ministry to draft, review, and modify the decree and codes. They provide opinions in their particular fields that would affect building permits and codes, and check and recommend to the local government (People’s Committee) potential suspension of licenses and revocation of building permits. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment approves or rejects land use for development, and the Ministry of Construction approves or rejects building permits accordingly. PROVINCIAL PEOPLE’S COMMITTEE







A graphic image of Long Thanh International Airport. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.vir. (2016). Brief history of Vietnam architecture. [online] Available at: http://www. [Accessed 03 March 2016]. (2016). RATIFYING THE READJUSTED GENERAL PLANNING OF DA LAT CITY, LAM DONG PROVINCE, AND ITS ADJACENT AREAS TO 2020. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 March 2016]. Bond, T. (2006). Developing a “Child Friendly District” in District 4, Ho Chi Minh City (1st ed.). Retrieved from cfd_documentation-a_case_of_vietnam1.pdf City pass guide. THE FUTURE OF TRANSIT IN HO CHI MINH CITY. Retrieved from cyclo ride around the trading area. Retrieved from puppet_show+cyclo+tour.html Davies, R. (2015). Vietnam - New Reservoirs to Control Floods in Ho Chi Minh City - FloodList.FloodList. Retrieved 4 March 2016, from (2016). TROPICAL CLIMATE | Building Design Considerations | Design490. [online] Available at: [Accessed 03 March 2016]. e-architect. (2016). Vietnam Architecture - Vietnamese Buildings - e-architect. [online] Available at: [Accessed 08 March 2016]. Keskeys, P. (2015). Vertically Vietnam: Southeast Asia’s Tallest Building Rises in Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved from Planet, L. (2016). Colonial architecture in Vietnam - Lonely Planet. [online] Lonely Planet. Available at: [Accessed 03 March 2016]. Retrieved from Retrieved from Retrieved from Retrieved from Retrieved from Talk vietnam,. (2013). commuters waiting for buses at a bus station in Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved from Talkvietnam,. (2014). An artist’s impression of a stop of the first BRT line in HCM City. Retrieved from Son Nhat International Terminal. Retrieved from TUOI TRE NEWS,. (2015). Passengers are seen waiting at the international terminal at Tan Son Nhat International Airport in Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved from society/32782/foreign-passenger-jumps-off-second-floor-at-tan-son-nhat-airport VIETNAM ANNOUNCES 15% COST CUT IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF LONG THANH AIRPORT. Retrieved from (2016). Climate of the World: Vietnam - Weather UK - weatheronline. [online] Available at: [Accessed 03 March 2016]. xotours,. (2016). Vinasun Taxi. Retrieved from 261


Vietnam Urban Study  

A study of District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with particular in depth analysis of one sector within District 4.

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