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This report therefore seeks to answer the following question: to what extent are the governance arrangements and regulatory instruments currently in place inhibiting or promoting the ambitions of the Corridors? This will be analysed through a review of regulatory mechanisms and the role of property developers, as well as governance and urban management. The interrelationship between urban management, the regulatory framework and property development is multifaceted. There are points of productive engagement and points of conflict. The end purpose should be creating an optimum interface to achieve a successful overall intervention; particularly since urban management is a critical issue for both property developers and communities. Yet the relationship between planning and property development is little researched and not well understood, and the City has long struggled with how to get the urban management model right (Coiacetto 2006: 423). The literature and analysis to date contends that city planners often do not think through the economic rationale for planning decisions, while property developers view planning frameworks as obstacles to developments. The interface is cast into disarray by the flawed community participation processes undertaken by the City. Further, urban management solutions mostly discount the reality of Johannesburg as a city with a substantial informal sector. It is within the ambit of these categories that much work has been done by the City in order to create a feasible framework for the implementation of the COF. What is clear however is that TOD a long-term activity, which requires careful thought be given to achievable objectives in the short-, medium- and long-term. This discussion should not be limited to where we are building but also to what we are building (Rudlin and Falk 2009: 2). As Pieterse (2014: 3) contends:

involvement of the private sector, while at the same time emphasising the substantial role of public sector investment in social infrastructure. So what should the role of the market versus that of public intervention be to achieve a ‘spatially-just world class African city’? (Barke and Clarke 2016: 141). This has yet to be resolved, and perhaps only will be once the COF begin to take shape more fully.

There can be little doubt that the Corridors of Freedom initiative of Joburg is one of the most important and thoughtful public interventions to systematically transform the spatial dynamics and trajectories of South African cities. It is based on a suite of long-term diagnostic and forecasting instruments that contributes to more astute planning and urban management.

• What are the economic cases for the three Corridors?

The CoJ has kick-started its TOD project with the Rea Vaya bus rapid transit (BRT) system. However, it cannot deliver all the elements required for successful TOD on its own. Therefore it is seeking to create an enabling environment for the

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Transit corridors & the private sector

Through the recently passed SDF, the City has ‘thrown down the gauntlet’ and stated very clearly its expectations in terms of urban form. In its efforts to re-stitch the City and progressively break down the evils of apartheid planning, investment has been made in the idea and vision of TOD. At the heart of the concept is public transport, and the requirement for city residents to embrace a new urban form garnered through TOD. According to the CoJ: Corridors of Freedom are an urban revolution which seeks to build a new city along and around mass transit movement lines in selected areas of the City to create housing, jobs and social opportunities in proximity to each other. The objectives of energy efficiency, climate change mitigation, economic growth and social inclusion are re-enforcing and can be simultaneously achieved by compact, connected and resilient communities centered around the transit nodes in the Corridors of Freedom. ,s of Freedom will be achieved through a variety of interventions, more permissive land use rights regime, investment in infrastructure, incentives to capture value and increase investment and will result in reorganised city space with increased overall economic efficiency and productivity. This raises a number of questions that are yet to be conclusively answered:

• Who are the envisaged residents of the Corridors? • Is the BRT a sufficiently compelling form of public transport to create demand? • Are the City’s regulatory mechanisms persuasive enough to realise its spatial objectives? • How will the COF ensure inclusivity? There are two major trajectories that this report will discuss in relation to TOD and regulation

Transit corridors & the private sector

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Transit Corridors and the Private Sector: Incentives, Regulations and the Property Market  

Part of the Spatial Transformation through Transit-Oriented Development in Johannesburg research series. Published by the South African Rese...