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Definition of Adjective Adjectives are describing words. Large, grey and friendly are all examples of adjectives. In the examples below, these adjectives are used to describe an elephant. Examples: Large elephant Grey elephant Friendly elephant Adjectives Modify Nouns The word elephant is a noun. Adjectives are added to nouns to state what kind, what colour, which one or how many. Adjectives are said to modify nouns and are necessary to make the meanings of sentences clearer or more exact. Examples: Follow the yellow cab. (In this example, the adjective yellow modifies the noun cab.) Craig caught another large bass. (In this example, the adjective large modifies the noun bass.) Definition of Adjective Adjectives are describing words. Large, grey and friendly are all examples of adjectives. In the examples below, these adjectives are used to describe an elephant.

Examples:

Large elephant Grey elephant Friendly elephant Adjectives Modify Nouns The word elephant is a noun. Adjectives are added to nouns to state what kind, what colour, which one or how many. Adjectives are said to modify nouns and are necessary to make the meanings of sentences clearer or more exact.


Examples: Follow the yellow cab. (In this example, the adjective yellow modifies the noun cab.) Craig caught another large bass. (In this example, the adjective large modifies the noun bass.)

Prepositions A preposition is a word which precedes a noun (or a pronoun) to show the noun's (or the pronoun's) relationship to another word in the sentence. (The word preposition comes from the idea of being positioned before. It is not true to say that a preposition always precedes a noun or a pronoun, but it does most of the time.) The following are all prepositions: above, about, across, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, since, to, toward, through, under, until, up, upon, with and within. What are adverbs?

An adverb is a word that modifies verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. Adverbs vs Adjectives

The difference between an adverb and an adjective is the following: •

An adjective modifies a noun. Example: "John is tall." (The adjective tall modifies the noun John)

An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Examples: "That idea is simply ridiculous." (The adverb simply modifies the adjective ridiculous) "She sings nicely." (The adverb nicely modifies the verb sing) "She did it really well." (the adverb really modifies the adverb well)

What are the different types of adverbs?

Basically, most adverbs tell you how, in what way, when, where, and to what extent something is done. In other words, they describe the manner, place, or time of an action. Here are some examples: •

He speaks quietly. ( quietly is an adverb of manner.)

I live here. (here is an adverb of place.)

We'll leave tomorrow . (tomorrow is an adverb of time.)

She never sleeps late . (never is an adverb of frequency.)


Pronouns A pronoun is used in place of a noun or nouns. Common pronouns include he, her, him, I, it, me, she, them, they, us, and we. Here are some examples: INSTEAD OF: Luma is a good athlete. She is a good athlete. (The pronoun she replaces Luma.) INSTEAD OF: The beans and tomatoes are fresh-picked. They are fresh-picked. (The pronoun they replaces the beans and tomatoes.) Often a pronoun takes the place of a particular noun. This noun is known as the antecedent. A pronoun "refers to," or directs your thoughts toward, its antecedent. Let's call Luma and ask her to join the team. (Her is a pronoun; Luma is its antecedent.) To find a pronoun's antecedent, ask yourself what that pronoun refers to. What does her refer to in the sentence above—that is, who is the her? The her in the sentence is Luma; therefore, Luma is the antecedent.

Verbs Express Actions Verbs are doing words. A verb can express:

• • •

A physical action (e.g., to swim, to write, to climb). A mental action (e.g., to think, to guess, to consider). A state of being (e.g., to be, to exist, to appear).

The verbs which express a state of being are the ones which take a little practice to spot, but, actually, they are the most common. The most common verb is the verb to be. That's the one which goes: Subject

Verb to be in

Verb to be in

the past tense

the present

Verb to be in

the future tense

tense I

was

am

will be

You

were

are

will be

He / She / It

was

is

will be

We

were

are

will be

You

were

are

will be

They

were

are

will be

What Are Articles? The articles in English are the (definite article), a, and an (indefinite articles). Articles define a noun as specific or unspecific. After the long day, the cup of tea tastes particularly good.


By using the, we’ve shown that it was one specific day that was long, and one specific cup of tea that tasted good. After a long day, a cup of tea tastes particularly good. By using a, we’ve created a general statement, saying that any cup of tea would taste good after any long day.

Modal Verbs Modal verbs are verbs which modify another verb, and imply the possibility or probability of something happening. Modal verbs are words like can, will, could, must, would, mightand should. After a modal verb, the root form of the word is generally used. The infinitive is not used after a modal verb. We would to study more of Shakespeare’s works if we had the books. We would study more of Shakespeare’s works if we had the books. Exception: The phrase ought to is considered a modal verb. In this case, the to belongs with the ought, and is not considered part of the infinitive. An embedded question is a part of a sentence that would be a question if it were on its own, but is not a question in the context of the sentence:

I don't know where she has gone. Could you tell me where the bank is.

What is an embedded question? An embedded question is a question included in another question or statement. Embedded questions feel less abrupt, and so have a softening effect. For example, compare the following: A:

What time is it? (simple question)

B:

Sorry. I don't know the time. (simple statement)

A:

Do you know what time it is? (embedded question in a question)

B:

Sorry. I don't know what time it is. (embedded question in a statement)

State verbs Some English verbs, which we call state, non-continuous or stative verbs, aren't used in continuous tenses (like the present continuous, or the future continuous). These verbs often describe states that last for some time. Here is a list of some common ones: Stative (or State) Verb List like

know

belong

love

realise

fit

hate

suppose

contain

want

mean

consist


Phrasal Verbs List Phrasal verbs are usually two-word phrases consisting of verb + adverb or verb + preposition. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study them as you come across them, rather than trying to memorize many at once. Use the list below as a reference guide when you find an expression that you don't recognize. The examples will help you understand the meanings. If you think of each phrasal verb as a separate verb with a specific meaning, you will be able to remember it more easily. Like many other verbs, phrasal verbs often have more than one meaning.e.g. call around, blow up, break up, check out, get up, pass away, run out. Embedded Question An embedded question is a part of a sentence that would be a question if it were on its own, but is not a question in the context of the sentence:

I don't know where she has gone. Could you tell me where the bank is.

Subject-Verb Agreement In order for a sentence to be grammatically correct, the subject and verb must both be singular or plural. In other words, the subject and verb must agree with one another in their tense. If the subject is in plural form, the verb should also be in plural form (and vice versa). To ensure subject-verb agreement, identify the main subject and verb in the sentence, then check to see if they are both plural or singular. Consider the examples below.


Incorrect examples - Subject-Verb Agreement "The group of students are complaining about grades." The main subject in this sentence is "group," which is singular. The main verb is "are complaining," which is plural. "A recipe with more than six ingredients are too complicated." The main subject in this sentence is "recipe," which is singular. The main verb is "are," which is plural. "The facts in that complex case is questionable." The main subject in this sentence is "facts," which is plural. The main verb, "is," is singular. "The people is wearing formal attire." The main subject in this sentence is "people," which is plural. The main verb is "is wearing," which is singular. Correct examples "The group of students is complaining about grades." "A recipe with more than six ingredients is too complicated." "The facts in that complex case are questionable." "The people are wearing formal attire."



Grammar