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GSM / ISO A & B Series C Series Japanese / USA Sizes Newspaper Sizes Coated / Uncoated Gloss / Matt Silk / Linen Laid / Wove Boards / Carton Plastics / Acetate Saddle Stitch / Perfect Japanese Stab Stitch Coptic / Plastic Coil Ring / Spiral Ring Thermal Tape Screw & Post Double Loop Costings

Print Processes


Contents


___Stock Weight & Size GSM / ISO A & B Series C Series Japanese / USA Sizes Newspaper Sizes ___Stock Finishes Coated / Uncoated Gloss / Matt Silk / Linen Laid / Wove Boards / Carton Plastics / Acetate

04 06 08 10 12 14 18 19 20 21 22 23

___Binding Techniques Saddle Stitch / Perfect Japanese Stab Stitch / Coptic Ring / Spiral Ring Thermal Tape / Plastic Coil Screw & Post / Double Loop Foilding / Creasing Collating / Perferating Costings

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 足 40


Stock, Weight & Size


Print Processes


GSM & ISO

ISO System (Left a3, Right 2 x A4

There are many different paper size standard conventions in different countries and have been even more over the past years. Today however, there is an Internations ISO standard paper size which includes the A, B and C sizes and also a local standard that is used in Norht America. This is for things such as Letter, Legal and Ledger.

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Sto_ck

___Weight

___Caliper

___GSM

___ISO

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

Caliper is the name given to the paper thickness. It is a common measurment that is required for certain printing applications. Since a paper’s density is typically not directly known or specified, the thickness of any sheet of paper cannot be calculated by any method. Instead, it is measured and specified separately as its caliper.

GSM stands for ‘Grams per Square Meter’. It is the standadised measurement for paper and allows printers to have a much more precise control of how thick or thin the paper should be for it’s particular use. It actually tells you how much a square meter of the paper your using would weigh in grams. This is a really good system as it allows clients to know exactly what they are getting through the use of GSM samples.

In The ISO paper size system, the height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of two (1.4142 : 1). To explain this better, the width and height of the page is the same equivalent in relation to one side of a square and the diagonal across a square. So, when you place two pages together, the resulting height and width will be the same proportions as one page. (See Diagram)

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

Caliper is measured in micrometers (1/1000 of a mm). Grammage is measured by Quality Control System and verified by laboratory measurement.

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Sto_ck

___A Series

A & B Series

The A Series of paper is probably the most common and recognizable. This is because it is what is conventionally used in Europe throughout most businesses because it has become part of the fabric of our lives. It is used in desktop printers for the masses and in offices as well as most printed material such as mail, posters and flyers. This is mainly because of it’s ease, popularity and usability to sit within our everyday lives. The dimensions of the A size paper are defined by the ISO system, for example, A5 is half of A4 size paper and A2 is half of A1 size paper. ___B Series As well as the A Series, there is also a less popular B Series of paper. The area of the B Series sheets is the geometric mean of successive A Series sheets. This is not common in general and office use but is still used regularly is certain situations. A lot of Books and Posters tend to use this measurement. For example B5 is a popular choice for books and B3 is a popular choice for posters depending on the situation.

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A0___ 1189 x 841 mm B0___ 1414 x 1000 mm

A1___ 841 x 594 mm B1___ 1000 x 707 mm

A2___ 594 x 420 mm B2___ 707 x 500 mm

A3___ 420 x 297 mm B3___ 500 x 353 mm

A4___ 297 x 210 mm B4___ 353 x 250 mm

A5___ 210 x 148 mm B5___ 250 x 176 mm

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___DL The DL sized envelope is used to hold an A4 sheet folded into three equal sections vertically. This also works for an A5 sheet folded in half vertically.

___C6

C Series

The C6 envelope is used to hold an unfolded A6 sized peice of paper. So this is an A4 sheet folded in half twice; Once verticlaly and once horizontally, and also an A5 sheet folded in half once horizontally.

___C5 The C5 envelope is used to hold an unfolded A5 sized peice of paper. This can also be an A4 sheet folded once in half, horizontally.

___C4 The C4 envelope is used to hold and unfolded A4 sized peice of paper. This can also be an A3 sheet folded once in half, horizontally.


Sto_ck

The C Series is used for envelopes, designed to take A series paper. eg C4 is used to hold A4. DL envelopes take A4 sheets, folded into three. The C Series of sizes, like the B Series, is the geometric mean of the areas of both the A and B Series Sheets of the same number. For example, C4 is the mean of both A4 and B4 which makes it slightly bigger than A4 but slightly smaller than B4. Somewhere in the middle. This size is only ever used for enveolopes and a practial use would be that an A4 sized letter would fold down into a C4 sized envelope.

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25 x 38” 635 x 965 mm

23 x 35” 584 x 889 mm

19 x 25” 483 x 635 mm

17.5 x 22.5” 445 x 572 mm

11 x 17” 279 x 432 mm

8.5 x 11” 216 x 279 mm

12 Japan & USA


Sto_ck

___Japan

___ANSI

The JIS defines two main series of paper sizes. The JIS A-series is identical to the ISO A-series, but with slightly different tolerances. The area of B-series paper is 1.5 times that of the corresponding A-paper (instead of the factor 1.414... for the ISO B-series), so the length ratio is approximately 1.22 times the length of the corresponding A-series paper. The aspect ratio of the paper is the same as for A-series paper. Both A- and B-series paper is widely available in Japan, Taiwan and China, and most photocopiers are loaded with at least A4 and either one of A3, B4 and B5 paper.

Like the ISO System, The American National Standards Institute created their own system which would also take the form of one sheet of paper cut in half would make two of the smaller size but it is slightly different in measurements to A, B or C.

There are also a number of traditional paper sizes, which are now used mostly only by printers. The most common of these old series are the Shiroku-ban and the Kiku paper sizes.

Most paper manufactured and sold in North America is measured in Inches. Sheet sizes are based on trimming a quantity of 8.5 inches X 11 inches items or pages from a single sheet wirh a minium os waste. Some sheet sizes are exact multiples of this and other are based on multiples but slightly oversized to accomodate on-press requirements. (See Diagram)

The Ansi A Size of paper in used for Letters which is of a different size to but similar to that of A4. Ansi B is the size that is used for Leger or Tabloid and this is again different to but a similar size to A3. There is also C, D and E which are similar to A2, A1 and A0. ___North America

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Newspaper Sizes

Sto_ck

___Broadsheet

___Tabloid

The term broadsheet derives from single sheets of political satire and ballads sold on the streets, which became popular after the British placed a tax on newspapers by the number of pages in 1712.

The tabloid size is often referred to as being ‘half the size of a broadsheet’ however this is not strictly true as broadsheet is 750 x 600 mm (29.5” x 23.5”)

The broadsheet size for newspapers is becoming less popular and many titles are switching from broadsheet to tabloid. In Australia and New Zealand the term broadsheet is used to refer to papers that are printed on A1 size paper (841 x 594 mm) ___Berliner The Berliner format (also known as Midi) is commonly used by newspapers across Europe. Confusingly the title ‘Berliner Zeitung’, often referred to as just ‘Berliner’ is not printed in berliner size.

Tabloid size is actually not very different from A3 and thus a transition to printing tabloids on an A2 sheet (remember that newspaper sizes are the size of the folded pages) would be sensible in the longer term. The word tabloid when referring to newspaper sizes comes from the style of journalism known as ‘tabloid journalism’ that compacted stories into short, easy to read and often exaggerated forms. Tabloid journalism itself got its name from the ‘tabloid pills’ marketed in the 1880’s, that were the first highly compacted and easy to swallow pills commonly available. The tabloid size is widely used across the globe these days, with titles in the US, Russia, China, the UK, Canada, Australia, Brazil and many other countries using this format. Recently many established papers have changed from broadsheet size to tabloid size as it has proved more popular with readers.

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___Tabloid 430 x 280 mm 16.9 x 11.0”

___Berliner 470 mm × 315 mm 18.5 × 12.4”

___Broadsheet 750 x 600 mm 29.5 x 23.5”

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Stock Finishes


Bind_ing

___Coated

Coated & Uncoated

Coated stock has a surface sealant, like varnish on wood. This is made up of various liquids and clay along with other substances. Coating allows ink to sit up on top of the surface of the paper without seeping into the paper fibers. Halftone dots and type are therefore very crisp and controllable on press. And, in most cases, coated stock costs more than uncoated stock. ___Uncoated Uncoated paper soaks up ink like a sponge. Ink enters the paper fibers and spreads, causing halftone dots to grow. This is especially noticeable on newsprint, which is a type of uncoated stock. Halftone screens printed on newsprint are coarse, and the halftone dots are visible. Photo quality suffers, but for a throw-away piece like a newspaper or an inexpensive paperback novel, this is acceptable.

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Bin_ding

Gloss & Matt

___Gloss This lustrous, shiny, surface is produced by adding compounds to the paper during its manufacture. It is usually found on higher quality coated paper. ___Matt This is a dull finish devoid of the luster of gloss finishes making text easier to read and colours looking softer.

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Silk & Linen

Bind_ing

___Silk Coated stock has a surface sealant, like varnish on wood. This is made up of various liquids and clay ___Linen This looks like linen cloth and is an embossed finish.

20


Bin_ding

___Laid

___Wove This smooth but not slick finish has a slightly patterned mesh texture created via a felt roller covered in woven wire.

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Laid & Wove

It simulates the look and feel of handmade paper containing grids of parallel lines and is created using special rollers applied while the paper is still wet.


Bind_ing

Board & Carton

___Board This is a thick paper based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0.25 mm/0.010 in or 10 points) than paper. According to ISO standards, paperboard is a paper with a basis weight (grammage) above 224 g/m2, but there are exceptions. Paperboard can be single or multi-ply. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in packaging. Another end-use would be graphic printing, such as book and magazine covers or postcards. Sometimes it is referred to as cardboard, which is a generic, lay term used to refer to any heavy paper pulp based board.

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Pro_cess

___Acetate

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Plastic & Acetate

Cellulose Acetate film, or safety film, is used inphotography as a base material for photographic emulsions. It was introduced in the early 20th century by film manufacturers as a safe film base replacement for unstable and highly flammable nitrate film.


Binding Methods


Saddle & Perfect

Bin_ding

This is probably the most simplest way to bind a book. It is typically used to bind things like notebooks, brochures, pamphlets and other small books. This is ectremly common and something that you are likely to see on a day to day basis. The book is stapled at the centre down the spine, usually two or three times depending on the size. The ‘saddle’ refers the the center of the folded papers where it is stapled and is said to be based off the shape of a horses saddle. A long arm stapler is all you need for this method. Nothing special.

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Perfect Stitch is generally used on all ‘Hardback’ books such as novels, diaries or dictionarys. They generally last a long time and are built to do so. In the process of this, a thick cover is applied with the use of a certain kind of glue. The result of this method is top quality and will protect the contents of the book as well as give it a really nice final finish. It is much harder to do on an amateur level, but still possible.

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Japanese Stab & Coptic

Bind_ing

The official name for this method is actually the Yotsunme Toji and this is a very simple but effective form of Japanese book binding. The name simply translates to “Four Holes’ as this is what is created to bind the book. Four Holes are made down one edge of the book through all the pages and then this is sewn in a particular method. This is good for repairing books or sewing together loose pages that have been transformed into a book.

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This is one of the oldest forms of bookbinding tecniques and is said to have been practiced by the Sopts in Egypt. It is also quite simple but gives an amazing finish to the visual quality of the book. This binding is useful because the covers can be folded right back to touch each other without being damaged. There is no spine to the book and the pages are folded inside each other. Two covers are placed above and below the papers and it is sewed through one edge. There are different methods of sewing. Some of them are easy while others are difficult. I always advice to start with easy ones and then go for the difficult ones.

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Ringbinding

Perfect Stitch is generally used on all ‘Hardback’ books such as novels, diaries or dictionarys. They generally last a long time and are built to do so. In the process of this, a thick cover is applied with the use of a certain kind of glue. The result of this method is top quality and will protect the contents of the book as well as give it a really nice final finish. It is much harder to do on an amateur level, but still possible.

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Bin_ding

Perfect Stitch is generally used on all ‘Hardback’ books such as novels, diaries or dictionarys. They generally last a long time and are built to do so. In the process of this, a thick cover is applied with the use of a certain kind of glue. The result of this method is top quality and will protect the contents of the book as well as give it a really nice final finish. It is much harder to do on an amateur level, but still possible.

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Thermal Tape & Plastic Coil

Modern tape binding uses heat to transfer the tape onto and around the spine of the book which gives a nice professional finish. The old ‘hand taping’ method was literally just folding tape around the spine with no heat transfer which left a more ‘amateur’ looking effect. Once cool, the strip becomes firm so lettering can be applied to the spine. Spine Copy is printed using gold lettering. It is attractive and it makes your book easier to find on the shelf.

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Bin_ding

Little holes are punched down the left side of the pages and a plastic coil is run through them in a spiral pattern. This is general used for manuals and books that are used in a workplace. It might not seem like the most aesthetically pleasing method of binding but it is fairly cheap and very useful. Generally, the coils are black or white in colour but can be produced in any colour depending on the book and purpose. A benefit of this binding is that it lays flat when opened and this is why this method is used for a lot of work manuels.

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Screw & Post & Double Loop

In the Screw and Post method of binding, covers and signatures or individual pages are collated and assembled in a stack then trimmed on all sides. They are then drilled and fastened together with posts held on by screws. Screws can be unswrewed to add or remove pages as needed.

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Bin_ding

Wire binding is one of the most popular commercial book binding methods used in North America With this binding method, users insert their punched pages onto a “C� shaped spine and then use a wire closer to squeeze the spine until it is round. Documents that are bound with wire binding will open completely flat on a desk and allow for 360 degree rotation of bound pages. There are three common hole patterns used in binding documents with double loop wire. Each hole pattern has specific sizes and applications where it is best suited.

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Folding

Bind_ing

Printed documents can be folded in a number of different ways. The most common folds are shown below. Paper of around 200gsm and above needs to be creased to prevent it from ‘cracking’ (tearing). This involves scoring the paper before it is folded. .

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___Four Page Simple One Fold made along either the short or long dimension of teh paper resulting in four panels or pages. (See Fig. A) ___Four Page Short A Simple fold made asymmetrically so that two pages or panels are larger than the others. (See Fig. B) ___Six Page Accordian Two simple folds where one fold bends in the opposite direction of teh other, resulting in six panel or pages. Acordian folds can comprise six, eight, ten or more panels. (See Fig. C) ___Six Page Barrel

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Two simple folds where the outer edes of each panel or page are folded in towards each other resulting in six panels or pages. Barrel Folds consisting of more than six panels or pages are often called rolling folds. (See Fig. D)


Collating & Perferating

Collating is a term used to describe how printed material is organized. For example, if you had a document that was five pages long and was printing multiple copies with collate enabled it prints pages 1,2,3,4 and 5 in that order and then repeat. (See Fig. A) However, if collate was disabled and you were printing three copies of those same five pages it would print pages in this order: 111, 222, 333, 444, and then 555. (See Fig. B) Keep in mind that Collate will be grayed out unless you are printing multiple copies.

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Bin_ding

Print Processes

Collating is a term used to describe how printed material is organized. For example, if you had a document that was five pages long and was printing multiple copies with collate enabled it prints pages 1,2,3,4 and 5 in that order and then repeat. (See Fig. A) However, if collate was disabled and you were printing three copies of those same five pages it would print pages in this order: 111, 222, 333, 444, and then 555. (See Fig. B) Keep in mind that Collate will be grayed out unless you are printing multiple copies.

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Commercial Costings

Co_st

___References

___Terminology

___References

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

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___Terminology

___References

___Terminology

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

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Index

___References

___Terminology

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).

___Designed By Sam Lane samlane.tumblr.com samlane@hotmail.com ___Typefaces Used Raisonne Helvetica


Bind_ing


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