___Stock Weight & Size GSM / ISO A & B Series C Series Examples Japanese / USA Sizes Newspaper Sizes Examples
04 06 08 10 12 14 18
___Stock Finishes Coated / Uncoated Gloss / Matt Silk / Linen Laid / Wove Boards / Carton Plastics / Acetate
20 21 22 23 24 25
___Binding Techniques Saddle Stitch / Perfect Japanese Stab Stitch / Coptic Ring / Spiral Ring Examples Thermal Tape / Plastic Coil Screw & Post / Double Loop Examples Foilding / Creasing Collating / Perferating
26 28 30 32 34 36 足38 40 42
GSM & ISO
Paper Density is the correct term for the weight of the paper or pulp and it uses a certain area of the paper to measure the mass. It is also reffered to as ‘grammage’. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy and paper products that allow some light to pass through are considered lightweight.
Caliper is the name given to the paper thickness. It is a common measurment that is required for certain printing applications. Since a paper’s density is typically not directly known or specified, the thickness of any sheet of paper cannot be calculated by any method. Instead, it is measured and specified separately as its caliper.
GSM stands for ‘Grams per Square Meter’. It is the standadised measurement for paper and allows printers to have a much more precise control of how thick or thin the paper should be for it’s particular use. It actually tells you how much a square meter of the paper your using would weigh in grams. This is a really good system as it allows clients to know exactly what they are getting through the use of GSM samples.
The most common way of expressing paper density is in grams per square meter (g/m²).
Caliper is measured in micrometers (1/1000 of a mm). Grammage is measured by Quality Control System and verified by laboratory measurement.
A & B Series
The A Series of paper is probably the most common and recognizable. This is because it is what is conventionally used in Europe throughout most businesses because it has become part of the fabric of our lives. It is used in desktop printers for the masses and in offices as well as most printed material such as mail, posters and flyers. This is mainly because of itâ€™s ease, popularity and usability to sit within our everyday lives.
As well as the A Series, there is also a less popular B Series of paper. The area of the B Series sheets is the geometric mean of successive A Series sheets. This is not common in general and office use but is still used regularly is certain situations. A lot of Books and Posters tend to use this measurement. For example B5 is a popular choice for books and B3 is a popular choice for posters depending on the situation.
The dimensions of the A size paper are defined by the ISO system, for example, A5 is half of A4 size paper and A2 is half of A1 size paper.
A0___ 1189 x 841 mm B0____1414 x 1000 mm
A1___ 841 x 594 mm B1___ 1000 x 707 mm
A2___ 594 x 420 mm B2___ 707 x 500 mm
A3___ 420 x 297 mm B3___ 500 x 353 mm
A4___ 297 x 210 mm B4___ 353 x 250 mm
A5___ 210 x 148 mm B5___ 250 x 176 mm
Format ___C4 The C4 envelope is used to hold and unfolded A4 sized peice of paper. This can also be an A3 sheet folded once in half, horizontally.
The C5 envelope is used to hold an unfolded A5 sized peice of paper. This can also be an A4 sheet folded once in half, horizontally.
___C6 The C6 envelope is used to hold an unfolded A6 sized peice of paper. So this is an A4 sheet folded in half twice; Once verticlaly and once horizontally, and also an A5 sheet folded in half once horizontally.
Format ___DL The DL sized envelope is used to hold an A4 sheet folded into three equal sections vertically. This also works for an A5 sheet folded in half vertically.
The C Series is used for envelopes, designed to take A series paper. eg C4 is used to hold A4. DL envelopes take A4 sheets, folded into three. The C Series of sizes, like the B Series, is the geometric mean of the areas of both the A and B Series Sheets of the same number. For example, C4 is the mean of both A4 and B4 which makes it slightly bigger than A4 but slightly smaller than B4. Somewhere in the middle. This size is only ever used for enveolopes and a practial use would be that an A4 sized letter would fold down into a C4 sized envelope.
__Fig.1 Alumini Design Business Cards, A6 Booklet & A3 Foldout. __Fig.2 C4 sized envelope with Button & String Fastening. __Fig.3 A2 Double Sided Print. Folded down. __Fig.4 C4 sized Perforated Envelope. __Fig.5 American Sized Letter Heads, Business Cards & DL Envelopes.
25 x 38” 635 x 965 mm
23 x 35” 584 x 889 mm
19 x 25” 483 x 635 mm
17.5 x 22.5” 445 x 572 mm
11 x 17” 279 x 432 mm
8.5 x 11” 216 x 279 mm
Paper Sizes ___Japan
The JIS defines two main series of paper sizes. The JIS A-series is identical to the ISO A-series, but with slightly different tolerances. The area of B-series paper is 1.5 times that of the corresponding A-paper (instead of the factor 1.414... for the ISO B-series), so the length ratio is approximately 1.22 times the length of the corresponding A-series paper. The aspect ratio of the paper is the same as for A-series paper. Both A- and B-series paper is widely available in Japan, Taiwan and China, and most photocopiers are loaded with at least A4 and either one of A3, B4 and B5 paper.
Like the ISO System, The American National Standards Institute created their own system which would also take the form of one sheet of paper cut in half would make two of the smaller size but it is slightly different in measurements to A, B or C.
Most paper manufactured and sold in North America is measured in Inches. Sheet sizes are based on trimming a quantity of 8.5 inches X 11 inches items or pages from a single sheet wirh a minium os waste. Some sheet sizes are exact multiples of this and other are based on multiples but slightly oversized to accomodate on-press requirements. (See Diagram)
The Ansi A Size of paper in used for Letters which is of a different size to but similar to that of A4. Ansi B is the size that is used for Leger or Tabloid and this is again different to but a similar size to A3. There is also C, D and E which are similar to A2, A1 and A0.
There are also a number of traditional paper sizes, which are now used mostly only by printers. The most common of these old series are the Shiroku-ban and the Kiku paper sizes.
The term broadsheet derives from single sheets of political satire and ballads sold on the streets, which became popular after the British placed a tax on newspapers by the number of pages in 1712.
The tabloid size is often referred to as being ‘half the size of a broadsheet’ however this is not strictly true as broadsheet is 750 x 600 mm (29.5” x 23.5”)
The broadsheet size for newspapers is becoming less popular and many titles are switching from broadsheet to tabloid. In Australia and New Zealand the term broadsheet is used to refer to papers that are printed on A1 size paper (841 x 594 mm) ___Berliner The Berliner format (also known as Midi) is commonly used by newspapers across Europe. Confusingly the title ‘Berliner Zeitung’, often referred to as just ‘Berliner’ is not printed in berliner size.
Tabloid size is actually not very different from A3 and thus a transition to printing tabloids on an A2 sheet (remember that newspaper sizes are the size of the folded pages) would be sensible in the longer term. The word tabloid when referring to newspaper sizes comes from the style of journalism known as ‘tabloid journalism’ that compacted stories into short, easy to read and often exaggerated forms. Tabloid journalism itself got its name from the ‘tabloid pills’ marketed in the 1880’s, that were the first highly compacted and easy to swallow pills commonly available.
___Tabloid 430 x 280 mm 16.9 x 11.0”
___Berliner 470 mm × 315 mm 18.5 × 12.4”
___Broadsheet 750 x 600 mm 29.5 x 23.5”
__Fig.1 Tabloid Sized Newspaper. Risograph Printed. __Fig.2 A5 Sized Limited Edition Newspaper. Paper Sizes
__Fig.3 A2 Print Folded down to A4. __Fig.4 Broadsheet sized Newspaper. __Fig.5 Berliner Sized Newspaper.
Coated & Uncoated
Coated stock has a surface sealant, like varnish on wood. This is made up of various liquids and clay along with other substances. Coating allows ink to sit up on top of the surface of the paper without seeping into the paper fibers. Halftone dots and type are therefore very crisp and controllable on press. And, in most cases, coated stock costs more than uncoated stock.
Uncoated paper soaks up ink like a sponge. Ink enters the paper fibers and spreads, causing halftone dots to grow. This is especially noticeable on newsprint, which is a type of uncoated stock. Halftone screens printed on newsprint are coarse, and the halftone dots are visible. Photo quality suffers, but for a throw-away piece like a newspaper or an inexpensive paperback novel, this is acceptable.
This lustrous, shiny, surface is produced by adding compounds to the paper during its manufacture. It is usually found on higher quality coated paper. ___Matt This is a dull finish devoid of the luster of gloss finishes making text easier to read and colours looking softer. Image : Black & White print onto uncoated Matt stock.
Gloss & Matt
___Silk Coated stock has a surface sealant, like varnish on wood. This is made up of various liquids and clay
Silk & Linen
___Linen This looks like linen cloth and is an embossed finish.
___Laid It simulates the look and feel of handmade paper containing grids of parallel lines and is created using special rollers applied while the paper is still wet. ___Wove
Laid & Wove
This smooth but not slick finish has a slightly patterned mesh texture created via a felt roller covered in woven wire.
Board & Carton
___Board This is a thick paper based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0.25 mm/0.010 in or 10 points) than paper. According to ISO standards, paperboard is a paper with a basis weight (grammage) above 224 g/m2, but there are exceptions. Paperboard can be single or multiply. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in packaging. Another end-use would be graphic printing, such as book and magazine covers or postcards. Sometimes it is referred to as cardboard, which is a generic, lay term used to refer to any
Image : White Ink screenprinted onto Pulpboard.
Cellulose Acetate film, or safety film, is used inphotography as a base material for photographic emulsions. It was introduced in the early 20th century by film manufacturers as a safe film base replacement for unstable and highly flammable nitrate film. Image : White Ink on Clear Plastic Acetate, Book Jacket.
Plastic & Acetate
This is probably the most simplest way to bind a book. It is typically used to bind things like notebooks, brochures, pamphlets and other small books. This is ectremly common and something that you are likely to see on a day to day basis. The book is stapled at the centre down the spine, usually two or three times depending on the size. The â€˜saddleâ€™ refers the the center of the folded papers where it is stapled and is said to be based off the shape of a horses saddle. A long arm stapler is all you need for this method. Nothing special.
The result of this method is top quality and will protect the contents of the book as well as give it a really nice final finish. It is much harder to do on an amateur level, but still possible.
Perfect Stitch is generally used on all â€˜Hardbackâ€™ books such as novels, diaries or dictionarys. They generally last a long time and are built to do so. In the process of this, a thick cover is applied with the use of a certain kind of glue.
Japanese Saddle Stitch
The official name for this method is actually the Yotsunme Toji and this is a very simple but effective form of Japanese book binding. The name simply translates to â€œFour Holesâ€™ as this is what is created to bind the book. Four Holes are made down one edge of the book through all the pages and then this is sewn in a particular method. This is good for repairing books or sewing together loose pages that have been transformed into a book.
Two covers are placed above and below the papers and it is sewed through one edge. There are different methods of sewing. Some of them are easy while others are difficult. I always advice to start with easy ones and then go for the difficult ones.
This binding is useful because the covers can be folded right back to touch each other without being damaged. There is no spine to the book and the pages are folded inside each other.
This is one of the oldest forms of bookbinding tecniques and is said to have been practiced by the Sopts in Egypt. It is also quite simple but gives an amazing finish to the visual quality of the book.
Ring Bind Securesloose printed pages in a soft or hard-covered book with rings that hold the pages through holes punched in the pages is ring binding. 3-ring binders may have any number of rings. A single ring is also a form of ring binding. Covers are less common. Single sheets of paper or cards (often laminated) are punched with a single hole, usually in a top corner, then put on a ring that snaps open and closed.
Spiral plastic ring binding is a popular binding style in which holes are punched through pages and a plastic coil is inserted through the holes and then trimmed to fit. For self-publishing writers, coil binding is one of the most costeffective ways to bind a book, especially if you plan a small run. While many people have their spiral ring booklets assembled by a professional printer, the process can be done at home, either by hand or with the aid of a machine. The cheapest, but most time-consuming, way is by hand.
__Fig.1 Bukowski Book. Corner Fold Binding Technique. __Fig.2 Crossover Festival. Perferated Ticket. Binding Methods
__Fig.3 Page & Joy. Saddle Stitched Bound Book. __Fig.4 Harry Potter. Perfect Bound, Hardback Book. __Fig.5 Replacing Magazine. Thermal Tape Bound.
Modern tape binding uses heat to transfer the tape onto and around the spine of the book which gives a nice professional finish. The old ‘hand taping’ method was literally just folding tape around the spine with no heat transfer which left a more ‘amateur’ looking effect. Once cool, the strip becomes firm so lettering can be applied to the spine. Spine Copy is printed using gold lettering. It is attractive and it makes your book easier to find on the shelf.
Little holes are punched down the left side of the pages and a plastic coil is run through them in a spiral pattern. This is general used for manuals and books that are used in a workplace. It might not seem like the most aesthetically pleasing method of binding but it is fairly cheap and very useful. Generally, the coils are black or white in colour but can be produced in any colour depending on the book and purpose.
Screw & Post
In the Screw and Post method of binding, covers and signatures or individual pages are collated and assembled in a stack then trimmed on all sides. They are then drilled and fastened together with posts held on by screws. Screws can be unswrewed to add or remove pages as needed.
With this binding method, users insert their punched pages onto a â€œCâ€? shaped spine and then use a wire closer to squeeze the spine until it is round. Documents that are bound with wire binding will open completely flat on a desk and allow for 360 degree rotation of bound pages.
There are three common hole patterns used in binding documents with double loop wire. Each hole pattern has specific sizes and applications where it is best suited.
Wire binding is one of the most popular commercial book binding methods used in North America
__Fig.1 Elasticated Folder Fastening. __Fig.2 Ringbinder Folder.
__Fig.3 5.0%. Coptic Bound Wooden Book. __Fig.4 Japanese Stab Stitched Magazines. __Fig.5 Screw & Post Bound Booklets.
Printed documents can be folded in a number of different ways. The most common folds are shown below. Paper of around 200gsm and above needs to be creased to prevent it from â€˜crackingâ€™ (tearing). This involves scoring the paper before it is folded. .
___Four Page One Fold made along either the short or long dimension of teh paper resulting in four panels or pages. (See Fig. A) ___Four Page Short A Simple fold made asymmetrically so that two pages or panels are larger than the others. (See Fig. B)
___Six Page Accordian Two simple folds where one fold bends in the opposite direction of teh other, resulting in six panel or pages. Acordian folds can comprise six, eight, ten or more panels. (See Fig. C) ___Six Page Barrel Two simple folds where the outer edes of each panel or page are folded in towards each other resulting in six panels or pages. Barrel Folds consisting of more than six panels or pages are often called rolling folds. (See Fig. D)
Collating is a term used to describe how printed material is organized. For example, if you had a document that was five pages long and was printing multiple copies with collate enabled it prints pages 1,2,3,4 and 5 in that order and then repeat. (See Fig. A) However, if collate was disabled and you were printing three copies of those same five pages it would print pages in this order: 111, 222, 333, 444, and then 555. (See Fig. B) Keep in mind that Collate will be grayed out unless you are printing multiple copies.
Various applications include packaging films (to allow the contents to breathe), medical films, micro perforated plateand sound and vapour barriers.
A perforation is a small hole in a thin material or web. There is usually more than one perforation in an organized fashion, where all of the holes are called a perforation. The process of creating perforations is called perforating, which involves puncturing the workpiece with a tool.
Perforations are usually used to allow easy separation of two sections of the material, such as allowing paper to be torn easily along the line. Packaging with perforations in paperboard or plastic film is easy for consumers to open. Other purposes include filtrating fluids, sound deadening, allowing light or fluids to pass through, and to create an aesthetic design.
____References page 12 http://biglitho.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2011/11/ Large-format-litho.jpg
page 34 http://www.stuartmorris.co.uk/ images/m/2012-07/1p~w635/ What-is-screen-printing.jpg
page 13 http://www.asia.ru/ images/target/img/product/11/72/68/11726848.jpg
page 35 http://www.progresspackaging.co.uk
page 18 http://4.bp.blogspot. com/_qcuftpB9Hx8/TKMZI6o7fNI/AAAAAAAAC4o/ gfXogHZNR-A/s1600/ Flexographic+Plate+2.jpg
page 19 http://www.progresspackaging.co.uk
page 41 http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ uolOAyVOYpo/Sm-73pedIJI/ AAAAAAAAAtc/5gxVDkaLIxs/ s400/Letterpress+demo.JPG http://www.inkcups.com/ uploads/images/top-graphics/ equipment/pad-printing/icnB150/top-image.gif
page 32 http://www.pyramidvisuals. co.uk/about/printingmachines/hp9000/images/ hp-9000-digital-printer.jpg
____Design By Sam Lane sadcastle.co.uk @sadcastle ____Typefaces Used Raisonne Helvetica