Promoting Caring Cities the Case of South Africa's Metropoles

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Authors: Tanya Zack, Robin Hamilton, Eduardo Cachucho, Samuel Suttner Project management: Sithole Mbanga and Thoko Vukea (SACN) Editing and Layout: Write to the Point Graphics and Illustrations: Eduardo Cachucho Acknowledgement is given to Standard Bank for funding the study and contributing with case studies. The following teams and individuals contributed case study material: SA cities’ Knowledge Managers Reference Group for their contribution and effort to produce case studies within their municipalities, namely: Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality, Msunduzi Metropolitan Municipality, Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality and City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. WASSUP in collaboration with Sticky Situations, Bicycle Empowerment Network, Masicorp, Branson Centre of Entrepreneurship, The Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA), The Ministry for Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA)

ABOUT THIS REPORT This paper has been developed in preparation for the Metropolis Annual Meeting, hosted in Johannesburg in July 2013. The conceptual framing of the caring city draws heavily on the work of South African urban scholar Professor Susan Parnell. She also assisted the team in conceptualising the caring city within current academic debates.

VIDEO This report is accompanied by a video presentation which is freely available online:


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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... 2 About this report .......................................................................................................... 2 Video ............................................................................................................................. 2 Table of Contents ......................................................................................................... 4 Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 6 Conceptualising the Caring City .................................................................................... 8 Context ..................................................................................................................... 9 Fairness and Caring in Cities ................................................................................... 11 Why Caring Matters ................................................................................................ 12 Towards Caring Cities ............................................................................................. 13 Framing the Caring City .............................................................................................. 15 The Institutional Framework of Caring ................................................................... 15 Sustaining Caring .................................................................................................... 16 Programmes of Care ............................................................................................... 16 Caring in cities of South Africa .................................................................................... 18 Case studies that showcase planning in South African metropoles ........................... 23 Strategic Spatial Planning ....................................................................................... 24 Johannesburg Growth Management Strategy .................................................... 24 Community-­‐based Planning .................................................................................... 25 Ward-­‐based planning – Buffalo City ................................................................... 25 Community-­‐based planning – Johannesburg ..................................................... 26 Case studies that showcase infrastructure development in South African metropoles .................................................................................................................................... 28 Infrastructure-­‐led Upgrading of Informal Settlements ........................................... 28 Upgrading informal settlements – Cape Town ................................................... 28 Electrification of informal settlements – Tshwane ............................................. 30 Electrification of Khotsong informal settlement – Mangaung ............................ 31 Reducing contamination of drinking water – Ekurhuleni ................................... 31 WASSUP – Johannesburg .................................................................................... 31 Transportation Infrastructure Development .......................................................... 33 An intermodal public transport hub – Mangaung .............................................. 33 Rea Vaya transport – Johannesburg ................................................................... 33 Bicycling Empowerment Network – Cape Town ................................................. 35 Information and Communications Technology ...................................................... 36 The Smart Cape Access Project – Cape Town ..................................................... 36 Recreation Facilities ................................................................................................ 37 Green outdoor gyms – Johannesburg ................................................................. 37 Area-­‐wide Upgrading .............................................................................................. 38 Regeneration of Motherwell – Nelson Mandela Bay .......................................... 38 Urban regeneration – Cape Town ....................................................................... 38 Energy-­‐efficient Infrastructural Development ........................................................ 39 Solar energy -­‐ Ekurhuleni .................................................................................... 39 Solar water heating and Standard Bank – Nelson Mandela Bay ......................... 40 Wonderbags for cooking – eThekwini ................................................................ 40 Landfills: converting gas to electricity – eThekwini and Johannesburg .............. 41 PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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OR Tambo Environmental Education and Narrative Centre – Ekurhuleni .......... 42 Solar power for heating water – Johannesburg .................................................. 43 Efficient fires, reducing pollution – Ekurhuleni ................................................... 44 Urban Agriculture ................................................................................................... 44 Consolidating urban agriculture – Buffalo City ................................................... 45 Community support farms – eThekwini ............................................................. 45 Support for urban agriculture – Tshwane ........................................................... 46 Greening of the inner city – Johannesburg ......................................................... 46 Bertrams Food Garden – Johannesburg ............................................................. 47 Urban Agriculture Support Programme – Cape Town ........................................ 47 Case studies that showcase social support in South African Metropoles .................. 48 Social Protection ..................................................................................................... 48 Support for the poor – Buffalo City .................................................................... 48 Expanded Social Package – Johannesburg .......................................................... 49 Support for the indigent – Tshwane ................................................................... 50 Support for Homeless and Indigent People ............................................................ 50 Reintegrating street people – Cape Town .......................................................... 50 Assisting the destitute and vulnerable on the streets – Johannesburg .............. 50 Residential care for the vulnerable – Johannesburg .......................................... 51 Healthcare .............................................................................................................. 51 Using sport to increase HIV/AIDS awareness – Buffalo City ............................... 52 A door-­‐to-­‐door HIV/AIDS awareness campaign – Johannesburg ....................... 52 Revamped mobile clinics – Msunduzi ................................................................. 52 A clinic for men – Johannesburg ......................................................................... 53 Antiretroviral treatment clubs – Cape Town ...................................................... 54 Empowerment and Support of Women ................................................................. 55 Coaching for hope – Cape Town ......................................................................... 55 Challenging violence against women – Johannesburg ....................................... 56 Educational and Training Support .......................................................................... 57 An ubuntu partnership: Masicorp – Cape Town ................................................. 57 Social support services: Makhulong A Matala – Johannesburg .......................... 58 Inner city children – Johannesburg ..................................................................... 58 Support for Babies .................................................................................................. 59 Abandoned babies – Johannesburg .................................................................... 59 Case studies that showcase job creation initiatives in South African metropoles ..... 60 Waste Collection and Recycling – Ekurhuleni ......................................................... 60 Developing the Informal Economy -­‐ eThekwini ...................................................... 61 Assisting Co-­‐operatives – Buffalo City .................................................................... 62 Learnerships – Nelson Mandela Bay ....................................................................... 63 Developing Entrepreneurs–-­‐ Johannesburg ........................................................... 63 Case studies that showcase participation in South African metropoles ..................... 65 Water services and Consultation – Cape Town ...................................................... 65 African Diaspora Forum – Johannesburg ................................................................ 66 Corridors of Freedom – Johannesburg ................................................................... 67 Renaming the Yard Streets of Gugulethu – Cape Town ......................................... 67 Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 68 References .................................................................................................................. 71 PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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ABSTRACT The caring city concept relates to Ubuntu, an age-­‐old African term for humaneness, or the caring for, sharing and being in harmony with all of creation. Ubuntu is an ideal that promotes co-­‐operation between individuals, cultures and nations. The concept aligns most closely with the embryonic notion of the ‘fair city’. Cities are not inherently ‘fair’ places. Fairness requires universal access to basic services and opportunities for all, which is not the case in many cites of the world. Even in cities with plentiful capacity and resources, the utopian ideas for creating more just cities have failed in practice. For unequal cities with low public capacity and resources, the challenge is enormous, especially in a global context characterised by deepening debt crises and increased urbanisation, poverty and inequality, and growing dangers posed by climate change. Nevertheless, cities need to move towards ensuring that all inhabitants reap the benefits of urban living. In other words, they need to become caring cities. Caring cities focus on people, places and relationships. They offer a high quality of life, ensure the wellbeing of inhabitants, protect the environment and involve citizens in decision-­‐making. Caring cities are equitable, economically efficient and democratic. Caring cities make conscious choices and take conscious action to be inclusive, equitable, hospitable and supportive. South African cities are among the most unequal urban centres in the world and have a long way to go to become caring. However, many municipalities, NGOs, civic groups and the private sector are contributing to building caring cities. The instruments being used are urban planning, infrastructure, social support, employment creation and participation. Urban planning -­‐ How the city works for all (including the poor) has a lot to do with the planning and re-­‐planning of the urban space. Redressing poor spatial location is key to overcoming the spatial poverty trap that exists in most South African cities. In Johannesburg, the City’s Growth Management Strategy seeks to change the pattern of the apartheid city form, by providing better-­‐located residential areas for poor households, promoting investment and development in marginalised areas, and preventing unsustainable sprawling development. Buffalo City and Johannesburg are bridging the divided between technocratic planning processes at city level and the demands of people at ward level through community-­‐based planning, which involves communities in formulating local plans that feed into the city’s Integrated Development Plan. Infrastructure -­‐ Developing infrastructure can make cities more efficient and sustainable. Among the SACN member cities, projects are underway to improve the living conditions of the poor through upgrading the infrastructure in informal PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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settlements (e.g. electrification, water and sanitation), creating recreational facilities (e.g. Green Outdoor Gyms in Johannesburg). The geographical divide is being bridged by improving transportation (e.g. Intermodal Public Transport Facility in Mangaung) and the digital divide through information and communications technology (e.g. Smart Cape Access Project). Broad area-­‐wide interventions are underway in Nelson Mandela Bay (regeneration of Motherwell) and Cape Town (The Mayoral Urban Regeneration Programme), and energy-­‐efficient projects abound (from solar energy lighting and water heaters in social housing, to converting landfill gas to electricity). Another way to make cities more sustainable is to encourage urban agriculture and community gardens, which is happening in Buffalo City, eThekwini, Tshwane, Johannesburg and Cape Town. Social support -­‐ South African cities have adopted overtly pro-­‐poor development strategies that echo the national policy and have taken enormous political and institutional steps towards promoting equity. Measures include subsidies for the poor and indigent people, programmes targeting the homeless and care for the vulnerable (women, immigrants and babies). South African are also addressing the healthcare issues in innovative ways, through public events (e.g. Red Card sports tournament in Buffalo City), HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns (e.g. Johannesburg’s iJozi Ihlomile) and specialised clinics (e.g. mobile clinics in Mangaung, for men in Johannesburg and antiretroviral treatment clubs in Cape Town). Job creation -­‐ A strong productive base increases the prosperity of a city, which is thus better able to raise revenues in order to fund welfare services, public goods and environmental improvements. Some cities are recognising that the informal economy is central to the survival strategies of the poor and can be used to create livelihood opportunities and even businesses. In Ekurhuleni, two community-­‐based co-­‐operatives were born from a waste collection and recycling project, while Buffalo City has assisted 12 co-­‐operatives to grow. Successful projects can be either private-­‐ sector driven (e.g. Branson Centre for Entrepreneurship in Johannesburg) or public-­‐ sector driven (e.g. the specialised unit within the eThekwini municipality that is dedicated to managing and developing informal traders in the city). Participation -­‐ South African local government has been criticised for its lack of openness, unresponsiveness and poor consultation. However, some cities are working towards more participatory governance. For example, the City of Cape Town involves citizens in the local monitoring of water and sanitation services, while in Johannesburg; the non-­‐profit African Diaspora Forum (ADF) provides a platform for African migrants to South Africa. The case studies illustrate that South African cities already have the necessary tools to create caring cities – places where the African tradition of Ubuntu is realised, where each person is linked to community and to wider society through a caring and sharing system, within a nurturing and protected environment.


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CONCEPTUALISING THE CARING CITY The caring city concept relates to Ubuntu, an age-­‐old African term for humaneness, or the caring for, sharing and being in harmony with all of creation.

Ubuntu is an ideal that promotes co-­‐operation between individuals, cultures and nations. The concept aligns most closely with the embryonic notion of the ‘fair city’, a term employed by Mistra Urban Futures (MUF) that: rests on highly varied concepts and approaches: the imagination of a good city or a more just urban future includes an emphasis on basic needs, social welfare, social protection, social safety nets, rights in the city, rights to the city, livelihood and enhancement, a balanced city and a commitment to improved quality of life’(Parnell and Lilled, 2013:2).


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UN-­‐Habitat similarly defines prosperity in cities as ‘a broader, wide-­‐ranging notion that has to do with well-­‐balanced, harmonious development in an environment of fairness and justice’ (UN-­‐Habitat, 2013). This paper examines the conceptual framing of the caring city and the instruments that major South African cities have employed to promote a caring agenda. It highlights case studies that showcase caring interventions being undertaken by state and non-­‐state actors.


The Metropolis Annual Meeting takes place in a global context characterised by deepening debt crises and increased levels of local and international migration, as well as the urbanisation of disenfranchised communities and individuals. High levels of poverty and inequality, mass protests against systematic decision-­‐making in favour of the better-­‐off and threats to democracy exist alongside the growing dangers posed by climate change.


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In confronting these challenges cities will draw on the opportunities presented by the current era. In today’s world, the flows of resources, communication, trade and migration are possible at unprecedented scales and depths. Cities are able to benefit from advanced connectivity, scientific progress and sophisticated developmental approaches to sustainability. Increased migration across the globe results in possible and visible benefits of cultural exchange, interpersonal connectivity and mutual learning.

The bias towards financial success in cities has added to the growing inequalities between rich and poor (UN, 2013). Income gaps between rich and poor are expanding in both developing and developed countries (OECD, 2011). Within this context, cities need to deepen their responsiveness to the people and the places most affected by the grave urban challenges. Urban governance has to find ways for cities to offer opportunities to all residents and users, to place the concerns of communities at the heart of decision-­‐making, and to address effectively risk and vulnerability, particularly for the urban poor. In the wake of the debt crisis and PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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recession that have marked the first decade of the 21st century, the city agenda has to include a proactive focus on the needs of the urban poor because ‘[h]ow the city works matters for the poor’ (Parnell, 2013).

Fairness and Caring in Cities In the cities of the Global North, well-­‐developed practices and policies are used to realise greater fairness or justice. These include welfare systems, social nets, traditional planning for the urban good, participatory planning practices, urban governance policy (incorporating ecosystem justice). Yet, despite the intention of these policies and practices, the economic crisis has upturned the apparent assurance of justice and fairness; on the contrary, ‘[t]he urban future is bleaker than before, especially for the urban poor’ (Parnell and Lilled, 2013:5). In much of the Global South, universal social welfare systems are not widespread, urban planning does not serve the public interest and the anti-­‐poverty focus is on what the poor can do to improve their own livelihoods. However, the number of programmes that promote fairness, justice and equity are increasing in cities of the South. Such programmes include expanding social welfare and increasing public infrastructure investment. Debates are emerging around equal access to jobs and housing, but many of these cities remain unequal and offer minimal protection to the marginalised (Parnell and Lilled, 2013). Cities are not inherently “fair” places. The MUF understanding of fairness requires universal access to basic services or to the services necessary for healthy living for current and future generations. This is not the case in many cities of the world where the life chances of individuals are shaped by the macro and the local economic conditions, regulations and structures as well as by the city’s response to economic circumstances, to employment needs and to spatial inefficiencies. Politics and prejudice also severely affect the distribution of benefits and the exclusion of certain groups from opportunity (Parnell and Lilled, 2013).


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Why Caring Matters

The utopian ideas for creating more just cities have failed in practice, even in cities that uphold democratic ideals and have plentiful capacity and resources. Therefore, for unequal cities with little democracy and low levels of public sector capacity and resources, the challenge is enormous. High levels of inequality and huge service backlogs characterise the cities of the South, offering examples of ‘collapsed states, ecological disaster and unchecked poverty’ (Davis, 2001, cited in Parnell and Lilled, 2013). These cities are the seedbeds of the urban condition of the future, and ‘there is consensus that the urban challenge for making a better world lies in improving conditions in the emerging cities of Africa, Asia and Latin America’ (Pieterse, 2008; UN Habitat, 2009, cited in Parnell and Lilled 2013). Caring matters because equity enables all groups within cities to reach their potential. Inequity is economically inefficient, reducing people’s life-­‐chances and livelihood-­‐opportunities and inhibiting their potential to enter the economy and contribute to prosperity in cities. A UNICEF study on poverty reduction found that ‘evidence from India, China and Brazil indicates very clearly that efforts to ease inequalities generate larger dividends for poverty reduction than a more conventional focus on economic growth’(UNICEF, 2010:5).


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Equity is also crucial for democratic process, as making opportunities (e.g. skills, education) available to the population keeps the people engaged and part of the city. Thus, ‘the way a city shapes, and is in turn shaped by, its population, will largely depend on whether urban systems provide all residents with equal opportunities for development and the ability to exert agency’. (UN-­‐Habitat, 2013:70)

Towards Caring Cities A narrow focus on economic growth has compromised prosperity for all (UN-­‐Habitat, 2013). A shift is required, towards making urban areas more equitable and ensuring that the benefits of urban living accrue to all. This needs to be embodied in notions of the caring city. Caring cities focus on people, places and relationships. They strive to offer a high quality of life, show a sense of humanity and exchange, provide comfort and dignity for all and deliver solutions that meet the needs of their residents (particularly the most vulnerable inhabitants). They also protect and sustain the quality of environment and natural resources, and allocate resources to ensure the health and wellbeing of inhabitants. In caring cities, plans and decisions are publicly deliberated and citizens are involved in decision-­‐making.


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One of the five elements1 of a prosperous city is equity and social inclusion, which implies caring cities. Equity and social inclusion (UN-­‐Habitat, 2013:14): ensures the equitable distribution and redistribution of the benefits of a prosperous city, reduces poverty and the incidence of slums, protects the rights of minority and vulnerable groups, enhances gender equality, and ensures civic participation in the social, political and cultural spheres.

Caring cities make conscious choices and take conscious action to be inclusive, equitable, hospitable and supportive. They are cities that focus on caring holistically for the needs of residents and on ensuring sustainable development. Cities have the ability to prioritise spending on infrastructure that enhances access for the poor, to develop social safety nets, to stimulate investment that focuses on long-­‐term sustainable development and to redistribute the benefits of the city in favour of the vulnerable (Parnell, 2013; UN Habitat, 2013).

1 UN-Habitat defines a prosperous city as one that provides environmental sustainability, productivity, infrastructure, quality of life and equity and social inclusion.


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FRAMING THE CARING CITY The three important frames of the caring city are: the institutional framework of caring, sustaining caring and programmes of care.

The Institutional Framework of Caring

While significant acts of caring take place throughout cities every day, the caring city concept is about structurally and systemically embedding care into how cities function. A caring city’s long-­‐term goal is to implement sustainable city-­‐wide strategies that are pro-­‐poor and address the needs of marginalised and excluded groups. Therefore, actions are promoted that lead to linkages between various groups and institutions in order to grow and generate greater access, opportunity and equity. Caring within cities includes many individual actions and ongoing programmes that benefit the most vulnerable within cities, though addressing inequity and inadequate living standards. Faith-­‐based organisations or NGOs often take the lead in raising concerns of inclusion, along with civil society and the private sector. Programmes may be initiated by civil society and/or by the state, with each typically taking responsibility for the following: • Government: pro-­‐poor interventions, programmatic and systematic interventions to improve livelihoods, provide support. • Corporates: social responsibility programmes. • NGOs: advocacy programmes, activism. • Community groups: volunteerism, activism. • Individuals: volunteerism. What is important is for these groups to work together. Typically interventions involve several actors, even if one individual or group has generated the action. Moving towards fairness in cities requires multiple actions by agencies at local, PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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municipal and national scales, as well as the involvement of private and public sectors. Public interest is more important than private interests, and the underlying principles are working together and promoting fairness in the cities of the future.

Sustaining Caring The state’s mandate encompasses all elements of care and protection of citizens and the environment. Yet, while the primary responsibility for developing caring cities rests with the state, the caring city is realised only through many programmes generated, driven, resourced and enhanced by multiple agencies within and outside of the state. Although once-­‐off interventions and acts of caring, volunteerism or support are fundamentally important in promoting a humane society and in offering emergency and short-­‐term relief, the hospitable city embraces a wide range of multiple, ongoing programmes and activities that support and empower the poor and vulnerable. Several factors contribute to ensuring that individual, group or state actions can be replicated and expanded to city-­‐wide processes that fundamentally shift cities to places of caring. Interventions need to exist within sustainable programmes and networks. Sustainable programmes are: • Consciously pro-­‐poor: focused on the needs of the most vulnerable within cities and the redress of inequity in cities. • Engaged: focused on the concerns of inhabitants and working with inhabitants to realise solutions; providing linkages for communication, information exchange and mutual learning among civil society groupings, between civil society and government and between programmes. • Integrated: linking interventions to existing programmes and to city-­‐wide strategies for greater effectiveness. • Long term: sustainable over the long term; providing for empowerment and access to opportunity that enables people to improve their lives and livelihoods. • Programmatic: having the capacity to be scaled up to benefit significant numbers of people. • Place-­‐focused: offering services, environmental quality and governance that create conditions for safe and healthy living environments.

Programmes of Care Programmes of care include: Caring for individual growth. Caring cities promote empowerment and so provide the opportunity and possibility for individuals to care for themselves and to improve their livelihoods. Education and access to opportunity are crucial aspects in promoting individual growth within the caring city. Caring for others. Caring cities are hospitable. They are welcoming and accommodating of diverse peoples, and support and celebrate a wide range of class, ethnic and cultural differences. Caring cities are also nurturing places, where PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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individuals, groups, organisations or business or state institutions may provide assistance, advocacy and relief to others. Caring for this place. Caring cities use and protect resources in sustainable ways, promote energy efficiency and provide healthy and safe air, water and soil for the sustenance of inhabitants.


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CARING IN CITIES OF SOUTH AFRICA The South African story of planning intervention in the promotion of anti-­‐poverty programmes is one of significant transformation being led at city level (Parnell, 2013). Since the onset of democracy, the ‘grants and the cash injection they represent have become a central part of the livelihood strategies of the urban poor’, furthering food security, providing mobility to find work and lubricating the informal economy (Meth, 2004, Trayne et al 2007; Hall. 1997, Behrens, 2004, cited in Parnell 2013). However, social grants are insufficient in South Africa, where discriminatory planning practices have actively excluded people from opportunity by locating the poor on the urban fringes and depriving them of services and facilities. Urban planning, which is implicated in past segregationist practices, is required to redress the embedded geographies of inequality that determine so fundamentally who is poor and who is not in South African cities (Parnell, 2013). Living conditions for the poor may have improved through state interventions in the built environment, from housing to roads, electrification, and social and health facilities, but growing demands for better service delivery leaves no room for complacency. A lack of wider planning prevented the post-­‐apartheid housing programme from making a broader developmental contribution, such as optimising resource use, land allocation and access to social facilities, while the delivery of subsidised housing has often reinforced social and spatial isolation (Swilling and Anneke, 2013; Kahn and Thring, 2003; South Africa, 2004; Oldfield, 2000; Charlton and Kihato, 2006, cited in Parnell, 2013). Nevertheless, South African cities have adopted overtly pro-­‐poor development strategies that echo the national policy and have taken enormous political and institutional steps towards promoting equity. Despite this, ‘the reworking of the planning system has emerged a pivotal concern’ for the transformation of the urban space (Parnell, 2013:10).


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South African cities are among the most unequal urban centres in the world and have a long way to go to become caring. The National Development Plan (NPC, 2012) identified nine key challenges facing South Africa, many of which are prevalent in our cities: 1. Too few people work. 2. The quality of school education for black learners is poor. 3. Infrastructure is poorly located, inadequate and under-­‐maintained. 4. Spatial divides hamper inclusive development. 5. The economy is unsustainably resource intensive. 6. The public health system cannot meet demand or sustain quality care. 7. Public services are uneven and often of poor quality. 8. Corruption levels are high. 9. South Africa remains a divided society. The fundaments of co-­‐operative governance and inclusive decision-­‐making are prerequisites for establishing practices that promote fairness in cities. ‘It takes considerable political will to effect the changes that are deemed necessary to make a society more inclusive’ (Pieterse, 2006, cited in Parnell, 2013). No one programme provides the answer. What is required is a coherent, transparent programme that enjoys consensus and consciously promotes improved conditions for marginalised groups. The MUF examines these programmes in terms of: urban planning interventions, social protection, participatory process and the actions of marginalised groups themselves. This can be extended to further include employment creation and infrastructure development (as distinct from but connected with urban planning). Therefore, this report looks at case studies that illustrate how municipalities, NGOs, civic groups and the private sector are contributing to building caring cities using the PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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following instruments: urban planning, infrastructure, social support, employment creation and participation (see Box 1).


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Instruments for building caring cities Urban planning How the city works for all (including the poor) has a lot to do with the planning and re-­‐ planning of the urban space. Redressing poor spatial location is key, as ‘[r]esearch shows that when combined, the physical and social divisions between rich and poor neighbourhoods can generate further exclusion and marginalization, especially when the poor are confined to farther neighbourhoods with inadequate accessibility’ (UN-­‐Habitat, 2013:70). In these situations, the poor face the triple burden of long distances, high transport costs and excessive commuting times, resulting in a ‘spatial poverty trap’. Infrastructure The needs of the poor are addressed directly through providing basic services, giving everyone access to water, sanitation and healthcare. However, infrastructure spend often focuses on high-­‐level interventions that are seen as economic drivers or on interventions perceived as attractive to voters, such as housing. Improved public transport and walking or cycling paths, which provide better access to employment and social opportunity, have a direct impact on improving the accessibility of city facilities to the poor. Non-­‐motorised transport needs to be prioritised for the poorest of the poor. Fairness in cities requires that the poor have access to shelter, through programmes that promote secure tenure and incremental formalisation of informal settlement, as well as well-­‐structured public housing programmes. Social support Social protection measures include direct subsidies or support to individuals or households, as well as support programmes directed to particular areas by municipalities. ‘Social protection measures do not just work to alleviate poverty and reduce income disparities; they also enhance human capital and productivity and make some cities much fairer places than others’ (Devereux, 2009:14, cited in Parnell and Lilled, 2013). Job creation The promotion of industry, manufacturing and formal/informal employment are crucial in South Africa, as more prosperous cities, with a stronger productive base, will be better equipped to raise the revenues to fund welfare services, public goods and environmental improvements. Councils need to work in collaboration with other agencies to support the development of enterprises. They also need to recognise that the informal economy is central to the creation of livelihood opportunities and the survival strategies of the poor. However, local government in South Africa has tended to deal with informal economy participants largely on the basis of by-­‐law enforcement, particularly in respect of street traders. Participation Promoting participation is fundamentally about making governments more responsive to the needs of citizens. Civil society must have a real say in decision-­‐making. This also requires that civil society be strong and organised. The fundaments of co-­‐operative governance and inclusion in decision-­‐making are prerequisites for the establishment of practices that promote fairness in cities. ‘It takes considerable political will to effect the changes that are deemed necessary to make a society more inclusive’ (Parnell, 2013:2). PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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CASE STUDIES THAT SHOWCASE PLANNING IN SOUTH AFRICAN METROPOLES Planning is crucial for promoting fairness, especially in cities where planning practices have actively excluded people from opportunity, by locating the poor on the urban fringes and depriving them of services and facilities, resulting in a “spatial poverty trap”.


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Strategic Spatial Planning Johannesburg Growth Management Strategy

Changing the pattern of the apartheid city form is no small task, as land-­‐use decisions are longstanding and difficult to alter. The Growth Management Strategy (GMS) responds to the inefficiency and inequity of Johannesburg’s urban form, in particular: • The huge distances that residents must cover to meet their daily needs. • The glaring disparities that continue to characterise historically white and black areas. • The unevenness of development in the north and south of the city. These realities continue to contradict the principles of fairness and justice embodied in the City’s strategic plans. The GMS assists planners to make informed decisions about planning applications and to guide infrastructure investment. Its aims include: • To provide better-­‐located residential areas for poor households. • To promote investment and infrastructure development in marginalised areas. • To prevent the unsustainable patterns of sprawling development that increase transportation cost and energy consumption.


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Community-­‐based Planning Ward-­‐based planning – Buffalo City

The ward-­‐based planning (WBP) initiative by the NETSAFRICA2 Support Programme addresses some of the weaknesses in the participatory governance system in the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality. Its principal objective is to promote better community action and engagement in formulating municipal Integrated Development Plans (IDPs). The initiative focuses on empowering local communities to develop their own vision, identify their own needs and plan projects as part of Ward Plans. The objective is then to link the Ward Plans to the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) process, thereby enhancing public participation in the IDP process and meeting the wishes of people and government for greater democracy at local level. The WBP initiative was piloted in wards 15 and 40. The first step was for all stakeholders to discuss and agree on a methodology and practice to address service delivery problems and deepen participatory governance at ward level. This approach contributed towards a feeling among ward members that this initiative could achieve results. The core element of the WBP methodology was organising workshops that provided participants with the skills and tools to be able to analyse their wards (through ward assessment surveys), prioritise challenges and map resources that could be used to address the challenges. At these workshops, ward committee members, community development workers and other role-­‐players were trained in participatory methods, workshop management and how to respond effectively to the needs and priorities of their ward communities. Ward members were also given

2 The NETSAFRICA Programme is an initiative of decentralised co-operation development of General Direction for Development Co-operation of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Regional Government of Tuscany, in South Africa. It supports the process of administrative decentralisation in the Republic of South Africa, with a view to consolidate the role of local institutions on the path towards democratisation and peace, as well as the realisation of effective policies and services to fight poverty and ensure access to basic services.


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training on developing business plans and ward-­‐based budgeting, to enable them to present ward project proposals to the municipality and other potential funders. Communities developed their own ward plans that contained key projects and related business plans. These ward plans were linked to Buffalo City’s IDP. The initiative enabled participants to take co-­‐ownership (along with local government) of implementing and managing their own development, thereby claiming their rights and responsibilities as citizens. Some of the lessons learned from the project include: • Ward representation and inclusivity are crucial for successfully managing a WBP process. For instance, public meetings were held in the wards to explain the purpose of the training and to elect representatives to attend training sessions. Then, after the training, these representatives gave feedback to the rest of the ward to disseminate the knowledge gained more broadly. • The sustainability of an initiative needs to be ensured through targeted training. • The WBP was easier to implement in more homogenous rural wards than in more diverse urban wards with different income groups. For example, some sections (middle-­‐ and high-­‐income groups) in the urban ward (ward 15) did not participate fully in WBP because they felt that they could achieve their goals by communicating directly with the municipality. These groups therefore were not motivated to participate and contribute towards the project. A differentiated approach would reflect differences such as these. Based on the experience of the pilot project, a transferable model for participatory ward-­‐based planning is currently being developed. This is to ensure the initiative can be rolled-­‐out and replicated in other wards. Community-­‐based planning – Johannesburg In 2008 and 2009 the City of Johannesburg embarked on a programme of intensive citizen consultation, spearheaded by the then mayor, Amos Masondo. The purpose was to bridge the divide between the technocratic planning processes at City level and the needs and demands of people at ward level. The community-­‐based planning (CBP) approach embraced four phases. (1) The internal phase, which sought to build commitment to the process by political leaders and senior officials. (2) The outreach phase, where communities were consulted at ward level about local developmental priorities, in order to produce meaningful ward plans.


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The iteration phase, which involved escalating 109 ward plan priorities to departmental officials for consideration. Some plans were adopted, while others needed amending or alternative ideas to be developed. The ward committees then reviewed the departmental feedback and proposed amendments or signed off the plans. The negotiation phase, when delicate financial negotiations took place to accommodate the community projects in the City’s budget.

The City of Johannesburg eventually adopted and committed finances to all community projects in the 109 wards, despite challenging budget shortfalls. Most importantly, the CBP process demonstrated that community involvement in complex metropolitan planning is possible and can take into account local needs. A culture of robust political engagement promotes the involvement of citizens, while the empowerment of community members enables them to engage on their own terms and with greater equality. However, both officials and community members need direction and support to make the process possible and to develop a relationship of trust.


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CASE STUDIES THAT SHOWCASE INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICAN METROPOLES Caring cities are efficient and accessible, provide basic water and sanitation services, and use resources in sustainable ways. Improving urban infrastructure is vital, through: upgrading informal settlements, developing transportation infrastructure and public spaces, implementing urban renewal programmes and even providing information technology (IT) facilities to enhance the social and economic development of the previously disadvantaged. Energy-­‐efficient infrastructure and urban agriculture also contribute to the long-­‐term sustainability of cities.

Infrastructure-­‐led Upgrading of Informal Settlements Upgrading informal settlements – Cape Town In January 2010 the City of Cape Town’s Development Services Department announced good progress with an innovative pilot programme for the in-­‐situ upgrade of five informal settlements across Cape Town. Four of the settlements (Monwabisi Park, TR Section and BM Section in Khayelitsha, and Lotus Park in Gugulethu) were at varying stages of the upgrade process. Further consultation was underway to determine a fifth pilot site. The upgrading of an informal settlement can only be successful and sustainable if the community actively participates and takes ownership of their space. Consultation with the community also enables the City to understand better how to use existing assets in the settlement for the upgrade programme. Therefore, the first step in each upgrade is the formation of a steering committee comprising community stakeholders and representatives from various community structures. The committee is tasked with identifying community assets and issues that retard the development of the area. For example, committee members are PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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trained to conduct participatory surveys. About 10% of all households in the area are interviewed to gauge their opinions on the status quo, the City’s delivery of basic services and the safety of their neighbourhood, and to identify possible community contributions to facilitate development. The results of the participatory survey are analysed, and a community action plan (CAP) is drafted for each settlement. The CAP outlines short, medium and long-­‐term interventions in the areas of social/cultural, institutional, safety and security and economic development to complement the required infrastructural development. For example: • short-­‐term interventions (mainly ad hoc, urgent issues, such as clearing stormwater drainage or social interventions); • medium-­‐term interventions (such as installing simple infrastructure); and • long-­‐term visions on how to transform and integrate the informal settlement. The process is monitored by both the community and the City and is reviewed on an annual basis. The pilot sites are receiving considerable infrastructural upgrades, including improvements to water and sanitation services, the transportation network and other public infrastructure. However, the upgrade is not the crux of the development but is governed by a holistic development strategy. For example, after consulting with the Monwabisi Park community, investment in the community’s youth was identified as one of the main short-­‐term priorities. Working with the community leadership, a site was identified for an informal sports field or “kick-­‐ about”. The upgrade of the site consisted of levelling the field, hardening the surface, and installing drainage channels. It was completed in August 2010, in partnership with the Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading Programme. The City involved local youth in the process, buying old scrap tyres from them at a cost of R2.00 each and using the tyres to construct a retaining wall. A Khayelitsha-­‐based landscaper oversaw the construction, and only local labour was used. The youth who use the field are held responsible for keeping it clean. A container facility being constructed adjacent to the kick-­‐about will house various services and allow for surveillance of the field. A community facilitator, liaising between the community and the City, will take up office in the container facility, which includes a meeting room and a caretaker’s flat. The City has partnered with the Cape Town Book Fair and LitCAM to construct a reading room containing children’s books and educational materials for learners and parents. Ablution facilities for the block are under construction by American students from the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. A baseline study in Monwabisi Park showed that more than 50% of the toilets in the community had been out of order over the previous 12 months. To repair a toilet takes about four weeks, which frustrates residents and drains the city’s maintenance budget. A viable local solution was found: the City has employed eight Monwabisi residents as community workers, to carry out maintenance and cleaning work related to the upkeep of toilets and water taps in the settlement. The workers carry PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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out daily inspections and small on-­‐the-­‐spot repairs, as well as acting as ambassadors for basic hygiene. Various City departments work together to improve the living conditions of Monwabisi residents. Early childhood development (ECD) centres in the area have been strengthened, neighbourhood watches patrol the area regularly, youth-­‐based programmes and women empowerment projects are operational, and the local leadership has received training in organisational development. The City aims to increase local ownership of public infrastructure and ensure that public areas are kept clean and safe. The community leadership and the City’s urban designer are working on designs for well-­‐lit safe pedestrian walkways through the area, which was one of the high-­‐priority requests of residents during the consultative process. The City of Cape Town is replicating this approach in other informal settlements. A CAP for TR Section is in the process of being finalised, a baseline survey for BM Section of Khayelitsha has recently been completed, and the City is engaged with Lotus Park residents to draw up the area’s development plan. Electrification of informal settlements – Tshwane

The City of Tshwane intends spending R323 million to eradicate the backlog of homes without electricity in informal settlements. During his State of the City Address on 27 March 2012, Tshwane’s Executive Mayor, Kgosientso Ramokgopa, said that 76% of households without electricity were in informal settlements and announced that ‘6 500 households in informal settlements such as Brazzaville, Itereleng, Letlolo and Rethuseng will benefit from the electrification programme’. The City has committed R1.559 billion over a period of five years to electrification projects. Electrification would help resuscitate business operations necessary for job creation and combating unemployment and is seen as a means to enhance security in poorer neighbourhoods and to help reduce crime. Ramokgopa said that an additional 3 010 streetlights and 30 high-­‐mast lamps, to the tune of R30 million, would be installed across the city, including within informal settlements. PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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Electrification of Khotsong informal settlement – Mangaung For many residents in the informal settlements, gas and paraffin was their only source of energy, costing over R600 per month and not always lasting a full month. Residents are also concerned with the safety of using these energy sources, which are known to cause major accidents. A 54-­‐year-­‐old mother living in Khotsong, Ms Moipone Lebusho, has used paraffin and candles as sources of energy and light for most of her life. She uses an outside fire to cook the daily meal and to heat a steel iron that she uses to iron her child’s clothes. This changed in March 2013, when Ms Lebusho and hundreds of residents from Khotsong had their households officially electrified in a joint operation by the Department of Energy, CENTLEC and the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality. This is the first of several projects that will benefit the people of Mangaung. Reducing contamination of drinking water – Ekurhuleni

Residents of informal settlements are accustomed to storing water in unhygienic containers such as paint buckets and paraffin tins, resulting in health problems and outbreaks of diarrhoea, especially among vulnerable young children and the elderly. In August 2011 the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality launched a campaign to address this health risk, providing 25-­‐litre quick-­‐serve bottles (with a tap outlet) to residents of informal settlements. The campaign started at the Mandela Village informal settlement in Katlehong, when employees of the Water Services Department went door to door in the informal settlement, talking to residents about the importance of hygiene in handling drinking water. Some staff members were stationed at stand-­‐pipe taps, to distribute the quick-­‐serve bottles. The intervention was well received, and there are plans to distribute the bottles to other informal settlements in Ekurhuleni. WASSUP – Johannesburg The Water, Amenities, Sanitation Services, Upgrading Programme (WASSUP) is based in Diepsloot, a township located in the north-­‐west of Johannesburg. In 2007 WASSUP PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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was started by the Global Studio, an action research programme in which a range of building professionals collaborate on community-­‐based projects. In consultation with residents of Diepsloot Extension 1, the maintenance of government-­‐provided toilets was identified as a crucial issue. In Diepsloot Extension 1, every toilet was on average used by 30 people and was not maintained, despite such heavy usage. The purpose of WASSUP was to repair and maintain the toilets. In 2010 the WASSUP co-­‐operative was registered, with assistance from the Johannesburg Development Agency, and a grant from the Development Bank of South Africa. It also received donations from various individuals and businesses. The WASSUP co-­‐operative initially comprised ten members involved in toilet repair and maintenance, which has now been reduced to five members. All the members derive their main income from the project. The members of the co-­‐operative live in the Diepsloot area and have dedicated their time and effort to creating sustainable work and to improving the quality of the toilets of the area. The maintenance of the toilets involves fixing the actual toilets and sewage pipes, replacing stolen toilets and unblocking drains. In 2007 WASSUP maintained 46 toilets, increasing to 120 toilets in 2013. It has signed a contract with the Johannesburg Development Agency to maintain and repair these toilets for a period of three years. WASSUP occasionally uses a trained plumber, who trains members of the co-­‐operative to perform more technical repairs. WASSUP has also run awareness campaigns encouraging residents to use the toilets properly, including painting on the walls of the toilets messages such as ‘clean me’, ‘flush’, and ‘enter the toilet with dignity and come out with dignity’. The co-­‐operative has faced many problems, including inappropriate use of the toilets, theft and the storage of materials. They have taken steps to combat these problems, with the help of community leaders who inform WASSUP when maintenance is required and monitor the use of the toilets. The support of the Global Studio has ensured that the project could continue long after the initial intervention was made, while the City’s financing of WASSUP has enabled the co-­‐ operative to plan its work over a number of years. Most importantly, the co-­‐ operative’s maintenance of the toilets and sewers of Diepsloot Extension 1 extends the life of these resources, making them more cost efficient. The maintenance of the toilets by WASSUP and its continued efforts to improve the quality of sanitation demonstrates the ability of citizens to engage with the state. Where the state was unable to maintain the toilets, those who use the toilets intervened. This has resulted in improved quality of sanitation, to the benefit of the community, and savings to the state.


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Transportation Infrastructure Development An intermodal public transport hub – Mangaung The construction of an Intermodal Public Transport Facility in Mangaung is the biggest inner city regeneration project ever undertaken by the municipality. On 30 March 2009 the site was handed over to contractors for the second phase of the project. The Mangaung Intermodal Public Transport Facility consists of four floors that will offer the following amenities: • Accommodation for 800 taxis within the building and for a further 150 long-­‐ distance taxis at Bastion Square. • An elevated pedestrian walkway crossing Hanger Street, linking Central Park to the facility. The pedestrian walkway will reduce pedestrian/vehicle conflict and help prevent pedestrian injury. • Access to a range of commuter bus services to various destinations in and around the city, as well as to Thaba Nchu and Botshabelo. • A link across Harvey Road to the Bloemfontein Heritage Railway Station. • Long distance bus operation facilities on the ground floor. • Three vertical circulation towers, which will make it easier for people with disabilities to access all of the floors. • Cycle lockers to enable cyclists to lock up their bicycles and take a different mode of transport. • Dedicated metered taxi bays. • Structured hawker facilities. • Formal retail areas on the ground and first floors, which will help generate rental income to cover the building’s maintenance costs. The Transport Facility will be managed by a facilities management company, and security personnel will monitor movement on foot and with a CCTV system. Rea Vaya transport – Johannesburg


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For decades Johannesburg was a city planned around the privately owned car. From the 1950s the City built wide roads and freeways for a car-­‐based transport system, without little thought to black working-­‐class residents who did not have their own transport. Taxis evolved to fill the void in public transport for people commuting from townships to work, yet for the majority of these commuters living far from workplaces or educational institutions, public transport was costly and difficult, often involving multiple taxi transfers. In just five years – from 1994 to 1999 – road traffic in Johannesburg doubled. Commuters in Johannesburg faced a city of gridlock, pollution and frustration, with an average trip to work taking 50 minutes. Against this background, of gridlock and the need to address past inequalities, the groundwork was laid for the introduction of the Rea Vaya Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system. The Rea Vaya BRT System carries one million passengers per month and is changing the shape of transport and the landscape of Johannesburg. It is designed to enable smooth transition to demarcated feeder and complementary lanes reaching into residential suburbs. Implementing the BRT has been a multi-­‐faceted, complex national project that has taken several years of dedication, commitment and effort. • Phase IA of Rea Vaya was initiated in February 2009, ahead of 2010 Soccer World Cup, and became fully operational in February 2011. It provides 41 articulated buses and 102 standard buses, 25 km of dedicated routes, 76 km of feeder and complementary routes, and 30 stations in operation. A trunk route between Thokoza Park in Moroka (Soweto) and Ellis Park (east of the city centre in Johannesburg) is supported by an inner-­‐city distribution route, five feeder routes inside Soweto, a route inside Soweto, and a route between Meadowlands and Ellis Park. • Phase 1B of Rea Vaya will be completed in 2013 with 17 km of track, 17 stations and 134 buses. • Phase 1C will finish in 2015, when the city will have a total of 65 km of BRT track, 67 stations and 253 BRT buses. The establishment of Rea Vaya involved five years of intensive negotiations between taxi operators and the City of Johannesburg. As a result, 585 minibus taxis were removed from the road and replaced with 143 green buses. Yet no job losses resulted from this transition, as 225 former taxi drivers became bus drivers, while 280 former drivers moved into other BRT-­‐related positions. The company that runs Rea Vaya is Piotrans, a private company made up of 312 taxi operators, all of whom are shareholders. The replacement of taxis with energy-­‐efficient buses reduced the city’s carbon consumption by 20 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide a year, rising to 60 000 tonnes after Phases 1A and 1B. Buses allow easier access for the elderly, children and people with disabilities and have dedicated lanes, which allow for faster travel. New modern stations have been built that are weather proof and secure, while highly controlled scheduling provides for a more reliable service. PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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Rea Vaya BRT has become a catalyst for land-­‐use transformation and has begun to change Johannesburg’s apartheid spatial legacy. In this way it will help determine the future landscape and shape of a city. Bicycling Empowerment Network – Cape Town

In 2002 the Bicycling Empowerment Network (BEN), a non-­‐governmental organisation, was launched in Cape Town. BEN promotes the use of bicycles to address low-­‐cost mobility, health and access to opportunity, employment, skills and education. BEN imports used commuter bicycles from Europe, the USA and Australia and new commuter bicycles from China. The bicycles are assessed for roadworthiness and safety and, where necessary, are rebuilt using parts from local suppliers. The organisation has established a central training and distribution Academy and 17 independent bicycle empowerment centres (BECs). The Academy also provides training to new interns in bicycle maintenance. The training is based on the idea that sufficient well-­‐trained mechanics need to be available for a new bicycling culture to take root. Organisations are invited to send staff members for training at the BEN Academy. The independent BECs make new and used bicycles available for distribution, and repair and maintain bicycles. The community in which each BEC is situated is expected to choose candidates for training (such as unemployed people). The basic training schedule lasts three weeks and covers bicycle repair and maintenance, basic administration and book-­‐keeping, and managing a bank account. The Academy also offers training programmes and bicycle distribution to schools and NGOs in the Western Cape and further afield, with a specific focus on the disadvantaged and their particular transport needs. Projects include: • A ‘safe routes to school and work’ programme that runs over a period ranging from one day to two weeks. Delegates who attend the programme are asked to complete survey forms about their travel patterns and routes. The results of these surveys are fed back to the City PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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• •

authorities to help them better plan their traffic management and road planning. A programme for healthcare workers who receive bicycles, training and back-­‐up support to address their transportation needs. The distribution of commuter-­‐style bicycles to schools and rural districts in collaboration with the national Department of Transport.

BEN is involved in the Non-­‐Motorised Transport (NMT) Forum in Cape Town, which has the vision of Cape Town becoming a world-­‐class, cycling-­‐inclusive city. The NMT Forum supports the integration of facilities for walking and cycling in every public transport plan. The NMT Forum has helped identify key cycling routes for Cape Town.

Information and Communications Technology The Smart Cape Access Project – Cape Town In 2001 the City of Cape Town decided to provide free access to basic information and communications technology (ICT) services to all citizens of Cape Town, especially to historically disadvantaged communities. The Smart Cape Access Project is a programme to promote the digital inclusion of all the citizens of Cape Town and to bridge the digital divide. Currently the number of registered users exceeds 250 000. A range of stakeholders were involved in developing the initiative: • The Cape Peninsula University of Technology provided technical skills in the pilot stage. • A community group of users gave feedback on the service, enabling initial errors in the system to be smoothed out. • Small business provided the initial open source expertise and related IT skills. A pilot project was run in six of the city’s underprivileged areas: Brooklyn, Delft, Grassy Park, Gugulethu, Lwandle and Westfleur in Atlantis. After a feasibility analysis at the end of the pilot project, the decision was taken to extend the service to the City’s 102 libraries. In 2003 the project received the ATLA award and US$1 million in funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The Carnegie Mellon Foundation has also promised funding towards a Smart Cape facility for every new library sponsored. The Smart Cape system bridges the digital divide by giving users the opportunity to teach themselves how to use a computer and to access information. Users use the system to complete an assignment by doing research, type a CV, find employment, or use social networking media to communicate with distant family and friends. Many small businesses and SMMEs run the administration of their businesses from the Smart Cape terminals. The Smart Cape facility also allows businesses to have easier access to government tenders and to Cape Town ACTIVA, which assists in establishing small businesses (47% of Cape Town ACTIVA’s referrals are from Smart Cape terminals). PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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As space is a major constraint in most libraries, Smart Cape can only expand when space becomes available or libraries have created space during a refurbishment. At Uitsig, Belhar and Ikhwezi, reading rooms include about 20 computers, an administrator’s workstation, a server and a printer. Here community members are able to type and print documents. Once funding is sourced they will also gain access to internet connectivity. Reading rooms are also in the process of being established in KTC, Vlamboom, Connaught and Nooitgedacht. To help alleviate the space constraints and waiting times to use the facilities (and reduce set-­‐up cost), the Smart Cape services have been extended to include wi-­‐fi facilities where required. Users are allowed to bring their own devices, such as cellphones, tablets or laptops, to access the internet using the Smart Cape bandwidth. The implementation of the wi-­‐fi solution means that more citizens will have access to Smart Cape using their own devices.

Recreation Facilities Green outdoor gyms – Johannesburg South Africa has been identified as one of the most obese nations in the world, with its city populations especially at risk for chronic lifestyle diseases, such as diabetes and cardiac disease. The Joburg 2040: Growth and Development Strategy (GDS) highlights the need for a healthy city, emphasising that the City of Johannesburg can build awareness of health issues and encourage residents to exercise more and improve their health. In 2012 an innovative concept in health was launched in Petrus Molefe Eco-­‐Park in Soweto. Outdoor gyms were provided in a secure park setting, through a pilot project between Johannesburg City Parks Corporate Projects and Tim Hogins of Green Outdoor Gyms. The outdoor gyms provide free use of world-­‐class equipment and have proved to be overwhelmingly popular with Soweto residents. For the City of Johannesburg, the outdoor gyms bring a number of benefits: • Residents have access to gym facilities that are close to home and affordable, giving them an opportunity to address lifestyle disease issues through exercise. • Partnership with a young city entrepreneur who is keen to help people in disadvantaged areas gain access to healthy living. The entrepreneur covers the cost of the equipment, and maintenance and security of the outdoor gym area. • The involvement of the City Parks Corporate Projects in the green outdoor gyms is in accord with its strategic mandate of a green organisation. • Increased number of users visiting the Petrus Molefe Eco-­‐Park, a new park in Dlamini, Soweto. As of 2013 five outdoor green gyms are in use: in Petrus Molefe Eco-­‐Park (Soweto), Diepsloot Park, Mushroom Farm Park (Sandton), Kremetart Park (Eldorado Park), and Protea Glen Park (Soweto). Plans are already in the pipeline for further gyms in Zola, Lehae, Meadowlands and Sophiatown. An agreement is in place between City Parks PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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and Green Outdoor Gyms to provide a total of 20 outdoor gyms and additional equipment in the immediate future.

Area-­‐wide Upgrading Regeneration of Motherwell – Nelson Mandela Bay Motherwell is a township 20 kilometres away from Port Elizabeth but only three kilometres from Coega, the new industrial development zone. The township’s population is estimated at 250 000 residents and unemployment at over 60%. Despite the township’s proximity to Coega, low levels of skills exclude much of the population from employment. The Motherwell Urban Renewal Programme seeks to address some of the township’s social problems through three core programmes: (1) physical cluster co-­‐ordination: approximately R300 million has been spent on upgrading housing and public infrastructure. As a result, 91% of houses now have water and sewage connections, 43% of roads have been paved, and 23% of streets have streetlights. (2) skills and institutional co-­‐ordination, with a focus on targeted training and skills development programmes. The Urban Renewal Programme has also initiated a structured engagement with Coega regarding a learnership programme (see also the Learnership – Nelson Mandela case study in the Case Studies that Showcase Job Creation Initiatives in South African Metropoles section). (3) local economic development. One of the undoubted successes of the Urban Renewal Programme has been community engagement: by 2006, more than 15 community and sector forums were in existence in the township. Urban regeneration – Cape Town The Mayoral Urban Regeneration Programme in Cape Town aims to uplift areas identified as neglected, dysfunctional, and degenerating rapidly, with a particular focus on public spaces. Areas were selected for the initial roll-­‐out of the programme based on the need to address inequality in Cape Town – the legacy of many generations of spatial and economic exclusion. The following areas were identified: • Manenberg, Hanover Park and Lotus Park • Bishop Lavis, Valhala Park and Bonteheuwel • Harare and Kuyasa Interchange Precinct • Bellville Transport Interchange precinct and the Voortrekker Road corridor • Westfleur Business Node (Atlantis) • Athlone central business district • Ocean View • Mitchells Plain town centre The basis of the programme is the maintenance of public infrastructure and facilities, in partnership with communities. The objective is to stabilise areas and provide a PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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platform for more effective public and private investments. Under the umbrella of the relevant sub-­‐council, area co-­‐ordinating teams are set up, as a platform for representatives of the communities, businesses, non-­‐governmental organisations and the City to engage on a regular basis on issues such as: maintenance of infrastructure, cleansing, law enforcement, informal trader management and area-­‐ based monitoring of performance and service delivery levels according to agreed criteria and indicators. Within this context, the City is introducing an area approach to urban development and management based on the successful Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) programme. If successful, this programme will be extended to other areas.

Energy-­‐efficient Infrastructural Development

Cities need to be sensitive to the challenges of climate change and limited water resources, and reduce their carbon footprint by using less polluting alternate technologies such as solar power and wind power. In a number of South African cities, the use of solar power technology is expanding, but much still needs to be done to increase energy efficiency, particularly for urban public transport. Solar energy -­‐ Ekurhuleni Ekurhuleni has promoted green power in a range of ways, from installing solar-­‐ energy lighting in informal settlements, to solar energy power generation, and using solar water to heat water for domestic consumption by poorer households. In April 2012, the executive mayor of Ekurhuleni, Councillor Mondli Gungubele, announced that the municipality would spend R17.5 million to roll out solar energy lighting to 7 000 households in Ekurhuleni’s informal settlements that were not going to be relocated or upgraded in the short or medium term. The project will eventually be extended to other informal settlements. The 10-­‐watt lighting units consist of a solar panel, a battery control box and four LED lights. The solar panel is positioned on the roof of each household and cannot be stolen because it is built within the structure. The lifespan of the batteries is three to five years, while the LED PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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lights can burn for up to 100 000 hours. A cell-­‐phone charging facility can be installed with the solar lighting. The programme brought relief to residents who on average were spending R13 on candles that last for a week and between R5 and R10 to charge their cell phones by paying nearby residents who have electricity. In early 2011 Ekurhuleni approved R500 million to install low-­‐pressure solar water heaters over three years in households that had benefitted from the government’s low-­‐cost housing programme. This decision aligns with the national solar water heating programme, which aims to have a million solar-­‐water heaters in homes across South Africa by 2015. The households designated to receive this benefit in Ekurhuleni are in Daveyton, Etwatwa, Duduza, Kwa-­‐Thema and Tsakane. By switching to solar water heating, each of the households can help to reduce carbon emissions. A 150-­‐litre solar-­‐water heater, which is adequate for two to three people, can save 4.5 kilowatt-­‐hours of electricity per day, or 1.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. Solar water heating and Standard Bank – Nelson Mandela Bay

Standard Bank3 is involved in a number of greening projects not only in South Africa but throughout Africa. The company recently collaborated with the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality and other partners in a solar water heater programme that is registered as a clean development mechanism (CDM). The programme will install 110 000 solar water heaters in homes in Nelson Mandela Bay and is also aligned with the national solar water heating programme. Wonderbags for cooking – eThekwini As part of its energy-­‐saving initiatives, the eThekwini Municipality has distributed 3 500 Wonderbags. The Wonderbag is not only energy efficient but fully recyclable 3

Standard Bank has also taken steps to reduce the environmental impact of its business in a range of ways. These include through installing solar water heating at some of its bigger offices, encouraging the recycling of refuse, installing energy-efficient lighting, designing new offices in Rosebank (Johannesburg) in innovative ways which reduce its environmental impact, and educating its own staff on how they can green their homes. PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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and safe for children to use. It comprises two poly-­‐cotton bags filled with expanded polystyrene balls. Once a pot has been heated, it is placed in the Wonderbag where the cooking process continues (further heating is not required). The Wonderbag reduces cooking fuel consumption by 30–50%, cuts down on carbon emissions by approximately 500 kg per year, and saves at least 13 kWh of electricity and 1,6 litres of paraffin per week. If the pilot project is successful, Wonderbags will be distributed to other areas of eThekwini. Landfills: converting gas to electricity – eThekwini and Johannesburg

Both eThekwini and Johannesburg have set up projects to convert gas derived from household waste in landfills to electricity, thereby reducing emissions. Instead of escaping into the atmosphere each year and contributing to global warming, millions of cubic metres of greenhouse gases can be converted into clean electricity. In 2010 eThekwini launched a landmark project with the aim of producing sufficient electricity for thousands of medium-­‐income homes and generating income for the city through the sale of electricity and certified emission reduction credits. Further aims include reducing poverty through creating employment opportunities, improving health and air quality by reducing the release of harmful greenhouse gases, and contributing to the country’s skills development plan. The project began at the Mariannhill and La Mercy landfills and was extended to the larger Bisasar Road landfill. It received a grant of R17.3 million through the Department of Trade and Industry's Critical Infrastructure Programme. Total project income revenue was estimated at R4.5 million per month, realised from the sale of carbon credits and the sale of electricity. The City of Johannesburg has also embarked on plans to use gas emitted from its five major landfill sites to generate electricity. The gas will be transported in pipes to a conversion plant, where electricity will be generated and then fed into the municipal grid. It is estimated that approximately 19MW of electricity will be generated from the project, which what approximately 12 500 middle income households use. The PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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project is unfolding at the Marie Louise, Robinson Deep, Ennerdale, Linbro Park and Goudkoppies landfills. The City appointed a consortium headed by EnerG Systems to develop the project. The decision to appoint a private service provider through a long-­‐term contract was made in order to minimise the substantial initial capital investment by the city. The project will further provide the City with an opportunity to receive revenue from the generation of emission reductions certificates through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. OR Tambo Environmental Education and Narrative Centre – Ekurhuleni

In October 2011 the OR Tambo Environmental Education and Narrative Centre was opened, close to the final resting place of Oliver Tambo, president of the African National Congress from 1969 to 1991. The centre is adjacent to the Leeupan water body. During the development of plans for the Centre, the Department of Environmental Resource Management had the task of cleaning up the water body of Leeupan and its surroundings and of ensuring that Leeupan did not suffer from recurrent degradation. It was decided to use the development of the OR Tambo Centre to educate neighbouring communities on how to relate to their natural environment. The OR Tambo Centre would become an ecological prototype that could be replicated. The centre was built using indigenous and ecologically sound construction methods. For instance, the walls were constructed from straw bale and plastered with cow dung and mud by local women using traditional building methods, and recycled materials were used. Geothermic earth tube technology is used to heat and cool the buildings, while in summer floor vents help regulated the temperature. Rainwater is harvested to water the indigenous gardens and to flush the toilets, while grey water is recycled and reused in the gardens. Phase 2 of the project focuses on the development of a park around Leeupan, with the bio-­‐remediation of water and the introduction of natural micro-­‐organisms to clean up chemicals. A community urban agricultural project to the west of the OR PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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Tambo Centre will be expanded as an example of sustainability within a planned reserve. When it is fully completed, the OR Centre will comprise: • A narrative centre, housing an exhibition about OR Tambo and historical heritage. • An environmental centre to conduct environmental education and to highlight effects of climate change and environmental degradation, and the importance of protecting and conserving the natural fabric of the region. • A multi-­‐purpose arts and craft workshop environment for local crafters to produce, exhibit and sell their goods, highlighting the importance of self-­‐ sustainability and using recycled and reclaimed material to create local artwork. • An outdoor amphitheatre for performing artists, designed using green building techniques to reduce reliance on energy for cooling and sound engineering. • A classroom and laboratory for lectures and hands-­‐on experiments. • An environment and technology library. • A one-­‐mile nature trail that encompasses a pond, bird and hive enclosure, and the grassland area surrounding the OR Tambo Centre. • A show house, designed using green building techniques, which will host the caretaker. • A live viewing area with interpretive panels. The first council-­‐owned solar energy plant in the country forms part of the project. The plant was built in the OR Tambo Precinct in Wattville and, through 860 photovoltaic modules, generates 200kW of electricity that feeds into the existing power grid. The energy produced will be used to provide electricity to the OR Tambo Centre as well as to the community of Wattville. Solar power for heating water – Johannesburg In October 2012 the City of Johannesburg announced that 110 000 solar-­‐powered geysers would be installed in disadvantaged communities over three years. Launched in Lehae, a fast-­‐growing, affordable housing development south of Johannesburg, the project will be extended to Alexandra, Vlakfontein, Devland, Tshepisong and other areas. The overall project includes the supply and installation of solar geysers at a total cost of R800 million, representing more than 10% of the government's target of installing one million solar geysers by 2014. The programme is expected to create about 20 000 job opportunities in the targeted low-­‐income areas.


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Efficient fires, reducing pollution – Ekurhuleni

Ekurhuleni introduced an innovative coal fire method, which aims to reduce pollution and reduce dangers associated with fires, particularly in low-­‐income households. A study revealed that 56% of hospital admissions for respiratory problems in South Africa result from domestic coal fires. The Basa Njengo Magogo [make fire like the granny] is a top-­‐down method for starting a coal fire developed by Maria Nobelungu Mashinini of eMbalenhle, Secunda. Unlike the traditional way, the innovative method involves laying down coal first, followed by paper and wood, and then lighting the fire. The fire can be started in an imbawula (hand-­‐made movable stove), which means it is ready to use much sooner. It saves on coal and reduces energy costs, as the fire burns longer, and has health benefits because of reduced smoke emissions. The method is to be rolled out in Gauteng, Mpumalanga and the Free State, where coal use is highest.

Urban Agriculture Urban farming has the potential to enhance resource resilience by effectively using City land that would otherwise stand vacant. Urban agriculture also requires fewer resources to transport produce from where it is grown to where it is sold. South African cities have made limited progress in improving food security and supporting urban agriculture, but a number of projects show promise and suggest that urban agriculture can be of real benefit to the poor.


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Consolidating urban agriculture – Buffalo City

Agriculture represents only a small share of Buffalo City’s GDP (1% in 2010). Yet the sector has the potential to grow and provide economic development opportunities for disadvantaged groups, particularly women. The majority of emerging crop farmers and agriculture co-­‐operatives within the metropolitan area are women who contribute 60–80% of the agricultural labour. With the assistance of NETSAFRICA4, in 2009 Buffalo City set up a pilot tunnel and hydroponics project in Mdantsane, growing table-­‐quality tomatoes. Three existing registered agricultural co-­‐operatives in the Mdantsane area (Sakisizwe, Gqala and Buffalo City Organic Producers) grow and harvest tomatoes in hydroponic tunnels. The co-­‐operatives are helped to become commercially sustainable through infrastructural, equipment, operational, technical and administrative support. A permanent Round Table was established where information could be shared, a network and linkages among members created, and initiatives defined for promoting the local agricultural production. A fully-­‐fledged pack shed facility was built in Mdantsane where produce could be graded, sorted and marketed. Previously the co-­‐ operatives had used an external service, which costs up to 50% of the income derived from produce, thus hindering the economic viability of the business. The project showed that to unlock the potential of agricultural co-­‐operatives requires: targeted capacity-­‐building interventions, dialogue between all stakeholders, and co-­‐ordinated support and strategic investments. Community support farms – eThekwini The eThekwini Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) spearheaded a programme of growing vegetables for the needy in the Illovu Township, south of Durban. Through the programme, community support farms are encouraged to

4 NETSAFRICA aim is to assist Buffalo City in upgrading the capacity of urban agriculture co-operatives so that they can be commercially sustainable.


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produce vegetables and give part of their produce to vulnerable families in the spirit of ubuntu. Beneficiaries include orphans and child and granny-­‐headed households. In March 2011 a South Durban food garden and biodiversity project has proved to be very successful. The brainchild of the South Durban Basin Area-­‐based Management Department, the project targeted more than 50 learners from Clairwood Secondary School and Durban South Girls Primary School and created more than ten permaculture food gardens. Support for urban agriculture – Tshwane In collaboration with stakeholders such as the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Agricultural Research Council, the Tshwane University of Technology, the national Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and private companies, the City of Tshwane provides support to three categories: (1) Household food production through the expanded provision of agricultural starter packs, and training and capacity programmes to households with food gardens. (2) Community projects through the provision of agricultural starter packs, training and capacity programmes, on-­‐farm infrastructure development, access to the market and finance, as well as mechanisation schemes. For example, the Olievenhoutbosch Centre for the Disabled received assistance for its vegetable garden. (3) Emerging farmers through training and capacity-­‐building programmes, a mechanisation scheme and sustainable agricultural villages. A good example is the technical and market facilitation support given to Winterveld citrus farmers. When assessing who should be assisted, the factors taken into account include the feasibility of the operation, the number of beneficiaries (the more, the better), the potential for positive socioeconomic impact, the environmental impact, and the availability of water. Greening of the inner city – Johannesburg The Food Gardens Foundation (FGF) was established in Soweto after the 1976 riots against the apartheid government, with the aim of teaching people how to grow their own food. The organisation has recently expanded its work into the inner city of Johannesburg, to set up food gardens that provide fresh produce for the school feeding schemes. With the support of Danone South Africa, the FGF is assisting more than 50 disadvantaged schools to set up food gardens and providing training to ensure their sustainability. Since 2009 the FGF has also helped to green the Johannesburg inner city in partnership with the Johannesburg Housing Company, through the Makhulong A Matala project, which enables people living in the inner city to grow food in vacant spaces on roof tops. The FGF helps establish these gardens and provides training to those who are to maintain the gardens.


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Bertrams Food Garden – Johannesburg In 2007 the Bertrams Food Garden was started as an initiative between the City of Johannesburg and the Bambanani Food and Herb Co-­‐operative. Its specific purpose was to convert two bowling greens into a sustainable garden that would be used to provide food to the local community and to non-­‐governmental organisations (NGOs). The City of Johannesburg provides free municipal water and guarantees the use of the land. The co-­‐operative currently consists of six members, three of whom work regularly in the garden. The garden sells produce to community members, to a local grocery chain and at an organic vegetable market once a week. Plans include assisting the local community by allowing vulnerable people to assist in the garden (as part of their therapy) and giving produce to crèches in the area, as well as developing a rainwater harvesting system on adjacent buildings, to reduce the garden’s use of piped water. Urban Agriculture Support Programme – Cape Town Initiated in 2001, the Urban Agriculture (UA) Support Programme provides urban food producers with practical assistance. Such assistance includes access to land, tools and equipment, operational inputs (seeds and compost) and mentoring, training and advice. Individuals and communities are enabled to grow their own food and thereby to improve their household food security and nutrition status, as well as generating a survival income. The programme is guided by the Urban Agriculture Policy of the City (2007) and strategic development agenda. In the 2012/13 financial year the City set aside a budget of about R1m for the UA Support Programme. The programme and policy are driven by the City’s Economic Development Department in collaboration with a host of internal departments (Social Development, City Parks, Environmental Management and Property) and external stakeholders (Department of Agriculture, NGOs and the private sector). The beneficiaries of the programme are the poorest of the poor, and currently 500 people in 10 communities are targeted each year. Some of the benefits of the UA Support Programme have been: • A growing awareness among the poor of the positive impacts and benefits of urban agriculture and of growing their own food • The re-­‐emergence of a culture of food gardening in the city • The development of an urban agriculture policy for the City of Cape Town, which gives urban agriculture a formal land-­‐use status in the city. Since 2001 approximately 3 000 food growers in Cape Town have benefited from the programme. The UA Support Programme has generated international collaboration and sharing of expertise, knowledge and information, with the Netherlands, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Canada. The Support Programme has strong working relations with the Western Cape Provincial Department of Agriculture regarding their food security programme and small farmer development programme.


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CASE STUDIES THAT SHOWCASE SOCIAL SUPPORT IN SOUTH AFRICAN METROPOLES Caring cities are nurturing places, where holistic social support, advocacy and relief are offered especially to the most vulnerable. Social support needs to be rationalised and well co-­‐ordinated, so that interventions can have the most significant impact on urban poverty.

Social Protection Support for the poor – Buffalo City In November 2012 Buffalo City began a campaign to register more than 70 000 indigent residents who earn less than R2,400 per month. After registration on the database, indigent residents will qualify for a monthly subsidy of R306.79 that will be applied to their municipal accounts, including sewage, rates, fire levy, water and refuse collection. To qualify for the subsidy scheme, applicants need to live at a fixed address, have a valid South African identity document, produce three months of bank statements or a pension card, and have a signed letter from a ward councillor.


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Expanded Social Package – Johannesburg

The City of Johannesburg has implemented a social intervention programme called the Expanded Social Package (ESP), which is also known as the Siyasizana Programme. The ESP comprises a core set of social interventions, which include the existing social package as well as additional interventions designed to promote social mobility and transition out of poverty. The ESP includes a free allocation of water and electricity, as well as subsidies of up to 100% on rates and sanitation, and preferential access to Job Pathways, an employment programme run by the City. There are also plans to implement transport and rent subsidies. The ESP takes into account individuals with conditions that may warrant increased support, such as HIV/AIDS, disability and single parenthood. To target those in need, Johannesburg uses a city-­‐level poverty index created by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) and Centre for the Analysis of South African Social Policy at the University of Oxford. The ESP is linked to national databases, allowing access to information about citizens using their identification number, which assists in the targeting of individuals. In September 2011, a Social Service Request system was introduced to augment the ESP. This system is designed to manage registration for property-­‐linked, pro-­‐poor service rebates more carefully. Using SMS technology, it also digitally links those with specific needs to services delivered by City departments, government agencies and non-­‐profit, non-­‐governmental and community-­‐based groups. (All non-­‐profit organisations registered with the City for rebates, grant funding or other support are automatically enrolled in the system as potential referral partners.) The new system makes it easier to connect those who are not City account holders with rebates that they are entitled to under the ESP. For example, the system includes features that enable landlords in large apartment blocks to pass benefits on to their poor tenants, as well as a faster process for creating a digitally searchable CV in the Job Pathways programme. With 110 active individual registration stations, PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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when operating at full capacity, the system can conservatively manage 1.2 million individual registrations and re-­‐registrations per year. For the first time the system creates a total view of both citizens’ needs and the capacity of government and its partners to respond. Support for the indigent – Tshwane Since 2010 Tshwane has been registering indigent households in order to assist them with social packages that provide free 12 kilolitres of water and 100 kilowatts of electricity per month, twice the amounts recommended by national government. The city intends registering 150 000 indigent households by 2016.

Support for Homeless and Indigent People Reintegrating street people – Cape Town The plight of the homeless, particularly during the cold and wet winter months, is of particular concern to many in Cape Town. The City of Cape Town’s policy for street people aims to reduce the number of individuals living on the streets and reintegrate them into communities through partnering with NGOs and other organisations. It is an important component of the City’s commitment to ensuring that Cape Town is a caring and inclusive city. In late 2012 the City of Cape Town announced the opening of three new assessment centres to provide assistance and rehabilitation for the homeless, in association with various NGOs, bringing the number of assessment centres in the city to six (in Bellville, central Cape Town, Muizenberg, Observatory, Strand and Table View). Plans were under way to open another two centres. The partnerships are facilitated by the city's Homeless Agency Committee (HOMAC). At the assessment centres, street people receive emergency shelter and professional assessment of their needs, to enable them to access services that will help in their rehabilitation. Other steps taken to address the homeless issue included a city-­‐wide survey of the number of street people, the key locations where they live and why they are on the streets; the appointment of field workers to assist street people; the Cape Town Cares – Give Responsibly campaign; and extra support for the Winter Programme, which assists shelters and organisations over the winter months. Assisting the destitute and vulnerable on the streets – Johannesburg In Johannesburg, a Christian social development organisation called MES assists vulnerable or destitute individuals and families, empowering them through a holistic service model. Founded as a feeding programme in inner-­‐city Johannesburg in 1986, the organisation has moved away from spreading the gospel through upliftment towards walking alongside vulnerable people on their journey. MES challenges individuals to take responsibility for their lives and works with them so that they become reintegrated members of the community. Outreach workers connect with and assess the needs of destitute people by going into abandoned buildings, parks and alleyways by day and at night. MES mobile clinics, drop-­‐in centres and feeding schemes help establish contact with potential clients and build a trusting relationship. Destitute individuals are invited to a meal PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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and service at the B G Alexander Centre where the service focuses on health awareness and a dialogue about what it means to be living on the streets. Once contact has been established, a MES social worker assesses the client so that an appropriate intervention can be planned. MES employs four full-­‐time social workers and takes on an average of 400 cases a month at the BG Alexander Centre. The first intervention is to get the individuals off the streets into a shelter where they are cleaned up, given blankets and clothes and offered training in life skills over three months, in areas such as conflict and anger management, managing health, budgeting, building hopes and dreams, and planning for a future. The University of Johannesburg undertakes computer training courses for MES clients, while other organisations provide training in plumbing, upholstering, wood work, security and administration. The MES experience is that it takes about a year from the initial clean up and counselling for individuals to be in a position to sustainably exit the system. Job placement, follow-­‐up and after-­‐care services, and the availability of affordable accommodation help ensure the sustainable exit of clients from the MES programme. The ultimate goal of MES is that when clients exit the programme, they are able to implement the tools they have been provided with, take responsibility, make informed decisions, uphold acceptable moral values, and develop further with a positive self-­‐image. Residential care for the vulnerable – Johannesburg Madulammoho Housing Association (MHA) ia a non-­‐profit social housing company that provides clean, safe and affordable housing to low-­‐income communities in Johannesburg. In particular, the MHA provides for the residential needs of clients transitioning and exiting the MES programme. MHA currently manages a range of residential projects around the city: • New Europa House: 11 transitional units, 48 communal units, 14 self-­‐ contained bachelor suites and a 120 bed, 24-­‐hour emergency shelter • New Regent House: 58 communal housing units • The B.G. Alexander Centre: 400 units • New El Kero House: 142 communal housing units and 28 self-­‐contained bachelor units • Allenby House: 119 units • Resdoc House: 60 communal housing units and 4 self-­‐contained bachelor units • Cornelius House: 67 transitional units and 14 communal units. MHA is also developing three new projects: Esselen Heights (42 two bedroom units and 54 bachelor units), Fleurhof (90 bachelor and 196 two bed units) and Jabulani Views in Soweto (140 bachelor units and 160 two bedroom units).

Healthcare South African cities can address the health needs of their residents in many creative ways. For instance, delivering health messages in an enjoyable and informative PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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manner at public events or making health services accessible to the most vulnerable by building clinic infrastructure in previously under-­‐resourced areas or by using mobile clinics. Using sport to increase HIV/AIDS awareness – Buffalo City In April 2012, under the theme ‘First Things First’, a Red Card sports tournament was held at Jan Smuts Stadium, targeting youth between the age of 16 and 25 years. An initiative of Buffalo City, local higher learning institutions and religious groups, the aim of the tournament was to increase HIV/AIDS awareness and encourage voluntary counselling and testing. The programme seeks to promote the involvement of young students, especially men, in preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis and unwanted pregnancies. It is hoped that the tournament can be repeated annually to reinforce effective HIV/AIDS messaging. A door-­‐to-­‐door HIV/AIDS awareness campaign – Johannesburg

The City of Johannesburg’s iJozi Ihlomile HIV/AIDS awareness campaign is reaching at least 26 townships. This door-­‐to-­‐door campaign was created in 2005 to assist the City in raising awareness about the disease in the community. The programme is run by out-­‐of-­‐school youth who have been trained to go from door to door educating the public about sexually transmitted diseases, how to prevent mother-­‐to-­‐child transmission of HIV, and the importance of practising safer sex. In 2013 the City allocated a R5,6 million grant from the Gauteng Provincial Department of Health to the iJozi Ihlomile campaign. Since its inception, the programme has touched the lives of more than 2.4 million people, including 10 000 orphaned children. Revamped mobile clinics – Msunduzi Msunduzi Municipality has spent more than R100 million on improving the City’s fleet of mobile clinics. Most of the vehicles were designed in the 1980s and could not travel to some of the more remote areas of the municipality where the terrain was difficult. The revamped vehicles offer improved services, additional space for examinations (able to accommodate two patients at a time) and greater privacy. The intervention is a collaboration with the provincial Department of Health and forms PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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part of the plans to prepare for the implementation of the National Health Insurance. A comprehensive package of primary healthcare services will be available from the mobile clinics, which are fitted with electrical power and water sources, and have low fuel consumption. Through the mobile clinics, Msunduzi hopes to be able to improve on cancer and TB screenings in areas without a fixed clinic facility. A clinic for men – Johannesburg

The Alexandra Men's Clinic is the only one of its kind in Gauteng and is aimed at managing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men. It was runner up in the Innovative Service Delivery Institutions category at the Centre for Public Service Innovation Awards and was nominated for the first-­‐round evaluation of the United Nations Public Service Awards. The clinic was established in 2005 as a partnership between the Health Department of the City’s Region E and the Centre for HIV and STIs in the National Health and Laboratory Service. A survey conducted in Alexander found that men with STIs are generally not comfortable with being treated by female nurses and chose instead to live with untreated STIs, which results in the continued spread of STIs. The clinic addresses the reality that men attend conventional sexual health facilities far less frequently than women by being staffed by male nurses and support staff. The clinic has made significant progress in the reduction of STIs among men in the township of Alexandra, while an increasing number of youth with STIs are reporting to the clinic. The clinic also caters for patients referred to it by other health-­‐care centres in the province.


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Antiretroviral treatment clubs – Cape Town

The ART model needed rethinking, as the increasing number of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) using public clinic facilities was creating congestion. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), a non-­‐governmental organisation involved in healthcare worldwide, piloted ART treatment clubs at Ubuntu Clinic in Khayelitsha. Patients are allocated to a group (maximum size 30 members) that meets every second month and is facilitated by a doctor or nurse. At each visit, members are clinically assessed (by weight and symptom screen), participate in a group support or educational activity, and are issued with two months’ pre-­‐dispensed medication. They leave the clinic in under an hour. The club facilitator refers any club members with symptoms, weight loss or other clinical problems to the club nurse for an individual consultation on the same day. If necessary, they are referred to a doctor for further individual care. Patients are also free to request an individual consultation with a lay counsellor if they wish to do so. The increase in patient satisfaction has resulted in better clinic attendance and improved adherence to treatment. In December 2010 the municipal health department, in partnership with the provincial Department of Health, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and MSF rolled out the ART club model to 17 facilities in the city. IHI provided a ‘breakthrough series’ model, which allowed staff from the facilities to learn how to apply the model over an 18-­‐month period, with mentorship support. A ‘Plan, Do, Study, Act’ cycle was used to work through challenges, and staff members were encouraged to find their own solutions to implementing and running clubs. By the end of December 2012, 37 participating clinic facilities were running more than 600 clubs, with at least 16 000 patients receiving care in this way. Over 16% of all patients who received ART at primary-­‐care facilities in the City of Cape Town were provided with care through the club system. At some facilities more than 30% of patients received their care in ART clubs. This project provides caring on multiple levels: PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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• • • •

Clinic staff members are involved in setting up the clubs and get satisfaction from seeing patients so happy with the system. Healthcare workers’ skills are used more appropriately, as moving patients into clubs means a less congested service on a day-­‐to-­‐day basis. Patients transferred to the clubs report high satisfaction with a system that caters for their needs and reduces waiting times. HIV-­‐positive patients in the routine clinic system are motivated to become eligible for a club by adhering to their treatment regimens.

MSF has developed materials on how to run the club system, which are available on its website, so that anyone can start a similar project of their own. In February 2013 the Western Cape hosted an outreach learning session to four other municipalities in the country (Johannesburg, Durban, George and East London) to share the lessons learned through this project. The project received an Impumelelo Platinum Award in September 2012, and reached the final round of the UN Public Service Awards.

Empowerment and Support of Women Coaching for hope – Cape Town In 2010 NGOs and the City of Cape Town formed a partnership to empower women and girls through football. Coaching for Hope is a partnership between international NGO Skillshare International and six local NGOs (including Isiqalo Foundation, Bread for Life, Making an Impact Through Sport and Amandla Edu-­‐Football). The partnership arose from the idea to use sport and recreation as a tool for community development and the need to empower women and girls. Programmes focus on women and girls playing football on artificial pitches. The Department of Sport assisted by constructing six artificial five-­‐a-­‐side pitches across the city, and 30 coaches were procured through the Expanded Public Works Programme. So far the partnership has targeted six communities, and approximately 300 women and girls now take part in the Coaching for Hope programme weekly. It is hoped that the project will lead to the establishment of female football clubs, which will eventually be run and sustained by the communities themselves. Most promisingly, even though the Coaching for Hope programme has only been running for a short while, a representative female team recently participated in an international football festival in Turkey.


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Challenging violence against women – Johannesburg

After widespread xenophobic incidents in May 2008, the Gender Based Violence Project (GBVP) at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, University of the Witwatersrand, held workshops to raise awareness of violence against migrant and refugee women at various centres in Gauteng, including the Central Methodist Church in central Johannesburg. The Central Methodist Church has long been a popular refuge for thousands of Zimbabweans and other refugees. During a training session, it became clear that women’s experiences of violence extended far beyond xenophobia-­‐related violence, to include domestic and sexual violence (even within the Church itself). Twelve members of the Methodist Church community formed a group – Wo(Men) on the Move – and undertook to act as monitors of violence against women at the church. The monitors underwent comprehensive training on gender-­‐based violence and torture and subsequently established a help desk at the church for women who are victims of violence and survivors of torture. Region E of the Community Works Programme (CWP) launched the 2day he bought her flowers campaign in response to the brutal murder of a female participant in the CWP by her husband and to the high prevalence of violence against women in the area. The CWP is based in Alexandra, atownship north of Johannesburg. The social mobilisation campaign aims to organise society against the scourge of violence against women. The emphasis is on preventing abuse, although the criminal justice system also needs to be more accessible and consumer friendly for women who had experienced violence. The community is sensitised about domestic violence through workshops, circle dialogues and marches every three months. At circle dialogues, both men and women sit in a circle and have frank, facilitated discussions about domestic violence – 56 male and female facilitators have been trained to run circle dialogues. Since the launch of the campaign, people in Alexandra have begun to talk more about the escalating violence against women, children and the elderly. Support for the campaign is spreading in the broader community: a number of taxi drivers have joined and partnerships formed with the South African Police Service, PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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Agisanang Domestic Abuse Prevention and Training, and the Bombani Shelter for Abused Women and Children.

Educational and Training Support An ubuntu partnership: Masicorp – Cape Town

Founded in 1999, Masicorp is a community-­‐based NGO that aims to benefit the poor and disadvantaged residents of Masiphumelele, a township of 38 000 people on the Cape Peninsula. Masicorp believes that ‘Education is the route out of poverty’ and uses 60 volunteers to run a wide range of projects. These include: • A community library and learning resource centre in Masiphumele, which Masicorp built and then bequeathed to the City of Cape Town. In 2012 the library loaned out more than 40 000 books and offered more than 20 educational programmes. • The Seedlings ECD project, which aims to provide ECD facilities to all 2 500 young children in the township. • Teacher training and support in English and science, physical education coaches and equipment, a classroom-­‐makeover project and school management support at Ukhanyo Primary School. • The maths and science Saturday club at Masiphumelele High School, which offers support to more than 120 learners each week through a qualified tutor assisted by volunteer teachers. • A university student bursary programme, which currently supports 22 students from Masiphumelele. Recent graduates include a mechanical engineer, a marketing manager, a bio-­‐technologist, a B.Com graduate, an accountant and a maths teacher. • The establishment of English…please!, an English language and literacy programme for 30 Masiphumelele learners that is offered at nearby Fish Hoek Primary School. The programme assists learners who are struggling with English to catch up with their classmates.


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The Evangeline women’s life skills programme, which offers training each year to 48 women, many affected by HIV/ AIDS. They are provided with tuition in English, IT and sewing skills, and (upon graduation) given a sewing machine to enable them to seek work and provide for their families.

The NGO’s experience has been that the more practical working partnerships developed, the greater the benefit for township residents. It works in partnership with various organisations, including six other NGOs, the Department of Social Development, the City of Cape Town and the Western Cape Department of Education. Social support services: Makhulong A Matala – Johannesburg Makhulong A Matala was established in 2004 as a non-­‐profit subsidiary of the Johannesburg Housing Company (JHC). Its task was to give community development and social support services to social housing projects established by JHC, which provide homes to more than 9 000 people. Makhulong A Matala supports: • Tenants, through its Tenant Support Programme, which is provided by six permanent staff members and various volunteers and offers a wide range of skills-­‐based programmes, including tenant induction, financial management, budgeting, managing social discord, hardship support and entrepreneurial skills. • Youth and children (more than 20% of the occupants of JHC buildings are younger than 18 years), through the early childhood development and learning centre programmes. Community crèches in four JHC buildings offer a structured and stimulating environment for preschool children, while children at school are supported through a learning centre programme that offers mathematics, life skills and computer literacy, and encourages creative methods of play. Qualified tutors provide the programme to more than 200 children at eight different centres. Makhulong A Matala plays an important role in ensuring the social sustainability of JHC and the social cohesion of the neighbourhoods where its buildings are situated. Its achievements were acknowledged by a HalalaAward5 in 2009 for its meaningful contribution to supporting the citizens of Johannesburg. Inner city children – Johannesburg The School of Practical Philosophy, a non-­‐profit organisation based in Salisbury House, offers courses in culture and philosophy to the broader community of Jeppestown. In 2011 the school received a Halala Award for the extramural activities and outings organised for inner city children, including concerts, cultural events and choir festivals. Other initiatives by the School of Practical Philosophy include support for the JPU Community School and the Soweto Teachers Outreach Programme. 5

The Joburg Halala Awards focus on the regeneration of the inner city, and honour residents and organisations, amongst others, for their contribution to community well-being and improved quality of life. It seeks to acknowledge originality, pioneering and innovative projects by brave thinkers whose passion has opened new horizons in the inner city. PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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Support for Babies Abandoned babies – Johannesburg In 2010 the Berea Methodist Church established the Door of Hope in an effort to reduce the number of infant deaths caused by abandonment at birth. Members of the church installed a “baby bin” on their premises, allowing mothers to leave their babies at any time of the day or night. The door has an electronic activation device to notify a member of the church on duty as soon as a baby has been deposited in the baby bin. Since the establishment of the Door of Hope, almost 1 000 babies have come through the facility. Caregivers, in collaboration with social workers, make every effort to find a loving adoptive home for each child.


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CASE STUDIES THAT SHOWCASE JOB CREATION INITIATIVES IN SOUTH AFRICAN METROPOLES Job creation is a high priority for all spheres of government and the private sector. Some South African Cities have been able to use the Expanded Public Works Programme to provide new employment opportunities. However, with the exception of eThekwini, interventions to develop the informal economy have been limited. Local government in South Africa tends to deal with informal economy participants largely on the basis of by-­‐law formulation, rather than as an important part of the survival strategies of the poor. The restrictive view of the informal economy as a “problem” has contributed to its marginalisation within official economic development policy.

Waste Collection and Recycling – Ekurhuleni This project was implemented in Ekurhuleni as part of the NETSAFRICA Support Programme. 6 The community-­‐based waste collection and recycling pilot project operates in Wattville and Actonville, two areas selected because they contain a mixture of residential and industrial areas, including schools, hospitals, business and informal settlements. Waste production was approximately 1.6 kg per resident per day – volumes with a potential for developing viable recycling businesses. Several informal pickers were already working with waste and on illegal dumping areas. The collection for recycling was uncoordinated and in the hands of private sector operators, and no drop-­‐off points for recycled materials existed. The project established two community-­‐based waste co-­‐operatives, comprising 44 members, of whom 22 collect the waste on behalf of the municipality in informal areas or areas of illegal dumping, and 22 sort the waste, which is then sold. The 6 NETSAFRICA is a network of Italian and South African local government. The NETSAFRICA Programme began in 2008 and concluded in early 2012. It was aimed at consolidating the role of South African local institutions in broadening democratic participation in local governance and in formulating policies and implementing initiatives to reduce poverty and ensure access to basic services, within the context of the National Framework for Local Economic Development (LED).


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municipality is planning to hand over the management of a truck and waste equipment bought for the project, which will eventually increase monthly income. A key element that contributed to the success of the project was the establishment of a dedicated Training Unit within the municipality to serve as a co-­‐ordinating structure and provide technical and training support to the co-­‐operatives. The provision of assistance, training and ongoing mentoring to the co-­‐operatives is crucial for them to become sustainable small businesses. The project also demonstrated that it is not always necessary to reinvent the wheel and much can be learned from other success stories. Study visits were organised to waste-­‐recycling projects in Italy and in other provinces of South Africa. Italian experts from Cispel Confservizi (an association of public utility enterprises) and CoopLat (a huge service co-­‐operative operating nationally in the field of waste collection and recycling) played a key role in formulating the waste management operating model, crafting a recycling management strategy, and providing waste and business management training for the municipal Training Unit.

Developing the Informal Economy -­‐ eThekwini

In 2012, eThekwini had about 22 572 (registered) informal traders and workers, mostly women engaged in survivalist, low-­‐income trade and clustered around the same geographic spots within the city and town centres. Since 2000 the Municipality has invested in infrastructure and services for traders worth R150 million. These include water and electricity, ablution facilities, storage shelters, kiosks, business support centres, container parks, markets, flea markets, refuse collection, cleaning and security services. eThekwini was the first South African municipality to develop and adopt a metropolitan-­‐wide informal trade policy at the end of the 1990s. The policy represented an important shift in thinking: the informal economy was seen as a vital sector for economic development. In 2005 eThekwini facilitated the foundation of the eThekwini Municipality Informal Economy Forum (EMIEF) which was mandated PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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to implement the informal economy policy in partnership with representatives from various sectors, including informal trader representatives. Today, a dedicated resource within the Business Support, Tourism and Markets Unit provides capacity building, aimed at promoting traders from survivalist to growth-­‐oriented entrepreneurs so that they can make significant contributions to the economy and employment within the City. The following interventions are offered: • The food handler’s programme educates informal caterers on basic hygiene and health issues pertaining to food management. • Financial literacy training is offered in partnership with banking institutions. This programme sets the foundations for improved access to finance for traders. • The machinist programme develops 120 seamstresses and garment makers annually. • Customer care training, which started in the build-­‐up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup, was geared to prepare traders to receive tourists, give directions to attractions and generally act as ambassadors to the city. The programme continues to be relevant, especially in tourist destinations around Durban and along the beach front. • Equity participation was initiated to organise informal traders into an equity company that could acquire a stake in shopping mall developments. • Exhibition and display training that assists street traders to make the best use of limited space in order to attract their customers. • Infrastructure, through the provision of stalls, toilets and storage to traders, and facilitation of access and maintenance.

Assisting Co-­‐operatives – Buffalo City The municipal local economic department identified access to finance as one of the key challenges facing primary co-­‐operatives in Buffalo City. In an effort to create jobs in previously disadvantaged communities, the City has spent R1 million funding and donating equipment to 12 co-­‐operatives that will help them produce high-­‐quality products. Equipment included chainsaws, industrial sewing machines, safety clothing, cement mixers, lawn mowers and grass trimmers. The initiative is a partnership between the municipality, the Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA), Khula, the Eastern Cape Development Corporation (ECDC), the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Economic Development, Environment and Tourism.


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Learnerships – Nelson Mandela Bay

On 16 October 2009, the Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality, in partnership with the Coega Development Corporation, held a graduation ceremony for learners that had successfully completed the Vuk’uphile Learnership Programme. The programme, which was launched in February 2006, is a two-­‐year learnership registered with the Construction Education Training Authority. The programme was open to 60 learners and created 20 learner contractor companies, each with a manager and 2 supervisors. The first phase of the programme created 450 jobs for unskilled people and afforded them the opportunity to receive training on both technical and accredited training skills.

Developing Entrepreneurs–-­‐ Johannesburg In 2006, Sir Richard Branson founded the Branson Centre for Entrepreneurship to help develop entrepreneurs in South Africa and other parts of the world. Based in Braamfontein, Johannesburg, the centre’s mission is to incubate emerging businesses by providing practical business skills, critical resources, and access to markets and capital, which will in turn help create employment in disadvantaged communities. The Branson Centre has funded 15 businesses, of which 11 are still operational and provide a total of 146 jobs. Businesses include fashion, agriculture, information technology (IT), the gaming industry, holistic healing, food and beverages, sustainability, landscaping services and the film industry. One graduate, Simon Yiga worked in IT and business consultancy until meeting his future business partner Gideon Mulovhedzi. The partners identified a need for safer and more convenient places to park in the city centre. They started Afropark, an inner city parking company that manages car parks 24 hours a day, seven days a week, using CCTV camera equipment. Parking bays can be rented on an hourly, daily or monthly basis. They employ mainly inner city residents to run their car parks, most of whom were previously unemployed. Each employee is given a career development plan, to ensure employees progress while working for them. PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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Dipuo Marekwa is another graduate. When her daughter reached school-­‐going age, Dipuo realised that the transport available for getting her to school was unreliable and unsafe, and so she decide to found her own transport company. In February 2009 she started Pelontle Marekwa Transport Services with one 14-­‐seater taxi. She now transports 80 students to ten different schools and, in addition provides transport services to weddings and other events in the community and to businesses that close late at night, such as restaurants, or industries that employ shift workers, such as mines or factories. Regular customers pay a monthly fee in advance. For all other services, a cash payment is made. Dipuo is now looking to expand into new markets by partnering with companies in the mining and construction industries. In addition, she plans to bring her services to more restaurants.


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CASE STUDIES THAT SHOWCASE PARTICIPATION IN SOUTH AFRICAN METROPOLES Promoting participation is a key tool in the caring city. Fundamentally it is about making governments more responsive to the needs of citizens. South African local government has been criticised for its lack of openness, unresponsiveness and poor consultation. The original positive vision of local government became lost amid mounting concerns about service protests, mismanagement, political factionalism and self-­‐interest. These case studies highlight areas in which cities are working to shift towards more participatory governance.

Water services and Consultation – Cape Town

The Citizen’s Voice Project is a government initiative to involve citizens in the local monitoring of water and sanitation services. Citizens are trained about their rights PROMOTING CARING CITIES – THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA’S METROPOLES

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and responsibilities in order to hold local government accountable. The municipal authority and the community come together at monthly meetings to discuss water services and address problems. In Cape Town four pilot areas were selected for the project, based on high levels of water losses, and over 2 000 individuals were trained. For the city, the process was a useful way of gaining a better understanding of service delivery problems. The pilot project resulted in reduced water losses, increased payment levels, and citizens who are empowered to play a more effective oversight role in water services provision.

African Diaspora Forum – Johannesburg

Migrants from other parts of Africa make an important contribution to the South African economy but remain a vulnerable group in South African cities, as evidenced by periodic outbreaks of xenophobic violence. Much remains to be done to break down the barriers of mistrust and suspicion and to facilitate the social acceptance of migrants by communities. Cities can do a great deal more to facilitate social cohesion and to make migrants feel welcomed and valued. In 2008, the African Diaspora Forum (ADF), a non-­‐profit organisation, was established in response to the xenophobic attacks, to provide a platform for African migrants to South Africa. Its mission is to ‘work for an integrated society that is free of xenophobia and all other kinds of discrimination’. Members come from 21 different African countries. The ADF has been involved in many projects, including organising the annual Africa Day events in Yeoville and holding a concert and an indaba to create awareness of the lives of African migrants in South Africa. At one stage, the ADF created a Migrant News section that was published in The Star and The Pretoria News. The ADF has partnered with the Wits Law Clinic to challenge policies that discriminate against African migrants, such as perceived persecution by police and discrimination by financial institutions. The ADF also helps victims of xenophobic violence, creating dialogues with local communities to enable the African migrants displaced by the violence to be reintegrated back into the


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community. The ADF also runs a hotline for xenophobic attacks, to assist those who are targeted by violence.

Corridors of Freedom – Johannesburg To date formal interventions to enhance social cohesion in the metropolitan areas have been limited. The challenge is how to achieve a sense of community in South African cities, given the divides left behind by the apartheid past and stark economic inequalities. In his May 2013 State of the City Address Mayor Parks Tau announced the creation of new ‘corridors of freedom’, or well-­‐planned transport arteries linked to interchanges where the focus would be on mixed-­‐use development. These corridors would change the current settlement patterns made up of urban sprawl and uncontrolled spread of low-­‐density developments on the fringes of the city. Instead, high-­‐density residential space would be supported by office space, retail, leisure and recreational opportunities. An effective and affordable public transport system would allow residents to travel short distances between home and their workplace and cut costs and travel time. Schools, clinics and community facilities would be located close to residences and workplaces. Leisure and recreational facilities would be better integrated, leading to greater social interaction between people sharing the same geographical space. The result would be a city where all its residents would have equal access and prosperity, regardless of race and gender.

Renaming the Yard Streets of Gugulethu – Cape Town Gugulethu’s street names (native yard or NY) date back to the founding of the township under apartheid. Renaming these streets is seen as part of the process of reconciliation, giving people an opportunity to take ownership of their street names as well as to remove offensive native yard names that were imposed. The City of Cape Town ran a public participation process from 1 October 2012 to 31 March 2013, during which members of the public were given an opportunity to make submissions for 91 streets to be renamed. Methods used to gather input from the public included newspaper articles, social media exposure, radio broadcasts, going door to door, through street committees, and distributing flyers at shopping malls, schools and taxi ranks. The renaming process provided job opportunities for 15 people who were trained and employed (taken from the Expanded Public Works Programme jobseekers database). It is hoped that the project will give members of the Gugulethu community a greater sense of belonging, and an enhanced sense of ownership of their community.


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CONCLUSION Today’s world is characterised by the urbanisation of disenfranchised communities, poverty and inequality, and growing dangers related to climate change. Within this context, the utopian ideas for creating more just cities have failed in practice, even in cities with plentiful capacity and resources. The challenge is enormous for unequal cities with low levels of democracy and public sector capacity, and high levels of inequality and service backlogs, such as those found in South Africa.

Cities need to find ways of offering opportunities to all residents and users, and to place the concerns of communities at the heart of decision-­‐making, particularly for the urban poor. They need to move away from a narrow focus on economic growth to ensuring that the benefits of urban living accrue to all. This means developing caring cities. The caring city concept relates to Ubuntu, an age-­‐old African term for humaneness, or the caring for, sharing and being in harmony with all of creation. Caring cities focus on people, places and relationships. They strive to offer a high quality of life, allocate resources to ensure the wellbeing of inhabitants, protect the environment and involve citizens in decision-­‐making. Caring cities are equitable (enabling all groups within the cities to reach their potential), economically efficient and keep people engaged and part of the city, which is crucial for the democratic process. Caring cities make conscious choices and take conscious action to be inclusive, equitable, hospitable and supportive. They are cities that focus on caring holistically for the needs of residents and on ensuring sustainable development. They prioritise spending on infrastructure that enhances access for the poor and redistribute the benefits of the city in favour of the vulnerable.


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Major South African cities are promoting a caring agenda. Municipalities, NGOs, civil groups and the private sector are contributing to building cities that are caring, fair, accessible and efficient, and offer every inhabitant equal opportunity to thrive, prosper and achieve. The various instruments being used can be categorised as: • Planning, which in the past actively excluded people from opportunity by locating the poor on the urban fringes and depriving them of services and facilities, offers a way of redressing the inequality embedded in our cities. • Infrastructure development can improve the living conditions of the poor and make cities more efficient, accessible and sustainable. It can take the form of upgrading informal settlements, extending transportation systems, creating recreation facilities and promoting energy-­‐efficient projects. • Social support is a vital element of caring, nurturing cities and needs to be rationalised and well-­‐co-­‐ordinated. It includes assisting vulnerable groups (homeless, indigent persons, women and babies), education and training, and healthcare. • Job creation is a high priority for all spheres of government and the private sector and includes both the formal and informal economy. • Participation is a key tool in the caring city, as it is fundamentally about making governments more participatory and responsive to the needs of citizens.


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South African cities are among the most unequal urban centres in the world. Although state interventions since 1994 may have improved living conditions for the poor, growing demands for better service delivery leave no room for complacency. The answer lies in caring cities. The case studies in this report show that cities already have the necessary tools to create caring cities – places where the African tradition of Ubuntu is realised, where each person is linked to community and to wider society through a caring and sharing system, within a nurturing and protected environment.


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REFERENCES NPC (National Planning Commission). 2012. National Development Plan 2030: Our future -­‐ Make it work. Pretoria: National Planning Commission, The Presidency, p. 260. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-­‐operation and Development). 2011. Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising. Paris, France: OECD Publishing. Parnell, S. 2013: Inclusionary approaches to urban planning: lessons in poverty reduction from South Africa. In, Mathur, O. (ed.) State of the Urban Poor Report, 2013: Inclusive Urban Planning. India: Oxford University Press. Parnell, S and Lilled, L. 2013 (forthcoming). Fair cities, a position paper for Mistra Urban Futures. UN-­‐Habitat. 2013. State of the World's Cities 2012/2013: Prosperity of Cities. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-­‐Habitat. UNICEF(2010) Understanding Urban Inequalities in Bangladesh: A prerequisite for achieving Vision 2021, UNICEF Bangladesh, Dhaka


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