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9 Report 9 in the series Spatial Transformation through Transit‑Oriented Development in Johannesburg

Conditions of work and life CONDITIONS OF LIFE AND WORK ALONG THE TRANSIT CORRIDORS: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FOUR JOHANNESBURG NODES Prof. Umakrishnan Kollamparambil

A

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

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Partners

Agence Française de Développement (AFD) City of Johannesburg (CoJ) South African Research Chair in Spatial Analysis and City Planning, University of the Witwatersrand (SA&CP, Wits)

Steering committee members

Alexandra Appelbaum (SA&CP) Camille Chastagnol (AFD) Arthur Germond (AFD) Prof. Philip Harrison (SA&CP) Prof. Paul Jenkins (Wits) Herman Pienaar (CoJ) Dr. Margot Rubin (SA&CP) Prof. Alison Todes (Wits) Martha Stein-Sochas (AFD) Liana Strydom (CoJ) Dylan Weakley (CoJ)

Editors

Prof. Philip Harrison, Dr. Margot Rubin and Alexandra Appelbaum

Project manager

Alexandra Appelbaum

Authors

Dr. Margot Rubin and Alexandra Appelbaum

Spatial Transformation through Transit‑Oriented Development: synthesis report

Dr. Margot Rubin

The City as a Laboratory: Experimentation, Observation and Theorisation from Urban Labs

Dr. Sylvia Croese

International case studies of Transit-Oriented Development-Corridor implementation

Dr. Kirsten Harrison

Transit Corridors and the Private Sector: Incentives, Regulations and the Property Market

Neil Klug

The more things change, the more they stay the same: a case study of Westbury, Coronationville and Slovo Park informal settlement

Dr. Tanya Zack

Platform to an Arrival City: Johannesburg’s Park Station and Surrounds

Alexandra Appelbaum

Contestation, transformation and competing visions: a study of Orange Grove and Norwood

Lindsay Howe

Constancy and Change: Marlboro South as an interstice of marginalisation and development in the Gauteng City-Region

Prof. Umakrishnan Kollamparambil

Multiple Words and Experiences: Conditions of Life and Work along the Corridors of Freedom

Research assistance

Emmanuel Ayifah Kwanda Lande Mamokete Matjomane Lucky Nkali Lyle Prim

Survey company

Outsourced Insight

Maps

Alexandra Appelbaum and Reitumetse Selepe

Photographs

Mark Lewis

Historical photographs

Museum Africa Collection

Copy editing

Kate Tissington and Alexandra Appelbaum

Design and layout

Louise Carmichael

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Conditions of work and life

At the time that these reports were researched and written, the City of Johannesburg was using the term Corridors of Freedom to refer to the Louis Botha, Empire Perth and Turffontein Strategic Area Frameworks. Although the name is currently under review we have used the original terminology throughout the reports. All quantitative data referred to without an explicit reference is drawn from the survey conducted by Outsourced Insight as part of the Spatial Transformation through Transit-Oriented Development project. 1200 people (a mix of residents, business owners and users) were surveyed in the four case study areas of this report series. All mapped data was also drawn from this survey. © City of Johannesburg 2016 To access the original data please contact the South African Research Chair in Spatial Analysis and City Planning, University of the Witwatersrand. www.wits.ac.za/sacp

Referencing the report:

Kollamparambil U (2016) “Multiple Words and Experiences: Conditions of Life and Work along the Corridors of Freedom”. Report 9. Spatial Transformation through Transit-Oriented Development in Johannesburg Research Report Series. South African Research Chair in Spatial Analysis and City Planning. University of the Witwatersrand: Johannesburg.

Conditions of work and life

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Executive summary The Spatial Transformation through Transit-Oriented Development in Johannesburg report series is the product of a project undertaken between the Agence Française de Développement (AFD), the City of Johannesburg (CoJ) and the NRF South African Research Chair in Spatial Analysis and City Planning at the University of the Witwatersrand. The project aimed to provide operational support to, and empirical evidence for, the City of Johannesburg’s Transit‑Oriented Development (TOD) programme – at the time known as the Corridors of Freedom (COF). It was a unique and important collaborative endeavour, in which the project proposal, research questions and final approach were co-produced by the three partners. The reports cover a range of topics, from an international comparison of TransitOriented Development Corridors, to an in-depth study of the regulatory, institutional and incentive environments in the COF, and the response from the private sector. It also included a survey of 1 200 residents, users and businesses and an indepth qualitative case study analysis of four nodes: Marlboro South; Park Station Precinct; Orange Grove and Norwood, and Westbury, Coronationville and Slovo Park. The case studies encompassed a wide range of the environments along Johannesburg’s corridors, including older suburbs, informal settlements, townships, public housing stock, industrial areas and transit nodes in the inner city. The team consisted of academics, officials, consultants and community members. Methodologically, all reports relied on academic and media sources, with the majority consisting of an integrated analysis of survey findings and key stakeholder interviews. The summary that follows looks at the key points from each report and offers a concise sense of the main findings.

Key findings: • The international experience supports the case for transit corridors, noting that they are useful and necessary planning instruments in urban regeneration – improving sustainability; increasing access for poorer communities, and improving rates bases in strategic areas. • Transit corridors have been associated with an improved municipal fiscus that is able to provide denser urban environments with consequently higher efficiencies in the urban form. • The current forms and institutional arrangements of TOD corridors in the CoJ demonstrate much promise and have some of the key features of successful corridors found elsewhere, i.e. a lead department with high levels of technical skill. • However, there is a need for greater coherence at both the planning and implementation level, and a need for more buy-in from all departments in the CoJ. • The CoJ has set an ambitious approach to the development of the Corridors – attempting to create a ‘guided’ enabling environment for the private sector that incentivises and attracts investment into these sites, whilst balancing the needs of the public good, and the larger

III

Conditions of work and life

developmental agenda. There are some important locations that will potentially satisfy private sector interests of lowered risk and higher demand; these include affordable housing along Louis Botha Avenue and investment opportunities in the Knowledge Precinct. The TOD programme has a long-time horizon. However, after just four years it has seen some successes, including the provision and use of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) by certain communities; significant public environment and infrastructure upgrades, and the construction of vital services, such as clinics in areas that were previously under-served. In order for the impact of TOD – which extends beyond just the BRT – to be maximised, the City must foster a multi-modal transport system, including the BRT, Gautrain, commuter rail, and minibus taxis. Across the Corridors it is clear that there is significant youthful energy directed towards micro-businesses, with many residents starting new enterprises. Louis Botha Avenue, Marlboro South and Park Station are already showing signs of being complex multi-use sites that attract people from all over South Africa and the continent. The transit corridors already have an important economic function in that they are attractive sites due to their accessibility and the ability of residents to save on transport costs. However, demand is forcing up the price of commercial and residential property, making these areas inaccessible for poorer households.

Nodal findings: Each node faces a set of specific conditions that require particular engagements and services. • Westbury, as a site of older public housing stock, faces severe social pathologies, and very low rates of employment. Residents feel isolated and parochial – despite being quite close to the inner city in terms of physical distance – and there is a need to consider social infrastructure as a key future intervention. • Slovo Park as an informal settlement requires better services and housing but also greater participation and engagement with residents about their future. • Louis Botha Avenue (Orange Grove in particular) is mixed-use and mixed-income area and has important businesses varying in size. Here care needs to be taken to support the organic processes of informal and formal entrepreneurship and to avoid potential gentrification and displacement

that could result from interventions. While the Paterson Park housing project is a vital intervention, the governance dynamics in the area provide important lessons for the CoJ in its future interventions in middle-class areas. • Marlboro South is an area of enormous potential, but has high rates of poverty and very poor living conditions. It is very well located and has a number of businesses, at a variety of scales, which would like to remain. This area requires housing interventions, service upgrades and consideration of the urban environment, especially safety and security. • Park Station Precinct, as arguably the most important transit node in Johannesburg, suffers from a governance crisis and as a consequence has not been able to capitalise on its cosmopolitan and vibrant nature. There is a lack of support for the economic activities in the area; insufficient affordable accommodation; and the station requires better linkages into the fabric of the inner city.

Recommendations: • Currently, there is a ‘toolbox’ of incentives that is being developed to enhance partnerships with private sector developers, and there is evidence to suggest that this could be enhanced by considering questions of urban management; the release and development of state-owned land, and examining the development of demand – rather than supply-side investments. • Safety and security, questions of urban management, and employment were themes that consistently appeared across the corridors. The City needs to pay close attention to these concerns, as they are affecting all aspects of the Corridors, such as the quality of life for residents and the potential future investment from private developers. • Public participation protocols require rethinking and possibly reconfiguration. In their current formulation they are not sufficiently able to include the voices of some of the poorest and most marginalised. They are also incorrectly conceptualised as information-sharing sessions, rather than real engagement or consultation. • Furthermore, public participation needs to be seen as part of long term-relationships with communities and stakeholders that occur throughout the process rather than a once-off compliance-led activity. • Given the need for cross-sectoral and interdepartmental co-ordination, area-based management models could be highly effective in addressing these issues and should be

considered as a way of addressing the host of differentiated needs across the transit corridors. • The current practice of having ‘point people’ – particularly within the Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA) – dedicated to specific nodes and corridors is excellent and should be continued. • All processes in the corridors must be supported by up-to-date websites that are current with ease of access to all relevant information. • The CoJ needs to promote and publicise its achievements, and let the general public and other departments know what it has accomplished. • Exceptional care needs to be taken to ensure that built environment interventions do not worsen conditions in vulnerable communities, highlighting the need for better empirical evidence and consultation before implementation. • Built environment interventions must be complemented with social development and engagement in order for the full potential of the transit corridors to be realised, in terms of addressing the social and economic aspects of marginalisation. • Overall, there is much to be learned from the first few years of the programme that can improve the CoJ’s TOD initiatives going forward: better engagement and participation; clearer plans; better marketing and overall communication within and outside the CoJ, and careful consideration of the limits of built environment interventions. In short, the research project revealed that transit corridors are an effective programmatic choice in restructuring the spatiality of the City of Johannesburg and dealing with some of the most intractable urban problems; there are a range of ways to improve Johannesburg’s TOD programme going forward. To realise the full value of the TOD vision, it is necessary for the CoJ to continue the programme with the vigour it has demonstrated thus far. The dedicated and skilled teams in the City have already been able to achieve some successes, and with the evidence base that this study now offers, interventions and plans can be more finely honed and refined to focus in on specific community needs, whilst addressing questions of a declining fiscus and the need to restructure and reinvigorate the City of Johannesburg. This project also included a series of urban labs – a number of engagements between City officials, academics, members of civil society and the private sector and other key stakeholders – on particular issues related to Johannesburg’s future. This report is also included in the series.

Conditions of work and life

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Table of Contents 01 02

KEY FINDINGS

INTRODUCTION 05 2.1. 2.2 2.3

03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

02

The scope of the research Limitations of the study Structure of the report

05 06 06

DEMOGRAPHICS 08 LOCATION OF RESIDENTS, BUSINESSES AND ‘OTHER’ USERS

24

OCCUPATION STATUS AND INCOME OF RESIDENTS

36

BUSINESS PROFILE

44

EMPLOYMENT BY BUSINESS

52

RESIDENTIAL AND BUSINESS PREMISES

54

TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS

66

THE CORRIDORS OF FREEDOM

78

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

82

NEIGHBOURHOOD AND BUSINESS CONDITIONS

88

LEVELS OF SATISFACTION

98

The Author Umakrishnan Kollamparambil is affiliated with the School of Economic and Business Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand. The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Emmanuel Ayifah in both data analysis and preparation of this report.

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Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

VI


List of figures Figure 1

Reason for ‘other users’ being in the area, by gender

32

Table 18.

Home language of business owner, by node

18

Figure 2.

What residents like about their node

34

Table 19.

Home language of ‘other users’, by node

18

Figure 3.

Occupation status of residents, by node

36

Table 20.

Nationality of residents, by node

20

Figure 4.

Monthly turnover of business, by node

45

Table 21.

Nationality of business owner, by node

21

Figure 5.

Mean monthly rental, by node, business type and type of premises

49

Table 22.

Nationality of ‘other users’, by node

21

Figure 6.

Supplier, by type of goods, to Westbury businesses

70

Table 23.

Residents: Years living in dwelling, by node

24

Figure 7.

Supplier, by type of goods, to Park Station businesses

70

Table 24.

Residents: Years living in dwelling, by previous residence

24

Figure 8.

Supplier, by type of goods, to Orange Grove businesses

72

Table 25.

Residents: Main reason for living in the node

24

Figure 9.

Supplier, by type of goods, to Marlboro South businesses

72

Table 26.

Residents: Planned duration of stay, by node

25

Figure 10.

Residents’ responses: Do you think your neighbourhood is improving, staying the same, or getting worse?

88

Table 27.

Residents: Place of previous residence, by planned duration of stay in the node

25

Figure 11.

Residents’ responses: How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?

98

Table 28.

Residents: previous place of residence, by node

26

Figure 12.

Life dissatisfaction, by age group of residents

100

Table 29.

Residents: Contact with ‘real’ home

27

Figure 13.

Life dissatisfaction, by income status of residents

101

Table 30.

Business: node, by years of trading

27

Figure 14.

Life dissatisfaction, by place of previous residence

102

Table 31.

Business: Main reason for operating in the area

27

Table 32.

Business: main reason for operating in the area, by gender of business owner

30

Table 33.

Business: Main reason for operating in the area, by birthplace of business owner

30

Table 34.

Business: Main reason for operating in the area, by business category

30

Table 35.

Residence of business owners, by node

31

Table 36.

Areas in which ‘other users’ live

31

Table 37.

Reason for ‘other users’ being present in the node

32

Table 38.

Occupation status of residents, by age group

36

Table 39.

Gender of residents, by occupation status

37

Table 40.

Occupation status of residents, by previous residence

37

Table 41.

Personal monthly income of residents

38

Table 42.

Occupation status of residents, by individual income

38

Table 43.

Age group (years) of residents, by individual income

39

Table 44.

Residents: previous residence, by individual income

39

Table 45.

Gender of residents, by individual income

39

Table 46.

Household monthly income of residents

40

Table 47.

Residents: previous residence, by household income

40

Table 48.

Age group (years) of residents, by household income

41

Table 49.

Gender of residents, by household income

41

Table 50.

Types of business

44

List of tables

VII

Table 1.

Survey Sample Distribution

05

Table 2.

Age of residents, by node

08

Table 3.

Age of business owners, by node

08

Table 4.

Age of ‘other’ users, by node

08

Table 5.

Gender of residents by node

09

Table 6.

Gender of business owner, by node

09

Table 7.

Gender of business owner, by turnover

09

Table 8.

Gender of business owner, by business category

11

Table 9.

Gender of ‘other’ users, by node

11

Table 10.

Birthplace of residents, by node

11

Table 11.

Previous location of residents, by age group

13

Table 12.

Birthplace of business owner, by node

13

Table 13.

Node, by birthplace of business owner

14

Table 14.

Birthplace of business owner, by turnover

14

Table 15.

Business category, by birthplace of business owner

16

Table 16.

Birthplace of ‘other users’, by node

16

Table 17.

Home language of residents, by node

17

VIII


List of tables [continued] Table 51.

Node by business turnover

45

Table 83.

Monthly rental and municipal services cost of residents, by previous residence

61

Table 52.

Business turnover and profit

45

Table 84.

Type of business premises by node

62

Table 53.

Birthplace of business owner, by profit

46

Table 85.

Type of business premises

62

Table 54.

Business category, by profit

46

Table 86.

Type of business premises, by birthplace of business owner

63

Table 55.

Number of employees, by profit

46

Table 87.

Business: gender of owner by premises

63

Table 56.

Gender of business owner, by profit

48

Table 88.

Tenure of business premises by node

63

Table 57.

Top costs to business by node

48

Table 89.

Recipient of business premises rent by node

64

Table 58.

Mean monthly rental, rates & services, and security costs of businesses, by node

48

Table 90.

Travel characteristics of residents

66

49

Table 91.

Age group (years) of residents, by modes of transport

67

Table 92.

Mode of transport of residents, by individual income

67

Table 93.

Mode of transport of resident, by gender

68

Table 59. Table 60.

IX

Mean monthly rental, rates & services, and security costs of businesses, by business type Mean monthly rental, rates & services and security costs of businesses, by business premises

49

Table 61.

Communication technologies utilised by businesses

50

Travel to work for business owners by node

68

Table 62.

Table 94.

Employees per node

52

Node of transport cost of business owners

69

Table 63.

Table 95.

Employees per business

52

Residence of business owners by transport cost

69

Table 64.

Table 96.

Node, by number of employees

52

Travel to work for employees

69

Table 65.

Table 97.

Business category by number of employees

53

Proportion of suppliers to Westbury businesses

71

Table 66.

Table 98.

Gender of business owner, by number of employees

53

Proportion of suppliers to Park Station businesses

71

Table 67.

Table 99.

Type of dwelling of residents

54

Proportion of suppliers to Orange Grove businesses

73

Table 68.

Table 100.

Residents: previous residence, by dwelling type

54

Proportion of suppliers to Marboro South businesses

73

Table 69.

Table 101.

Age group (years) of residents, by dwelling type

55

Frequency of presence of ‘other users’ in each node

73

Table 70.

Table 102.

Household income of residents, by dwelling type

55

Mode of transport used by ‘other users’, by node

75

Table 71.

Table 103.

Household composition of residents, by node

55

Travel time of ‘other users’ to each node

76

Table 72.

Table 104.

Residents: previous residence, by household composition

57

Residents’ response to the COF and BRT

78

Table 73.

Table 105.

Age group (years) of residents, by household composition

57

Individual income of residents having heard of the COF

79

Table 74.

Table 106.

Residents: dwelling type, by household composition

57

Age group of residents, having heard of the COF

79

Table 75.

Table 107.

Age group (years) of residents, by space occupied by household

58

Gender of residents having heard of the COF

79

Table 76.

Table 108.

Residents: previous residence, by space occupied by household

58

Business owners having heard of the COF

80

Table 77.

Table 109.

Residents: type of dwelling, by space occupied by household

58

‘Other users’ having heard of the COF

80

Table 78.

Table 110.

Residents: tenure of residential premises

60

Table 79.

Space occupied by household of residents

60

Table 80.

Residents: previous residence, by tenure of residential premises

60

Table 112.

Table 81.

Age group (years) of residents, by tenure of residential premises

61

Table 113.

Table 82.

Monthly rental and municipal services costs paid by residents

61

Table 111.

Table 114.

Residents’ awareness of neighbourhood assocations dealing with community issues Age of residents aware of a neighbourhood association dealing with community issues Residents: Previous residence, by awareness of a nieghbourhood association dealing with community issues Occupation status of residents, by awareness of a neighbourhood association dealing with community issues

82 82 83 83

X


List of tables [continued] Table 115. Table 116.

association dealing with community issues Gender of residents, by awareness of a neighbourhood association

83

dealing with community issues

84

Table 117.

Residents’ participation in community activities

84

Table 118.

Age of residents, by participation in assocation dealing with community issues

Table 119. Table 120.

Residents: previous residence, by participation in association dealing with community issues Gender of residents, by participation in association dealing with neighbourhood community issues

Table 143.

Business owner response: most desirable support from City of Johannesburg

96

Table 144.

Resident response: how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?

96

Table 145.

84

Table 146.

84 85

Perceived level of conflict in community of residents

102

Table 148.

Age group of residents, by perceived level of conflict in community

103

Table 149.

103

Table 150.

Residents: previous residence, by perceived level of conflict in community

103

Table 151.

Gender of residents, by perceived level of conflict in community

105

Table 152.

Age group of residents, by life over the past year

105

Table 153.

Individual income group of residents, by life over the past year

105

Table 154.

Residents: previous residence, by life over the past year

105

Table 155.

Gender of residents, by life over the past year

106

Participation in business associations, by gender of business owner

85

Table 123.

Participation in business associations, by birthplace of business owner

85

Table 124.

Age group (years) of residents, by view on neighbourhood conditions

88

Table 125.

Residents: Resident group, by view on neighbourhood conditions

89

Table 126.

Individual income group of residents, by view on neighbourhood conditions

89

Table 127.

Occupation status of residents, by view on neighbourhood conditions

90

Table 128.

Resident response: what is the biggest challenge in theis area?

90

Table 156.

90

Table 157.

Table 131. Table 132. Table 133. Table 134.

Business owner response: is the number of businesses in the area increasing, staying the same or decreasing Business owner response: has your business performed well in the last 12 months? Business owner response: has business performed well in the past year? by business category Business owner response: has business performed well in the past year? by number of employees Business owner response: has business performed well in the past y

93

Table 136.

Business category, by business performance

93

Table 137.

Turnover of business, by business performance

93

Table 138.

Number of employees, by business performance

95

Business owner response: has your business performed well over

107

95

the past 12 months? by birthplace of business owner

95

Table 141.

Gender of business owner, by business performance

95

Table 142.

Birthplace of business owner by business performance

95

Conditions of work and life

users’ and reasons

92

Node, by business performance

Table 140.

Levels of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) of ‘other

106

92

Table 135.

last 12 months? by gender of business owner

or dissatisfied) and reasons

91

92

Business owner response: has your business performed well in the

Business owner response: levels of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied

91

ear? by turnover

Table 139.

Individual income group of residents, by perceived level of conflict in community

Table 122.

Table 130.

Resident response: do you think that your life has improved, stayed

Table 147.

85

like to be improved in this area?

99

dissatisfied) and reasons

102

Table 121.

Resident response: what is the most important thing you would

Resident response: levels of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or

the same or worsened over the past year?

Awareness of business associations of business owner

Table 129.

XI

Individual income of residents, by awareness of a neighbourhood

Conditions of work and life

XII


1

KEY FINDINGS Residents along Johannesburg’s Transit Corridors experience multiple worlds, both across and within nodes. The key driver to the varied life, work and travel experiences are the economic and financial conditions of residents. The demography of a node, including the age structure and gender composition is determined by the migration pattern driven mostly by job opportunities in the node. The high levels of unemployment along the Corridors (26%) reflect the South African reality. However, there is distinct difference in the unemployment rates across nodes and demographic groups. Westbury and Marlboro South has the highest unemployment rates of 44% and 37% respectively. Unemployment levels are highest among young women. The unemployment level among foreign residents (7.5%) is significantly lower than that of the local residents1 (25.9%) as well as South African internal migrants (24.8%). The difference in the employment rates among these categories is fundamentally driven by the higher selfemployment rate among foreign residents (50%). The share of the self-employed is low, especially among young South Africans (12%), considering their high levels of unemployment. This clearly points to the need for both financial and training support from policy makers to improve the capacity of the South African youth to generate income. Interventions of this nature can be targeted in the Westbury and Marlboro South areas where labour market participation rate is seen to be the lowest. Park Station (51.7%) and Orange Grove (61.8%), which have higher employment rate, also have higher proportion of young male residents accounting for 69.5% and 66.9% of the resident populations respectively; whereas nodes with higher unemployment rate, like Westbury (44.3%), have a higher share of older women residents (60.8%). Migrants from rest of South Africa and businesses owned by them, are most seen to be concentrated in Marlboro South. Foreign born residents and foreign-owned businesses, on the other hand, are concentrated in Park Station and Orange Grove. Westbury on the other hand, shows very low in-migration with local residents and localowned businesses dominating the node. Of the four nodes surveyed, Westbury is seen to be the least

culturally diversified, which is a reflection of the lack of in-migration. Life satisfaction was observed to be lowest in Westbury, among the four nodes surveyed, and can be attributed to lower economic opportunities and drug-related crime in the area. The absence of in-migration is explained by the lack of economic opportunities in the area. The existing business in the Westbury area is predominantly micro-enterprises, with the highest proportion (84%) of businesses reporting a monthly turnover of less than R20, 000. Westbury also had the highest share of businesses (43%) fully operated by the owner without employing any workers. On the other hand, Orange Grove had the lowest share of small business with only under 50% of businesses operating in the same category. Marlboro South and Orange Grove had highest proportion of businesses that employed over 5 people. The majority of Park Station businesses employed between one and five people. The better employment opportunities in Orange Grove, Park Station and Marlboro South is evident when compared to Westbury and can, therfore, explain the demographic differences between these nodes. It is clear that residential densification strategy of an area has to be accompanied by the economic revitalisation of the area. Hence it is important to identify interventions required to achieve this end as a prelude to residential densification. There is very little diversification of economic activity within all four nodes, with retail trading dominating (48%) as the single largest category of business. Most businesses (63%) across the nodes have been operating from the area for over 5 years. It is interesting to note that the share of businesses (0.7%) that have existed between 1-5 years were miniscule. This reflects the low rate of survival of

1 In this report, ‘local residents’ refers to people who were born within Johannesburg.

01

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

02


new businesses. While the established businesses thrive, as indicated by the high share of businesses over 5 years, the newer ones find it hard to survive. This indicates that the probability of the businessese that are currently less than one year old surviving into the next years are low. A more in-depth study on the reasons for business failure is warranted to shed light on the required policy intervention to support new business. Westbury has the highest share of businesses that have been trading in the area for under a year (40.4%) indicating a lower probability of success of business in the area. Moreover, a large proportion of businesses in Westbury (30%) were operating from the owner’s home, while businesses in Orange Grove (80%) and Park Station (65%) had formal premises. This points to the likelihood of Westbury businesses being informal sector selfemployment, often a survival strategy for people in the context of high unemployment rates. Any efforts to revive the Westbury node, however, would have to start with addressing the concerns of both residents and the businesses relating to drug-related crime in the area. This has to go hand-in-hand with large-scale public and private investments that can generate economic activity. This, in turn, will not only create direct employment opportunities but also is likely to increase the potential for micro-and small businesses through the spillover demand effect. This argument is supported by the findings that the major reason cited by firms (57%) for the location of business is proximity to customers. The supply-side factors did not figure as a differentiating factor across nodes. Johannesburg CBD and South of CBD featured as the most important source of supplies for businesses in all nodes, except Marlboro South which sourced substantially from Alexandra. The evidence with regards to the survivability of the new enterprises is not encouraging and points to the need for policy intervention to assist smaller enterprises. A significantly higher proportion of larger businesses (57%) reported improvement in business, compared to the smaller ones (36%). This further reinforces the argument for policy support for micro enterprises as they are not able to benefit from economies of scale and are at a disadvantage in facing the challenges of the economy. A reduction in municipal rates (63%) and direct financial assistance (60%) emerged as the most desirable forms of support that businesses would like to receive from the City of Johannesburg.

03

Conditions of work and life

Other desirables were improved infrastructure (59%); improved services (58%); better regulation of the area (55%); and assistance with bank loans (54%). A small percentage (7%) mentioned other issues ranging from electricity, accommodation and cleaning to street vendors and ‘foreigners’. It is evident throughout the study that it is the economic opportunities (43%) that attract residents to an area; the housing facilities (6.9%) in the area are seen as a secondary factor driving the location choices of residents. Lack of suitable housing in areas with higher economic opportunities results in the development of informal settlements. Any attempt at residential densification has to start with identification of the economically vibrant space. The need for low cost housing in close proximity to employment opportunities is illustrated most urgently in the Marlboro South area. The argument to increase infrastructure investment in low-cost housing in Marlboro South is most compelling. The structure of preferred dwelling space also differs between residents. Households of internal migrants in Marlboro South are family households (79%) unlike the household structure of many foreign born residents who live with unrelated individuals (22%). The high proportion of those engaged in home duties in the Marlboro South and Westbury areas indicates the higher proportion of dependants in households of South African-born residents. This is in contrast to the household structure of foreign residents who have very few dependants living with them. (Usually foreign migrants are remitting their income to families foreign countries.) The housing facilities requirement is likely to be different for these two categories of residents. The young, like the foreign-born residents, are also likely to be sharing accommodation with unrelated individuals. Therefore, infrastructure investment for residential densification needs to take into account the different requirements of the various residents. The type of tenure is also different among residents, with a high proportion of local residents owning freestanding houses; internal migrant residents residing in informal settlements; and foreign residents renting apartments. In addition to Marlboro South, the need to provide affordable housing for those employed in Park Station area is ilustrated by the fact that a large proportion of those engaged in livelihood activities in Park Station travel from Soweto. This is indicative of the higher rental cost for residences in the Park Station area. The decision to stay close to business is

made based on the trade-offs of transport cost vis-avis rental cost. Awareness of the Corridors of Freedom project was dismal across all resident demographic groups (3.4%), business owners (2.9%) and those transiting (5%) these nodes. The need to spread awareness of the CoF comes out strongly from the survey. The use of Rea Vaya BRT was low both across residents (4.7%), business owners (0%), employees (1%) and transit users (5%) of the node. The majority of individuals (50%) who walked to work on all four nodes was surveyed. The vast majority who could not walk to work a used minibus taxi (60%). Higher income residents and business owners, especially in the Orange Grove node, preferred the use of private car. Westbury had the highest proportion (65%) of business owners who incurred no cost to get to work. Park Station, on the other hand had the lowest proportion who walked to work. The use of Rea Vaya BRT was highest in Westbury (8.5%), but low nevertheless across all nodes (4.7%). The findings point to the low awareness being the reason for the low uptake of Rea Vaya BRT. The need to devise a strategy to change the long-established practice of using a private car by the higher income earners is also brought out by the survey. Behavioural change can be induced by strategies such as observing a “no-car day’ once a week/ month to encourage the use of public transport. It is important, however, to set in place an enabling environment by addressing concerns of safety and security before undertaking such measures. It is not only the awareness relating to the Corridors of Freedom (COF) initiative, but also awareness and participation in associations dealing with community issues as well as business associations (9%) that are low across nodes as well as across age, income and resident/business categories. The need to take steps to integrate the young, women, and foreign residents and business owners into the community comes out strongly. The business respondents were asked to assess a range of services and circumstances in their areas. The level of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) was highest in respect of safety and security (27%) . This dovetailed with the perception by 24% that there was a small amount of conflict in the area and by 9% that there was much conflict in the area, this being significantly higher in Park

Station and Westbury than in Orange Grove or Marlboro South. The conflict to which business people referred was mainly in relation to criminals (thugs, gangsters, drug dealers), and to a much lesser extent with customers, other businesses or with the municipality. The second highest dissatisfaction emerged in respect of cleanliness of the area (26.5%). This was most prevalent in the Park Station and Orange Grove nodes, and primarily attributable to the municipal workers’ strike and associated failure to collect garbage and keep the area clean. 15% were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with police services in their areas, owing to the perceived ineffectiveness of these services. The dissatisfaction levels of the low income residents are higher across the board, when compared with the middle and higher income residents. Expectedly, the biggest dissatisfaction of the low income residents related to job opportunities. This followed by concerns relating to the quality of health services and safety and security. On the other hand, the concerns of the higher income residents related to cleanliness, police services and safety and security. The dichotomy in the access and quality of health services between the poor and the rest is most stark. The role of income in determining overall life satisfaction comes out strongly with 0% of the higher income group reporting overall dissatisfaction with life. Asked to assess a range of services and circumstances in their areas, the level of dissatisfaction among the transit users was highest in respect of safety and security (29%), ranging from 47% dissatisfaction in Westbury to only 12% in Orange Grove. In conclusion, the immediate need appears to be for investment in residential dwellings close to the Park Station node and in Marlboro South. The interventions required in Westbury are mostly related to its economic revival, fighting crime in the area and improving the quality of healthcare. Interventions required in Orange Grove would be to create awareness of COF and encourage the higher income residents and business owners to embrace the use of Rea Vaya BRT. The general consensus across different demographic groups existed in the need to stimulate the economy in order to increase employment opportunities followed by the need to improve the safety and security and cleanliness in the area. The need for related intervention came out most strongly in Westbury as compared to other nodes.

Conditions of work and life

04


conduct interviews with 250 individuals along the Corridors of Freedom, 50 in Westbury, 100 around Park Station, 50 in the Orange Grove node and 50 in the Marlboro South node. The realised sample comprised 51 in Westbury; 100 in Park Station; 50 in Orange Grove and 55 in Marlboro South.

2

INTRODUCTION This report is based on the analysis of data submitted by Outsourced Insight CC. It, therefore, draws heavily upon the survey methodology and preliminary findings reported by Outsourced Insight CC. The purpose of this study is to obtain a more detailed understanding of the socio-economic conditions along the Corridors of Freedom, which other research programmes such as the Census and the GCRO’s2 biennial Quality of Life Survey are not able to provide.

• Marlboro South is part of an older industrial area and lies along the Orange Grove Corridor; it has become a site of extreme marginalisation. • Park Station Precinct: lies in the heartland of Johannesburg CBD. The city centre is integral to the Corridors of Freedom because majors transport routes emanate from it and so it forms the ‘connective tissue’ of the Corridors of Freedom.

The key Corridor of Freedom nodes covered in this study are: • Westbury, Coronationville and Slovo Park Informal Settlement: residential areas located along the Empire-Perth Corridor of Freedom.

2.1. The scope of the research

The statistical analysis was undertaken using the STATA v.14 statistical package.

2.2. Limitations of the study The main limitations of the study were the fieldwork challenges encountered by the research team. This was particularly the case for the survey of businesses. Securing the participation of business managers and/or owners in the survey interviews was time consuming and sometimes not feasible.

2.3. Structure of the report The report is structured thematically covering the details of residents, businesses and ‘other users’ within each theme, where possible.

The study entailed a representative survey sample of households, businesses and other users in the identified key nodal areas.

• Louis Botha Avenue: this arterial road runs through some of the older suburbs in Johannesburg, and connects Pretoria to Johannesburg. A small section of the Corridor, between Osborn and Garden Roads, has been selected for the study. Table 1. Survey Sample Distribution

Node

Residents

Businesses

Other Users

Total

Westbury/ Coronationville/Joe Slovo Park Station Precinct Orange Grove (Louise Botha Avenue between Osborn and Garden Roads) Marlboro South Total

200 100 150

50 100 100

50 100 50

300 300 300

150 600

100 350

50 250

300 1200

The residential component of the survey aimed to conduct interviews with a selected respondent from each of 600 households selected randomly using a Kish grid in each of the four identified Corridors of Freedom nodes. The proposed sample was 200 in Westbury and 100 around Park Station, 150 in the Orange Grove node and 150 in the Marlboro South node. The realised sample was 534 (207 Westbury; 95 Park Station; 140 Orange Grove 149; 92 Marlboro South), with a number of responses being excluded because they had been sampled

outside of the nodes, especially beyond the border of Marlboro South in Alexandra. The business component of the survey involved interviews with owners of businesses, both formal and informal, operating along the Corridors of Freedom. The realised sample was 52 in Westbury; 75 at Park Station; 89 in Orange Grove and 63 in Marlboro South. The ‘Other User’ component of the survey aimed to

2 Gauteng City Regional Observatory

05

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

06


3

DEMOGRAPHICS The mean age of resident respondents was 36.9 years, with a statistically significant variation (F=17.633; df=3; p=0.000) between nodes. Almost two-fifths (39%) were in the youngest (18 to 30 year) age group, notably 49% in the Orange Grove node. A further 30% overall were aged 31 to 40 years; about one in seven (14%) were 41 to 50 years old; and about one in six (17%) were older than 50 years.

Table 2. Age of residents, by node

18-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 51-86 years Total Mean age

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

32.4 20.6 16.2 30.9 100.0 41.3

43.2 43.2 13.7 0.0 100.0 33.0

36.7 27.8 18.9 16.7 100.0 38.0

39.4 29.5 14.2 16.9 100.0 36.9

48.9 34.5 8.6 7.9 100.0 32.3

Table 3. Age of business owners, by node

20-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 51-70 years Total Mean age

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

19.6 29.4 35.3 15.7 100.0 40.4

27.5 34.8 29.0 8.7 100.0 38.0

27.3 43.2 21.6 8.0 100.0 36.8

26.9 35.4 27.6 10.1 100.0 38.0

The mean age of business owners was 38.0 years, with no statistically significant variation (F=422.602; df=3; p=0.220) between nodes. The oldest average age occurred in Westbury at 40.4 years. More than

31.7 30.0 28.3 10.0 100.0 37.7

one-third (35%) of business owners were in the 31 to 40 year age group, a further 27% were aged 20 to 30 years; 28% were 41 to 50 years old; and about one in ten (10%) were older than 50 years.

Table 4. Age of ‘other’ users, by node

16-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 51-72 years Total Mean age

07

Conditions of work and life

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

41.7 27.1 12.5 18.8 100.0 36.4

48.5 33.3 14.1 4.0 100.0 32.8

53.1 34.7 12.2 0.0 100.0 29.7

48.8 34.0 11.2 6.0 100.0 32.5

51.9 40.7 3.7 3.7 100.0 30.7

Conditions of work and life

08


The mean age of respondents was 32.5 years, with a statistically significant variation (F=1301.848; df=3; p=0.003) between nodes, ranging from 29.7 in Orange Grove to 36.4 years old in Westbury. Almost half (49%) were aged 30 years or less, this

proportion ranging from 42% in Westbury to 53% in Orange Grove. Westbury had the highest proportion aged over 50 years. Differences between the nodes were statistically significant (X2=22.852; df=9; p=0.007).

Table 5. Gender of residents by node

Women Men Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

60.8 39.2 100.0

30.5 69.5 100.0

33.1 66.9 100.0

58.3 44.0 100.0

47.3 52.7 100.0

The distribution of men and women was significantly different (X2=39.652; df=3; p=0.000) between nodes, with a much higher proportion of women than men in Westbury and Marlboro South, coinciding with the much higher proportion of employment levels in Park Station and Orange Grove as compared to Westbury and Marlboro South.

This points to employment opportunities available in an area determining its age structure and gender profile. This is indicative that areas with higher employment potential attract in-migration of young men whereas there is an out-migration of young men from areas with lower employment opportunities.

Table 6. Gender of business owner, by node

Women Men Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

15.4 84.6 100.0

37.1 62.9 100.0

33.3 66.7 100.0

31.4 68.6 100.0

More than two-thirds (69%) of business owners were men and about one-third (31%) were women. There was a statistically significant difference (X2=7.899; df=3; p=0.048) between nodes in this gender distribution, with a much lower proportion of women business owners in the Westbury node.

35.5 64.5 100.0

Relating gender of the business owner to the monthly turnover revealed that women owners are observed to have a larger share of both the lowest as well as highest turnover. Men owned businesses fell mostly in the category of 5-75k.

Table 7. Gender of business owner, by turnover

Gender

<5k

5-20k

20-75k

75-200k

>200k

Total

Men Women Total

18.92 25.88 21.11

44.32 35.29 41.48

25.95 22.35 24.81

4.32 7.06 5.19

6.49 9.41 7.41

100 100 100

Pearson chi2(4) = 4.2983 Pr = 0.367

09

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

10


Table 8. Gender of business owner, by business category

Men Women Total

Retail

Services

Catering

Motor industry

Total

49.19 49.41 49.26

15.14 29.41 19.63

24.86 16.47 8.89

10.81 4.71 8.89

100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2(3) = 10.3367 Pr = 0.016

Although, both genders had a similar concentration (49%) in the retail sector, there is a statistically significant difference between genders in the business sectors. The second most dominant

business category for the men business owners was catering and it was services for women. Men owned more business in the motor industry sector than women.

Table 9. Gender of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; users, by node

Women Men Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

48.0 52.0 100.0

45.5 54.5 100.0

28.6 71.4 100.0

38.7 61.3 100.0

Almost two-thirds (61%) of respondents were men, with statistically significant difference (X2=8.870; df=3; p=0.031). We also see much higher proportions

27.3 72.7 100.0

of women in Westbury (48%) and Park Station (46%) than Orange Grove (29%) or Marlboro South (27%).

Table 10. Birthplace of residents, by node

Birthplace

South Africa

Zimbabwe

Johannesburg Elsewhere in GP KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo North West Other RSA Harare Bulawayo Other

Nigeria Ethiopia Bangladesh Pakistan Mozambique Other Africa Other Unknown Total

11

Conditions of work and life

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

68.6 1.4 4.3 4.3 9.2 10.6 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0

15.8 4.2 10.5 9.5 3.2 9.5 6.3 4.2 4.2 14.7 0.0 1.1 2.1 5.3 9.5 0.0 0.0 100.0

22.9 5.0 3.6 10.7 2.9 9.3 2.9 14.3 2.9 6.4 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 17.1 0.7 0.0 100.0

41.3 3.3 8.7 26.1 1.1 8.7 0.0 0.0 2.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 3.3 0.0 0.7 100.0

42.5 3.2 6.0 10.7 5.1 9.7 1.9 4.7 1.9 4.5 0.2 0.4 0.4 1.7 6.9 0.2 0.2 100.0

Conditions of work and life

12


More than two-fifths (43%) of residents were born in Johannesburg and 3% elsewhere in Gauteng.Amongst those born in Johannesburg, the proportions of those actually born within the nodal area where they lived at the time of the survey were large, especially in or near to the Westbury and Marlboro South nodes. Another 11% were born in Limpopo (notably 26% of those in Marlboro South), 6% in KwaZulu-Natal (11% of those in Park Station node), 5% in North West (9% of Westbury residents), and 10% elsewhere in South Africa. Approximately 9% were born in Zimbabwe (Bulawayo 5%; Harare 2%; and elsewhere 2%), especially amongst residents of the Orange Grove

and Park Station nodes. More than 4% were born in Nigeria, the most mentioned cities being Lagos and Abuja, and particularly in Park Station node, where the Nigerian-born residents comprised 15%. Variations in places of birth between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=282.542; df=48; p=0.000). Our earlier argument of in-migration into areas with greater employment opportunities is validated by Table 13, with Park Station and Orange Grove having a low share of local residents when compared to Westbury and Marlboro South.

Table 11. Previous location of residents, by age group

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

18-30

31-40

41-50

51-65

>65

Total

39.4 34.3 50 38.9

26.5 34.3 35 29.21

14.7 13.4 10 14

13.3 14.8 5 12.9

5.8 3.7 0.00 4.87

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2(6) = 20.1892 Pr = 0.003

Categorising the residents into groups based on their previous location, we define those who previously lived in the greater Johannesburg region as local, those who were from rest of South Africa as South African and those from outside the national borders as foreign. A clear divide between the age distribution of the foreign residents and

others are visible, with 85% of foreign population comprising of people under the age of 40 years. This is typical of migration patterns where younger people are more likely to migrate in order to seek employment opportunities. This leads to the increase in the proportion of the work force in the migrant receiving areas.

Table 12. Birthplace of business owner, by node

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

South Africa

Zimbabwe

Johannesburg Elsewhere in Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo North West Other SA provinces Harare Bulawayo/ Plumtree Other

Nigeria Ethiopia Mozambique Pakistan

13

Conditions of work and life

66.7 2.0

19.4 0.0

23.6 4.5

43.3 5.0

34.9 2.9

2.0 2.0 5.9 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.9 2.0 2.0

6.9 8.3 4.2 4.2 1.4 11.1 6.9 12.5 5.6 1.4 4.2

1.1 6.7 3.4 4.5 3.4 14.6 1.1 12.4 4.5 0.0 2.2

5.0 6.7 3.3 8.3 0.0 1.7 1.7 1.7 0.0 11.7 1.7

3.7 6.3 4.0 4.8 1.5 8.1 2.6 7.7 4.0 3.3 2.6

Bangladesh Other Africa Other non-Africa Total

0.0 3.9 5.9 100.0

4.2 9.7 0.0 100.0

Just over one-third (35%) of business owners were born in the City of Johannesburg and about a further one-quarter (22%) were born in other parts of South Africa, especially KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and the North West. More than 12% were born in Zimbabwe (Bulawayo area 8%; Harare 2%; and elsewhere 3%) and 8% were born in Nigeria, the most mentioned cities being Lagos and Abuja. The rest of the business owners were born in Ethiopia (4%), Mozambique (3%), Pakistan (3%), Bangladesh (2%), elsewhere in Africa (10%) or the rest of the world (2%). Variations in the major places of birth of business owners between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=109.215; df=45; p=0.000), with much higher proportions of Johannesburgborn owners in Westbury (67%) and Marlboro South (43%) than Orange Grove (24%) and Park Station (19%). Westbury and Coronationville have

2.2 14.6 1.1 100.0

1.7 8.3 0.0 100.0

2.2 9.9 1.5 100.0

stable populations who settled there in the 1930s when coloured people were displaced from central Johannesburg into segregated public housing, owing to the expansion of commercial office premises. Conversely, the highest proportions born in or around Bulawayo and Plumtree were in Orange Grove (15%) and Park Station (11%). Similarly, these two nodes had the highest proportions of business owners who had been born in Nigeria (Park Station 13%; Orange Grove 12%). The highest proportion of local resident owned businesses is found in Westbury. Foreign residents, on the other hand, operated business in Orange Grove and Park Station. Internal migrant residents operated from Park Station, Marlboro South and Orange Grove.

Table 13. Node, by birthplace of business owner

Node

local

Other SA

Foreign

Total

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

34.31 13.73 24.51 27.45 100

11.76 33.33 27.45 27.45 100

8.8 35.2 40 16 100

18.71 26.98 32.01 22.3 100

Pearson chi2(6) = 40.3518 Pr = 0.000

Table 14. Birthplace of business owner, by turnover

Birthplace

<5k

5-20k

20-75k

75-200k

>200k

Total

Local

21.57

45.1

19.61

7.84

5.88

100

Rest of South Africa

21.57

27.45

33.33

5.88

11.76

100

Foreign

19.2

44.8

24

3.2

8.8

100

Total

20.5

41.73

24.1

5.4

8.27

100

Pearson chi2(8) = 9.6683 Pr = 0.289

Very little difference in the scale of business can be observed across the previous residence of the business owner. While retail related business was the most prominent business category for locals,

internal migrant residents as well as for foreign residents, exhibited more diversity in business category than local residents.

Conditions of work and life

14


Table 15. Business category, by birthplace of business owner

Business category

Local

Rest of South Africa

Foreign

Total

Retail

37.25

50.98

56

48.2

Catering

22.55

29.41

14.4

20.14

Services

24.51

15.69

24.8

23.02

Motor industry

15.69

3.92

4.8

8.63

Total

100

100

100

100

Pearson chi2(6) = 19.4876 Pr = 0.003

Table 16. Birthplace of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;other usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, by node

CBD and inner city Westbury/ South Coronationville Africa Alexandra Johannesburg Soweto Orange Grove Eldorado Park South of CBD Elsewhere in Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo North West Other provinces of SA Harare Zimbabwe Bulawayo/Plumtree Other regions or unspecified in Zimbabwe Nigeria Other Africa Total Just over one-third (34%) of the other users had been born in Johannesburg. This proportion varied between nodes from 18% of those encountered in the Orange Grove node to 63% of those interviewed in Westbury. The highest proportions born locally were in Westbury itself, where 22% had been born in the node and Marlboro South, where 22% had been born in Alexandra. Conversely, the largest proportions of non-Johannesburgers were interviewed in the Orange Grove node (92%), most notably from Zimbabwe (26%), especially the

15

Conditions of work and life

Westbury

Park Orange Marlboro Station Grove South

Total

2.0 31.4

2.1 2.1

6.1 0.0

0.0 0.0

2.4 7.1

0.0 21.6 0.0 2.0 5.9 13.7 2.0 3.9 2.0 9.8 0.0 2.0 3.9

2.1 14.4 0.0 2.1 3.1 10.3 12.4 8.2 3.1 11.3 3.1 8.2 7.2

4.1 4.1 0.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 14.3 4.1 0.0 4.1 4.1 14.3 8.2

21.8 12.7 1.8 0.0 0.0 5.5 7.3 9.1 3.6 7.3 0.0 1.8 10.9

6.3 13.5 0.4 1.6 2.8 8.3 9.5 6.7 2.4 8.7 2.0 6.7 7.5

0.0 0.0 100.0

2.1 8.2 100.0

12.2 18.4 100.0

1.8 16.4 100.0

3.6 10.3 100.0

Bulawayo region, KwaZulu-Natal (14%), Nigeria (12%), other parts of Africa (18%), notably the Malawi, Mozambique and the DRC, and Limpopo (4%). Non-South Africans were least encountered in Westbury (6%).

Conditions of work and life

16


Table 17. Home language of residents, by node

Table 18. Home language of business owner, by node

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

Afrikaans

60.9

0.0

1.4

1.1

24.2

isiZulu

7.7

20.0

13.6

20.7

13.7

Setswana

12.6

5.3

6.4

17.4

10.5

Sesotho

6.3

11.6

7.1

8.7

7.9

Sepedi

4.3

3.2

8.6

14.1

6.9

isiNdebele

1.0

7.4

16.4

2.2

6.4

English

4.8

9.5

5.7

2.2

5.4

isiXhosa

0.5

5.3

6.4

5.4

3.7

Tshivenda

0.5

4.2

5.0

9.8

3.9

Xitsonga

0.0

6.3

1.4

12.0

3.6

Igbo

0.0

8.4

5.0

0.0

2.8

Chishona

0.0

7.4

3.6

1.1

2.4

French

0.0

1.9

7.9

0.0

2.2

Kiswahili

0.0

4.2

3.6

0.0

1.7

Portuguese

0.5

1.1

0.7

2.2

0.9

Bengali

0.0

1.1

0.7

0.0

0.4

Chichewa

0.5

0.0

0.7

1.1

0.6

Urdu

0.0

2.2

0.0

0.0

0.4

Yoruba

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.2

siSwati

0.0

0.0

0.7

1.1

0.4

Chinyanja

0.0

1.1

0.7

0.0

0.4

Lingala

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.2

Not stated

0.5

0.0

2.1

1.1

0.9

Almost a quarter (24%) of residents were home language Afrikaans-speakers and about one in seven (14%) were isiZulu-speakers. Other home languages were Setswana (11%); Sesotho (8%); Sepedi (7%); isiNdebele (6%); English (5%); isiXhosa (4%); Tshivenda (4%); Xitsonga (4%); Igbo (3%); Chishona (2%); Kiswahili (2%); and French (2%); and Kiswahili (2%). Other home languages (less than 1% in each case) were Portuguese, Bengali, Chichewa, Urdu, Yoruba, siSwati, Chinyanja and Lingala. Particular concentrations of specific language groups occurred in some nodes, notably Afrikaans (61% in Westbury), isiZulu (20% or more in Park Station and Marlboro South), Setswana (17% in Marlboro South), Sepedi (14% in Marlboro South), isiNdebele (17% in Orange Grove), Sesotho (12% in Park Station), English (10% in Park Station), and Igbo (8% in Park Station). It is evident that Westbury is the least culturally

17

Conditions of work and life

diverse node with Afrikaans speakers accounting for 61.5% of residents. This is not surprising given the low level of in-migration into the area, which has resulted in little change from the historic demographic profile of the area. Three languages, isiZulu, Sepedi, Setswana account for the language of 55% of the Marlboro South node residents highlighting in-migration. The language composition of Park Station and Orange Grove is highly diverse indicating that these nodes can be considered as a melting pot of cultures both from within and outside South Africa. The economic vibrancy of these areas can be seen to be the leading cause for their cultural diversity.

English Afrikaans isiZulu Sepedi isiNdebele Sesotho Setswana Igbo Xitsonga Shona Amharic Bengali isiXhosa Tshivenda Swahili Other Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

11.8 54.9 3.9 2.0 0.0 3.9 7.8 0.0 3.9 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.0 100.0

20.8 6.9 8.3 6.9 11.1 1.4 6.9 5.3 4.2 2.7 2.6 4.0 1.4 0.0 1.3 16.2 100.0

27.6 4.6 3.4 5.7 11.5 4.6 5.7 8.9 1.1 5.6 1.1 2.2 1.1 1.1 4.5 11.3 100.0

6.7 3.3 26.7 10.0 1.7 11.7 6.7 0.0 9.9 1.6 0.0 0.0 5.0 3.3 0.0 13.4 100.0

18.1 14.4 10.0 6.3 7.0 5.2 6.7 4.4 4.4 2.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.1 1.8 12.0 100.0

Business owners along the Corridor of Freedom were collectively the home language speakers of 36 different languages. The largest of these home language groups were English (18%), Afrikaans (14%), isiZulu (10%), Sepedi (6%), Sesotho (5%) and Setswana (7%). The largest of the non-South African official language groupings were home language speakers of isiNdebele (7%), Igbo (4%), Shona (3%), Amharic (2%) and Bengali (2%). Variations in the distribution of the major home language groupings of business owners between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=159.731; df=39;

p=0.000), with English being the most common in Park Station (21%) and Orange Grove (28%); Afrikaans is dominant in Westbury (55%), and isiZulu being the largest group in Marlboro South (27%). The proportion of business owners speaking non-South African languages was 36% (also taking into account that most isiNdebele-speakers were from Zimbabwe, and most Xitsonga-speakers were from Mozambique), ranging from 47% in Park Station (47%), and 46% in Orange Grove, to 30% in Marlboro South and 16% in Westbury.

Table 19. Home language of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;other usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, by node

isiZulu Afrikaans isiNdebele Sesotho English Sepedi isiXhosa Xitsonga Setswana French Shona

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

17.6 54.9 5.9 3.9 3.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 5.9 0.0 0.0

26.3 9.1 12.1 14.1 3.0 5.1 6.1 8.1 3.0 1.0 5.1

14.0 6.0 16.0 6.0 22.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 14.0 4.0

22.0 15.7 11.8 9.4 6.7 6.7 5.1 3.9 3.9 3.1 2.7

25.5 0.0 12.7 9.1 1.8 14.5 7.3 0.0 7.3 0.0 0.0

Conditions of work and life

18


Tshivenda Chichewa Igbo Portuguese siSwati Chinyanja Kiswahili

2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

2.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0

Variations in the distribution of the main home languages of other users between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=182.898; df=51; p=0.000), with distinct clusters of dominant languages in each node. Whereas speakers of Afrikaans (55%) and isiZulu (18%) formed the largest groups in Westbury; other users interviewed at Park Station were mainly home language speakers

2.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0

3.6 9.1 1.8 7.3 0.0 0.0 0.0

2.4 2.4 1.6 1.6 0.4 0.4 0.4

of isiZulu (26%), Sesotho (14%), isiNdebele (12%), Afrikaans (9%) and Xitsonga (8%), reflective of the high volume of people in transit through this major transport node. In the Orange Grove node, the main languages were English (22%), isiNdebele (16%), isiZulu (14%) and French (14%), owing to the large proportions of people with origins in Zimbabwe, the DRC and Nigeria (see next section).

Table 20. Nationality of residents, by node

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

South Africa

98.5

53.2

53.3

89.0

77.0

Zimbabwe

0.5

14.9

21.2

3.3

8.9

Nigeria

0.0

14.9

6.6

1.1

4.6

DRC

0.0

1.1

11.7

0.0

3.2

Mozambique

0.5

5.3

0.0

3.3

1.7

Malawi

0.5

2.2

1.5

1.1

1.2

Lesotho

0.0

1.1

0.7

1.1

0.6

Bangladesh

0.0

1.1

0.7

0.0

0.4

Tanzania

0.0

3.2

0.0

0.0

0.6

Kenya

0.0

1.1

0.7

0.0

0.4

Pakistan

0.0

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.4

Cameroon

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.2

Ethiopia

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.2

France

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.2

Ivory Coast

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.2

Swaziland

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.1

0.2

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Just more than three-quarters (77%) of the residents were South Africans; a further 9% were Zimbabweans; 4% Nigerians; and 3% were citizens of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). There were another 12 nationalities encountered across the four nodes, most especially in the Park Station and Orange Grove nodes, where only 53% of the residents interviewed were South Africans.

19

Conditions of work and life

Variations in the nationalities of residents between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=184.137; df=18; p=0.000). The high portion of foreign nationalities in Park Station (49%) and Orange Grove (46.6) are in stark comparison to Westbury (1.5%) and Marlboro South (7.2%).

Conditions of work and life

20


Table 21. Nationality of business owner, by node

South Africa Zimbabwe Nigeria Ethiopia Mozambique Pakistan Bangladesh Malawi Lesotho Somalia Tanzania Ghana China Botswana DRC Cameroon Congo Brazzaville United Kingdom Liberia Kenya Total

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

80.4 0.0 0.0 7.7 2.0 1.9 0.0 1.9 0.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

43.1 19.4 12.5 5.3 1.4 4.0 4.0 2.7 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0

78.0 1.7 1.7 0.0 6.8 1.6 1.6 1.6 3.4 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

58.3 11.4 7.7 4.3 2.2 2.5 2.2 1.8 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.4 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 100.0

Almost three-fifths (58%) of business owners were South Africans; a further one in ten (11%) were Zimbabweans; and about one in twelve (8%) were Nigerians. The other main nationalities amongst business owners were Ethiopians (4%); Mozambicans (2%); Pakistanis (3%); and Bangladeshis (2%). In addition, a further thirteen nationalities were identified, eleven of these being

44.9 18.0 12.4 4.5 0.0 2.2 2.2 1.1 1.1 0.0 4.5 4.5 0.0 1.1 0.0 1.1 0.0 1.1 1.1 0.0 100.0

Almost three-quarters (70%) of other users interviewed were South Africans, and a further 17% were Zimbabweans. The other nationalities represented were Democratic Republic of the Congo (4%), Nigeria (3%), Malawi (3%), Mozambique (2%), Tanzania (1%), Lesotho and Namibia (both 0.4%). Variations in the nationalities encountered between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=73.601; df=24; p=0.000), with South Africans being most prevalent in Westbury (94%), large proportions of Zimbabweans in each of the other three nodes, as well as clusters of people from the DRC and Nigeria in the Orange Grove node, and from Malawi in the Marlboro South node.

African. Variations in the distribution of major nationalities of business owners between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=62.727; df=18; p=0.00), with much higher non-South African business ownership in the Park Station (57%) and Orange Grove (55%) nodes than in Westbury (20%) or Marlboro South (22%).

Table 22. Nationality of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;other usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, by node

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

South Africa Zimbabwe DRC Nigeria Malawi

94.1 5.9 0.0 0.0 0.0

72.0 18.0 2.0 1.0 2.0

42.0 28.0 14.0 12.0 2.0

69.1 16.4 0.0 1.8 9.1

69.9 17.2 3.5 3.1 3.1

Mozambique Tanzania Lesotho Namibia Total

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

2.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 100.0

0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 100.0

3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

1.6 0.8 0.4 0.4 100.0

21

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

22


4

LOCATION OF RESIDENTS, BUSINESSES AND ‘OTHER’ USERS On the whole, residents had lived in their current dwelling place for about 15 years on average and in Johannesburg for about 22 years on average, with longer stays in the Westury and Malboro nodes. This makes sense because most of the local residents live in Wesbury and Malboro whereas Park station and Orange Grove have more foreigners and residents from the rest of South Africa. Table 23. Residents: Years living in dwelling, by node

Mean years in dwelling Mean years in Johannesburg

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

22.7 33.3

5.6 9.5

5.4 11.5

14.5 21.5

18.4 22.6

Table 24. Residents: Years living in dwelling, by previous residence

Years in dwelling Consider dwelling ‘real home’

Local

Rest of South Africa Foreign

18.5 76.25

11.8 45.41

The average years of dwelling is under 6 years for foreign migrants and 12 years for internal migrants. While 76.25% of the local residents considered

5.7 31.08

their current dwelling to be their real home, only 45.4% of internal migrants and 31.08% of foreign residents considered this to be the case.

Table 25. Residents: Main reason for living in the node

Proximity to work or school Birthplace or home area Affordability/cheap place Like the area No other option Security Apartheid removals Good accessibility to facilities Quiet area Place was available Transport accessibility Family or other reasons No reason provided

23

Conditions of work and life

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

20.8 43.8 7.7 2.4 4.8 0.5 6.3 1.9

67.4 1.0 9.5 3.2 0.0 2.1 0.0 5.3

72.1 2.0 0.7 7.9 0.0 6.4 0.0 1.4

23.9 30.0 12.0 8.7 6.5 0.0 0.0 0.0

43.1 22.9 6.9 5.1 3.0 2.3 2.4 2.1

0.5 2.9 0.0 5.3 2.4 100.0

1.1 0.0 5.3 1.1 4.2 100.0

7.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 100.0

0.0 1.1 0.0 8.7 14.1 100.0

2.2 1.3 0.9 3.7 4.7 100.0

Conditions of work and life

24


The main reason for living in the particular area where they were located was proximity to current or future employment or educational opportunities (43%). This was most commonly stated in the Orange Grove (72%) and Park Station (67%) nodes. The next most common reason being that it was the respondent’s home since birth or their family home (23%), especially in Westbury (44%) and

Marlboro South (30%). Another common reason was affordability (7%), in the form of either cheap or zero rental. Other reasons included the resident liking the area for its pleasant or “nice” environment (5%); for family reasons (4%); or no other option being available (3%). The reason given varied significantly by node (X2=326.594; df=36; p=0.000).

Table 26. Residents: Planned duration of stay, by node

More than 10 years More than 5 years More than 1 year More than 6 months More than 1 month Less than 1 month

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

85.8 12.2 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

53.7 31.6 12.6 0.0 2.1 0.0 100.0

52.9 33.3 10.1 2.9 0.0 0.7 100.0

69.4 22.8 6.2 1.0 0.4 0.2 100.0

More than two-thirds (69%) of households intended to stay in their current nodes in excess of ten more years. This intention was more prevalent in Westbury (86%) and Marlboro South (76%) than in the other two nodes. A further 23% envisaged

75.9 20.7 2.3 1.1 0.0 0.0 100.0

staying for a further five years. Smaller proportions intended to stay in their areas for more than a year (6%) or less than a year (2%). These intentions varied significantly by node (X2=74.046; df=15; p=0.000).

Table 27. Residents: Place of previous residence, by planned duration of stay in the node

>10 years >5 years >1 year >6 months >1 month <1 month Total Local

66.87

23.84

7.43

1.55

0

0.31

100

Rest of South Africa

75.59

19.69

3.94

0

0.79

0

100

Foreign

71.67

23.33

5

0

0

0

100

Total

69.61

22.75

6.27

0.98

0.2

0.2

100

Pearson chi2 (10) = 10.1769 Pr = 0.425

The vast majority of all resident groups expressed their intention to stay longer than 10 years and no statistically significant difference could be found across race groups. Ironically, the local residents

25

Conditions of work and life

had the lowest proportion of people that intended to stay over 10 years. This, in all likelihood, reflects the intention to out-migrate.

Table 28. Residents: previous place of residence, by node

Nowhere else previously CBD and inner city Westbury/ South Coronationville Africa Johannesburg Alexandra Soweto Eldorado Park Northern suburbs South of CBD Elsewhere in Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo North West Other provinces of SA Harare Zimbabwe Bulawayo/Plumtree Other regions of Zimbabwe Nigeria Mozambique Pakistan Other Africa Other non-Africa Total Almost one-quarter (24%) of residents had not lived elsewhere previously, ranging from as high as 40% among residents of Westbury to 6% among residents of the Orange Grove node. Almost a further onethird (33%) had lived elsewhere in Johannesburg, particularly in central Johannesburg or the inner city areas such as Hillbrow, Braamfontein, Yeoville, Doornfontein or Berea. Almost a sixth (15%) of Westbury residents had previously lived elsewhere in Westbury or in neighbouring Coronationville, Sophiatown,Newclare or Newlands.Other prominent previous areas of residence were Alexandra, for 15% of Marlboro South residents; Soweto for 14% of Park Station and 9% of Orange Grove residents;

Westbury Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro Total South

40.4 2.0 14.8

6.3 8.4 0.0

5.8 14.5 0.0

34.9 1.2 0.0

24.1 6.4 5.8

0.0 3.0 3.9 0.0 6.4 1.0 3.9 3.9 8.4 11.3 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 100.0

2.1 13.7 0.0 4.2 2.1 5.3 9.5 5.3 2.1 6.3 6.3 3.2 4.2 9.5 1.1 2.1 7.4 1.1 100.0

5.8 9.4 0.0 10.9 5.8 7.2 1.4 9.4 2.9 5.8 0.7 5.8 0.7 4.3 0.0 0.0 8.0 1.4 100.0

14.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 13.3 3.6 20.5 1.2 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

4.7 6.2 1.5 3.7 4.8 5.4 4.2 8.3 4.6 7.9 1.3 2.3 1.0 3.1 0.6 0.4 3.7 0.6 100.0

elsewhere in Johannesburg’s northern suburbs for 11% of Orange Grove residents; different regions of Zimbabwe for 13% of Park Station and 7% of Orange Grove residents; and Nigeria for 10% of Park Station and 4% of Orange Grove residents. Overall, more than half (52%) of the residents had always lived in Johannesburg, with a statistically significant difference (X2=72.970; df=3; p=0.000) between Westbury (74%), Marlboro South (46%), Orange Grove (42%) and Park Station (25%) residents. For those who had not always been in Johannesburg, their primary reason for moving to the city was to obtain employment.

Conditions of work and life

26


Table 29. Residents: Contact with ‘real’ home

Frequency of visits home Frequency of sending money or provisions home

< once a week

Weekly

A few times Monthly per month

Every few months

Annually Never or less

1.0

2.9

4.4

9.8

30.9

35.3

15.7

0.0

0.0

3.0

38.4

20.2

15.3

23.2

Among those who did not consider their homes in the four nodes to be their ‘real’ homes, 15% never visited their ‘real’ home; about one-third (35%) visited their ‘real’ home once a year or less; 31% visited every few months; and 18% visited monthly or more frequently. Similarly, almost a quarter did

not sent money or provisions to their ‘real’ home; 15% did so annually or less frequently; 20% every few months; 38% monthly; and 3% more than once a month. Seven percent indicated that they neither visited their ‘real’ home nor sent any money or provisions to it.

Table 30. Business: node, by years of trading

Node

Less than 1 year

1-5 years

5-10 years

Over 10 years

Total

Westbury

40.38

0

38.46

21.15

100

Park Station

33.33

1.33

38.67

26.67

100

Orange Grove

39.33

1.12

38.2

21.35

100

Marlboro South 32.26

0

41.94

25.81

100

Total

0.72

39.21

23.74

100

36.33

Pearson chi2(9) = 3.2353 Pr = 0.954

Westbury had the highest share of businesses that had been trading in the area for under a year. Most businesses across the nodes were operating from the area for a time periodbetween 5-10 years. It is interesting to note that the share of businesses that have existed between 1-5 years is minimal, which shows the low rate of survival of new businesses. The established businesses thrive as indicated

by the high share of businesses operating for over 5 years, whereas the newer ones find it hard to survive. This indicates that the probability of long term survival is low for the business that are currently less than one year old. A more in-depth study on the reasons for failure is warranted to cast light on the policy intervention required to support new business.

Table 31. Business: Main reason for operating in the area

Busy/many customers Good space/ Personally convenient Market gap/node for business category Free or cheap premises

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

33.3 15.7

69.9 20.5

70.81 18.0

43.9 28.1

57.8 20.4

35.3

8.2

11.2

21.1

17.0

15.7

1.4

0.0

7.0

4.8

When asked for the main reason why business owners operate in the area, a wide range of responses were given. These were coded into four

27

Conditions of work and life

broad categories. Firstly, more than half (58%) said that they operated from their current premises because the area was busy or there were many

Conditions of work and life

28


customers passing by, encapsulated by comments such as “because it’s a busy road and good for business” and “too many people here”. These reasons were most commonly cited by businesses in Park Station (71%) and Orange Grove (70%), and to a significantly lesser extent in Marlboro South (44%) and Westbury (33%). The second most frequent reason (indicated by 20%) pertained to the locality of the business being perceived as a good space or a place that was personally convenient and well located. Comments in this category included “my customers are my neighbours” and “security” and “close to home”. This was most common in Marlboro South (28%), confirmed in the qualitative findings, where for example Marlboro South business operators said that it was convenient because of

their locality in relation to other businesses and services. Thirdly, the most frequent reason for operating where they were (17%) related to the particular gap in the market place in the area, or conversely the presence of similar businesses that attract customers for comparative shopping. This occurred most frequently in Westbury (35%). The reason was articulated in statements such as “there was no competition when we started here” and “I saw there are few internet cafes” and “good area for liquor store”. The fourth reason was in relation to the availability of rent-free, home-based or cheap premises (5%), most common in Westbury (16%). Overall the reasons given varied significantly between nodes (X2=48.882; df=9; p=0.000).

Table 32. Business: main reason for operating in the area, by gender of business owner

Reason for operating in the area

Men

Women

Total

Busy/ many customers Good space/ Personally convenient Market gap Free or cheap premises Total

56.67 17.78 21.11 4.44 100.00

56.79 16.05 20.99 6.17 100.00

56.70 17.24 21.07 4.98 100.00

Pearson chi2(3) = 0.4324 Pr = 0.933

Table 33. Business: Main reason for operating in the area, by birthplace of business owner

Reason for operating in area

Local

Rest of South Africa

Foreign

Total

Busy/ many customers Good space/ Personally convenient Market gap Free or cheap premises Total

48.00 19.00 23.00 10.00 100.00

59.57 21.28 19.15 0.00 100.00

64.75 13.93 18.85 2.46 100.00

57.62 17.10 20.45 4.83 100.00

Pearson chi2(6) = 13.8483 Pr = 0.031

Table 34. Business: Main reason for operating in the area, by business category

Reason for operating in area

Retail

Services

Catering

Motor industry

Total

Busy/many customers Good space/Personally convenient Market gap Free or cheap premises Total

53.49 20.93 22.48 3.10 100.00

57.41 18.52 14.81 9.26 100.00

69.35 8.06 17.74 4.84 100.00

50.00 16.67 29.17 4.17 100.00

57.62 17.10 20.45 4.83 100.00

Pearson chi2(9) = 11.4643 Pr = 0.245

The reason cited for the location of the business

29

Conditions of work and life

did not vary across the gender of the business

Conditions of work and life

30


owner or the sector of business. However, more foreign residents cited the demand side reasons for the location as compared to South African born business owners. Owners of business in Westbury tended to reside within the node, whereas the

majority of business owners in Park Station lived outside the node. Almost 75% of Orange Grove and 51% of Marlboro South business owners resided in Norwood and Alexandra respectively.

Table 35. Residence of business owners, by node

Residence

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

Alexandra Soweto JHB CBD Westbury Orange Grove Other

0 0 1.92 67.31 0 30.77

2.67 10.67 32 1.33 1.33 52

3.37 2.25 1.12 0 17.98 75.28

51.61 0 0 0 0 48.39

13.31 3.6 9.35 12.95 6.12 54.68

Total

100

100

100

100

100

Pearson chi2(15) = 348.8390 Pr = 0.000

Table 36. Areas in which ‘other users’ live

Area

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

CBD and inner city Westbury Alexandra/ Johannesburg Marlboro South Orange Grove Soweto Eldorado Park Northern suburbs South of CBD Elsewhere in Gauteng Limpopo North West Other provinces of SA Total

0.0

35.7

18.8

25.5

23.0

62.7 0.0

2.0 3.1

0.0 4.2

0.0 43.6

13.5 11.5

0.0 19.6 2.0 2.0

1.0 20.4 2.0 2.0

60.4 4.2 0.0 0.0

7.3 7.3 0.0 1.8

13.5 14.3 1.2 1.6

9.8 3.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

12.2 17.3 1.0 1.0 2.0 100.0

6.3 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

1.8 12.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

8.3 11.5 0.4 0.4 0.8 100.0

Between one-third and two-thirds of the other users interviewed in the four nodes were residents in or within close proximity to the nodal areas in which they were interviewed. In Westbury, 63% were residents of Westbury, Coronationville, Newclare or Sophiatown. In Park Station, more than a third

31

Conditions of work and life

(36%) lived in the Johannesburg CBD or inner suburbs including Braamfontein, Hillbrow, Yeoville, and Berea. In the Orange Grove node, 60% lived in Norwood, Orange Grove, Linksfield or surrounding suburbs. In Marlboro South, more than two-fifths (44%) lived in Alexandra, Balfour Park and environs.

Table 37. Reason for ‘other users’ being present in the node

En route to work Resident En route to home Visiting Shopping Looking for work Business owner Waiting Hospital Travelling Church Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

25.5 35.3 15.7 7.8 3.9 2.0 2.0 0.0 7.8 0.0 0.0 100.0

34.1 6.4 20.2 5.3 7.4 10.6 7.4 5.3 0.0 3.2 0.0 100.0

36.0 34.0 12.0 8.0 0.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 100.0

38.2 18.2 12.7 12.7 12.7 5.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

About one third (34%) of the other users who were interviewed indicated that they were in the node because they were en route to their places of work. A further 20% were residents of the area, and 16% were on their way home. Other reasons given were that they were visiting someone (8%), shopping (6%), looking for work (6%), business owners (3%), waiting (2%), visiting a hospital (2%), travelling (1%) or going to church (1%). Variations in reasons for being in the area between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=86.606; df=33; p=0.000), with a smaller proportion (25%) in the Westbury node being on their way to work than other nodes;

33.6 20.4 16.0 8.0 6.4 6.4 3.2 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 100.0

higher proportions of residents in Westbury (35%) and Orange Grove (34%); a higher proportion home-bound (20%) at Park Station than elsewhere; and higher than average proportions visiting in Marlboro South (13%) or looking for work in Park Station (11%). Men were more likely than women to be en route to work, and women more likely than men to be residents of the areas in which they were interviewed. Nonetheless, these differences were not statistically significant (X2=15.064; df=11; p=0.180).

Figure 1. Reason for ‘other users’ being in the area, by gender

Conditions of work and life

32


Figure 2. What residents like about their node

Asked what they liked about the area in which they were interviewed, almost a fifth (19%) of the ‘other users’ mentioned the accessibility of transport to the area, ranging from as high as 26% in Park Station, to 12% in the Orange Grove node. The next most mentioned reason was the shops (11%), highest in Marlboro South (15%) and lowest

33

Conditions of work and life

in Orange Grove (10%). More than a third (36%) of the Orange Grove respondents liked the area because they perceived it to be “quiet”. Overall, 18% indicated that there was nothing they liked about the area, notably in Westbury and Marlboro South, where the proportions amounted to 36% and 25% respectively.

Conditions of work and life

34


5

OCCUPATION STATUS AND INCOME OF RESIDENTS Almost two-fifths (39%) of the residents were employed, and a further 17% were self-employed. There were significant variations between nodes, however, with employment at 62% in Orange Grove and 52% in Park Station, but only 37% in Marlboro South and 16% in Westbury (X2=164.105; df=18; p=0.000). Conversely, unemployment was highest in Westbury (44%), as was the proportion who were retired or had pensioner status (13%). The self-employed category was highest in Park Station (35%), reflective of the high proportion of immigrants living in that node.

Figure 3. Occupation status of residents, by node

Taking employment status of residents as a proxy for the employment opportunities in the area, it may be concluded that highest opportunities are available in Park Station and Orange Grove with Westbury and Marlboro South indicating low

opportunities. The demographic profile, in terms of age, gender and migrant composition is therefore closely linked to the employment opportunities of the area.

Table 38. Occupation status of residents, by age group

18-30

31-40

41-50

51-65

>65

Total

Employed Self Employed Home duties Unemployed Not seeking work In education Retired

39.3 12.4 1.5 29.1 2.91 15.1 0.00

45.5 26.6 2.6 22.7 1.9 0.7 0.00

45.3 21.3 5.3 25.3 1.3 0.00 1.3

22.1 11.8 7.4 13.2 19.1 0.00 26.5

12.5 4.2 0.00 20.8 0.00 0.00 62.5

38.5 17.3 3.00 24.3 4.36 6.1 6.5

Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

Pearson chi2 (21) = 289.6999 Pr = 0.000

An age-wise decomposition of the employment

35

Conditions of work and life

status of the residents of the four nodes highlight

Conditions of work and life

36


the highest level of unemployment among the youth (under 30 years). The share of the self-employed is low especially among the young considering their high levels of unemployment. This clearly points

to the need for both financial and training support from policy makers to improve the capacity of the youth to generate income.

Table 39. Gender of residents, by occupation status

Men Women Total

Employed

Self Home Unemployed Not seeking employed duties work

In Retired Total education

47.46 29.15 38.81

23.55 10.53 17.4

6.52 5.67 6.12

0.72 5.67 3.06

14.49 34.01 23.71

1.45 7.69 4.4

5.8 7.29 6.5

100 100 100

Pearson chi2(6) = 67.4747 Pr = 0.000

Gender emerges strongly as a determinant of the occupantional status of the resident. Men residents are more likely to be in wage employment and self-

employment as compared to women residents. The level of women unemployment (34%) is more than double that of men unemlpoymentc(14%).

Table 40. Occupation status of residents, by previous residence

Employed Self Employed Home duties Unemployed Not seeking work In education Retired Total

Local

Rest of South Africa

Foreign

Total

36.2 14.9 1.9 25.9 4.8 7.6 8.5 100.00

45.11 13.5 6.0 24.8 4.5 3.0 3.0 100.00

37.5 50 2.5 7.5 0.00 2.5 0.00 100.00

37.96 15.89 2.84 24.41 4.68 6.02 6.35 100.00

Table 41. Personal monthly income of residents

None R1-R200 R201-R500 R501-R1000 R1001-R1500 R1501-R2500 R2501-R3500 R3501-R4500 R4501-R6000 R6001-R8000 R8001-R11000 R11001-R16000 R16001-R30000 >R30000 Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know Refusal Total

for government intervention to train both local as well as residents from other parts of South Africa to enable them to exploit self-employment opportunities. The fact that foreign residents are able to engage in self-employment opportunities highlights the positive self-selection involved in migration, which means that foreign migrants are people who are imbued with positive intangible characteristics such as initiative that are required for self-employment.

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

36.8 0.0 3.4 7.4 23.0 6.4 7.8 2.5 3.9 0.0 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.4 100.0

6.3 0.0 1.1 2.1 2.1 4.2 18.9 14.7 14.7 9.5 6.3 5.3 0.0 0.0 2.1 12.6 100.0

4.3 1.1 12.0 17.4 14.1 14.1 8.7 7.6 1.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.7 10.9 100.0

The modal category for personal income was R2501-R3500 per month. Distribution varied significantly between nodes (X2=347.794; df=45; p=0.000) with Westbury lowest at R1001-R1500, and Marlboro South at R1501-R2500, probably reflective of a high proportion of respondents in the

Conditions of work and life

16.6 0.2 4.0 6.6 12.2 7.0 10.7 9.2 8.1 6.4 4.3 2.3 1.1 0.2 2.8 8.3 100.0

latter two nodes not being household breadwinners. Conversely, the modes for Park Station and Orange Grove were R4501-R6000, where smaller average household sizes would have meant that the chances of the main breadwinner being interviewed were higher.

Employed Self Employed Home duties Unemployed Not seeking work In education Retired Total

No income

R1-1500 R1501-4500 R4501-11000

>R11000

Total

5.7 2.3 7.9 69.4 6.8 7.9 0.00 100.00

28.9 8.9 3.9 27.6 5.1 5.1 20.57 100.00

28.6 71.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00

40.34 15.24 2.58 23.39 4.51 5.58 6.65 100.00

58.2 22.6 1.4 5.5 3.4 7.5 1.4 100.00

66.7 30.4 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.9 0.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (28) = 129.7956 Pr = 0.000

Those with higher incomes mostly attributed it to income generated through self-employment (71.4%). On the other hand, those in middle income

37

2.1 0.0 1.4 1.4 2.1 5.0 10.7 16.4 14.3 17.9 10.0 3.6 4.3 0.7 0.7 9.3 100.0

Table 42. Occupation status of residents, by individual income

Pearson chi2 (14) = 79.7861 Pr = 0.000

The decomposition of the employment status by the previous residence reveals interesting findings. The unemployment level among the foreign residents (7.5%) is significantly lower than that of the local (25.9%) as well as South African residents (24.8%). However, the perception that foreign residents take away local jobs is held untrue because it is the high level of self-employment among foreign residents (50%) that accounts for their higher level of employment. This further underscores the need

Westbury

group were seen to be in wage employment. Lastly, the vast majority (69.4%) of those with no income were the unemployed.

Conditions of work and life

38


Highly significant differences in the incomes between the genders exists, with the women

Table 43. Age group (years) of residents, by individual income

18-30 31-50 51-65 >65 Total

No income

R1-1500 R1501-4500 R4501-11000 >R11000

Total

19.71 13.54 20.59 7.69 16.57

18.75 17.03 39.71 65.38 22.98

11.06 12.66 8.82 3.85 11.11

30.77 26.2 20.59 19.23 26.93

17.79 24.45 8.82 3.85 18.83

1.92 6.11 1.47 0 3.58

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2 (15) = 61.1711 Pr = 0.000

An age-wise decomposition of the individual income validates the inverted U life cycle hypothesis, which proposes that the young and the old have lower levels of income in relation to the middleaged. While the nodal income of both 18-30 and 31-50 category is R3000, the income distribution of the latter group is tilted to the right indicating

more individuals in the 31-50 age group earning higher income levels compared to the younger age group. A higher proportion of the 51-65 age group with zero income as compared to the age group over 65 years point to the old age pension from the government making a difference.

Table 44. Residents: previous residence, by individual income

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

No income R1-1500

R1501-4500

R4501-11000 >R11000

Total

8.3 16.0

31.9 31.3

23.9 32.1

12.8 9.2

1.9 0.00

100.00 100.00

2.5 16.6

7.5 29.9

52.1 28.1

27.5 12.9

0.00 1.32

100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (10) = 35.61Pr = 0.000

In terms of differences in income within the resident groups, the findings show that inequality is lowest among the foreign residents. There are very few foreign residents (2.5%) with zero monthly income and none with incomes higher than R11000. All those earning above R11000 a month are local residents. A higher proportion of the internal migrants are seen to earn zero income, these include not only the unemployed but also those who are engaged in home duties and not looking

for work. Differences in patterns of internal and foreign migration is revealed through this. While a substantial proportion of internal migrants seem to be those who accompany their partners who are the breadwinners, less of such dependant foreign migrants are observed. This is further supported by the gender composition of foreign migrants, who are predominantly men and can be said to be labour migrants with families still in their country of origin.

Table 46. Household monthly income of residents

None R1-R200 R201-R500 R501-R1000 R1001-R1500 R1501-R2500 R2501-R3500 R3501-R4500 R4501-R6000 R6001-R8000 R8001-R11000 R11001-R16000 R16001-R30000 >R30000 Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know Refusal Total

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

7.4 0.5 5.4 5.4 11.3 9.4 9.9 8.9 9.4 3.4 1.0 1.5 0.5 0.0 15.3 10.8 100.0

0.0 1.1 2.2 4.3 2.2 3.2 14.0 8.6 11.8 8.6 6.5 11.8 3.2 0.0 7.5 15.1 100.0

3.3 0.0 5.4 13.0 18.5 13.0 10.9 6.5 3.3 1.1 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 9.8 13.0 100.0

The modal category for household income was R4501 to R6000 per month. Distribution varied significantly between nodes (X2=93.241; df=45; p=0.000) with Marlboro South lowest at

0.7 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 2.9 10.7 9.3 15.0 17.9 10.7 9.3 5.7 1.4 2.1 12.1 100.0

3.6 0.4 3.6 5.3 8.1 7.2 11.0 8.5 10.2 7.8 4.4 5.5 2.3 0.4 9.5 12.3 100.0

R1501-R2500, reflective of the high proportion (>50%) of households living in informal shacks. Orange Grove had the highest mode, namely R6001 to R8000.

Table 47. Residents: previous residence, by household income

No income R1-1500

R1501-4500 R4501-11000 >R11000

Total

Local

3.6

23.8

28.9

15.9

3.6

100.00

Rest of South Africa

4.5

29.3

32.3

16.5

0.75

100.00

Foreign

0

15.8

28.9

36.8

0.00

100.00

Total

3.6

24.6

29.7

17.6

2.65

100.00

Pearson chi2 (8) = 0.07 Pr = 0.029

Table 45. Gender of residents, by individual income

Men Women Total

earning less than men. The nodal income of women is R750 while that of men is R3000.

No income

R1-1500

R1501-4500 R4501-11000

>R11000 Not revealed

Total

10.43 22.58 16.16

16.55 30.24 23

30.94 22.58 27

6.12 0.81 3.61

100 100 100

22.66 14.92 19.01

13.31 8.87 11.22

The distribution of household income is more or less similar to that of the individual income discussed earlier. Foreign households are the most equitable with no household in the lowest and

highest income categories. Local households had highest share of high income households, whereas internal migrants households had highest share of zero and low income households.

Pearson chi2 (5) = 42.7085 Pr = 0.000

39

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

40


Table 48. Age group (years) of residents, by household income

No income R1-1500 R1501-4500 R4501-11000 >R11000 Not revealed Total 18-30 31-50 51-65 >65 Total

3.4 3.07 5.88 3.85 3.6

16.02 15.35 25 26.92 17.42

27.18 26.75 25 26.92 26.7

24.76 22.81 11.76 26.92 22.35

4.37 12.72 7.35 0 8.14

24.27 19.3 25 15.38 21.78

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2 (15) =23.5515 Pr = 0.073

The difference in household incomes across age groups is not as statistically significant as the individual income. This highlights the mitigating effects of household incomes brought in by other

members. In the case of the young (18-30 years), the income distribution is much more right tilting with regards to household income as compared to individual income.

Table 49. Gender of residents, by household income

Men Women Total

No income

R1-1500 R1501-4500 R4501-11000 >R11000 Not revealed Total

2.53 4.47 3.44

14.8 20.33 17.4

24.91 28.46 26.58

23.83 20.73 22.37

10.83 5.28 8.22

23.1 20.73 21.99

100 100 100

Pearson chi2 (5) = 10.0978 Pr = 0.073

The difference between genders with regards to household income is not as stark as individual income. This is because men also contribute to household income of the women respondent. Nevertheless, the left tilt of the income distribution of women respondents is visible pointing to the lower incomes of the women-headed households.

41

Conditions of work and life

The proportion of those earning zero income is high among the internal migrants, as indicated not just by the unemployed but also those engaged in home duties. This indicates the migration of dependants of the bread winner of household among internal migrants. This is in contrast to the houseold structure of foreign residents who have very few dependants living with them

Conditions of work and life

42


6

BUSINESS PROFILE The businesses located in the four nodes were allocated to four broad categories. These were: • Retail (clothing shop, supermarket, spaza shop, butchery, pawn shop, book shop) • Services (hair salon, barber, dry cleaner, laundry, shoe repairs, driving school, cell phone repairs)

• Catering (restaurant, tavern, food vendor, fish and chips shop, tuckshop, fast food, bakery) • Motor trade (service Station, garage, tyres, scrapyard, motor spares, mechanic)

Table 50. Types of business

Retail Services Catering Motor industry Total

Westbury 48.1 15.4 26.9 9.6 100.0

Park Station

54.7 21.3 22.7 1.3 100.0

Almost half (48%) of the businesses encountered were in some form of retail trade; almost onequarter (23%) provided services; one fifth (20%) were in the catering industry and 9% were in the motor industry. Compared across the different nodes, there was not a statistically significant difference in distribution (X2=14.184; df=9; p=0.116) of business types. Retailers formed the majority in all four nodes, but with a range from 55% in the Park Station node to 40% in the Marlboro South node. Marlboro South had a higher proportion of service-providing businesses (27%) than the other nodes, and Westbury had a larger proportion of catering businesses (27%) than elsewhere. The Orange Grove and Marlboro South nodes had higher proportions of motor industry businesses (12% and 13% respectively) than Westbury (10%) or Park Station (1%). A significant gender dimension (X2=10.692; df=3; p=0.014) emerged in that although less than one-third (31%) of business owners were women, this was the case with 47% of those in the catering sector, 32% of retailers, 23% of those in the services sector, and only 16% of those in the motor industry. Similarly, womenowned businesses were significantly (X2=7.899; df=3; p=0.048) more prevalent in Park Station (37%), Marlboro South (36%) and Orange Grove (33%) than in Westbury (15%).

43

Conditions of work and life

Orange Grove 48.3 25.8 13.5 12.4 100.0

Marlboro South 39.7 27.0 20.6 12.7 100.0

Total

48.0 22.9 20.1 9.0 100.0

Monthly turnover ranged from less than R5 000 (22%) to in excess of R200 000 (3%), with a modal category of R10 000 to R20 000. The modal category was lower in Westbury and Marlboro South (R5 000 to R10 000) than in Park Station and Orange Grove (R10 001 to R20 000). While micro and small scale enterprises dominate all four nodes, Westbury and Marlboro South are seen to have higher shares of micro enterprises that have a monthly turnover of under R5000. Orange Grove has the highest share of businesses with a monthly turnover of over R200 000.

Conditions of work and life

44


profits they are able to make. Profits are, in turn, related to the nature of business, the ingenuity of the business owner and the scale of operations.

Table 51. Node by business turnover

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

<5k

30.77 20

5-20k

53.85 38.67

20-75k

75-200k

7.69 28

3.85 8

>200k

3.85 5.33

Total

Businesses in Westbury have the lowest average profits, while those in Orange Grove make the highest average profits.

100 100

Table 53. Birthplace of business owner, by profit

8.99

39.33

32.58

6.74

12.36

100

29.03 20.5

38.71 41.73

20.97 24.1

1.61 5.4

9.68 8.27

100 100

Pearson chi2(12) = 29.1628 Pr = 0.004

Birthplace

<R5k

R5-10k

R10-20k

R20-50k

>R50k

Total

Local

47.06

10.78

14.71

6.86

20.59

100

Other South Africa

37.25

7.84

11.76

25.49

17.65

100

Foreign

31.2

20

23.2

8.8

16.8

100

Total

38.13

14.39

17.99

11.15

18.35

100

Pearson chi2(8) = 24.6508 Pr = 0.002

The variation in profits earned is the highest within the local resident category of business owner, with almost 47% earning profits below R5000 and 21%

earning over R50 000. In comparison, a larger proportion of foreign business owners (37.4%) earn profits in the middle range of R10 000-R50 000.

Table 54. Business category, by profit

R5-10k

R10-20k

R20-50k

>R50k

Total

Retail Catering Services Motor industry Total

36.57 39.29 45.31 25 38.13

15.67 7.14 18.75 12.5 14.39

20.15 14.29 14.06 25 17.99

11.19 16.07 7.81 8.33 11.15

16.42 23.21 14.06 29.17 18.35

100 100 100 100 100

The profit rates are not statistically different across business categories, nevertheless a higher

Table 52. Business turnover and profit

Westbury Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

Modal turnover category

R5k-R10k R10k-R20k

R10k-R20k

R5k-R10k

Mean monthly profit Increasing Profit Same trajectory Decreasing Total

R7646 30.6 51.0 18.4 100.0

R20641 17.6 63.5 18.9 100.0

R13464 21.4 46.4 32.1 100.0

R10kR20k R15032 22.5 53.0 24.5 100.0

R15424 22.9 48.6 28.6 100.0

The mean monthly profit overall was R15 032, ranging from R7 646 in Westbury to R20 641 in Orange Grove. About half (53%) of the businesses reported that their profits were staying the same, while 22.5% said they were increasing and 24.5% said they were decreasing. Businesses in Westbury were more likely (31%) than those in the other three nodes (23% or less) to indicate that their profits were increasing, while Park Station businesses were

Conditions of work and life

<R5k

Pearson chi2(12) = 12.3314 Pr = 0.419

Figure 4. Monthly turnover of business, by node

45

Business Category

most likely (29%) to indicate decreasing profits although these differences were not statistically significant (X2=8.036; df=6; p=0.234). Men business owners were significantly more likely (28%) than women (9%) to report that their monthly profits were increasing (X2=10.833; df=2; p=0.004). Ultimately businesses operate to make profits and their viability and survivability is dictated by the

proportion of businesses in the motor industry sector are seen to earn profits over R50 000.

Table 55. Number of employees, by profit

Employment

<R5k

R5-10k

R10-20k

R20-50k

>R50k

Total

0 1-5 5-10 Above 10 Total

60.76 35.1 10.34 10.53 38.13

16.46 16.56 6.9 0 14.39

6.33 22.52 31.03 10.53 17.99

1.27 13.25 20.69 21.05 11.15

15.19 12.58 31.03 57.89 18.35

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2(12) = 69.7205 Pr = 0.000

Scale of business operations, as indicated by the number of employees significantly determine profits. Almost 60% of businesses employing over 10 workers reported profits of over R50 000, whereas over 60% of businesses that were fully operated by the owners reported profits of under R5000. The economies of scale in determining profits is hence

critical. This underscores the need for government support for micro enterprises in order for them to survive.

Conditions of work and life

46


Table 56. Gender of business owner, by profit

Gender

<R5k

R5-10k

R10-20k

R20-50k

>R50k

Total

Men Women Total

36.22 44.71 38.89

16.76 8.24 14.07

21.62 10.59 18.15

11.35 11.76 11.48

14.05 24.71 17.41

100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2(4) = 11.7959 Pr = 0.019

The variation in business profits is much higher among women owned businesses compared to men owned ones. A higher proportion of men owned

businesses made a mid-level profit of between R 10 000-R20 000.

Table 57. Top costs to business by node

Rental Labour Rates & Services Stock Cleaning Middlemen Transport Security No costs / unspecified Total

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

38.4 9.6 15.4 5.6 3.8 0.0 3.8 0.0 23.4 100.0

64.0 6.7 8.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 100.0

30.1 34.9 11.1 14.2 3.2 0.0 0.0 1.6 4.9 100.0

56.6 13.6 8.6 6.5 1.8 1.1 1.1 0.4 10.3 100.0

For the more than half (57%) of businesses, their largest expense was rental. This was the case to a greater extent in Orange Grove and Park Station nodes than in the other two. About one in seven (14%) indicated that their largest costs were incurred in payments for labour, this being the most common largest expense in Marlboro

80.0 6.7 3.4 1.1 1.1 3.4 1.1 0.0 3.2 100.0

South. Smaller proportions said that their biggest expenses were municipal rates and services (9%), stock (7%), cleaning (2%), payments to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;middlemenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (1%), transport (1%) or security (0.4%). Ten percent either did not specify or indicated that there were no costs to their businesses.

Table 58. Mean monthly rental, rates & services, and security costs of businesses, by node

Westbury Park Station Mean amount being paid

47

Conditions of work and life

Rental R3440 Rates & municipal R1387 services Security & armed R1523 response

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

R8027 R2075

R8180 R1676

R14696 R3941

R8606 R2224

R1617

R718

R2590

R1498

Conditions of work and life

48


Table 59. Mean monthly rental, rates & services, and security costs of businesses, by business type

Mean amount being paid

Rental Rates & municipal services Security & armed response

Table 61. Communication technologies utilised by businesses

Retail

Catering

Services

Motor

Total

R8765 R1906

R9682 R3380

R6958 R1683

R10418 R2921

R8606 R2224

R1168

R1857

R1352

R3430

R1498

Table 60. Mean monthly rental, rates & services and security costs of businesses, by business premises

Formal

SubIn ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s In another On the From the divided home personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home street ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s person

Mean Rental R10645 R2765 amount being Rates & R2588 R707 paid municipal services Security R1831 R0 & armed response

Total

R483

R1075

R412

R0

R9287

R644

R0

R0

R15000

R2029

R0

R0

R107

R2500

R1692

Cell phone Computer Email Internet Telephone landline Fax Social media

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

98.0 19.5 19.0 16.7 24.4 12.2 0.0

88.7 36.7 43.5 36.7 32.3 23.7 1.3

87.8 50.0 48.2 40.2 53.1 30.0 0.0

88.8 38.6 37.8 32.8 39.2 26.7 0.3

By far the most common communications technology used by businesses was the cell phone, which was part of the business operations of 89% of those interviewed (highest in Westbury at 98%). Between one-quarter and two-fifths indicated that they used a telephone landline (39%), a computer (39%), email

82.5 38.3 30.5 30.0 37.7 35.0 0.0

(38%), the internet (33%) or a fax machine (27%). In most instances, the highest proportional use of these technologies occurred in the Orange Grove node, and the lowest in Westbury. Overall, only 0.3% reported the use of social media in their business.

Figure 5. Mean monthly rental, by node, business type and type of premises

Monthly rentals paid by businesses along the Corridors varied widely from zero rent to as high as R220 000, with a monthly average of R8606. The variation was statistically significant between nodes (F=2.368; df=3; p=0.072), with a mean high of R14 696 in Marlboro South, where more than one in ten businesses paid monthly rentals in excess of R40 000. Variations in mean monthly rentals were not statistically significant between types of business (F=0.252; df=3; p=0.860) or between businesses operating from different types of premises (F=1.770; df=6; p=0.107). Not surprisingly, formal premises commanded a much higher mean rental

49

Conditions of work and life

(R10 645) than all other types of business premises. Monthly rates and payments for municipal services varied similarly from zero to as high as R30 000, with a mean of R2030. The only significant variation was between businesses in different types of premises (F=2.693; df=6; p=0.016). As far a security and armed response services were concerned, the mean monthly payment being made amounted to R1498. About one-fifth of businesses indicated that they incur such expenses. These payments were higher, but not significantly so, in Marlboro South, in formal premises and in motor industry businesses. Conditions of work and life

50


7

EMPLOYMENT BY BUSINESS Most (78%) of businesses had one or more permanent employees and 47% had one or more temporary employees. The mean number of permanent employees per business was 3.8 ranging from zero

(22% of businesses) to 50 permanent employees. The mean number of temporary employees was 5.5, ranging from zero to one large business with 500 temporary employees.

Table 62. Employees per node

Permanent Temporary

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

2.2 2.9

3.8 1.5

4.0 0.9

4.4 19.2

3.8 5.5

Retail

Catering

Services

Motor industry

Total

3.1 1.2

4.8 2.4

3.3 1.4

6.0 51.6

3.8 5.5

Table 63. Employees per business

Permanent Temporary

Almost 43% of businesses in Westbury were owner operated without any employees. Marlboro South and Orange Grove had highest proportion

of businesses that employed over 5 people. The majority of Park Station businesses employed between 1 and 5 people.

Table 64. Node, by number of employees

Node

0

1-5

5-10

Above 10

Total

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

42.31 26.67 28.09 19.35 28.42

48.08 58.67 51.69 58.06 54.32

9.62 9.33 11.24 11.29 10.43

0 5.33 8.99 11.29 6.83

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2(9) = 12.7401 Pr = 0.175

The motor industry was most likely to employ over 5 people compared to retail, catering or other services businesses. Retail business was more likely

51

Conditions of work and life

to be owner operated without employing anyone. Catering and Services businesses were likely to employ between 1 and 5 workers.

Conditions of work and life

52


Table 65. Business category by number of employees

Business category

0

1-5

5-10

Above 10

Total

Retail Catering Services Motor industry Total

38.06 16.07 26.56 8.33 28.42

52.24 57.14 57.81 50 54.32

4.48 17.86 9.38 29.17 10.43

5.22 8.93 6.25 12.5 6.83

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2(9) = 28.9720 Pr = 0.001

Table 66. Gender of business owner, by number of employees

Men Women Total

0

1-5

5-10

Above 10

Total

31.35 22.35 28.52

52.43 57.65 54.07

9.19 14.12 10.74

7.03 5.88 6.67

100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2(3) = 3.3780 Pr = 0.337

The difference in the number of employees of men and women owned businesses are not statistically different.

8

RESIDENTIAL AND BUSINESS PREMISES About two-fifths (39%) of the households lived in flats or apartments; almost three in ten (30%) lived in freestanding houses; and about one-fifth (20%) in informal dwellings or shacks. A further 6% lived in backyard flats or cottages; 2% in cluster houses; 1% in warehouses; 0.5% in semi-detached dwellings; and 1% in other unspecified structures. Variations in the types of dwellings between the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=342.904; df=21; p=0.000), with a high concentration (95%) of flats and apartments in the densely populated Park Station node; a high proportion shacks in the Marlboro South (52%) and Westbury (29%) nodes; and combinations of freestanding houses and flats/ apartments in the Westbury and Orange Grove nodes.

Table 67. Type of dwelling of residents

Flat/ apartment Freestanding house Informal/ shack Backyard flat/ cottage Cluster house Warehouse Semi-detached Other Total

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

27.1 40.1 29.0 1.9 1.4 0.0 0.5 0.0 100.0

94.7 1.1 2.1 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 100.0

2.4 17.9 52.4 8.3 8.3 3.6 1.2 6.0 100.0

39.3 29.6 20.3 6.3 1.9 1.0 0.5 1.0 100.0

42.3 40.9 0.0 16.1 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0

Table 68. Residents: previous residence, by dwelling type

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Freestanding house

Flat/ apartment

Cluster Informal/ Backyard Warehouse Other semishack detached

Total

33.1 20.9

39.7 26.1

2.1 3.7

14.4 40.3

5.6 6.7

1.4 0.00

0.8 1.5

100.00 100.00

20.0 29.0

70 38.6

0.00 2.4

0.00 19.9

10 6.2

0.00 0.9

0.00 0.9

100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2(16) = 74.4 Pr = 0.000

There is distinct difference in the dwelling patterns across the previous residence of individuals. The local residents are most likely to be occupying a freestanding house as compared to internal migrant

53

Conditions of work and life

or foreign residents. The vast majority of foreign residents (70%) occupy a flat/apartment as compared to the internal migrant residents (40.3%) who seem to live in informal settlements like shacks.

Conditions of work and life

54


Table 69. Age group (years) of residents, by dwelling type

Age Freecategory standing house

Flat/ apartment

Cluster Informal/ Backyard Warehouse Other shack

Total

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

42.8 41.7 34.7 28.9 23.1 38.6

2.4 1.3 4.3 1.45 3.85 2.4

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

25.5 28.9 25.3 39.1 42.3 29.00

18.3 18.6 22.7 24.6 19.23 19.8

6.7 7.1 5.3 4.4 3.8 6.18

0.48 1.28 2.7 0.00 6.00 0.94

1.34 0.00 1.3 0.00 3.9 0.94

Pearson chi2(21) = 29.7 Pr = 0.582

Unsurprisingly, it is the mature age group that largely occupy freestanding houses, with the younger residents dwelling predominantly in flats. This, however, must not be construed as the growing

preference for flats as access to freestanding houses require higher financial capability. Dwelling type preference is also related to age, with the young favoring flats as a first home.

Table 70. Household income of residents, by dwelling type

No income R1-1500 R1501-4500 R450111000 >R11000 Not revealed Total

FreeFlat/ Cluster standing apartment house

Informal/ Backyard Warehouse shack

Other

Total

21.9 23.9 26.1 31.2

10.5 27.7 38.9 59.1

0.00 3.85 3.1 1.1

57.9 36.9 19.8 2.15

5.3 3.9 7.6 6.5

0.00 0.8 1.9 0.00

0.00 1.5 0.6 0.00

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

57.1 33.9

35.7 39.1

0.00 1.7

0.00 11.3

7.1 6.9

0.00 0.9

0.00 1.7

100.00 100.00

28.8

38.6

2.4

19.9

6.2

0.9

0.9

100.00

Pearson chi2(40) = 98.12 Pr = 0.000

Preferences for the dwelling type are best deciphered through the patterns of the higher income residents. Almost 60% of the residents with an income above R16 000 lived in freestanding houses, and the rest in flats. At the other end, almost the same proportion of residents with no

income lived in informal settlements like shacks. The middle income largely occupied flats although they were also seen to occupy freestanding houses, indicating the possibility of shared arrangements which are further investigated below.

Table 71. Household composition of residents, by node

% One family % Two or more families % One or more individuals Mean number of adults Mean number of children

55

Westbury Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

96.3 1.9 1.9 2.6 2.2

58.7 21.4 19.8 2.0 2.0

88.1 4.5 7.5 1.9 1.5

Conditions of work and life

64.0 24.4 10.5 2.3 1.9

77.9 12.3 9.6 2.3 2.1 Conditions of work and life

56


Most households (78%) comprised a single family, with small proportions being two or more families (12%); one or more unrelated individuals (10%) or other household configurations (0.2%). Single family households were significantly more prevalent in Westbury and Marlboro South than the other two nodes, where other configurations were more common. More than a third (34%) of households included only one adult, another third (33%) had two adults; 16% had three adults;

12% had four adults; and 5% had five or more adults. About one sixth (16%) of households had no children less than 18 years old; 29% included one child; 25% had two children; 18% had three children; 5% had four children; and 7% had five or more children. The average number of adults ranged significantly (F=8.738; df=3; p=0.000) from 2.6 in Westbury to 1.9 in Marlboro South, as did the mean number of children at 2.2 in Westbury and 1.5 in Marlboro South.

Table 72. Residents: previous residence, by household composition

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

1 family

2 or more families

Unrelated individuals

Other

Total

78.9 83.4 51.4 77.9

10.7 11.5 27.0 12.3

10.4 4.1 21.6 9.57

0.00 0.8 0.00 0.23

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (6) = 23.3 Pr = 0.001

The high proportion of foreign residents living with unrelated individuals points to them being labour migrants with their families located in their countries of origin. This is in stark contrast to internal migrants (83.4%) who are seen living together with

their family members. This could either indicate the intention of the foreign residents to return to their country of origin or simply the inability to bring their families due to legal or financial constraints.

Table 73. Age group (years) of residents, by household composition

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

1 family

2 or more families Unrelated individuals

Other

Total

74.4 74.2 78.3 93.9 90.5 90.5

13.4 14.8 14.5 2.04 4.8 11.23

0.00 0.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.23

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

12.21 10.2 7.3 4.1 4.8 9.36

As expected the mature age group are more likely to be living with their own family as compared to the young who have perhaps moved into the area because of livelihood reasons. While most dwelling

types are more likely to be occupied by a single family; warehouses and semi-detached houses are most likely to be shared.

Table 75. Age group (years) of residents, by space occupied by household

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

Whole dwelling

2 or more rooms 1 room

Part of a room

Total

35.1 33.9 42.7 62.3 57.7 40.5

18.27 19.9 24 21.7 19.2 20.04

1.9 1.28 0.00 0.00 3.85 1.3

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

41.4 44.12 29.3 11.6 19.2 35.61

100.00

Pearson chi2(12) = 45.1 Pr = 0.001

The mature aged residents are more likely to be occupying the entire dwelling in comparison to the younger and middle aged residents. Similarly, the foreign residents have least probability of occupying the entire dwelling. Although the internal migrant

resident has a higher probability of occupying the whole dwelling than the local resident does, it may be due to the fact that the internal migrants largely dwell in informal settlements such as shacks.

Table 76. Residents: previous residence, by space occupied by household

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Whole dwelling 2 or more

1 room

Part of a room Total

40.8 44.8 22.5 40.5

32.8 37.3 55 35.6

1.11 0.75 5 1.31

22.5 15.6 12.5 20.6

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (8) = 20.5 Pr = 0.024

Of all the dwelling types, the least likely to be shared are freestanding houses and informal settlements like shacks. Ironically, therefore, the highest income and the lowest income are both

the least likely to be sharing accommodation. The dwelling types that are most likely to be shared are cottages, warehouses and flats, occupied largely by the middle income residents.

Pearson chi2 (9) = 14.9 Pr = 0.24

Table 77. Residents: type of dwelling, by space occupied by household Table 74. Residents: dwelling type, by household composition

Dwelling type 1

1 family

2 or more families Unrelated individuals Other

Total

Freestanding house Flat/ apartment Cluster Semi-detached Informal/ shack Backyard flat/ cottage Warehouse Other Total

77.05 70.45 100.00 50.00 97.78 64.3 33.33 100.00 77.9

12.3 18.18 0.00 0.00 1.11 10.7 33.33 0.00 12.3

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

10.7 10.8 0.00 50.00 1.1 25 33.33 0.00 9.57

0.00 0.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.23

Dwelling type

Whole dwelling 2 or more families 1 room

Part of a room

Total

Freestanding house Flat/ apartment Cluster Semi-detached Informal/ shack Backyard flat/ cottage Warehouse Other Total

58.1 28.6 30 33.33 55.7 6.06 20.00 0.00 40.4

0.65 2.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.3

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

17.42 26.21 50 0.00 4.7 33.33 0.00 40 20

21.9 41.3 20 66.67 35.8 57.6 80.00 0.00 35.6

Pearson chi2 (28) = 183.8 Pr = 0.000

Pearson chi2 (21) = 51.22 Pr = 0.000

57

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

58


Table 78. Residents: tenure of residential premises

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

Own, fully paid Rental Sub-let Own, paying off Awaiting title transfer

80.1 15.4 1.3 3.2 0.0

3.2 94.6 2.2 0.0 0.0

6.6 85.3 8.1 0.0 0.0

89.9 7.9 0.0 2.2 0.0

49.6 45.8 3.2 1.5 0.0

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Half (50%) of the households owned and had fully paid off the price of the dwellings which they occupied. A similar proportion (46%) were renting their accommodation; with very small proportions sub-letting (3%) or still paying off (1%) the ownership of their dwellings. Variations in residential tenure across the four nodes were highly

statistically significant (X2=323.630; df=9; p=0.000), with high proportions of fully paid off owned dwellings predominating in Westbury (80%) and Marlboro South (90%), and rental accommodation being the most common in Park Station (95%) and Orange Grove (85%).

Table 79. Space occupied by household of residents

Whole dwelling Two or more rooms One room Part of a room Other Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

68.6 21.1 9.8 0.5 0.0 100.0

19.1 12.8 64.9 3.2 0.0 100.0

25.9 20.1 51.1 2.2 0.7 100.0

25.9 28.2 44.7 0.0 1.2 100.0

41.4 20.5 36.4 1.3 0.4 100.0

More than two-fifths (41%) of the households occupied dwellings in their entirety, with the highest proportion of this category (69%) occurring in the Westbury node. More than one-third (36%) occupied one room, most notably in the densely populated Park Station (65%) and Orange Grove

(51%) nodes. Just over one-fifth (21%) occupied two or more rooms; and small proportions occupied part of a room (1%) or some other configuration (0.4%). Variations in types of space occupied by households across the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=144.812; df=12; p=0.000).

Table 80. Residents: previous residence, by tenure of residential premises

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Sublet

Rental

Own, paying

Own, paid off Not revealed Total

2.5 2.2 7.5 2.8

40.3 40.3 90 44

1.4 1.5 0.00 1.3

47.2 35.1 0.00 40.6

8.6 20.9 2.5 11.2

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (6) = 61.9 Pr = 0.000

59

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

60


Table 81. Age group (years) of residents, by tenure of residential premises

Table 84. Type of business premises by node

Sublet

Rental

Own, paying Own, paid off

Not revealed

Total

Type of business premises Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65

3.9 2.6 1.3 2.9 0.00

51.9 54.5 36 17.4 11.5

0.96 1.28 2.67 1.15 0.00

32.7 31.4 48 63.8 76.9

10.6 10.3 12 14.5

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

11.5

Total

2.8

44.01

1.31

40.6

11.2

Formal On the street In owner’s home Sub-divided premises In another person’s home From the owner’s person Other Total

65.3 20.0 1.3 10.7 1.3 0.0 1.3 100.0

50.8 19.0 14.3 1.6 4.8 6.3 3.2 100.0

100.00

Pearson chi2 (9) = 54.9 Pr = 0.000

As expected the mature age group have the highest probability of living in a fully paid for dwelling. The young are seen to be predominantly renting. This is in line with the expectation of the life-cycle saving behaviour when the young start off by becoming

economically active. The pattern between type of dwelling and lease arrangement is also statistically significant, with apartments (74.3%) having the highest probability of being rented.

Table 82. Monthly rental and municipal services costs paid by residents

Mean amount being paid

Rental Rates & municipal services

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

R161 R173

R2408 R104

R2154 R310

R43 R90

Among the 45% of households that reported paying monthly rental, the mean amount being paid was R1072, with a range from R100 to R10 000. Variations in mean rental between the four nodes were statistically significant (F=172.751; df=3; p=0.000), with rentals paid in the Park Station (mean R2408) and Orange Grove (R2154)

R1072 R183

nodes emerging as substantially higher than those in Westbury and Marlboro South. For municipal services costs, incurred by 29% of residents, the mean being paid was R173 per month, with a range from R35 to R7500 and a statistically significant difference between nodes (F=5.314; df=3; p=0.001).

Table 83. Monthly rental and municipal services cost of residents, by previous residence

Local

Rest of SA

Foreign

Rental

975.13

822.59

2433.78

Rates

195.28

120.93

210

While foreign residents pay both the highest rent as well as municipal rates, internal migrants are seen to pay the least in both cases. This may relate to the differences in the type of dwelling of resident groups, but also may be indicative of

61

Conditions of work and life

the higher rentals charged from foreign residents. This argument comes from the fact that rentals of foreign residents are over double that of locals, while the rates are only marginally higher.

46.2 19.2 28.8 1.9 3.8 0.0 0.0 100.0

Almost two-thirds (63%) of the businesses are operated from formal premises, while about onesixth (18%) were on-the-street vendors. A further 9% operated from the owners’ homes; 5% from subdivided premises; 2% in another person’s home; and 2% from the owner’s person. Variations in the types of business premises in the four nodes were

79.8 14.6 0.0 4.5 0.0 1.1 0.0 100.0

63.1 17.9 9.0 5.0 2.2 1.8 1.1 100.0

statistically significant (X2=72.540; df=18; p=0.000), with the highest concentrations of businesses operating from formal premises in Orange Grove (80%) and Park Station (65%); home businesses operators being most prevalent in Westbury (29%); and informal “on-the-street” vendors most frequent in Park Station (20%).

Table 85. Type of business premises

Retail

Services

Catering

Motor Trade

Total

Formal

62.7

58.9

60.9

80.0

63.1

On the street

22.4

17.9

14.1

4.0

17.9

In owner’s home

7.5

12.5

10.9

4.0

9.0

Sub-divided premises

5.2

5.4

6.3

0.0

5.0

In another person’s home

0.7

5.4

3.1

0.0

2.2

From the owner’s person 1.5

0.0

1.6

8.0

1.8

Other

0.0

0.0

3.1

4.0

1.1

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Businesses in the majority of all four categories operated from formal premises, ranging from 59% of service businesses to 80% of those in the motor trade. Retailers had the highest proportion operating on the street (22%) and service businesses had the highest proportion operating from the owners’ homes (13%). Differences between business types and the types of premises from which they operated were statistically significant (X2=27.346; df=18; p=0.073).

While businesses operating from formal premises dominate across the birthplace of the owner, foreign resident owned business is more likely to be operating from formal premises as compared to local resident business. Businesses operating from the street formed the second category for both internal migrants as well as foreign owned businesses, while businesses operating from home was a significant component of local business.

Conditions of work and life

62


Table 86. Type of business premises, by birthplace of business owner

Table 89. Recipient of business premises rent by node

Premises

Local

Other South African

Foreign

Total

Formal Sub-divided In owner’s home In another person’s home On the street From the owner’s person Other Total

55.88 5.88 18.63 0.98 14.71 2.94 0.98 100

64.71 1.96 3.92 3.92 25.49 0 0 100

68 5.6 3.2 2.4 17.6 1.6 1.6 100

62.95 5.04 8.99 2.16 17.99 1.8 1.08 100

Pearson chi2(12) = 25.3746 Pr = 0.013

A gender based breakdown of the business premises shows that men are more likely to operate business from formal premises. Women owned businesses

are more likely to be operating from the street, without formal premises.

Table 87. Business: gender of owner by premises

Formal

Sub-divided

Owner’s home

Another person’s home

On the street

From the owner’s person

Other

Total

Men

64.32

4.86

9.19

2.7

14.59

2.7

1.62

100

Women

58.82

4.71

9.41

1.18

25.88

0

0

100

Total

62.59

4.81

9.26

2.22

18.15

1.85

1.11

100

Landlord Managing agent Mastande Tenant (sub-let) Other Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

69.7 9.1 3.0 0.0 18.2 100.0

48.4 31.3 6.3 1.6 12.5 100.0

43.8 45.0 5.0 1.3 5.0 100.0

93.1 3.4 0.0 3.4 0.0 100.0

More than half (56%) of the businesses paid rent to a landlord and a further quarter (29%) paid a managing agent. A further 4% paid Mastande, 2% paid another tenant who was sub-letting the space and 9% said that they had a different rental arrangement; mainly payment to the City of Johannesburg in the Park Station node (4%); not paying any rent at all (0.4%); or not specifying the mode of payment, especially in Westbury (2%).

56.3 29.1 4.4 1.5 8.7 100.0

Variations in the recipients of rental payments between business owners located in the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=40.612; df=12; p=0.000), with payments being almost exclusively (93%) to landlords for Marlboro South businesses; and higher than average proportions of Orange Grove and Park Station businesses paying managing agents.

Pearson chi2(6) = 8.6628 Pr = 0.193

Table 88. Tenure of business premises by node

Rental Own, fully paid Sub-let Own, still paying off Awaiting transfer of title Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

60.0 33.3 6.7 0.0 0.0

93.8 3.1 1.6 0.0 1.6

81.7 4.9 11.0 2.4 0.0

43.1 55.2 1.7 0.0 0.0

71.9 21.3 5.6 0.8 0.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Almost three-quarters (72%) of the businesses paid rental for their premises, and just over one in five (21%) owned the premises, having fully paid off the price thereof. A further 6% sub-let their premises, with small proportions awaiting transfer of the title to their names (0.4%), or who owned and were

63

Conditions of work and life

still paying for the property (0.8%). Variations in the tenure of businesses in the four nodes were statistically significant (X2=82.246; df=12; p=0.000), with rental being most predominant in the Park Station node (94%) and ownership most frequent in the Marlboro South node (55%).

Conditions of work and life

64


9

TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS The majority of residents travelled for work or study to a destination within the node in which they live, i.e. within a distance of one kilometre or less. The highlighted section of the table below indicates this tendency, namely 59% of Westbury commuters, 63% of Park Station commuters, 64% of those in the Orange Grove node, and 39% from within the Marlboro South node. The table shows that commuters to work or school from Marlboro South households were more likely than those in households at other nodes, to travel regularly to a destination outside of their nodal area.

Table 90. Travel characteristics of residents

Westbury

Park Orange Marlboro Total Station Grove South

1.6

1.8

1.6

1.1

58.6%

11.8%

2.8%

3.0%

Within Park Station Node

15.3%

63.3%

8.3%

13.1%

Within Orange Grove Node Within Marlboro South Node 1-2km from Westbury Node 1-2km from Park Station Node 1-2km from Orange Grove Node 1-2km from Marlboro South Node >2km from all four Nodes

0.0%

0.6%

64.1%

1.0%

0.0%

1.8%

7.8%

39.4%

3.7%

0.6%

0.5%

0.0%

6.5%

5.3%

2.3%

1.0%

0.0%

1.2%

4.6%

0.0%

1.2%

2.4%

3.7%

12.1%

14.6%

13.0%

6.5%

30.3%

Walking Minibus taxi Mode of transport Car utilised Rea Vaya BRT Train Uber/ metred taxi Other bus Delivery truck Cycling One-way time (mean minutes)

44.9% 28.6% 5.0% 8.5% 6.9% 1.3% 3.4% 0.6% 0.6% 22 mins

66.0% 19.5% 2.5% 0.6% 0.6% 8.2% 2.5% 0.0% 0.0% 14 mins

55.6% 27.8% 13.7% 0.5% 0.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.5% 0.0% 16 mins

28.7% 48.1% 11.1% 7.5% 0.0% 0.9% 2.7% 0.9% 0.0% 41 mins

One-way cost (mean Rand value)

R6.80

R4.30

R6.40

R8.75

Mean number of regular commuters per household Within Westbury Node

Percentage of regular commuters from each Node to each of these specified destinations

65

Conditions of work and life

1.5

49.7% 29.2% 7.6% 4.7% 2.8% 2.5% 2.4% 0.5% 0.2% 21 mins R6.45

Conditions of work and life

66


The primary means of transport utilised by these regular commuters to the destinations was walking (50%), taking 66% of those in the Park Station node and 56% of those in the Orange Grove node to their destinations. Almost half (45%) of Westbury residents who travelled to work or an educational institution regularly, also did so by foot. It was only in the case of Marlboro South commuters who more travelled regularly by minibus-taxi (48%) than by walking (29%). Minibus-taxis were second most used, after walking, to reach regular destinations by residents of Westbury (29%), Orange Grove (28%) and Park Station (20%). Overall, only 8% utilised a car, more so among residents of Orange Grove

(14%) than elsewhere. Rea Vaya BRT was used by 5% of regular commuters, most commonly among Westbury (9%) and Marlboro South (8%) residents. Smaller proportions overall used a train (3%), a metred taxi or Uber (3%), another type of bus (2%), delivery truck (1%) or bicycle (0.2%). The mean one-way travel time per regular commuter was 21 minutes, ranging from 14 minutes for Park Station commuters to 41 minutes for Marlboro South commuters. The mean one-way cost varied similarly from R4.35 among Park Station commuters (where two-thirds were pedestrians) to R8.76 for Marlboro South commuters, with an overall average of R6.45.

Table 91. Age group (years) of residents, by modes of transport

Age Category

Minibus taxi

Metered taxi

Rea Vaya BRT

Other bus

Car

Train

Walking Delivery

Total

18-30

41.1

42.86

60.00

42.86

27.8

23.08

39.9

0.00

39.4

31-40

23.3

28.57

13.33

14.29

44.44

46.15

33.05

50

30.5

41-50

19.4

28.57

13.33

28.57

16.67

7.69

11.2

50

14.7

51-65

12.4

0.00

13.33

14.29

8.33

23.08

10.7

33.35

11.3

>65

3.9

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.8

0.00

5.15

0.00

4.1

Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.01

100.00

for the poorer classes. The vast majority of those with higher income preferred cars as a mode of transport.

Table 92: Mode of transport of residents, by Individual income (Rands)

Minibus taxi Metered taxi/ Uber Rea Vaya BRT Other bus Car Train Walking Delivery truck/ van Total

taxi, compared to men. However, no substantial difference in the use of Rea Vaya is seen between genders.

Table 93. Mode of transport of resident, by gender

Women Minibus taxi Metered taxi/ Uber Rea Vaya BRT Other bus Car Train Walking Delivery truck/ van Total

Men

Total

34.9

24.6

29.1

2.1

1.2

1.6

3.1

3.6

3.4

2.1

1.2

1.6

5.7

10.1

8.2

3.7

2.4

2.9

47.96

56.5

52.7

0.5

0.4

0.45

100.00

100.00

100.00

Pearson chi2 (7) = 9.648 Pr = 0.209

Pearson chi2 (21) = 26.83 Pr = 0.52

Age wise, 60 percent of Rea Vaya BRT users are the youth. Also, a larger proportion of the residents with no source of income are seen to use Rea Vaya and thus highlights its relevance as a mode of transport

More men residents walked to work compared to women residents. Correspondingly, a larger proportion of women residents used minibus

No income

R1-2500 R25016000

R600116000

Above R16000

Not revealed

Total

46.2 0.00 9.23 1.54 10.8 7.7 24.6 0.00 100.00

29.1 0.85 3.4 2.6 5.9 2.6 53.9 1.7 100.00

16.7 1.5 0.00 1.52 18.2 0.00 62.1 0.00 100.00

14.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 42.9 0.00 42.9 0.00 100.00

26.7 2.2 6.7 2.2 11.11 4.4 46.7 0.00 100.00

29.2 1.6 3.4 1.6 8.2 2.9 52.6 0.5 100.00

28.8 2.9 1.4 0.7 1.4 2.2 62.6 0.00 100.00

Table 94. Travel to work for business owners by node

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

Local (less than 2km) Transport Walk Car Minibus taxi One-way time (mean minutes)

73.4 51 22 7 12

53.8 38 28 19 20

69.4 41 48 7 17

67.6 41 35 18 20

67.2 43 34 12 20

One-way cost (mean R)

R10.75

17.20

R15.10

R13.70

R14.45

Two-thirds of business owners (67%) lived within a short distance (1 to 2 km) from the location of their business. Thus, for the Westbury node, 73% lived in Westbury, Coronationville, Joe Slovo, Newclare or Sophiatown. In the Park Station node, 54% lived in the Johannesburg CBD, or areas such as Hillbrow, Braamfontein, Yeoville, Fordsburg and Berea. A further 11% lived in Soweto, 17% in other areas south of the CBD, and 4% in Alexandra or Marlboro South. Owners of Orange Grove node businesses lived mainly (69%) in the surrounding suburbs of Orange Grove, Norwood, Highlands North and Houghton. Those operating in Marlboro South lived

mainly (68%) in Alexandra or Marlboro South, with a further 18% elsewhere in northern Johannesburg. More than two-fifths (42%) of business owners indicated that they walked to their place of work, with a further 36% travelling there by car; and 16% by minibus taxi. The mean one-way travel time was 20 minutes and the one-way cost was R14.44. Although differences between nodes were not statistically significant, the range of journey time to work was from ten minutes or less (35% of business owners) and zero cost (15%), to as high as 60 minutes and R10.

Pearson chi2 (35) = 82.09 Pr = 0.000

67

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

68


Table 95. Node of transport cost of business owners

Node

One way travel cost (Rands)

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

0

0-10

10-20

20-30

Above 30

Total

65.31 35.62 45.98 50 47.58

10.2 16.44 14.94 10 13.38

4.08 21.92 11.49 20 14.87

4.08 10.96 10.34 5 8.18

16.33 15.07 17.24 15 15.99

100 100 100 100 100

Most (90%) businesses reported having one or more employee, whether permanent or temporary. The majority (80%) of businesses reported having employees living within areas that are located less than 2 km from the business premises. This proportion varied from 63% of Orange Grove businesses to 92% of Marlboro South businesses. More than one-third (39%) of businesses indicated that they had employees who walked to their place

of work. Almost one-quarter (24%) or more said that they had employees who travelled by minibus taxi. The mean one-way travel time was around 19 minutes, highest for Park Station employees and lowest for those employed in Westbury. The mean one-way cost for employees to travel to work was R11, ranging from R8 in Westbury to R12 in the Park Station and Orange Grove nodes.

Pearson chi2(12) = 18.2054 Pr = 0.110

Given the large proportion of business owners who walked to work, the zero travel cost of almost 50% of the business owners is expected. Westbury had the highest proportion (65%) of business owners who incurred no cost. Park Station, on the other hand had the lowest proportion. This is indicative of the higher

rental cost for residences in the area. The large proportion of owners of business in Park Station are observed to commute from Soweto incurring a transport cost of between R10 and R20. The decision to stay close to business is, therefore, based on the trade-offs of transport cost vis-a-vis rental cost.

Table 96. Residence of business owners by transport cost

Residence Alexandra Soweto Johannesburg CBD Westbury/ Coronation Norwood/ Orange Grove Other Total

Transport Cost(Rands) 0

0-10

10-20

20-30

Above 30

Total

59.46 0 65.38 75 35.29 39.16 47.58

18.92 30 7.69 8.33 35.29 10.49 13.38

16.22 60 11.54 2.78 0 16.78 14.87

2.7 0 3.85 2.78 0 13.29 8.18

2.7 10 11.54 11.11 29.41 20.28 15.99

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Figure 6. Supplier, by type of goods, to Westbury businesses

More than two-fifths (42%) of the suppliers of goods to businesses in the Westbury node were based in the Johannesburg inner city and suburbs. A further 36% were based south of the Johannesburg

CBD in suburbs such as City Deep, Crown Mines and Booysens. Just over one-fifth (21%) of suppliers were based within the Westbury nodal suburbs of Westbury, Coronationville, Croesus and Newclare.

Pearson chi2(20) = 66.2589 Pr = 0.000

Table 97. Travel to work for employees

Proportion of businesses with some or all employees living within 2 km Walk Proportion of Minibus taxi businesses Rea Vaya BRT with employees Other bus using each form Car of transport Train Metered/ Uber One-way travel time for employees (mean minutes)* One-way travel cost for employees (mean R)*

Westbury Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

84

63

82

92

80

50 8 4 2 2 2 0 15

32 29 3 3 1 3 1 23

40 28 0 3 3 0 1 18

38 25 0 0 0 0 0 20

39 24 1 2 2 1 1 19

R8

R12

R12

R11

R11

Figure 7. Supplier, by type of goods, to Park Station businesses

* Mean travel time and mean travel cost are notional, not having been computed with any weighting to numbers of employees, because this level of data were not collected.

69

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

70


Table 99. Proportion of suppliers to Park Station businesses

Table 98. Proportion of suppliers to Westbury businesses

JHB CBD zone

42.3%

Limpopo

1.5%

Alexandra/ Wynberg/ Marlboro South

0.0%

Other- Africa

2.9%

South of CBD

35.9%

KZN

0.0%

Other GP

0.0%

Other RSA

0.00%

North of CBD

1.3%

Other- non-Africa

0.76%

Westbury/ Coronationville

20.5%

Norwood/ Orange Grove

0.00%

Norwood/ Orange Grove

0.0%

Westbury/ Coronationville

0.00%

Other- non-Africa

0.0%

North of CBD

5.9%

Other RSA

0.0%

Other GP

8.8%

KZN

0.0%

South of CBD

7.4%

Other- Africa

0.0%

Alexandra/ Wynberg/ Marlboro South

7.4%

Limpopo

0.0%

JHB CBD zone

66.2%

Two-thirds (66%) of the suppliers of goods to businesses in the Park Station node were based in the Johannesburg CBD and environment, including Fordsburg and Mayfair. Other suppliers to Park Station businesses were mainly south of the Johannesburg CBD in suburbs such as City Deep, Crown Mines and Booysens (7%); AlexandraWynberg (7%); or elsewhere in Gauteng (9%) outside of the City of Johannesburg. Almost half (49%) of the suppliers of goods to businesses in the Orange Grove node were based in the Johannesburg CBD and environment, including Fordsburg and Mayfair. Other suppliers to Orange Grove node businesses were mainly south of the CBD (11%); in Wynberg-Alexandra (8%); or in Gauteng beyond the boundaries of the City of Johannesburg (12%). Almost half (46%) of the suppliers of goods to businesses in the Marlboro South node were based in the Marlboro South node and its environs. More than another one-third (36%) of the suppliers were

71

Conditions of work and life

Figure 8. Supplier, by type of goods, to Orange Grove businesses

based in the Johannesburg CBD area, including Fordsburg and Mayfair. Smaller proportions were based north (9%) or south (4%) of the CBD, or elsewhere in Gauteng (6%), outside of the City of Johannesburg. More than half (57%) of the other users interviewed indicated that they were in the particular node every day. This was most common (76%) in the Orange Grove node. A further 16% were in the node a few times a week, 9% were there once a week and 11%, a few times a month. Few of the other users were there less frequently, namely monthly (4%), every few months (2%) or yearly or less (2%). Differences in frequency of being in the node were not statistically significant (X2=26.185; df=18; p=0.096), although the proportion of interviewed ‘other users’ that were in the Orange Grove node who indicated that they were there every day was higher (76%) than the ‘other users’ encountered in the other three nodes (60% or lower).

Figure 9. Supplier, by type of goods, to Marlboro South businesses

Conditions of work and life

72


Table 101. Proportion of suppliers to Marboro South businesses

Table 100. Proportion of suppliers to Orange Grove businesses

Limpopo

0.00%

Limpopo

0.0%

Other- Africa

0.00%

Other- Africa

0.0%

KZN

1.2%

KZN

0.0%

Other RSA

2.4%

Other RSA

0.0%

Other- non-Africa

3.5%

Other- non-Africa

0.0%

Norwood/ Orange Grove

3.5%

Norwood/ Orange Grove

0.0%

Westbury/ Coronationville

0.0%

Westbury/ Coronationville

0.0%

North of CBD

9.4%

North of CBD

8.9%

Other GP

11.8%

Other GP

5.4%

South of CBD

10.6%

South of CBD

3.6%

Alexandra/ Wynberg/ Marlboro 8.2% South

Alexandra/ Wynberg/ Marlboro South

46.4%

JHB CBD zone

JHB CBD zone

35.7%

49.4%

Table 102. Frequency of presence of ‘other users’ in each node

Daily A few times a week Once a week A few times a month Monthly Every few months Yearly or less Total

73

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

51.0 19.6 13.7 9.8 3.9 0.0 2.0 100.0

50.0 13.3 8.2 15.3 5.1 4.1 4.1 100.0

75.5 10.2 4.1 6.1 4.1 0.0 0.0 100.0

57.3 15.8 8.7 11.1 3.6 1.6 2.0 100.0

Conditions of work and life

60.0 21.8 9.1 9.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

Conditions of work and life

74


Table 104. Travel time of ‘other users’ to each node

Mean Travel time % 15 minutes or less

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

32 mins 44%

49 mins 26%

26 mins 30%

35 mins 40%

The mean one-way travel time was 35 minutes, with a statistically significant difference between those interviewed in the four nodes (F=2.369; df=3; p=0.071), ranging from 49 minutes at Park Station

20 mins 61%

to 20 minutes at Orange Grove. Two-fifths (40%) had travelled for 15 minutes or less to reach the node, this proportion being more than three-fifths (61%) in Orange Grove.

Figure 10: Transport utilised by ‘other users’ to reach node

Two main modes of transport had been utilised by the ‘other user’ respondents to reach the points in the nodes where they were interviewed. These were by minibus taxi (41%) and by walking (37%). Whereas the use of minibus taxis was higher in Park Station (47%) and Marlboro South (49%), walking was more common in Westbury (45%) and Orange Grove (60%). Not surprisingly, the use

of a train was higher at Park Station (15%) than anywhere else, while car transport was higher at the other three nodes. Rea Vaya BRT was used by only 5% of these respondents overall, and was highest at Park Station (9%). A small proportion of the respondents indicated having used more than one means of transport, hence the totals in excess of 100% in the graph.

Table 103. Mode of transport used by ‘other users’, by node

Transport mode

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

Minibus taxi Metered taxi/uber Rea Vaya BRT Other bus Car Train Walk Other bus Minibus taxi Total

6.82 0 0 2.27 29.55 0 59.09 0 2.27 100

27.14 2.86 1.43 2.86 27.14 2.86 34.29 1.43 0 100

10.23 1.14 0 2.27 45.45 0 40.91 0 0 100

20.34 0 0 0 38.98 0 40.68 0 0 100

16.48 1.15 0.38 1.92 36.4 0.77 42.15 0.38 0.38 100

Pearson chi2(24) = 38.6858 Pr = 0.029

The mode of transport of users are seen to be statistically different across nodes. While 60% of users surveyed reached Westbury by walking, the proportion was much lower at 34% in Park Station. This is not surprising as Park Station is considered a transport hub where people from distant locations

75

Conditions of work and life

arrive en route to other locations. Cars are also seen as a dominant mode of transport for users with the highest proportion reported in Orange Grove (40.9%) and Marlboro South (40.7%). Another important mode of transport reported is minibus taxi for all nodes except Westbury.

Conditions of work and life

76


10

THE CORRIDORS OF FREEDOM Only 3% of residents had heard of the Corridors of Freedom, mainly from friends or other people, the internet, public meetings or the media. Most of these few who had heard of the COF, were of the view that it would be good for their household, in the sense of saving time and/or increasing accessibility to transport; saving money or creating jobs. Less than one percent indicated that the government had engaged with them about the COF.

Table 105. Residents’ response to the COF and BRT

Westbury Park Orange Marlboro Total Station Grove South Heard of COF? Where? - friends/ other people - internet - meetings - other (school, TV, radio, billboard, municipality) Good for household? Why? - time saver/ easier accessibility - money saver - job creator Government engaged with me about COF? How? - not specified Don’t know it Don’t have it Reason Don’t need it for not Too expensive using Prefer to walk Rea Tags difficult to get Vaya Prefer car BRT Prefer taxi (58% Never tried of Don’t like it total) Total Intend to use Rea Vaya BRT when it comes to my area Those who were not using Rea Vaya BRT, were asked to indicate the reason for this. The most common response was that they did not have access to Rea Vaya BRT (43%). This response was prominent in all four nodes, indicative of widespread lack of

77

Conditions of work and life

2.4 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.5

7.4 0.0 2.1 1.1 4.4

3.6 1.4 0.7 0.0 1.4

1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

3.4 0.8 0.6 0.4 1.4

1.4 1.5 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.5 2.4 24.0 35.2 21.6 0.0 6.4 1.6 5.6 3.2 0.0 100.0 69.3

5.3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 10.9 21.9 45.3 3.1 4.7 3.1 0.0 6.3 4.7 0.0 100.0 55.9

3.6 2.1 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 9.5 65.1 1.6 0.0 9.5 0.0 9.5 4.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 93.7

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 90.2 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 0.0 0.0 2.0 100.0 78.9

2.2 1.2 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.3 5.3 43.2 24.8 9.9 3.0 3.3 3.3 4.6 2.3 0.3 100.0 76.1

awareness of the system, or perhaps of the name of the project. One-quarter (25%) said that they did not need to use the system because they did not travel regularly to work or anywhere else. This response was most common in the Westbury

Conditions of work and life

78


and Park Station nodes. Some said that it was too expensive for them (10%); difficult to obtain the necessary tags for the system (3%); they preferred to make use of a minibus taxi (5%); or a car (3%); they favoured walking (3%); they had never tried it (2%); or they did not like it (0.3%). The vast majority

indicated that they or members of their household intended to use Rea Vaya BRT when it came to their area. This further illustrated the lack of awareness that Rea Vaya BRT had already been established in some areas.

Table 106. Individual income of residents having heard of the COF

No income 1-1500 1501-4500 4501-11000 >11000 Total

Yes

No

Total

4.65 1.46 2.9 8.8 28.6 3.67

95.35 98.54 97.1 91.2 71.4 96.33

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Table 109. Business owners having heard of the COF

Heard of COF? Government engaged with me about COF? How did the government engage with you?

Marlboro South Total

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

6.9 4.3

Officials, meeting

Meeting

2.9 1.8

people (1%) or newspapers (1%). Almost all of the few who had heard of the COF were of the view that it would be good for business.

Table 110. ‘Other users’ having heard of the COF

Westbury

Although the level of awareness of COF is low across the income levels, the low income are less likely to have heard of COF as compared to

2.7 1.6

A mere 3% of business owners had heard the name ‘Corridors of Freedom’, the highest proportional awareness emerging in the Orange Grove node (7%). Most had heard from government officials (2%), other

Pearson chi2 (4) = 21.78 Pr = 0.00

the higher income residents. No distinct pattern regarding awareness of COF emerged across age groups, gender or previous residence.

Table 107. Age group of residents, having heard of the COF

Age Category (years)

Yes

No

Total

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

5.8 5.5 3.1 4.7 0 3.7

97.42 94.5 96.9 95.3 100.00 96.3

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (3) = 3.27 Pr = 0.513

Table 108. Gender of residents having heard of the COF

Men Women Total

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove

Yes

No

Total

4.25 3.04 3.68

95.75 96.96 96.32

100 100 100

Heard of COF? Where? Positive impact on area (among those who have heard of COF)? Why?

Park Station Orange Grove

2.0 7.1 Newspapers Radio, TV 100% 60%

2.0 Radio 0%

Better roads Creates awareness of opportunities Has Rea Vaya BRT improved your 74.0 55.9 34.0 access to area Less than 5% of interviewees had heard of the COF, ranging from 2% in Westbury and Orange Grove to 6% in Marlboro South and 7% in Park Station. The main sources of information about the project had been newspapers, radio and television and local government. The majority of those who had heard of the COF were of the opinion that it would have a positive impact on the area. Reasons for this view included the creation of awareness of opportunities, better roads and general local development. More than half (55%) of respondents indicated that Rea Vaya BRT had improved their access to the area,

Marlboro South

Total

5.7 Govt, CoJ 100%

4.8 80%

Development of area 56.3

55.2

ranging from 34% of those in Orange Grove to 74% of those in Westbury. The ‘other users’ interviewed in the Orange Grove node were asked whether they would make use of Rea Vaya BRT to get to the node, once it has been established in the area. More than three-quarters (78%) said that they would do so. Among those who said that they would not, the reasons given were that they used their own cars (43%); they lived in the area (29%); or did not like public transport (14%).

Pearson chi2(1) = 0.4978 Pr = 0.480

79

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

80


11

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Westbury and Marlboro South residents were more aware (14% and 12% respectively) of a neighbourhood association dealing with community issues in their area than were residents of the other two nodes (9% or less). In more homogenous urban localities, where residents have been living in these areas for longer, it may be that more people are aware of associations that deal with community issues and that there are more ‘bonding’ forms of social capital that bind communities together as opposed to ‘bridging’ forms of social capital that are bonds between different kinds of groups in a community. However, even if communities do belong to and participate in various kinds of clubs and associations, there is no guarantee that they would be able to act collectively to bring about change for the better. Change very often depends on supporting political structures such as participation in ward committees. From the survey it emerged that indeed the most common types of association known to be operating were community police forums and ward committees. The former were particularly prevalent in Westbury, clearly in response to the security and policing issues that also emerged from this survey. However, only 16% of those who were aware of their neighbourhood association actually attended most meetings or every meeting of the association.

Table 111. Residents’ awareness of neighbourhood assocations dealing with community issues

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

Aware of neighbourhood association

14.4

8.5

1.6

11.6

9.6

Ward committee Residents’/ ratepayers Policing forum Type Security committee Building/ body corporate Other (incl. taxi assoc./ union) Total Attend most or every meeting

15.6 3.1 65.6 0.0 6.3 9.4

44.4 0.0 22.2 22.2 0.0 11.1

25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 75.0

33.3 0.0 33.3 0.0 0.0 33.3

24.1 1.9 48.1 3.7 3.7 18.5

100.0 13.7

100.0 25.0

100.0 0.0

100.0 18.2

100.0 16.0

Table 112. Age of residents aware of a neighbourhood association dealing with community issues

Age Category

Yes

No

Total

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

6.4 11.6 13.5 12.12 8.3 9.75

93.6 88.4 86.5 87.9 91.7 90.25

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (3) = 4.9989 Pr = 0.172

81

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

82


The awareness of associations involved with community issues was dismally low across age groups and places of previous residence. The local residents had slightly better awareness level as compared to zero awareness of foreign residents.

The need to better integrate the migrants, both internal and foreign, into forums that address community issues is starkly indicated through these findings.

Yes

No

Total

11.2 8.7 0.00 9.8

88.8 91.3 100.00 90.3

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (2) = 5.26 Pr = 0.072

Awareness levels of COF was low across occupation structures and income levels. Although differences in awareness levels based on the occupation structure were not statistically significant, those involved in home duties (31.2%) and with no personal income (16.1%) are seen to be the most aware of these associations. It must be remembered

Men Women Total

Yes

No

Total

11.79 7.72 9.82

88.21 92.28 90.18

100 100 100

Pearson chi2 (1) = 2.3693 Pr = 0.124

Table 113. Residents: Previous residence, by awareness of a nieghbourhood association dealing with community issues

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Table 116. Gender of residents, by awareness of a neighbourhood association dealing with community issues

that although the largest proportion of those with no income are the unemployed, a substantial proportion of those with no income are those involved in home duties. Men are found to be more aware of COF as compared to women, although the difference in awareness across genders is not statistically significant.

Table 117. Residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; participation in community activities

Westbury

Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

Religious group Financial association (e.g. stokvel)

37.2 10.1

38.9 16.8

33.6 7.1

31.5 19.6

35.6 12.2

Sports group Debating group

12.6 0.5

14.7 0.0

7.9 0.0

6.5 0.0

10.7 0.2

Other community group participation took the form of religious groups, in which 36% of residents indicated that they participate; 12% in financial

associations; 11% in sports groups, and less than 1% in other types of community groups.

Table 118. Age of residents, by participation in assocation dealing with community issues

Table 114. Occupation status of residents, by awareness of a neighbourhood association dealing with community issues

Yes

No

Total

Employed

9.7

90.3

100.00

Self Employed

10.3

89.7

100.00

Home duties

31.2

68.8

100.00

Unemployed

8.1

91.9

100.00

Not seeking work

4.4

95.7

100.00

In education

6.7

93.3

100.00

Retired

12.5

87.5

100.00

Total

9.9

90.1

100.00

Pearson chi2 (6) = 10.09 Pr = 0.121

Age category

Attend all

Attend most

Seldom attend

Not a member

Total

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

0.00 0.85 0.00 4.9 0.00 0.82

0.67 2.56 4.2 2.4 0.00 1.9

1.34 6.84 6.3 4.9 0.00 4.1

97.9 89.7 87.8 87.8 100.0 93.2

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (9) = 15.5881 Pr = 0.076

The women (95.3%), youth (97.9%), the retired (100%) and the foreign residents (100%) are the least likely to be participating in the association meetings. The need to integrate the residents in

matters relating to community, especially the youth and foreign residents, are highlighted by these findings.

Table 119. Residents: previous residence, by participation in association dealing with community issues

Table 115. Individual income of residents, by awareness of a neighbourhood association dealing with community issues

Rands

Yes

No

Total

No income 1-1500 1501-4500 4501-11000 >11000 Total

16.1 11.3 4.9 10.6 0.00 9.8

83.9 88.7 95.1 89.4 100.00 91.4

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Attend all Attend most

Seldom attend Not a member

Total

0.4 2.2 0.00 0.81

5.2 2.2 0.00 4.1

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

1.2 4.4 0.00 1.9

93.2 91.3 100.00 93.2

Pearson chi2 (6) = 10.2808 Pr = 0.113

Pearson chi2 (5) = 9.00 Pr = 0.109

83

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

84


Table 120. Gender of residents, by participation in association dealing with neighbourhood community issues

Attend all

Attend most

Seldom attend

Not a member

Total

Men

0.92

2.3

5.07

91.71

100

Women

0.67

1.33

2.67

95.33

100

Total

0.82

1.91

4.09

93.19

100

Pearson chi2 (3) = 1.8866 Pr = 0.596

Table 121. Awareness of business associations of business owner

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

Exist in this area

9.6

13.5

8.0

3.3

8.8

Examples

Dream Team, RMI, Community Liaison Force Association

Harare Bus Assoc, JHB Business Forum, Pela Nathi, PRASA, SARA, Small Business Assoc, Ubuntu Times

BTA, Future Builders, Norwood Forum, Norwood Residents’ Assoc.

I attend most or every meeting

60.0

40.0

57.2

----

45.8

Very effective

40.0

10.0

28.6

----

20.8

Only 9% of business owners indicated that there were business associations in their areas of operation. The examples mentioned pertained to security issues, transport, business and resident’s associations. Approximately half (46%) of those who said that associations exist, indicated that

-----

they attend most meetings or every meeting of the association concerned. About a fifth (21%) of those who were aware of associations assessed them as being “very effective”. The level of participation in business associations was much lower among foreign born business owners.

Table 122. Participation in business associations, by gender of business owner

Business associations

Men

Women

Total

I attend most or every meeting Very effective

6.10 1

6.95 6.98

6.47 16.00

Table 123. Participation in business associations, by birthplace of business owner

Business associations

Local

Other South Foreign Africa

Total

I attend most or every meeting Very effective

9.00 6.25

9.76 16.67

6.37 10.14

85

Conditions of work and life

2.16 10.53

Conditions of work and life

86


12

NEIGHBOURHOOD AND BUSINESS CONDITIONS Whereas less than a quarter (23%) were of the view that their neighbourhood was improving, 38% reported that it was staying the same and 38% indicated that it was getting worse. These perceptions differed significantly by node (X2=100.972; df=6; p=0.000), with much higher perceptions of improvement in Orange Grove and Park Station than in the other two nodes. Men (29%) tended to be significantly more in the “improving” category than their women (17%) counterparts (X2=10.036; df=2; p=0.007), and those aged 31 to 40 years similarly more likely (35%) than other age groups to indicate that it was improving (X2=29.190; df=6; p=0.000). In contrast, this was the view of 24% of those aged 18 to 30 years; 16% of those aged 41 to 50 years; and only 9% of those aged over 50 years.

Figure 10. Residents’ responses: Do you think your neighbourhood is improving, staying the same, or getting worse?

Table 124. Age group (years) of residents, by view on neighbourhood conditions

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

Improving

Same

Worsening

Total

24.0 35.3 16 10.1 4 23.4

40.2 32.1 42.7 42.0 28 37.8

35.8 32.5 41.3 47.8 68 38.8

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (8) = 32.4 Pr = 0.000

The mature aged, especially those above 65 years of age were the least likely to experience conditions in the community to be improving. A possible reason

87

Conditions of work and life

for this is explained by the profile of those over 65 years, who are mainly the local residents. The young are the migrants, internal and foreign, who

Conditions of work and life

88


perhaps compare the conditions in the area with their past life experiences in their place of origin. The locals, on the other hand, have an intertemporal perspective of the area and find it to be worsening. This explanation substantiates the findings that a much larger proportion of foreign residents (43.6%)

perceive the area to be improving compared to 43.5% of local residents who hold the view that the area is worsening. The internal migrants (50%), who largely occupy the informal settlement areas of Marlboro South are more neutral in their view.

Table 125. Residents: Resident group, by view on neighbourhood conditions

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Improving

Same

Worsening

Total

22.5 20.2 43.6 23.4

33.9 50 30.8 37.8

43.5 29.9 25.6 38.8

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Table 127. Occupation status of residents, by view on neighbourhood conditions

Employed Self Employed Home duties Unemployed Not seeking work In education Retired Total

Improving

Same

Worsening

Total

28.4 40.7 6.3 8.7 13.6 40.7 5.9 23.7

37.8 30.8 37.5 42.5 54.6 54.6 34.4 26.5

33.8 28.6 56.3 48.8 31.8 31.8 63.25 67.7

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (14) = 58.66 Pr = 0.000

Table 128. Resident response: what is the biggest challenge in theis area?

Pearson chi2 (4) = 21.244 Pr = 0.000

There is also a statistically significant pattern emerging between individual income levels and perception of the conditions of the area. While the higher income groups (57%) feel that the conditions are improving, the zero income and the low income groups strongly disagree, with 54% of the former

and 46.5% of the latter perceiving worsening conditions. This alludes to the multiple worlds that exist not just across nodes but also within nodes that differentiate the life and work experiences of residents based on their income levels.

Table 126. Individual income group of residents, by view on neighbourhood conditions

No income R1-1500 R1501-4500 R4501-11000 >R11000

Improving

Same

Worsening

Total

9.2 11.5 27.2 52.2 57.1 23.6

36.8 42.0 41.5 24.6 14.3 37.6

54.02 46.5 31.3 23.2 28.6 38.8

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Drugs Crime Unemployment Overcrowding Poor services Poverty Litter/ dirt Foreigners Other challenges No challenges

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

50.2 16.9 14.5 4.3 5.3 4.8 1.0 0.0 1.9 1.0

9.5 46.3 17.9 4.2 1.1 5.3 3.2 4.2 3.2 5.3

13.6 21.4 12.9 2.9 5.7 0.7 4.3 8.6 10.0 20.0

5.4 14.1 18.5 21.7 16.3 5.4 9.8 0.0 1.1 7.6

The biggest challenges in the area were seen as being the abuse of drugs (26%), crime in general (23%), unemployment (15%) and overcrowding of accommodation (7%). The particular challenges varied significantly between the nodes (X2=264.298;

25.7 22.8 15.4 6.9 6.6 3.9 3.7 3.0 4.1 7.9

df=27; p=0.000), with drugs being by far the most serious challenge in Westbury (50%), crime in general being the biggest issue in Park Station (46%) and Orange Grove (21%), and overcrowding of accommodation (22%) in Marlboro South.

Pearson chi2 (8) = 67.4111 Pr = 0.000

A similar finding emerges regarding perceptions on the conditions of the community across individuals based on their occupation status. Those who are selfemployed (40.7%) or in education (40.7%) are more likely to perceive an improvement, as compared to the unemployed or those engaged in home duties.

89

Conditions of work and life

Almost 49% of the unemployed and over 56% of those engaged in home duties expressed the view that conditions were worsening. This reinforces our argument that the life experiences within and across the nodes are largely dictated by the economic conditions one finds themself in.

Table 129. Resident response: what is the most important thing you would like to be improved in this area?

Combat crime Improve municipal services Create employment opportunities Improve housing Tackle drug abuse Clean the environment Improve traffic & transport Other improvements No improvements

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

18.8 14.0 25.1

48.4 8.4 12.6

17.9 17.1 5.0

6.5 29.3 12.0

21.7 16.5 15.4

17.4 12.1 2.9 0.0 6.3 3.4 100.0

3.2 3.2 5.3 1.1 8.4 9.5 100.0

4.3 0.7 3.6 5.7 25.7 20.0 100.0

20.7 1.1 9.8 2.2 3.3 15.2 100.0

12.0 5.6 4.7 2.1 11.1 10.9 100.0

Conditions of work and life

90


The most important issue that residents wanted to be addressed was the elimination of crime (22%). This was most mentioned in the Park Station node (48%). Second most frequently commented on was the need for improvement to municipal services in general (17%), notably electricity, water and sewerage reticulation. This was especially a priority in Marlboro South (29%). Other desired improvements were employment generation (15%), better housing (12%), tackling of drug abuse (6%),

a cleaner environment (5%), and traffic/ transport issues especially focusing on the completion of construction along Louis Botha Avenue (2%). There was a statistically significant difference between the expressed needs for improvement in the different nodes (X2=210.449; df=24; p=0.000), with the combating of crime in general being most needed intervention in Park Station (48%) and Orange Grove (18%); job opportunities in Westbury (25%); and better municipal services in Marlboro South (29%).

Table 130. Business owner response: is the number of businesses in the area increasing, staying the same or decreasing

Increasing Staying the same Decreasing Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know Total

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

34.6 46.2 15.4 3.8 100.0

41.9 20.3 28.4 9.5 100.0

37.1 28.1 28.1 6.7 100.0

34.9 36.5 22.2 6.3 100.0

37.4 31.3 24.5 6.8 100.0

More than one-third (37%) of businesses said that the number of businesses in their area was increasing. About one third (31%) said the number was staying the same and one quarter (25%) indicated that the number of businesses was decreasing. There was not a statistically significant difference in responses on this issue between the four nodes (X2=12.267; df=9; p=0.199). Half (50%) of the business people who said that the number of businesses was increasing, attributed the growth

to the intensified demand for the goods or services on offer, and a third (34%) were of the view that owing to the high level of unemployment, more people were opening businesses as a means to survival. Conversely, amongst those who thought that the number of businesses was decreasing, 41% identified a decline in demand; 27% mentioned increased business costs; and 21% attributed the decline to increased competition.

Table 132. Business owner response: has business performed well in the past year? by business category

Business Category Performed well?

Retail

Catering

Services

Motor industry

Total

Yes

38.35

50

40

66.67

43.59

No

61.65

50

60

33.33

56.41

Total

100

100

100

100

100

Pearson chi2(3) = 7.9355 Pr = 0.047

A higher proportion of the motor industry related businesses (66.7%) reported the business to be improving, while retail businesses had the lowest proportion (38.4%) with similar response. Differences in business performance across their size, based on the number of employees, was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, a much higher proportion of businesses that employed over 10 workers (64.7%) reported the business to be improving compared to those businesses that

did not employ workers (39.2%). A similar pattern emergences when the size of the business is measured by its turnover. This indicates that size matters and the larger the business, better the chance of it performing. The challenges of micro enterprises that are not able to exploit economies of scale are indicated here. The need for policy makers to be more supportive to micro enterprises comes out strongly.

Table 133. Business owner response: has business performed well in the past year? by number of employees

Employees Performed well?

0

1-5

5-10

Above 10

Total

yes no Total

39.24 60.76 100

43.92 56.08 100

41.38 58.62 100

64.71 35.29 100

43.59 56.41 100

Pearson chi2(3) = 3.7546 Pr = 0.289

Table 134. Business owner response: has business performed well in the past year? by turnover Table 131. Business owner response: has your business performed well in the last 12 months?

YES=43.8%

NO=56.2%

44% of the businesses said that they had performed well in the last twelve months, whereas, the other 56% said that they had not performed well. Good performance was highest in Westbury (54%), followed by Marlboro South (44%), Park Station (42%) and Orange Grove (41%) and although differences were statistically not significant (X2=2.645; df=3; p=0.450), nor was good

91

Conditions of work and life

performance significantly different (X2=0.160; df=1; p=0.689) between women (45%) and men (43%) business owners. Motor industry businesses were more likely (68%) than catering (50%), services (40%) or retail (38%) businesses to indicate that they had performed well in the previous twelve months (X2=8.782; df=3; p=0.032).

Performance

<R5k

R5-20k

R20-75k

R75-200k

>R200k

Total

Yes No Total

35.71 64.29 100

40 60 100

50.77 49.23 100

50 50 100

56.52 43.48 100

43.59 56.41 100

Pearson chi2(4) = 5.1760 Pr = 0.270

Although the differences in the performances of businesses across nodes are not statistically significant, businesses in Westbury cited the greatest improvement. In relation to Westbury,

higher proportions of businesses in areas of Orange Grove, Park Station and Marlboro South cited worsening in the past year.

Conditions of work and life

92


Table 135. Node, by business performance

Node

Greatly improved

Improved

Same

Worsened

Greatly worsened

Total

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove Marlboro South Total

1.92 4.17 3.8 1.69 3.05

36.54 23.61 22.78 33.9 28.24

50 37.5 46.84 37.29 42.75

9.62 29.17 24.05 27.12 23.28

1.92 5.56 2.53 0 2.67

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2(12) = 15.7165 Pr = 0.205

Table 136. Business category, by business performance

Business category

Greatly improved

Improved

Stayed same

Worsened

Greatly worsened Total

Retail Catering Services Motor industry Total

0.79 7.41 3.51 4.17 3.05

22.05 29.63 31.58 50 28.24

46.46 37.04 40.35 41.67 42.75

26.77 25.93 21.05 4.17 23.28

3.94 0 3.51 0 2.67

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2(12) = 20.2470 Pr = 0.063

Differences across the business category is visible in their response to the question whether the business has improved or worsened in the last year. While only a small proportion of motor industry

related business (4.2%) reported a worsening, over 30% of retail and 26% of catering reported business to be worsening.

Table 137. Turnover of business, by business performance

Turnover

Greatly improved

Improved

Stayed same

Worsened

Greatly worsened

Total

<R5k R5-20k R20-75k R75-200k >R200k Total

0 2.78 3.13 14.29 4.76 3.05

14.55 27.78 34.38 50 33.33 28.24

47.27 41.67 45.31 28.57 38.1 42.75

34.55 26.85 14.06 7.14 14.29 23.28

3.64 0.93 3.13 0 9.52 2.67

100 100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2(16) = 29.6596 Pr = 0.020

Business performance is again seen to be closely related to the size of business, measured by both turnover and number of employees. Small business that are fully operated by the owner seem to

93

Conditions of work and life

have done the worst. Larger business with over 10 employees reported largely that business was improving.

Conditions of work and life

94


Table 138. Number of employees, by business performance

Employment

Greatly improved

Improved

Stayed same

Worsened

Greatly worsened

Total

0 1-5 5-10 Above 10 Total

1.37 1.39 14.29 5.88 3.05

23.29 27.78 21.43 64.71 28.24

43.84 44.44 46.43 17.65 42.75

28.77 23.61 14.29 11.76 23.28

2.74 2.78 3.57 0 2.67

100 100 100 100 100

Pearson chi2(12) = 29.2573 Pr = 0.004

Table 139. Business owner response: has your business performed well in the last 12 months? by gender of business owner

Gender Business performed well?

Men

Women

Total

Yes No Total

42.31 57.69 100.00

45.24 54.76 100.00

43.23 56.77 100.00

Pearson chi2(1) = 0.2011 Pr = 0.654

Table 140. Business owner response: has your business performed well over the past 12 months? by birthplace of business owner

Business performed well?

Local

Other South Africa Foreign

Total

Yes No Total

45.10 54.90 100.00

44.00 56.00 100.00

43.59 56.41 100.00

42.15 57.85 100.00

No difference in the business performance is statistically significant across gender or birthplace of the business owner. The conclusions emerging is that economies of scale determine the business

performance to a great extent. Larger businesses are able to be more successful and this underscores the need for financial support to owners to expand their business to a viable level.

Table 143. Business owner response: most desirable support from City of Johannesburg

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove Marlboro South

Total

Reduction in rates Direct financial assistance Improved infrastructure

51.4 55.0

77.0 72.4

62.8 56.9

57.6 55.9

63.4 60.4

61.9

61.4

57.3

58.3

59.4

Improved services Better regulation of area

58.3 59.0

58.6 57.4

58.0 56.9

58.3 52.5

58.3 54.9

Assistance with bank loans

51.2

49.1

42.2

42.4

54.3

Other

3.8

6.7

2.2

14.3

6.5

A reduction in municipal rates (63%) and direct financial assistance (60%) and emerged as the most needed forms of support that businesses would like to receive from the City of Johannesburg, where such support to be on offer. Other desirables were improved infrastructure (59%), improved

services (58%), better regulation of the area (55%) and assistance with bank loans (54%). A small percentage (7%) mentioned other issues ranging from electricity, accommodation and cleansing to street vendors and foreigners.

Pearson chi2(2) = 0.2000 Pr = 0.905

Table 141. Gender of business owner, by business performance

Gender

Greatly improved

Improved

Stayed same

Worsened

Greatly worsened

Total

Men Women Total

3.39 2.56 3.14

29.94 24.36 28.24

41.81 47.44 43.53

21.47 25.64 22.75

3.39 0.00 2.35

100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2(4) = 4.1680 Pr = 0.384

Table 142. Birthplace of business owner by business performance

Birthplace

Greatly improved

Improved

Stayed same

Worsened

Greatly worsened

Total

Local Other South Africa Foreign Total

4.12 4.17 1.71 3.05

30.93 31.25 24.79 28.24

44.33 47.92 39.32 42.75

19.59 16.67 29.06 23.28

1.03 0.00 5.13 2.67

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2(8) = 10.8769 Pr = 0.209

95

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

96


13

LEVELS OF SATISFACTION Life satisfaction varied significantly between nodes (X2=45.051; df=12; p=0.000). Whereas overall, 56% of respondents indicated that they were either very satisfied or satisfied with their life as a whole “these days” (the standard question inserted in many international quality of life surveys), this proportion varied from a low of 49% in Westbury to a high of 65% in the Orange Grove node.

Table 144. Resident response: how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

Very satisfied

5.0

6.6

13.0

3.7

7.1

Satisfied

43.5

54.9

52.0

48.1

48.5

Neutral

28.0

30.8

30.9

42.0

31.5

Dissatisfied

21.0

7.7

4.1

4.9

11.7

Very dissatisfied

2.5

0.0

0.0

1.2

1.2

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Figure 11. Residents’ responses: How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?

97

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

98


Table 145. Resident response: levels of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) and reasons

Westbury Park Station

Orange Marlboro Total Grove South

Safety & security in area

44.9

32.7

15.0

8.7

28.6 Crime, drugs, muggings

Job opportunities in area

51.5

25.3

12.9

20.3

31.3 Job scarcity

Access to health services in area

10.8

4.2

8.5

7.7

Quality of health services in area

17.8

4.2

3.6

7.7

Access to schools/ educational 1.5 facilities in area

3.2

3.6

2.2

Quality of schools/ educational 2.4 facilities in area

4.2

0.0

1.1

Municipal services in area

7.4

20.7

30.8

8.5 Clinic too far or nonexistent or overcrowded 9.9 Clinics overcrowded, rude, slow 2.5 Few high schools, poor facilities 1.9 Teachers rude, inefficient, absent 22.7 Drains blocked, water & sewerage leaking, no electricity 29.1 Filth, litter, rats, dumping & strike 26.7 Corruption, unresponsive, high crime rate 13.8 Not available, dirty & poorly maintained 6.0 Potholed roads, distant public transport 13.9 Too small, poor condition, expensive

27.7

Cleanliness of area

35.3

36.9

17.8

24.7

Police services in area

50.7

21.2

11.4

1.1

Recreational & leisure facilities in area

22.9

13.8

5.0

6.6

Roads & public transport in area

9.7

0.0

2.9

8.9

Your standard of accommodation

20.0

8.5

4.3

20.9

When asked to assess a range of services and circumstances in their areas, the level of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) was highest in relation to the availability of job opportunities (31%), with a particular spike in Westbury. Dissatisfaction with the cleanliness of the area was a close second (29%) with Westbury and Park Station most dissatisfied, the waste removal strike being the cause of much litter in public zones. Dissatisfaction with municipal services was overall at 23%, and highest amongst the Marlboro South

99

Conditions of work and life

node residents (31%), where a large proportion lived in shacks. Related to this was a higher level of dissatisfaction in Marlboro South (21%) than elsewhere, with the standard of accommodation. Dissatisfaction with the level of safety and security (29%) and with police services (27%) correlated strongly, with particular highs for both aspects in Westbury, where crime, muggings, low police visibility and corruption were frequently mentioned.

Figure 12. Life dissatisfaction, by age group of residents

Access to and quality of educational facilities scored relatively low levels of dissatisfaction, as did health services, with the exception of Westbury, where it was greater than 10%. Potholed roads and too-distant public transport were the complaints of almost 10% of Westbury residents and almost 9% of Marlboro South residents. Westbury (23%) and Park Station (14%) node residents were those most likely to express dissatisfaction with recreational and leisure facilities in their nodes, in contrast with less than 7% dissatisfaction in this respect among residents of Orange Grove and Marlboro South. Differences in the life dissatisfaction levels are clearly visible across age groups. While the biggest concern of the young residents related to job opportunities, the mature aged had highest dissatisfaction relating to safety and security and police related issues. The top concerns of the middle aged related almost equally to job opportunities and cleanliness of the area, followed closely by safety and security, and municipal services. On the whole dissatisfaction levels were low relating to education facilities. Roads and public transport as well did not figure as major concerns especially for the young and middle aged. A gender-wise analysis of dissatisfaction levels indicates that the concerns of both men and women are similar, but the women are found to be more

dissatified vis-Ă -vis men across all categories. The dissatisfaction levels of the low income residents are higher across the board, as compared to the middle and higher income residents. Expectedly, the biggest dissatisfaction of the low income related to job opportunities. This is followed by concerns relating to the quality of health services and safety and security. On the other hand, the concerns of the higher income residents related to cleanliness, police services and safety and security. The dichotomy in the access and quality of health services between the poor and the rest is most stark. The role of income in determining overall life satisfaction comes out strongly with 0% of the higher income reporting overall dissatisfaction with life. The foreign residents are seen to have lower dissatisfaction levels as compared to the rest across the board. The pattern is less evident when comparing local residents with internal migrant residents. The highest source of dissatisfaction for the local residents was job opportunities, closely followed by issues of safety and security, cleanliness and police services. While internal migrant residents shared similar concerns, an additional source of dissatisfaction for them related to accommodation. This is not surprising as earlier analysis indicate large proportion of the internal migrants to be living in informal settlements.

Conditions of work and life

100


Figure 14. Life dissatisfaction, by place of previous residence Figure 14: Life dissatisfaction by gender of residents Table 146. Resident response: do you think that your life has improved, stayed the same or worsened over the past year?

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total

Improved

28.3

46.3

47.1

23.1

35.6

Stayed the same

56.1

42.1

40.7

68.1

51.6

Worsened

15.6

11.6

12.1

8.8

12.8

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

About one in eight (13%) respondents were of the view that their life had worsened over the year preceding the survey. Conversely, about one-third (36%) felt that their life had improved during this period. This varied significantly between nodes (X2=28.452; df=6; p=0.000), with much higher proportions perceiving Figure 13. Life dissatisfaction, by income status of residents

101

Conditions of work and life

improvement in Orange Grove (46%) and Park Station (45%) than in Westbury (28%) or Marlboro South (20%). The reasons provided for these perceptions were largely related to the respondentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economic circumstances, being employed or unemployed, managing or struggling financially.

Table 147. Perceived level of conflict in community of residents

Westbury

Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

Filled with conflict

25.7

9.5

1.4

5.7

13.0

Occasional conflict Indifferent Quite supportive

20.8 25.7 21.8

25.3 40.0 18.9

14.4 52.5 21.6

23.9 35.2 33.0

20.4 37.0 23.1

Very supportive Total

5.9 100.0

6.3 100.0

10.1 100.0

2.3 100.0

6.5 100.0

Conditions of work and life

102


About one in eight (13%) respondents were of the view that their community was “filled with conflict”. A stark and statistically significant difference (X2=74.446; df=12; p=0.000) emerged between Westbury (26%) and the other three nodes (all below 10%) in this respect. Whereas almost one-

third (30%) overall indicated that their community was either quite or very supportive, the residents of Marlboro South were more likely (35%) than others to hold this view, despite and probably because of the high proportion of low income households living in informal shacks in the latter node.

Table 148. Age group of residents, by perceived level of conflict in community

Years

Filled with Occasional conflict conflict

Indifferent

Quite supportive

Very supportive

Total

18-30

10.3

19.1

42.7

20.6

7.4

100.00

31-40 41-50 51-65 >65

10.4 10.8 26.9 20

22.1 28.4 14.9 12

38.9 35.1 19.4 32

22.7 18.9 32.8 32

5.8 6.8 5.9 4

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Total

12.9

20.4

37

23.1

6.5

100.00

Pearson chi2 (16) = 31.7650 Pr = 0.002

The older age residents perceived more conflict compared to the younger group. This is relatively surprising considering the high levels of

unemployment among the youth. This may be indicative of a lack of family and social support for the ageing.

Table 149. Individual income group of residents, by perceived level of conflict in community

R0 R750.5 R3000.5 R7750.5 R15550.5 Total

filled with occasional indifferent quite conflict conflict supportive

very supportive

Total

17.17 18.25 7.59 7.55 10.00 12.31

2.02 5.84 8.86 9.43 0.00 6.54

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

22.22 13.14 24.68 18.87 5.00 19.23

31.31 24.09 32.28 42.45 70.00 37.46

27.27 38.69 26.58 21.70 15.00 23.46

Pearson chi2 (16) = 48.1405 Pr = 0.000

The zero income and low income individuals perceived much higher levels of conflict as compared to the middle and higher income groups.

The insulated life led by the higher income groups (70%) is evident by their “indifferent” response.

Table 150. Residents: previous residence, by perceived level of conflict in community

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Filled with Occasional conflict conflict

Indifferent Quite supportive

Very supportive

Total

16.92 8.33 1.67 12.96

38.77 32.58 40 37.33

5.85 5.3 10 6.5

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

18.77 25.76 16.67 20.31

19.69 28.03 31.67 23.21

Pearson chi2 (8) = 24.4612 Pr = 0.002

103

Conditions of work and life

Conditions of work and life

104


Surprisingly, the local residents (34%) perceived more conflict as compared to foreign residents (18.9%). Again, this underscores that individual

perceptions are formulated not only by their current experiences but in relation to past experiences.

Table 151. Gender of residents, by perceived level of conflict in community

Men Women Total

Filled with conflict

Occasional conflict

Indifferent

Quite supportive

Very supportive

Total

9.06 17.7 13.1

20.65 20.16 20.42

42.39 30.86 36.99

21.74 24.28 22.93

6.16 7 6.55

100 100 100

Pearson chi2 (4) = 12.5167 Pr = 0.014

The women residents perceived higher levels of conflict as compared to the men residents. The need for gender sensitisation while dealing with

conflict in community is strongly brought out by the findings.

Table 155. Gender of residents, by life over the past year

Men Women Total

Improved

Same

Worsened

Total

40.65 30.65 35.93

46.4 56.85 51.33

12.95 12.5 12.74

100 100 100

Pearson chi2 (2) = 6.4598 Pr = 0.040

Lastly, the young are seen to be more optimistic and hopeful of future with larger proportion indicating that life is improving while the mature age group believed it was worsening. Life had improved for the higher income groups much more than it did for the poorer income residents. Furthermore foreign residents also expressed the view of life

improving as compared to local or internal migrant residents. A larger proportion of men indicated life to be improving as compared to women. It could be said that those with a pessimistic view are the women, poorer income, older local residents. The most optimistic on the other hand are those with higher income and the foreign residents.

Table 156. Business owner response: levels of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) and reasons Table 152. Age group of residents, by life over the past year

Westbury Park Station Orange Grove

Marlboro South Total

Years

Improved

Same

Worsened

Total

Safety & security in area 44.2

40.6

18.0

9.5

18-30 31-40 41-50 51-65 >65 Total

37.9 42.9 25.7 28.4 19.2 35.6

51.4 45.5 50 61.2 69.2 51.6

10.6 11.5 24.3 10.5 11.5 12.8

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Business opportunities in area Municipal services in area Cleanliness of area

5.8

10.8

6.8

4.8

11.5

20.0

26.9

14.5

11.6

36.0

33.7

17.5

Regulation enforcement 3.8

13.4

4.5

1.6

Supply & quality of labour Size of the market

3.8

4.0

2.4

0.0

7.7

14.7

16.0

3.2

Business premises

13.5

23.0

5.6

7.9

Business infrastructure in area Police services in area

9.6

10.6

3.4

6.5

36.6

16.0

10.2

1.6

Pearson chi2 (6) = 21.0831 Pr = 0.002

Table 153. Individual income group of residents, by life over the past year

Income

Improved

Same

Worsened

Total

R0 R750.5 R3000.5 R7750.5 R15550.5 Total

22.00 20.00 33.96 46.67 95.00 32.82

58.00 66.43 54.09 44.76 5.00 54.39

20.00 13.57 11.95 8.57 0.00 12.79

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

27.0% Poor policing 7.3% Competition 19.5% Cut-offs 26.5% Litter & strike 6.2% No help 2.5% Commitment 11.2% Competition 12.2% Too small 7.3% Poor 14.9% Ineffective

Pearson chi2 (8) = 63.3034 Pr = 0.000

Table 154. Residents: previous residence, by life over the past year

Local Rest of South Africa Foreign Total

Improved

Same

Worsened

Total

35.44 25.67 47.30 33.84

50.45 58.82 51.35 53.20

14.11 15.51 1.35 12.96

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Pearson chi2 (4) = 18.5050 Pr = 0.001

105

Conditions of work and life

The business respondents were asked to assess a range of services and circumstances in their areas. The level of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) was highest in respect of safety and security (27%) . This merged with the perception by 24% that there was a small amount of conflict in the area and 9% that there was much conflict in the area (significantly higher in Park Station and Westbury than in Orange Grove or Marlboro South). The conflict to which business people referred

was mainly with criminals (thugs, gangsters, drug dealers), and to a much lesser extent with customers, other businesses or with the municipality. Next most dissatisfaction emerged in respect of cleanliness of the area (26.5%). This was most prevalent in Park Station and Orange Grove nodes, and primarily attributable to the municipal workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; strike and associated failure to collect garbage and keep the area clean. 15% were dissatisfied or very

Conditions of work and life

106


dissatisfied with police services in their areas, owing to perceived ineffectiveness of these services. One-fifth (20%) were dissatisfied with municipal services, most of these mentioning the disruptions or cut-offs of water and/or electricity services to their businesses. Almost one-eighth (12%) of businesses were very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with their business premises, mainly because the premises were too small. Dissatisfaction with the size of the market (11%) and with business opportunities in their areas (7%) were ascribed to excessive competition; and dissatisfaction with

business infrastructure (7%), mainly due to the poor quality thereof. Not surprisingly, the relationship between satisfaction or dissatisfaction with business opportunities and whether one’s business had performed well in the preceding twelve months was statistically significant (X2=42.009; df=16; p=0.000). More than 28% of those whose business performance had ‘greatly worsened’ expressed dissatisfaction about business opportunities, compared with 11% of those whose businesses had ‘greatly improved’. Just over 6% expressed dissatisfaction with the enforcement of regulations; and 2% with the supply and quality of labour.

Table 157. Levels of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) of ‘other users’ and reasons

Westbury Park Station

Orange Grove

Marlboro South

Total 28.7% Crime, muggings 17.3% No job opportunities 16.9% Inadequate benches, toilets, water 11.8% Overcrowding 7.5% No opportunities 6.3% Taxi’s unreliable 4.3% Crime, no public toilets

Safety & security in area 46.9

34.0

12.0

18.2

Economic opportunities in area Facilities in area

5.9

12.0

26.5

29.1

10.0

17.0

20.0

20.0

Quality of space in area

5.9

10.0

8.2

23.6

Business on offer in area 3.9

1.0

33.4

0.0

Public transport in area

2.0

7.1

10.0

5.5

My experience of area

4.0

4.0

8.0

1.9

When asked to assess a range of services and circumstances in their areas, the level of dissatisfaction (% very dissatisfied or dissatisfied) was highest in respect to safety and security (29%), ranging from 47% dissatisfaction in Westbury to only 12% in Orange Grove. People complained of frequent occurrences of crime and muggings. About one sixth (17%) expressed dissatisfaction with the economic opportunities in the area, most of these mentioning the lack of job opportunities that existed. This dissatisfaction was highest in Marlboro South (29%) and Orange Grove (27%). Another 17% were very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with the facilities in the area, especially in Orange Grove and Marlboro South (both 20%), with mention of inadequate public benches, toilets and availability of water. One eighth (12%) expressed dissatisfaction about the quality

107

Conditions of work and life

of the space in the area, a complaint that was far higher (24%) in Marlboro South that elsewhere. The particular issue that emerged most frequently among the dissatisfied was overcrowding and the small size of their accommodation. A small proportion was dissatisfied with the businesses on offer in the area (8%), with the exception of Orange Grove, where 33% were dissatisfied about the lack of opportunities. Ten percent or less in any of the areas were dissatisfied with the public transport (6% overall, but 10% in Orange Grove), with the unreliability of taxi’s being mentioned. Overall, 4% were dissatisfied with their experience of the area, ranging from 2% in Marlboro South to 8% in Orange Grove, with mentions of crime and lack of public toilets being most common reasons. Conditions of work and life

108

Conditions of Life and Work along the Transit Corridors: quantitative analysis of Johannesburg nodes  

Part of the Spatial Transformation through Transit-Oriented Development in Johannesburg research series. Published by the South African Rese...