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PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF   SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES              

 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS      

Authors:  Tanya  Zack,  Robin  Hamilton,  Eduardo  Cachucho,  Samuel  Suttner   Project  management:  Sithole  Mbanga  and  Thoko  Vukea  (SACN)   Editing  and  Layout:  Write  to  the  Point   Graphics  and  Illustrations:  Eduardo  Cachucho     Acknowledgement  is  given  to  Standard  Bank  for  funding  the  study  and  contributing  with  case  studies.   The  following  teams  and  individuals  contributed  case  study  material:  SA  cities’  Knowledge  Managers   Reference  Group  for  their  contribution  and  effort  to  produce  case  studies  within  their  municipalities,   namely:   Buffalo   City   Metropolitan   Municipality,   City   of   Cape   Town   Metropolitan   Municipality,   eThekwini   Metropolitan   Municipality,   Ekurhuleni   Metropolitan   Municipality,   City   of   Johannesburg   Metropolitan   Municipality,   Mangaung   Metropolitan   Municipality,   Msunduzi   Metropolitan   Municipality,   Nelson   Mandela   Bay   Metropolitan   Municipality   and   City   of   Tshwane   Metropolitan   Municipality.     WASSUP   in   collaboration   with   Sticky   Situations,   Bicycle   Empowerment   Network,   Masicorp,   Branson     Centre   of   Entrepreneurship,   The   Johannesburg   Development   Agency   (JDA),   The   Ministry   for   Cooperative  Governance  and  Traditional  Affairs  (CoGTA)  

ABOUT  THIS  REPORT     This   paper   has   been   developed   in   preparation   for   the   Metropolis   Annual   Meeting,   hosted   in   Johannesburg   in   July   2013.   The   conceptual   framing   of   the   caring   city   draws   heavily   on   the   work   of   South  African  urban  scholar  Professor  Susan  Parnell.  She  also  assisted  the  team  in  conceptualising  the   caring  city  within  current  academic  debates.      

VIDEO     This  report  is  accompanied  by  a  video  presentation  which  is  freely  available  online:     http://goo.gl/4oGxy    

                              PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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TABLE  OF  CONTENTS   Acknowledgements  ......................................................................................................  2   About  this  report  ..........................................................................................................  2   Video  .............................................................................................................................  2   Table  of  Contents  .........................................................................................................  4   Abstract  ........................................................................................................................  6   Conceptualising  the  Caring  City  ....................................................................................  8   Context  .....................................................................................................................  9   Fairness  and  Caring  in  Cities  ...................................................................................  11   Why  Caring  Matters  ................................................................................................  12   Towards  Caring  Cities  .............................................................................................  13   Framing  the  Caring  City  ..............................................................................................  15   The  Institutional  Framework  of  Caring  ...................................................................  15   Sustaining  Caring  ....................................................................................................  16   Programmes  of  Care  ...............................................................................................  16   Caring  in  cities  of  South  Africa  ....................................................................................  18   Case  studies  that  showcase  planning  in  South  African  metropoles  ...........................  23   Strategic  Spatial  Planning  .......................................................................................  24   Johannesburg  Growth  Management  Strategy  ....................................................  24   Community-­‐based  Planning  ....................................................................................  25   Ward-­‐based  planning  –  Buffalo  City  ...................................................................  25   Community-­‐based  planning  –  Johannesburg  .....................................................  26   Case  studies  that  showcase  infrastructure  development  in  South  African  metropoles  ....................................................................................................................................  28   Infrastructure-­‐led  Upgrading  of  Informal  Settlements  ...........................................  28   Upgrading  informal  settlements  –  Cape  Town  ...................................................  28   Electrification  of  informal  settlements  –  Tshwane  .............................................  30   Electrification  of  Khotsong  informal  settlement  –  Mangaung  ............................  31   Reducing  contamination  of  drinking  water  –  Ekurhuleni  ...................................  31   WASSUP  –  Johannesburg  ....................................................................................  31   Transportation  Infrastructure  Development  ..........................................................  33   An  intermodal  public  transport  hub  –  Mangaung  ..............................................  33   Rea  Vaya  transport  –  Johannesburg  ...................................................................  33   Bicycling  Empowerment  Network  –  Cape  Town  .................................................  35   Information  and  Communications  Technology  ......................................................  36   The  Smart  Cape  Access  Project  –  Cape  Town  .....................................................  36   Recreation  Facilities  ................................................................................................  37   Green  outdoor  gyms  –  Johannesburg  .................................................................  37   Area-­‐wide  Upgrading  ..............................................................................................  38   Regeneration  of  Motherwell  –  Nelson  Mandela  Bay  ..........................................  38   Urban  regeneration  –  Cape  Town  .......................................................................  38   Energy-­‐efficient  Infrastructural  Development  ........................................................  39   Solar  energy  -­‐  Ekurhuleni  ....................................................................................  39   Solar  water  heating  and  Standard  Bank  –  Nelson  Mandela  Bay  .........................  40   Wonderbags  for  cooking  –  eThekwini  ................................................................  40   Landfills:  converting  gas  to  electricity  –  eThekwini  and  Johannesburg  ..............  41   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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OR  Tambo  Environmental  Education  and  Narrative  Centre  –  Ekurhuleni  ..........  42   Solar  power  for  heating  water  –  Johannesburg  ..................................................  43   Efficient  fires,  reducing  pollution  –  Ekurhuleni  ...................................................  44   Urban  Agriculture  ...................................................................................................  44   Consolidating  urban  agriculture  –  Buffalo  City  ...................................................  45   Community  support  farms  –  eThekwini  .............................................................  45   Support  for  urban  agriculture  –  Tshwane  ...........................................................  46   Greening  of  the  inner  city  –  Johannesburg  .........................................................  46   Bertrams  Food  Garden  –  Johannesburg  .............................................................  47   Urban  Agriculture  Support  Programme  –  Cape  Town  ........................................  47   Case  studies  that  showcase  social  support  in  South  African  Metropoles  ..................  48   Social  Protection  .....................................................................................................  48   Support  for  the  poor  –  Buffalo  City  ....................................................................  48   Expanded  Social  Package  –  Johannesburg  ..........................................................  49   Support  for  the  indigent  –  Tshwane  ...................................................................  50   Support  for  Homeless  and  Indigent  People  ............................................................  50   Reintegrating  street  people  –  Cape  Town  ..........................................................  50   Assisting  the  destitute  and  vulnerable  on  the  streets  –  Johannesburg  ..............  50   Residential  care  for  the  vulnerable  –  Johannesburg  ..........................................  51   Healthcare  ..............................................................................................................  51   Using  sport  to  increase  HIV/AIDS  awareness  –  Buffalo  City  ...............................  52   A  door-­‐to-­‐door  HIV/AIDS  awareness  campaign  –  Johannesburg  .......................  52   Revamped  mobile  clinics  –  Msunduzi  .................................................................  52   A  clinic  for  men  –  Johannesburg  .........................................................................  53   Antiretroviral  treatment  clubs  –  Cape  Town  ......................................................  54   Empowerment  and  Support  of  Women  .................................................................  55   Coaching  for  hope  –  Cape  Town  .........................................................................  55   Challenging  violence  against  women  –  Johannesburg  .......................................  56   Educational  and  Training  Support  ..........................................................................  57   An  ubuntu  partnership:  Masicorp  –  Cape  Town  .................................................  57   Social  support  services:  Makhulong  A  Matala  –  Johannesburg  ..........................  58   Inner  city  children  –  Johannesburg  .....................................................................  58   Support  for  Babies  ..................................................................................................  59   Abandoned  babies  –  Johannesburg  ....................................................................  59   Case  studies  that  showcase  job  creation  initiatives  in  South  African  metropoles  .....  60   Waste  Collection  and  Recycling  –  Ekurhuleni  .........................................................  60   Developing  the  Informal  Economy  -­‐  eThekwini  ......................................................  61   Assisting  Co-­‐operatives  –  Buffalo  City  ....................................................................  62   Learnerships  –  Nelson  Mandela  Bay  .......................................................................  63   Developing  Entrepreneurs–-­‐  Johannesburg  ...........................................................  63   Case  studies  that  showcase  participation  in  South  African  metropoles  .....................  65   Water  services  and  Consultation  –  Cape  Town  ......................................................  65   African  Diaspora  Forum  –  Johannesburg  ................................................................  66   Corridors  of  Freedom  –  Johannesburg  ...................................................................  67   Renaming  the  Yard  Streets  of  Gugulethu  –  Cape  Town  .........................................  67   Conclusion  ..................................................................................................................  68   References  ..................................................................................................................  71   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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ABSTRACT     The  caring  city  concept  relates  to  Ubuntu,  an  age-��‐old  African  term  for  humaneness,   or   the   caring   for,   sharing   and   being   in   harmony   with   all   of   creation.   Ubuntu   is   an   ideal   that   promotes   co-­‐operation   between   individuals,   cultures   and   nations.   The   concept  aligns  most  closely  with  the  embryonic  notion  of  the  ‘fair  city’.     Cities   are   not   inherently   ‘fair’   places.   Fairness   requires   universal   access   to   basic   services  and  opportunities  for  all,  which  is  not  the  case  in  many  cites  of  the  world.   Even   in   cities   with   plentiful   capacity   and   resources,   the   utopian   ideas   for   creating   more   just   cities   have   failed   in   practice.   For   unequal   cities   with   low   public   capacity   and   resources,   the   challenge   is   enormous,   especially   in   a   global   context   characterised   by   deepening   debt   crises   and   increased   urbanisation,   poverty   and   inequality,  and  growing  dangers  posed  by  climate  change.  Nevertheless,  cities  need   to   move   towards   ensuring   that   all   inhabitants   reap   the   benefits   of   urban   living.   In   other  words,  they  need  to  become  caring  cities.       Caring   cities   focus   on   people,   places   and   relationships.   They   offer   a   high   quality   of   life,   ensure   the   wellbeing   of   inhabitants,   protect   the   environment   and   involve   citizens   in   decision-­‐making.   Caring   cities   are   equitable,   economically   efficient   and   democratic.   Caring   cities   make   conscious   choices   and   take   conscious   action   to   be   inclusive,  equitable,  hospitable  and  supportive.       South   African   cities   are   among   the   most   unequal   urban   centres   in   the   world   and   have  a  long  way  to  go  to  become  caring.  However,  many  municipalities,  NGOs,  civic   groups   and   the   private   sector   are   contributing   to   building   caring   cities.   The   instruments   being   used   are   urban   planning,   infrastructure,   social   support,   employment  creation  and  participation.       Urban  planning  -­‐  How  the  city  works  for  all  (including  the  poor)  has  a  lot  to  do  with   the  planning  and  re-­‐planning  of  the  urban  space.  Redressing  poor  spatial  location  is   key  to  overcoming  the  spatial  poverty  trap  that  exists  in  most  South  African  cities.  In   Johannesburg,  the  City’s  Growth  Management  Strategy  seeks  to  change  the  pattern   of   the   apartheid   city   form,   by   providing   better-­‐located   residential   areas   for   poor   households,   promoting   investment   and   development   in   marginalised   areas,   and   preventing  unsustainable  sprawling  development.  Buffalo  City  and  Johannesburg  are   bridging   the   divided   between   technocratic   planning   processes   at   city   level   and   the   demands  of  people  at  ward  level  through  community-­‐based  planning,  which  involves   communities   in   formulating   local   plans   that   feed   into   the   city’s   Integrated   Development  Plan.       Infrastructure   -­‐   Developing   infrastructure   can   make   cities   more   efficient   and   sustainable.  Among  the  SACN  member  cities,  projects  are  underway  to  improve  the   living   conditions   of   the   poor   through   upgrading   the   infrastructure   in   informal   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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settlements  (e.g.  electrification,  water  and  sanitation),  creating  recreational  facilities   (e.g.   Green   Outdoor   Gyms   in   Johannesburg).   The   geographical   divide   is   being   bridged   by   improving   transportation   (e.g.   Intermodal   Public   Transport   Facility   in   Mangaung)   and   the   digital   divide   through   information   and   communications   technology   (e.g.   Smart   Cape   Access   Project).   Broad   area-­‐wide   interventions   are   underway  in  Nelson  Mandela  Bay  (regeneration  of  Motherwell)  and  Cape  Town  (The   Mayoral   Urban   Regeneration   Programme),   and   energy-­‐efficient   projects   abound   (from   solar   energy   lighting   and   water   heaters   in   social   housing,   to   converting   landfill   gas   to   electricity).   Another   way   to   make   cities   more   sustainable   is   to   encourage   urban   agriculture   and   community   gardens,   which   is   happening   in   Buffalo   City,   eThekwini,  Tshwane,  Johannesburg  and  Cape  Town.       Social   support   -­‐   South   African   cities   have   adopted   overtly   pro-­‐poor   development   strategies   that   echo   the   national   policy   and   have   taken   enormous   political   and   institutional   steps   towards   promoting   equity.   Measures   include   subsidies   for   the   poor   and   indigent   people,   programmes   targeting   the   homeless   and   care   for   the   vulnerable   (women,   immigrants   and   babies).   South   African   are   also   addressing   the   healthcare   issues   in   innovative   ways,   through   public   events   (e.g.   Red   Card   sports   tournament   in   Buffalo   City),   HIV/AIDS   awareness   campaigns   (e.g.   Johannesburg’s   iJozi   Ihlomile)   and   specialised   clinics   (e.g.   mobile   clinics   in   Mangaung,   for   men   in   Johannesburg  and  antiretroviral  treatment  clubs  in  Cape  Town).       Job   creation   -­‐   A  strong  productive  base  increases  the  prosperity  of  a  city,  which  is   thus  better  able  to  raise  revenues  in  order  to  fund  welfare  services,  public  goods  and   environmental   improvements.   Some   cities   are   recognising   that   the   informal   economy  is  central  to  the  survival  strategies  of  the  poor  and  can  be  used  to  create   livelihood   opportunities   and   even   businesses.   In   Ekurhuleni,   two   community-­‐based   co-­‐operatives   were   born   from   a   waste   collection   and   recycling   project,   while   Buffalo   City   has   assisted   12   co-­‐operatives   to   grow.   Successful   projects   can   be   either   private-­‐ sector  driven  (e.g.  Branson  Centre  for  Entrepreneurship  in  Johannesburg)  or  public-­‐ sector   driven   (e.g.   the   specialised   unit   within   the   eThekwini   municipality   that   is   dedicated  to  managing  and  developing  informal  traders  in  the  city).     Participation   -­‐   South   African   local   government   has   been   criticised   for   its   lack   of   openness,   unresponsiveness   and   poor   consultation.   However,   some   cities   are   working  towards  more  participatory  governance.  For  example,  the  City  of  Cape  Town   involves   citizens   in   the   local   monitoring   of   water   and   sanitation   services,   while   in   Johannesburg;  the  non-­‐profit  African  Diaspora  Forum  (ADF)  provides  a  platform  for   African  migrants  to  South  Africa.     The  case  studies  illustrate  that  South  African  cities  already  have  the  necessary  tools   to   create   caring   cities   –   places   where   the   African   tradition   of   Ubuntu   is   realised,   where  each  person  is  linked  to  community  and  to  wider  society  through  a  caring  and   sharing  system,  within  a  nurturing  and  protected  environment.      

 

PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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CONCEPTUALISING  THE  CARING  CITY     The  caring  city  concept  relates  to  Ubuntu,  an  age-­‐old  African  term  for  humaneness,   or  the  caring  for,  sharing  and  being  in  harmony  with  all  of  creation.    

  Ubuntu   is   an   ideal   that   promotes   co-­‐operation   between   individuals,   cultures   and   nations.  The  concept  aligns  most  closely  with  the  embryonic  notion  of  the  ‘fair  city’,   a  term  employed  by  Mistra  Urban  Futures  (MUF)  that:     rests  on  highly  varied  concepts  and  approaches:  the  imagination  of  a  good  city  or  a   more   just   urban   future   includes   an   emphasis   on   basic   needs,   social   welfare,   social   protection,   social   safety   nets,   rights   in   the   city,   rights   to   the   city,   livelihood   and   enhancement,   a   balanced   city   and   a   commitment   to   improved   quality   of   life’(Parnell  and  Lilled,  2013:2).      

 

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UN-­‐Habitat   similarly   defines   prosperity   in   cities   as   ‘a   broader,   wide-­‐ranging   notion   that   has   to   do   with   well-­‐balanced,   harmonious   development   in   an   environment   of   fairness  and  justice’  (UN-­‐Habitat,  2013).     This  paper  examines  the  conceptual  framing  of  the  caring  city  and  the  instruments   that   major   South   African   cities   have   employed   to   promote   a   caring   agenda.   It   highlights  case  studies  that  showcase  caring  interventions  being  undertaken  by  state   and  non-­‐state  actors.  

Context  

  The   Metropolis   Annual   Meeting   takes   place   in   a   global   context   characterised   by   deepening   debt   crises   and   increased   levels   of   local   and   international   migration,   as   well  as  the  urbanisation  of  disenfranchised  communities  and  individuals.  High  levels   of   poverty   and   inequality,   mass   protests   against   systematic   decision-­‐making   in   favour   of   the   better-­‐off   and   threats   to   democracy   exist   alongside   the   growing   dangers  posed  by  climate  change.      

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In   confronting   these   challenges   cities   will   draw   on   the   opportunities   presented   by   the  current  era.  In  today’s  world,  the  flows  of  resources,  communication,  trade  and   migration  are  possible  at  unprecedented  scales  and  depths.  Cities  are  able  to  benefit   from   advanced   connectivity,   scientific   progress   and   sophisticated   developmental   approaches   to   sustainability.   Increased   migration   across   the   globe   results   in   possible   and   visible   benefits   of   cultural   exchange,   interpersonal   connectivity   and   mutual   learning.  

  The   bias   towards   financial   success   in   cities   has   added   to   the   growing   inequalities   between   rich   and   poor   (UN,   2013).   Income   gaps   between   rich   and   poor   are   expanding   in   both   developing   and   developed   countries     (OECD,   2011).   Within   this   context,   cities   need   to   deepen   their   responsiveness   to   the   people   and   the   places   most   affected   by   the   grave   urban   challenges.   Urban   governance   has   to   find   ways   for   cities   to   offer   opportunities   to   all   residents   and   users,   to   place   the   concerns   of   communities   at   the   heart   of   decision-­‐making,   and   to   address   effectively   risk   and   vulnerability,   particularly   for   the   urban   poor.   In   the   wake   of   the   debt   crisis   and   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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recession  that  have  marked  the  first  decade  of  the  21st  century,  the  city  agenda  has   to  include  a  proactive  focus  on  the  needs  of  the  urban  poor  because  ‘[h]ow  the  city   works  matters  for  the  poor’  (Parnell,  2013).    

Fairness  and  Caring  in  Cities   In   the   cities   of   the   Global   North,   well-­‐developed   practices   and   policies   are   used   to   realise   greater   fairness   or   justice.   These   include   welfare   systems,   social   nets,   traditional   planning   for   the   urban   good,   participatory   planning   practices,   urban   governance   policy   (incorporating   ecosystem   justice).   Yet,   despite   the   intention   of   these   policies   and   practices,   the   economic   crisis   has   upturned   the   apparent   assurance   of   justice   and   fairness;   on   the   contrary,   ‘[t]he   urban   future   is   bleaker   than   before,  especially  for  the  urban  poor’  (Parnell  and  Lilled,  2013:5).       In   much   of   the   Global   South,   universal   social   welfare   systems   are   not   widespread,   urban   planning   does   not   serve   the   public   interest   and   the   anti-­‐poverty   focus   is   on   what   the   poor   can   do   to   improve   their   own   livelihoods.   However,   the   number   of   programmes  that  promote  fairness,  justice  and  equity  are  increasing  in  cities  of  the   South.   Such   programmes   include   expanding   social   welfare   and   increasing   public   infrastructure   investment.   Debates   are   emerging   around   equal   access   to   jobs   and   housing,   but   many   of   these   cities   remain   unequal   and   offer   minimal   protection   to   the  marginalised  (Parnell  and  Lilled,  2013).     Cities   are   not   inherently   “fair”   places.   The   MUF   understanding   of   fairness   requires   universal   access   to   basic   services   or   to   the   services   necessary   for   healthy   living   for   current  and  future  generations.  This  is  not  the  case  in  many  cities  of  the  world  where   the   life   chances   of   individuals   are   shaped   by   the   macro   and   the   local   economic   conditions,  regulations  and  structures  as  well  as  by  the  city’s  response  to  economic   circumstances,   to   employment   needs   and   to   spatial   inefficiencies.   Politics   and   prejudice  also  severely  affect  the  distribution  of  benefits  and  the  exclusion  of  certain   groups  from  opportunity  (Parnell  and  Lilled,  2013).    

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Why  Caring  Matters  

  The  utopian  ideas  for  creating  more  just  cities  have  failed  in  practice,  even  in  cities   that  uphold  democratic  ideals  and  have  plentiful  capacity  and  resources.  Therefore,   for  unequal  cities  with  little  democracy  and  low  levels  of  public  sector  capacity  and   resources,   the   challenge   is   enormous.   High   levels   of   inequality   and   huge   service   backlogs  characterise  the  cities  of  the  South,  offering  examples  of  ‘collapsed  states,   ecological  disaster  and  unchecked  poverty’  (Davis,  2001,  cited  in  Parnell  and  Lilled,   2013).  These   cities   are   the   seedbeds   of   the   urban   condition   of  the   future,   and   ‘there   is   consensus   that   the   urban   challenge   for   making   a   better   world   lies   in   improving   conditions  in  the  emerging  cities  of  Africa,  Asia  and  Latin  America’  (Pieterse,  2008;   UN  Habitat,  2009,  cited  in  Parnell  and  Lilled  2013).   Caring   matters   because   equity   enables   all   groups   within   cities   to   reach   their   potential.   Inequity   is   economically   inefficient,   reducing   people’s   life-­‐chances   and   livelihood-­‐opportunities   and   inhibiting   their   potential   to   enter   the   economy   and   contribute   to   prosperity   in   cities.   A   UNICEF   study   on   poverty   reduction   found   that   ‘evidence   from   India,   China   and   Brazil   indicates   very   clearly   that   efforts   to   ease   inequalities   generate   larger   dividends   for   poverty   reduction   than   a   more   conventional  focus  on  economic  growth’(UNICEF,  2010:5).  

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Equity   is   also   crucial   for   democratic   process,   as   making   opportunities   (e.g.   skills,   education)   available   to   the   population   keeps   the   people   engaged   and   part   of   the   city.   Thus,   ‘the   way   a   city   shapes,   and   is   in   turn   shaped   by,   its   population,   will   largely   depend   on   whether   urban   systems   provide   all   residents   with   equal   opportunities   for   development  and  the  ability  to  exert  agency’.  (UN-­‐Habitat,  2013:70)  

Towards  Caring  Cities   A  narrow  focus  on  economic  growth  has  compromised  prosperity  for  all  (UN-­‐Habitat,   2013).  A  shift  is  required,  towards  making  urban  areas  more  equitable  and  ensuring   that  the  benefits  of  urban  living  accrue  to  all.  This  needs  to  be  embodied  in  notions   of  the  caring  city.     Caring   cities   focus   on   people,   places   and   relationships.   They   strive   to   offer   a   high   quality  of  life,  show  a  sense  of  humanity  and  exchange,  provide  comfort  and  dignity   for  all  and  deliver  solutions  that  meet  the  needs  of  their  residents  (particularly  the   most   vulnerable   inhabitants).   They   also   protect   and   sustain   the   quality   of   environment   and   natural   resources,   and   allocate   resources   to   ensure   the   health   and   wellbeing   of   inhabitants.   In   caring   cities,   plans   and   decisions   are   publicly   deliberated   and  citizens  are  involved  in  decision-­‐making.  

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One   of   the   five   elements1  of   a   prosperous   city   is   equity   and   social   inclusion,   which   implies  caring  cities.  Equity  and  social  inclusion  (UN-­‐Habitat,  2013:14):     ensures   the   equitable   distribution   and   redistribution   of   the   benefits   of   a   prosperous   city,   reduces   poverty   and   the   incidence   of   slums,   protects   the   rights   of   minority   and   vulnerable  groups,  enhances  gender  equality,  and  ensures  civic  participation  in  the   social,  political  and  cultural  spheres.      

      Caring   cities   make   conscious   choices   and   take   conscious   action   to   be   inclusive,   equitable,  hospitable  and  supportive.  They  are  cities  that  focus  on  caring  holistically   for   the   needs   of   residents   and   on   ensuring   sustainable   development.   Cities   have   the   ability  to  prioritise  spending  on  infrastructure  that  enhances  access  for  the  poor,  to   develop   social   safety   nets,   to   stimulate   investment   that   focuses   on   long-­‐term   sustainable  development  and  to  redistribute  the  benefits  of  the  city  in  favour  of  the   vulnerable  (Parnell,  2013;  UN  Habitat,  2013).    

 

                                                                                                           

1 UN-Habitat defines a prosperous city as one that provides environmental sustainability, productivity, infrastructure, quality of life and equity and social inclusion.

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FRAMING  THE  CARING  CITY       The   three   important   frames   of   the   caring   city   are:   the   institutional   framework   of   caring,  sustaining  caring  and  programmes  of  care.    

The  Institutional  Framework  of  Caring  

  While  significant  acts  of  caring  take  place  throughout  cities  every  day,  the  caring  city   concept   is   about   structurally   and   systemically   embedding   care   into   how   cities   function.   A   caring   city’s   long-­‐term   goal   is   to   implement   sustainable   city-­‐wide   strategies   that   are   pro-­‐poor   and   address   the   needs   of   marginalised   and   excluded   groups.   Therefore,   actions   are   promoted   that   lead   to   linkages   between   various   groups   and   institutions   in   order   to   grow   and   generate   greater   access,   opportunity   and  equity.       Caring  within  cities  includes  many  individual  actions  and  ongoing  programmes  that   benefit  the  most  vulnerable  within  cities,  though  addressing  inequity  and  inadequate   living   standards.   Faith-­‐based   organisations   or   NGOs   often   take   the   lead   in   raising   concerns   of   inclusion,   along   with   civil   society   and   the   private   sector.   Programmes   may   be   initiated   by   civil   society   and/or   by   the   state,   with   each   typically   taking   responsibility  for  the  following:   • Government:   pro-­‐poor   interventions,   programmatic   and   systematic   interventions  to  improve  livelihoods,  provide  support.   • Corporates:  social  responsibility  programmes.   • NGOs:  advocacy  programmes,  activism.   • Community  groups:  volunteerism,  activism.   • Individuals:  volunteerism.     What   is   important   is   for   these   groups   to   work   together.   Typically   interventions   involve   several   actors,   even   if   one   individual   or   group   has   generated   the   action.   Moving   towards   fairness   in   cities   requires   multiple   actions   by   agencies   at   local,   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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municipal   and   national   scales,   as   well   as   the   involvement   of   private   and   public   sectors.  Public  interest  is  more  important  than  private  interests,  and  the  underlying   principles  are  working  together  and  promoting  fairness  in  the  cities  of  the  future.  

Sustaining  Caring   The  state’s  mandate  encompasses  all  elements  of  care  and  protection  of  citizens  and   the   environment.   Yet,   while   the   primary   responsibility   for   developing   caring   cities   rests   with   the   state,   the   caring   city   is   realised   only   through   many   programmes   generated,  driven,  resourced  and  enhanced  by  multiple  agencies  within  and  outside   of   the   state.   Although   once-­‐off   interventions   and   acts   of   caring,   volunteerism   or   support   are   fundamentally   important   in   promoting   a   humane   society   and   in   offering   emergency   and   short-­‐term   relief,   the   hospitable   city   embraces   a   wide   range   of   multiple,   ongoing   programmes   and   activities   that   support   and   empower   the   poor   and  vulnerable.       Several  factors  contribute  to  ensuring  that  individual,  group  or  state  actions  can  be   replicated   and   expanded   to   city-­‐wide   processes   that   fundamentally   shift   cities   to   places   of   caring.   Interventions   need   to   exist   within   sustainable   programmes   and   networks.  Sustainable  programmes  are:   • Consciously   pro-­‐poor:   focused   on   the   needs   of   the   most   vulnerable   within   cities  and  the  redress  of  inequity  in  cities.   • Engaged:   focused   on   the   concerns   of   inhabitants   and   working   with   inhabitants   to   realise   solutions;   providing   linkages   for   communication,   information   exchange   and   mutual   learning   among   civil   society   groupings,   between  civil  society  and  government  and  between  programmes.   • Integrated:   linking   interventions   to   existing   programmes   and   to   city-­‐wide   strategies  for  greater  effectiveness.   • Long  term:  sustainable  over  the  long  term;  providing  for  empowerment  and   access   to   opportunity   that   enables   people   to   improve   their   lives   and   livelihoods.   • Programmatic:   having   the   capacity   to   be   scaled   up   to   benefit   significant   numbers  of  people.   • Place-­‐focused:   offering   services,   environmental   quality   and   governance   that   create  conditions  for  safe  and  healthy  living  environments.  

Programmes  of  Care     Programmes  of  care  include:       Caring   for   individual   growth.   Caring   cities   promote   empowerment   and   so   provide   the   opportunity   and   possibility   for   individuals   to   care   for   themselves   and   to   improve   their   livelihoods.   Education   and   access   to   opportunity   are   crucial   aspects   in   promoting  individual  growth  within  the  caring  city.     Caring   for   others.   Caring   cities   are   hospitable.   They   are   welcoming   and   accommodating  of  diverse  peoples,  and  support  and  celebrate  a  wide  range  of  class,   ethnic   and   cultural   differences.   Caring   cities   are   also   nurturing   places,   where   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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individuals,   groups,   organisations   or   business   or   state   institutions   may   provide   assistance,  advocacy  and  relief  to  others.       Caring   for   this   place.   Caring   cities   use   and   protect   resources   in   sustainable   ways,   promote   energy   efficiency   and   provide   healthy   and   safe   air,   water   and   soil   for   the   sustenance  of  inhabitants.      

 

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CARING  IN  CITIES  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA     The   South   African   story   of   planning   intervention   in   the   promotion   of   anti-­‐poverty   programmes   is   one   of   significant   transformation   being   led   at   city   level   (Parnell,   2013).     Since  the  onset  of  democracy,  the  ‘grants  and  the  cash  injection  they  represent  have   become  a  central  part  of  the  livelihood  strategies  of  the  urban  poor’,  furthering  food   security,   providing   mobility   to   find   work   and   lubricating   the   informal   economy   (Meth,   2004,   Trayne   et   al   2007;   Hall.   1997,   Behrens,   2004,     cited   in   Parnell   2013).   However,  social  grants  are  insufficient  in  South  Africa,  where  discriminatory  planning   practices  have  actively  excluded  people  from  opportunity  by  locating  the  poor  on  the   urban  fringes  and  depriving  them  of  services  and  facilities.  Urban  planning,  which  is   implicated   in   past   segregationist   practices,   is   required   to   redress   the   embedded   geographies  of  inequality  that  determine  so  fundamentally  who  is  poor  and  who  is   not   in   South   African   cities   (Parnell,   2013).   Living   conditions   for   the   poor   may   have   improved   through   state   interventions   in   the   built   environment,   from   housing   to   roads,  electrification,  and  social  and  health  facilities,  but  growing  demands  for  better   service  delivery  leaves  no  room  for  complacency.     A   lack   of   wider   planning   prevented   the   post-­‐apartheid   housing   programme   from   making  a  broader  developmental  contribution,  such  as  optimising  resource  use,  land   allocation  and  access  to  social  facilities,  while  the  delivery  of  subsidised  housing  has   often   reinforced   social   and   spatial   isolation   (Swilling   and   Anneke,   2013;   Kahn   and   Thring,  2003;  South  Africa,  2004;  Oldfield,  2000;  Charlton  and  Kihato,  2006,  cited  in   Parnell,   2013).   Nevertheless,   South   African   cities   have   adopted   overtly   pro-­‐poor   development   strategies   that   echo   the   national   policy   and   have   taken   enormous   political   and   institutional   steps   towards   promoting   equity.   Despite   this,   ‘the   reworking   of   the   planning   system   has   emerged   a   pivotal   concern’   for   the   transformation  of  the  urban  space  (Parnell,  2013:10).      

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South   African   cities   are   among   the   most   unequal   urban   centres   in   the   world   and   have  a  long  way  to  go  to  become  caring.  The  National  Development  Plan  (NPC,  2012)   identified  nine  key  challenges  facing  South  Africa,  many  of  which  are  prevalent  in  our   cities:   1. Too  few  people  work.   2. The  quality  of  school  education  for  black  learners  is  poor.   3. Infrastructure  is  poorly  located,  inadequate  and  under-­‐maintained.   4. Spatial  divides  hamper  inclusive  development.   5. The  economy  is  unsustainably  resource  intensive.   6. The  public  health  system  cannot  meet  demand  or  sustain  quality  care.   7. Public  services  are  uneven  and  often  of  poor  quality.   8. Corruption  levels  are  high.   9. South  Africa  remains  a  divided  society.       The   fundaments   of   co-­‐operative   governance   and   inclusive   decision-­‐making   are   prerequisites   for   establishing   practices   that   promote   fairness   in   cities.   ‘It   takes   considerable  political  will  to  effect  the  changes  that  are  deemed  necessary  to  make  a   society  more  inclusive’  (Pieterse,  2006,  cited  in  Parnell,  2013).       No  one  programme  provides  the  answer.  What  is  required  is  a  coherent,  transparent   programme   that   enjoys   consensus   and   consciously   promotes   improved   conditions   for   marginalised   groups.   The   MUF   examines   these   programmes   in   terms   of:   urban   planning   interventions,   social   protection,   participatory   process   and   the   actions   of   marginalised   groups   themselves.   This   can   be   extended   to   further   include   employment   creation   and   infrastructure   development   (as   distinct   from   but   connected  with  urban  planning).         Therefore,  this  report  looks  at  case  studies  that  illustrate  how  municipalities,  NGOs,   civic  groups  and  the  private  sector  are  contributing  to  building  caring  cities  using  the   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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following   instruments:   urban   planning,   infrastructure,   social   support,   employment   creation  and  participation  (see  Box  1).        

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Instruments  for  building  caring  cities   Urban  planning   How   the   city   works   for   all   (including   the   poor)   has   a   lot   to   do   with   the   planning   and   re-­‐ planning   of   the   urban   space.   Redressing   poor   spatial   location   is   key,   as   ‘[r]esearch   shows   that   when   combined,   the   physical   and   social   divisions   between   rich   and   poor   neighbourhoods   can   generate   further   exclusion   and   marginalization,   especially   when   the   poor   are   confined   to   farther   neighbourhoods   with   inadequate   accessibility’   (UN-­‐Habitat,   2013:70).   In   these   situations,   the   poor   face   the   triple   burden   of   long   distances,   high   transport  costs  and  excessive  commuting  times,  resulting  in  a  ‘spatial  poverty  trap’.       Infrastructure   The   needs   of   the   poor   are   addressed   directly   through   providing   basic   services,   giving   everyone   access   to   water,   sanitation   and   healthcare.   However,   infrastructure   spend   often   focuses   on   high-­‐level   interventions   that   are   seen   as   economic   drivers   or   on   interventions   perceived   as   attractive   to   voters,   such   as   housing.   Improved   public   transport   and   walking   or   cycling   paths,   which   provide   better   access   to   employment   and   social   opportunity,   have   a   direct   impact   on   improving   the   accessibility   of   city   facilities   to   the   poor.   Non-­‐motorised   transport  needs  to  be  prioritised  for  the  poorest  of  the  poor.  Fairness  in  cities  requires  that   the   poor   have   access   to   shelter,   through   programmes   that   promote   secure   tenure   and   incremental  formalisation  of  informal  settlement,  as  well  as  well-­‐structured  public  housing   programmes.     Social  support     Social  protection  measures  include  direct  subsidies  or  support  to  individuals  or  households,   as   well   as   support   programmes   directed   to   particular   areas   by   municipalities.   ‘Social   protection   measures   do   not   just   work   to   alleviate   poverty   and   reduce   income   disparities;   they  also  enhance  human  capital  and  productivity  and  make  some  cities  much  fairer  places   than  others’  (Devereux,  2009:14,  cited  in  Parnell  and  Lilled,  2013).         Job  creation   The   promotion   of   industry,   manufacturing   and   formal/informal   employment   are   crucial   in   South   Africa,   as   more   prosperous   cities,   with   a   stronger   productive   base,   will   be   better   equipped   to   raise   the   revenues   to   fund   welfare   services,   public   goods   and   environmental   improvements.   Councils   need   to   work   in   collaboration   with   other   agencies   to   support   the   development   of   enterprises.   They   also   need   to   recognise   that   the   informal   economy   is   central   to   the   creation   of   livelihood   opportunities   and   the   survival   strategies   of   the   poor.   However,   local   government   in   South   Africa   has   tended   to   deal   with   informal   economy   participants   largely   on   the   basis   of   by-­‐law   enforcement,   particularly   in   respect   of   street   traders.     Participation     Promoting   participation   is   fundamentally   about   making   governments   more   responsive   to   the  needs  of  citizens.  Civil  society  must  have  a  real  say  in  decision-­‐making.  This  also  requires   that  civil  society  be  strong  and  organised.  The  fundaments  of  co-­‐operative  governance  and   inclusion   in   decision-­‐making   are   prerequisites   for   the   establishment   of   practices   that   promote  fairness  in  cities.  ‘It  takes  considerable  political  will  to  effect  the  changes  that  are   deemed  necessary  to  make  a  society  more  inclusive’  (Parnell,  2013:2).     PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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CASE   STUDIES   THAT   SHOWCASE   PLANNING   IN   SOUTH   AFRICAN  METROPOLES     Planning  is  crucial  for  promoting  fairness,  especially  in  cities  where  planning  practices   have   actively   excluded   people   from   opportunity,   by   locating   the   poor   on   the   urban   fringes   and   depriving   them   of   services   and   facilities,   resulting   in   a   “spatial   poverty   trap”.            

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Strategic  Spatial  Planning   Johannesburg  Growth  Management  Strategy  

  Changing   the   pattern   of   the   apartheid   city   form   is   no   small   task,   as   land-­‐use   decisions  are  longstanding  and  difficult  to  alter.  The  Growth  Management  Strategy   (GMS)   responds   to   the   inefficiency   and   inequity   of   Johannesburg’s   urban   form,   in   particular:     • The  huge  distances  that  residents  must  cover  to  meet  their  daily  needs.   • The   glaring   disparities   that   continue   to   characterise   historically   white   and   black  areas.   • The  unevenness  of  development  in  the  north  and  south  of  the  city.     These  realities  continue  to  contradict  the  principles  of  fairness  and  justice  embodied   in   the   City’s   strategic   plans.   The   GMS   assists   planners   to   make   informed   decisions   about  planning  applications  and  to  guide  infrastructure  investment.  Its  aims  include:   • To  provide  better-­‐located  residential  areas  for  poor  households.   • To   promote   investment   and   infrastructure   development   in   marginalised   areas.   • To   prevent   the   unsustainable   patterns   of   sprawling   development   that   increase  transportation  cost  and  energy  consumption.    

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Community-­‐based  Planning   Ward-­‐based  planning  –  Buffalo  City  

  The   ward-­‐based   planning   (WBP)   initiative   by   the   NETSAFRICA2  Support   Programme   addresses   some   of   the   weaknesses   in   the   participatory   governance   system   in   the   Buffalo   City   Metropolitan   Municipality.   Its   principal   objective   is   to   promote   better   community   action   and   engagement   in   formulating   municipal   Integrated   Development  Plans  (IDPs).  The  initiative  focuses  on  empowering  local  communities   to   develop   their   own   vision,   identify   their   own   needs   and   plan   projects   as   part   of   Ward   Plans.   The   objective   is   then   to   link   the   Ward   Plans   to   the   Integrated   Development   Plan   (IDP)   process,   thereby   enhancing   public   participation   in   the   IDP   process  and  meeting  the  wishes  of  people  and  government  for  greater  democracy  at   local  level.     The   WBP   initiative   was   piloted   in   wards   15   and   40.   The   first   step   was   for   all   stakeholders  to  discuss  and  agree  on  a  methodology  and  practice  to  address  service   delivery  problems  and  deepen  participatory  governance  at  ward  level.  This  approach   contributed  towards  a  feeling  among  ward  members  that  this  initiative  could  achieve   results.  The  core  element  of  the  WBP  methodology  was  organising  workshops  that   provided   participants   with   the   skills   and   tools   to   be   able   to   analyse   their   wards   (through   ward   assessment   surveys),   prioritise   challenges   and   map   resources   that   could   be   used   to   address   the   challenges.   At   these   workshops,   ward   committee   members,  community  development  workers  and  other  role-­‐players  were  trained  in   participatory   methods,   workshop   management   and   how   to   respond   effectively   to   the  needs  and  priorities  of  their  ward  communities.  Ward  members  were  also  given                                                                                                              

2 The NETSAFRICA Programme is an initiative of decentralised co-operation development of General Direction for Development Co-operation of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Regional Government of Tuscany, in South Africa. It supports the process of administrative decentralisation in the Republic of South Africa, with a view to consolidate the role of local institutions on the path towards democratisation and peace, as well as the realisation of effective policies and services to fight poverty and ensure access to basic services.

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training  on  developing  business  plans  and  ward-­‐based  budgeting,  to  enable  them  to   present  ward  project  proposals  to  the  municipality  and  other  potential  funders.       Communities   developed   their   own   ward   plans   that   contained   key   projects   and   related   business   plans.   These   ward   plans   were   linked   to   Buffalo   City’s   IDP.   The   initiative  enabled  participants  to  take  co-­‐ownership  (along  with  local  government)  of   implementing   and   managing   their   own   development,   thereby   claiming   their   rights   and  responsibilities  as  citizens.  Some  of  the  lessons  learned  from  the  project  include:     • Ward   representation   and   inclusivity   are   crucial   for   successfully   managing   a   WBP  process.  For  instance,  public  meetings  were  held  in  the  wards  to  explain   the   purpose   of   the   training   and   to   elect   representatives   to   attend   training   sessions.   Then,   after   the   training,   these   representatives   gave   feedback   to   the   rest  of  the  ward  to  disseminate  the  knowledge  gained  more  broadly.     • The   sustainability   of   an   initiative   needs   to   be   ensured   through   targeted   training.   • The  WBP  was  easier  to  implement  in  more  homogenous  rural  wards  than  in   more  diverse  urban  wards  with  different  income  groups.  For  example,  some   sections   (middle-­‐   and   high-­‐income   groups)   in   the   urban   ward   (ward   15)   did   not   participate   fully   in   WBP   because   they   felt   that   they   could   achieve   their   goals   by   communicating   directly   with   the   municipality.   These   groups   therefore   were   not   motivated   to   participate   and   contribute   towards   the   project.  A  differentiated  approach  would  reflect  differences  such  as  these.       Based  on  the  experience  of  the  pilot  project,  a  transferable  model  for  participatory   ward-­‐based  planning  is  currently  being  developed.  This  is  to  ensure  the  initiative  can   be  rolled-­‐out  and  replicated  in  other  wards.         Community-­‐based  planning  –  Johannesburg     In  2008  and  2009  the  City  of  Johannesburg  embarked  on  a  programme  of  intensive   citizen  consultation,  spearheaded  by  the  then  mayor,  Amos  Masondo.  The  purpose   was   to   bridge   the   divide   between   the   technocratic   planning   processes   at   City   level   and  the  needs  and  demands  of  people  at  ward  level.           The  community-­‐based  planning  (CBP)  approach  embraced  four  phases.   (1) The  internal  phase,  which  sought  to  build  commitment  to  the  process  by   political  leaders  and  senior  officials.   (2) The   outreach   phase,   where   communities   were   consulted   at   ward   level   about   local   developmental   priorities,   in   order   to   produce   meaningful   ward  plans.    

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(3)

(4)

The   iteration   phase,   which   involved   escalating   109   ward   plan   priorities   to   departmental   officials   for   consideration.   Some   plans   were   adopted,   while   others  needed  amending  or  alternative  ideas  to  be  developed.  The  ward   committees   then   reviewed   the   departmental   feedback   and   proposed   amendments  or  signed  off  the  plans.     The   negotiation   phase,   when   delicate   financial   negotiations   took   place   to   accommodate  the  community  projects  in  the  City’s  budget.            

  The   City   of   Johannesburg   eventually   adopted   and   committed   finances   to   all   community   projects   in   the   109   wards,   despite   challenging   budget   shortfalls.   Most   importantly,  the  CBP  process  demonstrated  that  community  involvement  in  complex   metropolitan   planning   is   possible   and   can   take   into   account   local   needs.   A   culture   of   robust   political   engagement   promotes   the   involvement   of   citizens,   while   the   empowerment  of  community  members  enables  them  to  engage  on  their  own  terms   and   with   greater   equality.   However,   both   officials   and   community   members   need   direction  and  support  to  make  the  process  possible  and  to  develop  a  relationship  of   trust.        

 

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CASE   STUDIES   THAT   SHOWCASE   INFRASTRUCTURE   DEVELOPMENT  IN  SOUTH  AFRICAN  METROPOLES     Caring   cities   are   efficient   and   accessible,   provide   basic   water   and   sanitation   services,   and   use   resources   in   sustainable   ways.   Improving   urban   infrastructure   is   vital,   through:   upgrading   informal   settlements,   developing   transportation   infrastructure   and   public   spaces,   implementing   urban   renewal   programmes   and   even   providing   information   technology   (IT)   facilities   to   enhance   the   social   and   economic   development   of   the   previously   disadvantaged.   Energy-­‐efficient   infrastructure   and   urban  agriculture  also  contribute  to  the  long-­‐term  sustainability  of  cities.    

Infrastructure-­‐led  Upgrading  of  Informal  Settlements   Upgrading  informal  settlements  –  Cape  Town   In   January   2010   the   City   of   Cape   Town’s   Development   Services   Department   announced   good   progress   with   an   innovative   pilot   programme   for   the   in-­‐situ   upgrade   of   five   informal   settlements   across   Cape   Town.   Four   of   the   settlements   (Monwabisi   Park,   TR   Section   and   BM   Section   in   Khayelitsha,   and   Lotus   Park   in   Gugulethu)  were  at  varying  stages  of  the  upgrade  process.  Further  consultation  was   underway  to  determine  a  fifth  pilot  site.     The  upgrading  of  an  informal  settlement  can  only  be  successful  and  sustainable  if  the   community   actively   participates   and   takes   ownership   of   their   space.   Consultation   with  the  community  also  enables  the  City  to  understand  better  how  to  use  existing   assets  in  the  settlement  for  the  upgrade  programme.       Therefore,   the   first   step   in   each   upgrade   is   the   formation   of   a   steering   committee   comprising   community   stakeholders   and   representatives   from   various   community   structures.   The   committee   is   tasked   with   identifying   community   assets   and   issues   that   retard   the   development   of   the   area.   For   example,   committee   members   are   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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trained  to  conduct  participatory  surveys.  About  10%  of  all  households  in  the  area  are   interviewed   to   gauge   their   opinions   on   the   status   quo,   the   City’s   delivery   of   basic   services  and  the  safety  of  their  neighbourhood,  and  to  identify  possible  community   contributions   to   facilitate   development.   The   results   of   the   participatory   survey   are   analysed,  and  a  community  action  plan  (CAP)  is  drafted  for  each  settlement.  The  CAP   outlines   short,   medium   and   long-­‐term   interventions   in   the   areas   of   social/cultural,   institutional,   safety   and   security   and   economic   development   to   complement   the   required  infrastructural  development.  For  example:   • short-­‐term   interventions   (mainly   ad   hoc,   urgent   issues,   such   as   clearing   stormwater  drainage  or  social  interventions);   • medium-­‐term  interventions  (such  as  installing  simple  infrastructure);  and     • long-­‐term  visions  on  how  to  transform  and  integrate  the  informal  settlement.     The  process  is  monitored  by  both  the  community  and  the  City  and  is  reviewed  on  an   annual  basis.     The   pilot   sites   are   receiving   considerable   infrastructural   upgrades,   including   improvements   to   water   and   sanitation   services,   the   transportation   network   and   other   public   infrastructure.   However,   the   upgrade   is   not   the   crux   of   the   development  but  is  governed  by  a  holistic  development  strategy.  For  example,  after   consulting   with   the   Monwabisi   Park   community,   investment   in   the   community’s   youth   was   identified   as   one   of   the   main   short-­‐term   priorities.   Working   with   the   community   leadership,   a   site   was   identified   for   an   informal   sports   field   or   “kick-­‐ about”.   The   upgrade   of   the   site   consisted   of   levelling   the   field,   hardening   the   surface,   and   installing   drainage   channels.   It   was   completed   in   August   2010,   in   partnership  with  the  Violence  Prevention  through  Urban  Upgrading  Programme.  The   City  involved  local  youth  in  the  process,  buying  old  scrap  tyres  from  them  at  a  cost  of   R2.00   each   and   using   the   tyres   to   construct   a   retaining   wall.   A   Khayelitsha-­‐based   landscaper  oversaw  the  construction,  and  only  local  labour  was  used.  The  youth  who   use  the  field  are  held  responsible  for  keeping  it  clean.     A  container  facility  being  constructed  adjacent  to  the  kick-­‐about  will  house  various   services   and   allow   for   surveillance   of   the   field.   A   community   facilitator,   liaising   between   the   community   and   the   City,   will   take   up   office   in   the   container   facility,   which   includes   a   meeting   room   and   a   caretaker’s   flat.   The   City   has   partnered   with   the   Cape   Town   Book   Fair   and   LitCAM   to   construct   a   reading   room   containing   children’s   books   and   educational   materials   for   learners   and   parents.   Ablution   facilities   for   the   block   are   under   construction   by   American   students   from   the   Worcester  Polytechnic  Institute.     A   baseline   study   in   Monwabisi   Park   showed   that   more   than   50%   of   the   toilets   in   the   community   had   been   out   of   order   over   the   previous   12   months.   To   repair   a   toilet   takes  about  four  weeks,  which  frustrates  residents  and  drains  the  city’s  maintenance   budget.   A   viable   local   solution   was   found:   the   City   has   employed   eight   Monwabisi   residents   as   community   workers,   to   carry   out   maintenance   and   cleaning   work   related  to  the  upkeep  of  toilets  and  water  taps  in  the  settlement.  The  workers  carry   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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out   daily   inspections   and   small   on-­‐the-­‐spot   repairs,   as   well   as   acting   as   ambassadors   for  basic  hygiene.     Various   City   departments   work   together   to   improve   the   living   conditions   of   Monwabisi   residents.   Early   childhood   development   (ECD)   centres   in   the   area   have   been   strengthened,   neighbourhood   watches   patrol   the   area   regularly,   youth-­‐based   programmes   and   women   empowerment   projects   are   operational,   and   the   local   leadership   has   received   training   in   organisational   development.   The   City   aims   to   increase   local   ownership   of   public   infrastructure   and   ensure   that   public   areas   are   kept   clean   and   safe.   The   community   leadership   and   the   City’s   urban   designer   are   working   on   designs   for   well-­‐lit   safe   pedestrian   walkways   through   the   area,   which   was  one  of  the  high-­‐priority  requests  of  residents  during  the  consultative  process.     The  City  of  Cape  Town  is  replicating  this  approach  in  other  informal  settlements.  A   CAP   for   TR   Section   is   in   the   process   of   being   finalised,   a   baseline   survey   for   BM   Section   of   Khayelitsha   has   recently   been   completed,   and   the   City   is   engaged   with   Lotus  Park  residents  to  draw  up  the  area’s  development  plan.   Electrification  of  informal  settlements  –  Tshwane  

  The   City   of   Tshwane   intends   spending   R323   million   to   eradicate   the   backlog   of   homes   without   electricity   in   informal   settlements.   During   his   State   of   the   City   Address   on   27   March   2012,   Tshwane’s   Executive   Mayor,   Kgosientso   Ramokgopa,   said   that   76%   of   households   without   electricity   were   in   informal   settlements   and   announced   that   ‘6   500   households   in   informal   settlements   such   as   Brazzaville,   Itereleng,  Letlolo  and  Rethuseng  will  benefit  from  the  electrification  programme’.   The   City   has   committed   R1.559   billion   over   a   period   of   five   years   to   electrification   projects.   Electrification   would   help   resuscitate   business   operations   necessary   for   job   creation  and  combating  unemployment  and  is  seen  as  a  means  to  enhance  security   in   poorer   neighbourhoods   and   to   help   reduce   crime.   Ramokgopa   said   that   an   additional   3   010   streetlights   and   30   high-­‐mast   lamps,   to   the   tune   of   R30   million,   would  be  installed  across  the  city,  including  within  informal  settlements.   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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Electrification  of  Khotsong  informal  settlement  –  Mangaung     For   many   residents   in   the   informal   settlements,   gas   and   paraffin   was   their   only   source  of  energy,  costing  over  R600  per  month  and  not  always  lasting  a  full  month.   Residents   are   also   concerned   with   the   safety   of   using   these   energy   sources,   which   are  known  to  cause  major  accidents.       A   54-­‐year-­‐old   mother   living   in   Khotsong,   Ms   Moipone   Lebusho,   has   used   paraffin   and  candles  as  sources  of  energy  and  light  for  most  of  her  life.  She  uses  an  outside   fire  to  cook  the  daily  meal  and  to  heat  a  steel  iron  that  she  uses  to  iron  her  child’s   clothes.  This  changed  in  March  2013,  when  Ms  Lebusho  and  hundreds  of  residents   from  Khotsong  had  their  households  officially  electrified  in  a  joint  operation  by  the   Department  of  Energy,  CENTLEC  and  the  Mangaung  Metropolitan  Municipality.  This   is  the  first  of  several  projects  that  will  benefit  the  people  of  Mangaung.     Reducing  contamination  of  drinking  water  –  Ekurhuleni  

  Residents   of   informal   settlements   are   accustomed   to   storing   water   in   unhygienic   containers  such  as  paint  buckets  and  paraffin  tins,  resulting  in  health  problems  and   outbreaks   of   diarrhoea,   especially   among   vulnerable   young   children   and   the   elderly.   In   August   2011   the   Ekurhuleni   Metropolitan   Municipality   launched   a   campaign   to   address  this  health  risk,  providing  25-­‐litre  quick-­‐serve  bottles  (with  a  tap  outlet)  to   residents   of   informal   settlements.   The   campaign   started   at   the   Mandela   Village   informal   settlement   in   Katlehong,   when   employees   of   the   Water   Services   Department  went  door  to  door  in  the  informal  settlement,  talking  to  residents  about   the   importance   of   hygiene   in   handling   drinking   water.   Some   staff   members   were   stationed  at  stand-­‐pipe  taps,  to  distribute  the  quick-­‐serve  bottles.  The  intervention   was   well   received,   and   there   are   plans   to   distribute   the   bottles   to   other   informal   settlements  in  Ekurhuleni.   WASSUP  –  Johannesburg   The  Water,  Amenities,  Sanitation  Services,  Upgrading  Programme  (WASSUP)  is  based   in  Diepsloot,  a  township  located  in  the  north-­‐west  of  Johannesburg.  In  2007  WASSUP   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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was   started   by   the   Global   Studio,   an   action   research   programme   in   which   a   range   of   building  professionals  collaborate  on  community-­‐based  projects.  In  consultation  with   residents  of  Diepsloot  Extension  1,  the  maintenance  of  government-­‐provided  toilets   was  identified  as  a  crucial  issue.  In  Diepsloot  Extension  1,  every  toilet  was  on  average   used  by  30  people  and  was  not  maintained,  despite  such  heavy  usage.  The  purpose   of  WASSUP  was  to  repair  and  maintain  the  toilets.     In   2010   the   WASSUP   co-­‐operative   was   registered,   with   assistance   from   the   Johannesburg   Development   Agency,   and   a   grant   from   the   Development   Bank   of   South   Africa.   It   also   received   donations   from   various   individuals   and   businesses.   The   WASSUP  co-­‐operative  initially  comprised  ten  members  involved  in  toilet  repair  and   maintenance,  which  has  now  been  reduced  to  five  members.  All  the  members  derive   their   main   income   from   the   project.   The   members   of   the   co-­‐operative   live   in   the   Diepsloot  area  and  have  dedicated  their  time  and  effort  to  creating  sustainable  work   and  to  improving  the  quality  of  the  toilets  of  the  area.       The   maintenance   of   the   toilets   involves   fixing   the   actual   toilets   and   sewage   pipes,   replacing   stolen   toilets   and   unblocking   drains.   In   2007   WASSUP   maintained   46   toilets,   increasing   to   120   toilets   in   2013.   It   has   signed   a   contract   with   the   Johannesburg  Development  Agency  to  maintain  and  repair  these  toilets  for  a  period   of  three  years.  WASSUP  occasionally  uses  a  trained  plumber,  who  trains  members  of   the  co-­‐operative  to  perform  more  technical  repairs.       WASSUP  has  also  run  awareness  campaigns  encouraging  residents  to  use  the  toilets   properly,  including  painting  on  the  walls  of  the  toilets  messages  such  as  ‘clean  me’,   ‘flush’,  and  ‘enter  the  toilet  with  dignity  and  come  out  with  dignity’.     The   co-­‐operative   has   faced   many   problems,   including   inappropriate   use   of   the   toilets,   theft   and   the   storage   of   materials.   They   have   taken   steps   to   combat   these   problems,   with   the   help   of   community   leaders   who   inform   WASSUP   when   maintenance   is   required   and   monitor   the   use   of   the   toilets.   The   support   of   the   Global   Studio   has   ensured   that   the   project   could   continue   long   after   the   initial   intervention   was   made,   while   the   City’s   financing   of   WASSUP   has   enabled   the   co-­‐ operative   to   plan   its   work   over   a   number   of   years.   Most   importantly,   the   co-­‐ operative’s  maintenance  of  the  toilets  and  sewers  of  Diepsloot  Extension  1  extends   the  life  of  these  resources,  making  them  more  cost  efficient.     The  maintenance  of  the  toilets  by  WASSUP  and  its  continued  efforts  to  improve  the   quality   of   sanitation   demonstrates   the   ability   of   citizens   to   engage   with   the   state.   Where   the   state   was   unable   to   maintain   the   toilets,   those   who   use   the   toilets   intervened.  This  has  resulted  in  improved  quality  of  sanitation,  to  the  benefit  of  the   community,  and  savings  to  the  state.        

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Transportation  Infrastructure  Development   An  intermodal  public  transport  hub  –  Mangaung   The   construction   of   an   Intermodal   Public   Transport   Facility   in   Mangaung   is   the   biggest   inner   city   regeneration   project   ever   undertaken   by   the   municipality.   On   30   March   2009   the   site   was   handed   over   to   contractors   for   the   second   phase   of   the   project.   The   Mangaung   Intermodal   Public   Transport   Facility   consists   of   four   floors   that  will  offer  the  following  amenities:   • Accommodation  for  800  taxis  within  the  building  and  for  a  further  150  long-­‐ distance  taxis  at  Bastion  Square.   • An  elevated  pedestrian  walkway  crossing  Hanger  Street,  linking  Central  Park   to  the  facility.  The  pedestrian  walkway  will  reduce  pedestrian/vehicle  conflict   and  help  prevent  pedestrian  injury.     • Access   to   a   range   of   commuter   bus   services   to   various   destinations   in   and   around  the  city,  as  well  as  to  Thaba  Nchu  and  Botshabelo.   • A  link  across  Harvey  Road  to  the  Bloemfontein  Heritage  Railway  Station.   • Long  distance  bus  operation  facilities  on  the  ground  floor.   • Three   vertical   circulation   towers,   which   will   make   it   easier   for   people   with   disabilities  to  access  all  of  the  floors.   • Cycle  lockers  to  enable  cyclists  to  lock  up  their  bicycles  and  take  a  different   mode  of  transport.   • Dedicated  metered  taxi  bays.   • Structured  hawker  facilities.   • Formal   retail   areas   on   the   ground   and   first   floors,   which   will   help   generate   rental  income  to  cover  the  building’s  maintenance  costs.     The   Transport   Facility   will   be   managed   by   a   facilities   management   company,   and   security  personnel  will  monitor  movement  on  foot  and  with  a  CCTV  system.   Rea  Vaya  transport  –  Johannesburg  

  PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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For   decades   Johannesburg   was   a   city   planned   around   the   privately   owned   car.   From   the  1950s  the  City  built  wide  roads  and  freeways  for  a  car-­‐based  transport  system,   without   little   thought   to   black   working-­‐class   residents   who   did   not   have   their   own   transport.   Taxis   evolved   to   fill   the   void   in   public   transport   for   people   commuting   from   townships   to   work,   yet   for   the   majority   of   these   commuters   living   far   from   workplaces   or   educational   institutions,   public   transport   was   costly   and   difficult,   often  involving  multiple  taxi  transfers.       In   just   five   years   –   from   1994   to   1999   –   road   traffic   in   Johannesburg   doubled.   Commuters  in  Johannesburg  faced  a  city  of  gridlock,  pollution  and  frustration,  with   an  average  trip  to  work  taking  50  minutes.  Against  this  background,  of  gridlock  and   the  need  to  address  past  inequalities,  the  groundwork  was  laid  for  the  introduction   of   the   Rea   Vaya   Bus   Rapid   Transit   (BRT)   system.   The   Rea   Vaya   BRT   System   carries   one   million   passengers   per   month   and   is   changing   the   shape   of   transport   and   the   landscape  of  Johannesburg.  It  is  designed  to  enable  smooth  transition  to  demarcated   feeder  and  complementary  lanes  reaching  into  residential  suburbs.       Implementing   the   BRT   has   been   a   multi-­‐faceted,   complex   national   project   that   has   taken  several  years  of  dedication,  commitment  and  effort.     • Phase   IA   of   Rea   Vaya   was   initiated   in   February   2009,   ahead   of   2010   Soccer   World   Cup,   and   became   fully   operational   in   February   2011.   It   provides   41   articulated  buses  and  102  standard  buses,  25  km  of  dedicated  routes,  76  km   of   feeder   and   complementary   routes,   and   30   stations   in   operation.   A   trunk   route  between  Thokoza  Park  in  Moroka  (Soweto)  and  Ellis  Park  (east  of  the   city  centre  in  Johannesburg)  is  supported  by  an  inner-­‐city  distribution  route,   five  feeder  routes  inside  Soweto,  a  route  inside  Soweto,  and  a  route  between   Meadowlands  and  Ellis  Park.     • Phase   1B   of   Rea   Vaya   will   be   completed   in   2013   with   17   km   of   track,   17   stations  and  134  buses.     • Phase  1C  will  finish  in  2015,  when  the  city  will  have  a  total  of  65  km  of  BRT   track,  67  stations  and  253  BRT  buses.     The  establishment  of  Rea  Vaya  involved  five  years  of  intensive  negotiations  between   taxi   operators   and   the   City   of   Johannesburg.   As   a   result,   585   minibus   taxis   were   removed   from   the   road   and   replaced   with   143   green   buses.   Yet   no   job   losses   resulted   from   this   transition,   as   225   former   taxi   drivers   became   bus   drivers,   while   280  former  drivers  moved  into  other  BRT-­‐related  positions.  The  company  that  runs   Rea  Vaya  is  Piotrans,  a  private  company  made  up  of  312  taxi  operators,  all  of  whom   are  shareholders.       The   replacement   of   taxis   with   energy-­‐efficient   buses   reduced   the   city’s   carbon   consumption  by  20  000  tonnes  of  carbon  dioxide  a  year,  rising  to  60  000  tonnes  after   Phases  1A  and  1B.  Buses  allow  easier  access  for  the  elderly,  children  and  people  with   disabilities   and   have   dedicated   lanes,   which   allow   for   faster   travel.   New   modern   stations  have  been  built  that  are  weather  proof  and  secure,  while  highly  controlled   scheduling  provides  for  a  more  reliable  service.       PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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Rea  Vaya  BRT  has  become  a  catalyst  for  land-­‐use  transformation  and  has  begun  to   change   Johannesburg’s   apartheid   spatial   legacy.   In   this   way   it   will   help   determine   the  future  landscape  and  shape  of  a  city.   Bicycling  Empowerment  Network  –  Cape  Town  

  In   2002   the   Bicycling   Empowerment   Network   (BEN),   a   non-­‐governmental   organisation,   was   launched   in   Cape   Town.   BEN   promotes   the   use   of   bicycles   to   address  low-­‐cost  mobility,  health  and  access  to  opportunity,  employment,  skills  and   education.  BEN  imports  used  commuter  bicycles  from  Europe,  the  USA  and  Australia   and   new   commuter   bicycles   from   China.   The   bicycles   are   assessed   for   roadworthiness  and  safety  and,  where  necessary,  are  rebuilt  using  parts  from  local   suppliers.     The  organisation  has  established  a  central  training  and  distribution  Academy  and  17   independent   bicycle   empowerment   centres   (BECs).   The   Academy   also   provides   training  to  new  interns  in  bicycle  maintenance.  The  training  is  based  on  the  idea  that   sufficient  well-­‐trained  mechanics  need  to  be  available  for  a  new  bicycling  culture  to   take   root.   Organisations   are   invited   to   send   staff   members   for   training   at   the   BEN   Academy.   The   independent   BECs   make   new   and   used   bicycles   available   for   distribution,  and  repair  and  maintain  bicycles.  The  community  in  which  each  BEC  is   situated   is   expected   to   choose   candidates   for   training   (such   as   unemployed   people).   The   basic   training   schedule   lasts   three   weeks   and   covers   bicycle   repair   and   maintenance,  basic  administration  and  book-­‐keeping,  and  managing  a  bank  account.       The  Academy  also  offers  training  programmes  and  bicycle  distribution  to  schools  and   NGOs   in   the   Western   Cape   and   further   afield,   with   a   specific   focus   on   the   disadvantaged  and  their  particular  transport  needs.  Projects  include:   • A   ‘safe   routes   to   school   and   work’   programme   that   runs   over   a   period   ranging   from   one   day   to   two   weeks.   Delegates   who   attend   the   programme   are   asked   to   complete   survey   forms   about   their   travel   patterns  and  routes.  The  results  of  these  surveys  are  fed  back  to  the  City   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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• •

authorities   to   help   them   better   plan   their   traffic   management   and   road   planning.     A   programme   for   healthcare   workers   who   receive   bicycles,   training   and   back-­‐up  support  to  address  their  transportation  needs.     The  distribution  of  commuter-­‐style  bicycles  to  schools  and  rural  districts   in  collaboration  with  the  national  Department  of  Transport.  

  BEN  is  involved  in  the  Non-­‐Motorised  Transport  (NMT)  Forum  in  Cape  Town,  which   has  the  vision  of  Cape  Town  becoming  a  world-­‐class,  cycling-­‐inclusive  city.  The  NMT   Forum   supports   the   integration   of   facilities   for   walking   and   cycling   in   every   public   transport   plan.   The   NMT   Forum   has   helped   identify   key   cycling   routes   for   Cape   Town.  

Information  and  Communications  Technology   The  Smart  Cape  Access  Project  –  Cape  Town   In   2001   the   City   of   Cape   Town   decided   to   provide   free   access   to   basic   information   and  communications  technology  (ICT)  services  to  all  citizens  of  Cape  Town,  especially   to   historically   disadvantaged   communities.   The   Smart   Cape   Access   Project   is   a   programme  to  promote  the  digital  inclusion  of  all  the  citizens  of  Cape  Town  and  to   bridge  the  digital  divide.  Currently  the  number  of  registered  users  exceeds  250  000.         A  range  of  stakeholders  were  involved  in  developing  the  initiative:   • The  Cape  Peninsula  University  of  Technology  provided  technical  skills  in  the   pilot  stage.   • A   community   group   of   users   gave   feedback   on   the   service,   enabling   initial   errors  in  the  system  to  be  smoothed  out.     • Small  business  provided  the  initial  open  source  expertise  and  related  IT  skills.       A   pilot   project   was   run   in   six   of   the   city’s   underprivileged   areas:   Brooklyn,   Delft,   Grassy  Park,  Gugulethu,  Lwandle  and  Westfleur  in  Atlantis.  After  a  feasibility  analysis   at  the  end  of  the  pilot  project,  the  decision  was  taken  to  extend  the  service  to  the   City’s  102  libraries.   In  2003  the  project  received  the  ATLA  award  and  US$1  million  in  funding  from  the   Bill   and   Melinda   Gates   Foundation.   The   Carnegie   Mellon   Foundation   has   also   promised  funding  towards  a  Smart  Cape  facility  for  every  new  library  sponsored.     The  Smart  Cape  system  bridges  the  digital  divide  by  giving  users  the  opportunity  to   teach  themselves  how  to  use  a  computer  and  to  access ��information.  Users  use  the   system  to  complete  an  assignment  by  doing  research,  type  a  CV,  find  employment,   or   use   social   networking   media   to   communicate   with   distant   family   and   friends.   Many  small  businesses  and  SMMEs  run  the  administration  of  their  businesses  from   the   Smart   Cape   terminals.   The   Smart   Cape   facility   also   allows   businesses   to   have   easier   access   to   government   tenders   and   to   Cape   Town   ACTIVA,   which   assists   in   establishing  small  businesses  (47%  of  Cape  Town  ACTIVA’s  referrals  are  from  Smart   Cape  terminals).       PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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As  space  is  a  major  constraint  in  most  libraries,  Smart  Cape  can  only  expand  when   space  becomes  available  or  libraries  have  created  space  during  a  refurbishment.  At   Uitsig,   Belhar   and   Ikhwezi,   reading   rooms   include   about   20   computers,   an   administrator’s   workstation,   a   server   and   a   printer.   Here   community   members   are   able   to   type   and   print   documents.   Once   funding   is   sourced   they   will   also   gain   access   to  internet  connectivity.  Reading  rooms  are  also  in  the  process  of  being  established   in  KTC,  Vlamboom,  Connaught  and  Nooitgedacht.       To   help   alleviate   the   space   constraints   and   waiting   times   to   use   the   facilities   (and   reduce   set-­‐up   cost),   the   Smart   Cape   services   have   been   extended   to   include   wi-­‐fi   facilities   where   required.   Users   are   allowed   to   bring   their   own   devices,   such   as   cellphones,   tablets   or   laptops,   to   access   the   internet   using   the   Smart   Cape   bandwidth.   The   implementation   of   the   wi-­‐fi   solution   means   that   more   citizens   will   have  access  to  Smart  Cape  using  their  own  devices.    

Recreation  Facilities   Green  outdoor  gyms  –  Johannesburg   South   Africa   has   been   identified   as   one   of   the   most   obese   nations   in   the   world,   with   its   city   populations   especially   at   risk   for   chronic   lifestyle   diseases,   such   as   diabetes   and   cardiac   disease.   The   Joburg   2040:   Growth   and   Development   Strategy   (GDS)   highlights  the  need  for  a  healthy  city,  emphasising  that  the  City  of  Johannesburg  can   build   awareness   of   health   issues   and   encourage   residents   to   exercise   more   and   improve  their  health.     In  2012  an  innovative  concept  in  health  was  launched  in  Petrus  Molefe  Eco-­‐Park  in   Soweto.   Outdoor   gyms   were   provided   in   a   secure   park   setting,   through   a   pilot   project   between   Johannesburg   City   Parks   Corporate   Projects   and   Tim   Hogins   of   Green  Outdoor  Gyms.  The  outdoor  gyms  provide  free  use  of  world-­‐class  equipment   and  have  proved  to  be  overwhelmingly  popular  with  Soweto  residents.  For  the  City   of  Johannesburg,  the  outdoor  gyms  bring  a  number  of  benefits:   • Residents  have  access  to  gym  facilities  that  are  close  to  home  and  affordable,   giving   them   an   opportunity   to   address   lifestyle   disease   issues   through   exercise.   • Partnership   with   a   young   city   entrepreneur   who   is   keen   to   help   people   in   disadvantaged   areas   gain   access   to   healthy   living.   The   entrepreneur   covers   the  cost  of  the  equipment,  and  maintenance  and  security  of  the  outdoor  gym   area.     • The   involvement   of   the   City   Parks   Corporate   Projects   in   the   green   outdoor   gyms  is  in  accord  with  its  strategic  mandate  of  a  green  organisation.     • Increased   number   of   users   visiting   the   Petrus   Molefe   Eco-­‐Park,   a   new   park   in   Dlamini,  Soweto.       As  of  2013  five  outdoor  green  gyms  are  in  use:  in  Petrus  Molefe  Eco-­‐Park  (Soweto),   Diepsloot  Park,  Mushroom  Farm  Park  (Sandton),  Kremetart  Park  (Eldorado  Park),  and   Protea  Glen  Park  (Soweto).  Plans  are  already  in  the  pipeline  for  further  gyms  in  Zola,   Lehae,  Meadowlands  and  Sophiatown.  An  agreement  is  in  place  between  City  Parks   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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and   Green   Outdoor   Gyms   to   provide   a   total   of   20   outdoor   gyms   and   additional   equipment  in  the  immediate  future.    

Area-­‐wide  Upgrading   Regeneration  of  Motherwell  –  Nelson  Mandela  Bay   Motherwell   is   a   township   20   kilometres   away   from   Port   Elizabeth   but   only   three   kilometres   from   Coega,   the   new   industrial   development   zone.   The   township’s   population   is   estimated   at   250  000   residents   and   unemployment   at   over   60%.   Despite  the  township’s  proximity  to  Coega,  low  levels  of  skills  exclude  much  of  the   population  from  employment.       The   Motherwell   Urban   Renewal   Programme   seeks   to   address   some   of   the   township’s  social  problems  through  three  core  programmes:     (1) physical   cluster   co-­‐ordination:   approximately   R300   million   has   been   spent   on   upgrading  housing  and  public  infrastructure.  As  a  result,  91%  of  houses  now   have   water   and   sewage   connections,   43%   of   roads   have   been   paved,   and   23%  of  streets  have  streetlights.     (2) skills   and   institutional   co-­‐ordination,   with   a   focus   on   targeted   training   and   skills   development   programmes.   The   Urban   Renewal   Programme   has   also   initiated   a   structured   engagement   with   Coega   regarding   a   learnership   programme   (see   also   the   Learnership   –   Nelson   Mandela   case   study   in   the   Case   Studies   that   Showcase   Job   Creation   Initiatives   in   South   African   Metropoles  section).   (3) local  economic  development.     One   of   the   undoubted   successes   of   the   Urban   Renewal   Programme   has   been   community  engagement:  by  2006,  more  than  15  community  and  sector  forums  were   in  existence  in  the  township.   Urban  regeneration  –  Cape  Town   The   Mayoral   Urban   Regeneration   Programme   in   Cape   Town   aims   to   uplift   areas   identified   as   neglected,   dysfunctional,   and   degenerating   rapidly,   with   a   particular   focus   on   public   spaces.   Areas   were   selected   for   the   initial   roll-­‐out   of   the   programme   based   on   the   need   to   address   inequality   in   Cape   Town   –   the   legacy   of   many   generations  of  spatial  and  economic  exclusion.  The  following  areas  were  identified:   • Manenberg,  Hanover  Park  and  Lotus  Park     • Bishop  Lavis,  Valhala  Park  and  Bonteheuwel     • Harare  and  Kuyasa  Interchange  Precinct     • Bellville  Transport  Interchange  precinct  and  the  Voortrekker  Road  corridor   • Westfleur  Business  Node  (Atlantis)     • Athlone  central  business  district     • Ocean  View     • Mitchells  Plain  town  centre       The  basis  of  the  programme  is  the  maintenance  of  public  infrastructure  and  facilities,   in   partnership   with   communities.   The   objective   is   to   stabilise   areas   and   provide   a   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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platform   for   more   effective   public   and   private   investments.   Under   the   umbrella   of   the   relevant   sub-­‐council,   area   co-­‐ordinating   teams   are   set   up,   as   a   platform   for   representatives   of   the   communities,   businesses,   non-­‐governmental   organisations   and   the   City   to   engage   on   a   regular   basis   on   issues   such   as:   maintenance   of   infrastructure,   cleansing,   law   enforcement,   informal   trader   management   and   area-­‐ based   monitoring   of   performance   and   service   delivery   levels   according   to   agreed   criteria  and  indicators.  Within  this  context,  the  City  is  introducing  an  area  approach   to   urban   development   and   management   based   on   the   successful   Violence   Prevention   through   Urban   Upgrading   (VPUU)   programme.   If   successful,   this   programme  will  be  extended  to  other  areas.  

Energy-­‐efficient  Infrastructural  Development  

  Cities   need   to   be   sensitive   to   the   challenges   of   climate   change   and   limited   water   resources,   and   reduce   their   carbon   footprint   by   using   less   polluting   alternate   technologies   such   as   solar   power   and   wind   power.   In   a   number   of   South   African   cities,   the   use   of   solar   power   technology   is   expanding,   but   much   still   needs   to   be   done  to  increase  energy  efficiency,  particularly  for  urban  public  transport.       Solar  energy  -­‐  Ekurhuleni   Ekurhuleni   has   promoted   green   power   in   a   range   of   ways,   from   installing   solar-­‐ energy   lighting   in   informal   settlements,   to   solar   energy   power   generation,   and   using   solar  water  to  heat  water  for  domestic  consumption  by  poorer  households.       In   April   2012,   the   executive   mayor   of   Ekurhuleni,   Councillor   Mondli   Gungubele,   announced  that  the  municipality  would  spend  R17.5  million  to  roll  out  solar  energy   lighting   to   7   000   households   in   Ekurhuleni’s   informal   settlements   that   were   not   going   to   be   relocated   or   upgraded   in   the   short   or   medium   term.   The   project   will   eventually   be   extended   to   other   informal   settlements.   The   10-­‐watt   lighting   units   consist  of  a  solar  panel,  a  battery  control  box  and  four  LED  lights.  The  solar  panel  is   positioned   on   the   roof   of   each   household   and   cannot   be   stolen   because   it   is   built   within  the  structure.  The  lifespan  of  the  batteries  is  three  to  five  years,  while  the  LED   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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lights  can  burn  for  up  to  100  000  hours.  A  cell-­‐phone  charging  facility  can  be  installed   with  the  solar  lighting.  The  programme  brought  relief  to  residents  who  on  average   were   spending   R13   on   candles   that   last   for   a   week   and   between   R5   and   R10   to   charge  their  cell  phones  by  paying  nearby  residents  who  have  electricity.       In   early   2011   Ekurhuleni   approved   R500   million   to   install   low-­‐pressure   solar   water   heaters  over  three  years  in  households  that  had  benefitted  from  the  government’s   low-­‐cost   housing   programme.   This   decision   aligns   with   the   national   solar   water   heating   programme,   which   aims   to   have   a   million   solar-­‐water   heaters   in   homes   across   South   Africa   by   2015.   The   households   designated   to   receive   this   benefit   in   Ekurhuleni   are   in   Daveyton,   Etwatwa,   Duduza,   Kwa-­‐Thema   and   Tsakane.   By   switching  to  solar  water  heating,  each  of  the  households  can  help  to  reduce  carbon   emissions.  A  150-­‐litre  solar-­‐water  heater,  which  is  adequate  for  two  to  three  people,   can  save  4.5  kilowatt-­‐hours  of  electricity  per  day,  or  1.6  tonnes  of  carbon  dioxide  per   year.   Solar  water  heating  and  Standard  Bank  –  Nelson  Mandela  Bay    

  Standard  Bank3  is  involved  in  a  number  of  greening  projects  not  only  in  South  Africa   but  throughout  Africa.  The  company  recently  collaborated  with  the  Nelson  Mandela   Bay   Metropolitan   Municipality   and   other   partners   in   a   solar   water   heater   programme   that   is   registered   as   a   clean   development   mechanism   (CDM).   The   programme   will   install   110  000   solar   water   heaters   in   homes   in   Nelson   Mandela   Bay   and  is  also  aligned  with  the  national  solar  water  heating  programme.     Wonderbags  for  cooking  –  eThekwini   As   part   of   its   energy-­‐saving   initiatives,   the   eThekwini   Municipality   has   distributed   3  500  Wonderbags.  The  Wonderbag  is  not  only  energy  efficient  but  fully  recyclable                                                                                                               3

Standard Bank has also taken steps to reduce the environmental impact of its business in a range of ways. These include through installing solar water heating at some of its bigger offices, encouraging the recycling of refuse, installing energy-efficient lighting, designing new offices in Rosebank (Johannesburg) in innovative ways which reduce its environmental impact, and educating its own staff on how they can green their homes. PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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and  safe  for  children  to  use.  It  comprises  two  poly-­‐cotton  bags  filled  with  expanded   polystyrene  balls.  Once  a  pot  has  been  heated,  it  is  placed  in  the  Wonderbag  where   the   cooking   process   continues   (further   heating   is   not   required).   The   Wonderbag   reduces   cooking   fuel   consumption   by   30–50%,   cuts   down   on   carbon   emissions   by   approximately   500   kg   per   year,   and   saves   at   least   13   kWh   of   electricity   and   1,6   litres   of  paraffin  per  week.  If  the  pilot  project  is  successful,  Wonderbags  will  be  distributed   to  other  areas  of  eThekwini.   Landfills:  converting  gas  to  electricity  –  eThekwini  and  Johannesburg  

  Both  eThekwini  and  Johannesburg  have  set  up  projects  to  convert  gas  derived  from   household   waste   in   landfills   to   electricity,   thereby   reducing   emissions.   Instead   of   escaping  into  the  atmosphere  each  year  and  contributing  to  global  warming,  millions   of  cubic  metres  of  greenhouse  gases  can  be  converted  into  clean  electricity.       In  2010  eThekwini  launched  a  landmark  project  with  the  aim  of  producing  sufficient   electricity   for   thousands   of   medium-­‐income   homes   and   generating   income   for   the   city   through   the   sale   of   electricity   and   certified   emission   reduction   credits.   Further   aims   include   reducing   poverty   through   creating   employment   opportunities,   improving   health   and   air   quality   by   reducing   the   release   of   harmful   greenhouse   gases,  and  contributing  to  the  country’s  skills  development  plan.  The  project  began   at   the   Mariannhill   and   La   Mercy   landfills   and   was   extended   to   the   larger   Bisasar   Road  landfill.  It  received  a  grant  of  R17.3  million  through  the  Department  of  Trade   and  Industry's  Critical  Infrastructure  Programme.  Total  project  income  revenue  was   estimated  at  R4.5  million  per  month,  realised  from  the  sale  of  carbon  credits  and  the   sale  of  electricity.     The  City  of  Johannesburg  has  also  embarked  on  plans  to  use  gas  emitted  from  its  five   major  landfill  sites  to  generate  electricity.  The  gas  will  be  transported  in  pipes  to  a   conversion  plant,  where  electricity  will  be  generated  and  then  fed  into  the  municipal   grid.  It  is  estimated  that  approximately  19MW  of  electricity  will  be  generated  from   the   project,   which  what   approximately   12   500   middle   income   households   use.   The   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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project  is  unfolding  at  the  Marie  Louise,  Robinson  Deep,  Ennerdale,  Linbro  Park  and   Goudkoppies  landfills.  The  City  appointed  a  consortium  headed  by  EnerG  Systems  to   develop   the   project.   The   decision   to   appoint   a   private   service   provider   through   a   long-­‐term   contract   was   made   in   order   to   minimise   the   substantial   initial   capital   investment  by  the  city.  The  project  will  further  provide  the  City  with  an  opportunity   to  receive  revenue  from  the  generation  of  emission  reductions  certificates  through   the  United  Nations  Framework  Convention  on  Climate  Change.   OR  Tambo  Environmental  Education  and  Narrative  Centre  –  Ekurhuleni  

  In  October  2011  the  OR  Tambo  Environmental  Education  and  Narrative  Centre  was   opened,   close   to   the   final   resting   place   of   Oliver   Tambo,   president   of   the   African   National  Congress  from  1969  to  1991.  The  centre  is  adjacent  to  the  Leeupan  water   body.   During   the   development   of   plans   for   the   Centre,   the   Department   of   Environmental  Resource  Management  had  the  task  of  cleaning  up  the  water  body  of   Leeupan   and   its   surroundings   and   of   ensuring   that   Leeupan   did   not   suffer   from   recurrent   degradation.   It   was   decided   to   use   the   development   of   the   OR   Tambo   Centre   to   educate   neighbouring   communities   on   how   to   relate   to   their   natural   environment.   The   OR   Tambo   Centre   would   become   an   ecological   prototype   that   could  be  replicated.     The  centre  was  built  using  indigenous  and  ecologically  sound  construction  methods.   For   instance,   the   walls   were   constructed   from   straw   bale   and   plastered   with   cow   dung   and   mud   by   local   women   using   traditional   building   methods,   and   recycled   materials  were  used.  Geothermic  earth  tube  technology  is  used  to  heat  and  cool  the   buildings,  while  in  summer  floor  vents  help  regulated  the  temperature.  Rainwater  is   harvested   to   water   the   indigenous   gardens   and   to   flush   the   toilets,   while   grey   water   is  recycled  and  reused  in  the  gardens.       Phase  2  of  the  project  focuses  on  the  development  of  a  park  around  Leeupan,  with   the   bio-­‐remediation   of   water   and   the   introduction   of   natural   micro-­‐organisms   to   clean   up   chemicals.   A   community   urban   agricultural   project   to   the   west   of   the   OR   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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Tambo   Centre   will   be   expanded   as   an   example   of   sustainability   within   a   planned   reserve.  When  it  is  fully  completed,  the  OR  Centre  will  comprise:   • A   narrative   centre,   housing   an   exhibition   about   OR   Tambo   and   historical   heritage.   • An   environmental   centre   to   conduct   environmental   education   and   to   highlight   effects   of   climate   change   and   environmental   degradation,   and   the   importance  of  protecting  and  conserving  the  natural  fabric  of  the  region.   • A   multi-­‐purpose   arts   and   craft   workshop   environment   for   local   crafters   to   produce,   exhibit   and   sell   their   goods,   highlighting   the   importance   of   self-­‐ sustainability   and   using   recycled   and   reclaimed   material   to   create   local   artwork.   • An   outdoor   amphitheatre   for   performing   artists,   designed   using   green   building   techniques   to   reduce   reliance   on   energy   for   cooling   and   sound   engineering.   • A  classroom  and  laboratory  for  lectures  and  hands-­‐on  experiments.   • An  environment  and  technology  library.   • A   one-­‐mile   nature   trail   that   encompasses   a   pond,   bird   and   hive   enclosure,   and  the  grassland  area  surrounding  the  OR  Tambo  Centre.   • A  show  house,  designed  using  green  building  techniques,  which  will  host  the   caretaker.   • A  live  viewing  area  with  interpretive  panels.     The  first  council-­‐owned  solar  energy  plant  in  the  country  forms  part  of  the  project.   The   plant   was   built   in   the   OR   Tambo   Precinct   in   Wattville   and,   through   860   photovoltaic   modules,   generates   200kW   of   electricity   that   feeds   into   the   existing   power  grid.  The  energy  produced  will  be  used  to  provide  electricity  to  the  OR  Tambo   Centre  as  well  as  to  the  community  of  Wattville.     Solar  power  for  heating  water  –  Johannesburg   In   October   2012   the   City   of   Johannesburg   announced   that   110   000   solar-­‐powered   geysers   would   be   installed   in   disadvantaged   communities   over   three   years.   Launched   in   Lehae,   a   fast-­‐growing,   affordable   housing   development   south   of   Johannesburg,   the   project   will   be   extended   to   Alexandra,   Vlakfontein,   Devland,   Tshepisong  and  other  areas.  The  overall  project  includes  the  supply  and  installation   of  solar  geysers  at  a  total  cost  of  R800  million,  representing  more  than  10%  of  the   government's  target  of  installing  one  million  solar  geysers  by  2014.  The  programme   is   expected   to   create   about   20   000   job   opportunities   in   the   targeted   low-­‐income   areas.    

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Efficient  fires,  reducing  pollution  –  Ekurhuleni  

  Ekurhuleni   introduced   an   innovative   coal   fire   method,   which   aims   to   reduce   pollution   and   reduce   dangers   associated   with   fires,   particularly   in   low-­‐income   households.   A   study   revealed   that   56%   of   hospital   admissions   for   respiratory   problems   in   South   Africa   result   from   domestic   coal   fires.   The   Basa   Njengo   Magogo   [make  fire  like  the  granny]  is  a  top-­‐down  method  for  starting  a  coal  fire  developed  by   Maria   Nobelungu   Mashinini   of   eMbalenhle,   Secunda.   Unlike   the   traditional   way,   the   innovative   method   involves   laying   down   coal   first,   followed   by   paper   and   wood,   and   then   lighting   the   fire.   The   fire   can   be   started   in   an   imbawula   (hand-­‐made   movable   stove),   which   means   it   is   ready   to   use   much   sooner.   It   saves   on   coal   and   reduces   energy   costs,   as   the   fire   burns   longer,   and   has   health   benefits   because   of   reduced   smoke  emissions.  The  method  is  to  be  rolled  out  in  Gauteng,  Mpumalanga  and  the   Free  State,  where  coal  use  is  highest.    

Urban  Agriculture     Urban  farming  has  the  potential  to  enhance  resource  resilience  by  effectively  using   City  land  that  would  otherwise  stand  vacant.  Urban  agriculture  also  requires  fewer   resources   to   transport   produce   from   where   it   is   grown   to   where   it   is   sold.   South   African  cities  have  made  limited  progress  in  improving  food  security  and  supporting   urban   agriculture,   but   a   number   of   projects   show   promise   and   suggest   that   urban   agriculture  can  be  of  real  benefit  to  the  poor.        

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Consolidating  urban  agriculture  –  Buffalo  City  

  Agriculture  represents  only  a  small  share  of  Buffalo  City’s  GDP  (1%  in  2010).  Yet  the   sector  has  the  potential  to  grow  and  provide  economic  development  opportunities   for   disadvantaged   groups,   particularly   women.   The   majority   of   emerging   crop   farmers  and  agriculture  co-­‐operatives  within  the  metropolitan  area  are  women  who   contribute  60–80%  of  the  agricultural  labour.       With   the   assistance   of   NETSAFRICA4,   in   2009   Buffalo   City   set   up   a   pilot   tunnel   and   hydroponics   project   in   Mdantsane,   growing   table-­‐quality   tomatoes.   Three   existing   registered   agricultural   co-­‐operatives   in   the   Mdantsane   area   (Sakisizwe,   Gqala   and   Buffalo   City   Organic   Producers)   grow   and   harvest   tomatoes   in   hydroponic   tunnels.   The   co-­‐operatives   are   helped   to   become   commercially   sustainable   through   infrastructural,   equipment,   operational,   technical   and   administrative   support.   A   permanent   Round   Table   was   established   where   information   could   be   shared,   a   network  and  linkages  among  members  created,  and  initiatives  defined  for  promoting   the   local   agricultural   production.   A   fully-­‐fledged   pack   shed   facility   was   built   in   Mdantsane  where  produce  could  be  graded,  sorted  and  marketed.  Previously  the  co-­‐ operatives   had   used   an   external   service,   which   costs   up   to   50%   of   the   income   derived  from  produce,  thus  hindering  the  economic  viability  of  the  business.       The   project   showed   that   to   unlock   the   potential   of   agricultural   co-­‐operatives   requires:   targeted   capacity-­‐building   interventions,   dialogue   between   all   stakeholders,  and  co-­‐ordinated  support  and  strategic  investments.   Community  support  farms  –  eThekwini   The   eThekwini   Expanded   Public   Works   Programme   (EPWP)   spearheaded   a   programme   of   growing   vegetables   for   the   needy   in   the   Illovu   Township,   south   of   Durban.   Through   the   programme,   community   support   farms   are   encouraged   to                                                                                                              

4 NETSAFRICA aim is to assist Buffalo City in upgrading the capacity of urban agriculture co-operatives so that they can be commercially sustainable.

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produce   vegetables   and   give   part   of   their   produce   to   vulnerable   families   in   the   spirit   of  ubuntu.  Beneficiaries  include  orphans  and  child  and  granny-­‐headed  households.         In  March  2011  a  South  Durban  food  garden  and  biodiversity  project  has  proved  to  be   very  successful.  The  brainchild  of  the  South  Durban  Basin  Area-­‐based  Management   Department,  the  project  targeted  more  than  50  learners  from  Clairwood  Secondary   School   and   Durban   South   Girls   Primary   School   and   created   more   than   ten   permaculture  food  gardens.   Support  for  urban  agriculture  –  Tshwane   In   collaboration   with   stakeholders   such   as   the   Gauteng   Department   of   Agriculture   and   Rural   Development,   the   Agricultural   Research   Council,   the   Tshwane   University   of   Technology,   the   national   Department   of   Agriculture,   Forestry   and   Fisheries,   and   private  companies,  the  City  of  Tshwane  provides  support  to  three  categories:   (1) Household   food   production   through   the   expanded   provision   of   agricultural   starter  packs,  and  training  and  capacity  programmes  to  households  with  food   gardens.     (2) Community   projects   through   the   provision   of   agricultural   starter   packs,   training   and   capacity   programmes,   on-­‐farm   infrastructure   development,   access   to   the   market   and   finance,   as   well   as   mechanisation   schemes.   For   example,   the   Olievenhoutbosch   Centre   for   the   Disabled   received   assistance   for  its  vegetable  garden.     (3) Emerging   farmers   through   training   and   capacity-­‐building   programmes,   a   mechanisation  scheme  and  sustainable  agricultural  villages.  A  good  example   is   the   technical   and   market   facilitation   support   given   to   Winterveld   citrus   farmers.     When  assessing  who  should  be  assisted,  the  factors  taken  into  account  include  the   feasibility  of  the  operation,  the  number  of  beneficiaries  (the  more,  the  better),  the   potential   for   positive   socioeconomic   impact,   the   environmental   impact,   and   the   availability  of  water.     Greening  of  the  inner  city  –  Johannesburg   The  Food  Gardens  Foundation  (FGF)  was  established  in  Soweto  after  the  1976  riots   against   the   apartheid   government,   with   the   aim   of   teaching   people   how   to   grow   their  own  food.  The  organisation  has  recently  expanded  its  work  into  the  inner  city   of  Johannesburg,  to  set  up  food  gardens  that  provide  fresh  produce  for  the  school   feeding  schemes.  With  the  support  of  Danone  South  Africa,  the  FGF  is  assisting  more   than   50   disadvantaged   schools   to   set   up   food   gardens   and   providing   training   to   ensure  their  sustainability.       Since   2009   the   FGF   has   also   helped   to   green   the   Johannesburg   inner   city   in   partnership   with   the   Johannesburg   Housing   Company,   through   the   Makhulong   A   Matala  project,  which  enables  people  living  in  the  inner  city  to  grow  food  in  vacant   spaces  on  roof  tops.  The  FGF  helps  establish  these  gardens  and  provides  training  to   those  who  are  to  maintain  the  gardens.    

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Bertrams  Food  Garden  –  Johannesburg   In  2007  the  Bertrams  Food  Garden  was  started  as  an  initiative  between  the  City  of   Johannesburg  and  the  Bambanani  Food  and  Herb  Co-­‐operative.  Its  specific  purpose   was  to  convert  two  bowling  greens  into  a  sustainable  garden  that  would  be  used  to   provide  food  to  the  local  community  and  to  non-­‐governmental  organisations  (NGOs).   The  City  of  Johannesburg  provides  free  municipal  water  and  guarantees  the  use  of   the   land.   The   co-­‐operative   currently   consists   of   six   members,   three   of   whom   work   regularly  in  the  garden.  The  garden  sells  produce  to  community  members,  to  a  local   grocery   chain   and   at   an   organic   vegetable   market   once   a   week.   Plans   include   assisting  the  local  community  by  allowing  vulnerable  people  to  assist  in  the  garden   (as   part   of   their   therapy)   and   giving   produce   to   crèches   in   the   area,   as   well   as   developing   a   rainwater   harvesting   system   on   adjacent   buildings,   to   reduce   the   garden’s  use  of  piped  water.     Urban  Agriculture  Support  Programme  –  Cape  Town   Initiated   in   2001,   the   Urban   Agriculture   (UA)   Support   Programme   provides   urban   food   producers   with   practical   assistance.   Such   assistance   includes   access   to   land,   tools   and   equipment,   operational   inputs   (seeds   and   compost)   and   mentoring,   training  and  advice.  Individuals  and  communities  are  enabled  to  grow  their  own  food   and  thereby  to  improve  their  household  food  security  and  nutrition  status,  as  well  as   generating  a  survival  income.       The   programme   is   guided   by   the   Urban   Agriculture   Policy   of   the   City   (2007)   and   strategic   development   agenda.   In   the   2012/13   financial   year   the   City   set   aside   a   budget  of  about  R1m  for  the  UA  Support  Programme.  The  programme  and  policy  are   driven   by   the   City’s   Economic   Development   Department   in   collaboration   with   a   host   of   internal   departments   (Social   Development,   City   Parks,   Environmental   Management   and   Property)   and   external   stakeholders   (Department   of   Agriculture,   NGOs  and  the  private  sector).       The  beneficiaries  of  the  programme  are  the  poorest  of  the  poor,  and  currently  500   people   in   10   communities   are   targeted   each   year.   Some   of   the   benefits   of   the   UA   Support  Programme  have  been:   • A  growing  awareness  among  the  poor  of  the  positive  impacts  and  benefits  of   urban  agriculture  and  of  growing  their  own  food   • The  re-­‐emergence  of  a  culture  of  food  gardening  in  the  city     • The   development   of   an   urban   agriculture   policy   for   the   City   of   Cape   Town,   which  gives  urban  agriculture  a  formal  land-­‐use  status  in  the  city.       Since  2001  approximately  3  000  food  growers  in  Cape  Town  have  benefited  from  the   programme.  The  UA  Support  Programme  has  generated  international  collaboration   and  sharing  of  expertise,  knowledge  and  information,  with  the  Netherlands,  Kenya,   Zimbabwe   and   Canada.   The   Support   Programme   has   strong   working   relations   with   the  Western  Cape  Provincial  Department  of  Agriculture  regarding  their  food  security   programme  and  small  farmer  development  programme.    

 

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CASE   STUDIES   THAT   SHOWCASE   SOCIAL   SUPPORT   IN   SOUTH   AFRICAN  METROPOLES     Caring  cities  are  nurturing  places,  where  holistic  social  support,  advocacy  and  relief   are   offered   especially   to   the   most   vulnerable.   Social   support   needs   to   be   rationalised   and  well  co-­‐ordinated,  so  that  interventions  can  have  the  most  significant  impact  on   urban  poverty.    

Social  Protection   Support  for  the  poor  –  Buffalo  City   In   November   2012   Buffalo   City   began   a   campaign   to   register   more   than   70   000   indigent   residents   who   earn   less   than   R2,400   per   month.   After   registration   on   the   database,  indigent  residents  will  qualify  for  a  monthly  subsidy  of  R306.79  that  will  be   applied   to   their   municipal   accounts,   including   sewage,   rates,   fire   levy,   water   and   refuse  collection.  To  qualify  for  the  subsidy  scheme,  applicants  need  to  live  at  a  fixed   address,   have   a   valid   South   African   identity   document,   produce   three   months   of   bank  statements  or  a  pension  card,  and  have  a  signed  letter  from  a  ward  councillor.    

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Expanded  Social  Package  –  Johannesburg      

  The  City  of  Johannesburg  has  implemented  a  social  intervention  programme  called   the   Expanded   Social   Package   (ESP),   which   is   also   known   as   the   Siyasizana   Programme.  The  ESP  comprises  a  core  set  of  social  interventions,  which  include  the   existing  social  package  as  well  as  additional  interventions  designed  to  promote  social   mobility   and   transition   out   of   poverty.   The   ESP   includes   a   free   allocation   of   water   and   electricity,   as   well   as   subsidies   of   up   to   100%   on   rates   and   sanitation,   and   preferential   access   to   Job   Pathways,   an   employment   programme   run   by   the   City.   There  are  also  plans  to  implement  transport  and  rent  subsidies.  The  ESP  takes  into   account   individuals   with   conditions   that   may   warrant   increased   support,   such   as   HIV/AIDS,  disability  and  single  parenthood.     To   target   those   in   need,   Johannesburg   uses   a   city-­‐level   poverty   index   created   by   the   Human   Sciences   Research   Council   (HSRC)   and   Centre   for   the   Analysis   of   South   African   Social   Policy   at   the   University   of   Oxford.   The   ESP   is   linked   to   national   databases,   allowing   access   to   information   about   citizens   using   their   identification   number,  which  assists  in  the  targeting  of  individuals.       In  September  2011,  a  Social  Service  Request  system  was  introduced  to  augment  the   ESP.   This   system   is   designed   to   manage   registration   for   property-­‐linked,   pro-­‐poor   service   rebates   more   carefully.   Using   SMS   technology,   it   also   digitally   links   those   with  specific  needs  to  services  delivered  by  City  departments,  government  agencies   and   non-­‐profit,   non-­‐governmental   and   community-­‐based   groups.   (All   non-­‐profit   organisations  registered  with  the  City  for  rebates,  grant  funding  or  other  support  are   automatically  enrolled  in  the  system  as  potential  referral  partners.)       The  new  system  makes  it  easier  to  connect  those  who  are  not  City  account  holders   with   rebates   that   they   are   entitled   to   under   the   ESP.   For   example,   the   system   includes  features  that  enable  landlords  in  large  apartment  blocks  to  pass  benefits  on   to  their  poor  tenants,  as  well  as  a  faster  process  for  creating  a  digitally  searchable  CV   in   the   Job   Pathways   programme.   With   110   active   individual   registration   stations,   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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when   operating   at   full   capacity,   the   system   can   conservatively   manage   1.2   million   individual   registrations   and   re-­‐registrations   per   year.   For   the   first   time   the   system   creates  a  total  view  of  both  citizens’  needs  and  the  capacity  of  government  and  its   partners  to  respond.         Support  for  the  indigent  –  Tshwane   Since  2010  Tshwane  has  been  registering  indigent  households  in  order  to  assist  them   with   social   packages   that   provide   free   12   kilolitres   of   water   and   100   kilowatts   of   electricity   per   month,   twice   the   amounts   recommended   by   national   government.   The  city  intends  registering  150  000  indigent  households  by  2016.    

Support  for  Homeless  and  Indigent  People   Reintegrating  street  people  –  Cape  Town     The   plight   of   the   homeless,   particularly   during   the   cold   and   wet   winter   months,   is   of   particular  concern  to  many  in  Cape  Town.  The  City  of  Cape  Town’s  policy  for  street   people  aims  to  reduce  the  number  of  individuals  living  on  the  streets  and  reintegrate   them  into  communities  through  partnering  with  NGOs  and  other  organisations.  It  is   an  important  component  of  the  City’s  commitment  to  ensuring  that  Cape  Town  is  a   caring  and  inclusive  city.     In  late  2012  the  City  of  Cape  Town  announced  the  opening  of  three  new  assessment   centres  to  provide  assistance  and  rehabilitation  for  the  homeless,  in  association  with   various   NGOs,   bringing   the   number   of   assessment   centres   in   the   city   to   six   (in   Bellville,  central  Cape  Town,  Muizenberg,  Observatory,  Strand  and  Table  View).  Plans   were  under  way  to  open  another  two  centres.  The  partnerships  are  facilitated  by  the   city's   Homeless   Agency   Committee   (HOMAC).   At   the   assessment   centres,   street   people   receive   emergency   shelter   and   professional   assessment   of   their   needs,   to   enable   them   to   access   services   that   will   help   in   their   rehabilitation.   Other   steps   taken   to   address   the   homeless   issue   included   a   city-­‐wide   survey   of   the   number   of   street  people,  the  key  locations  where  they  live  and  why  they  are  on  the  streets;  the   appointment   of   field   workers   to   assist   street   people;   the   Cape   Town   Cares   –   Give   Responsibly   campaign;   and   extra   support   for   the   Winter   Programme,   which   assists   shelters  and  organisations  over  the  winter  months.   Assisting  the  destitute  and  vulnerable  on  the  streets  –  Johannesburg   In   Johannesburg,   a   Christian   social   development   organisation   called   MES   assists   vulnerable  or  destitute  individuals  and  families,  empowering  them  through  a  holistic   service   model.   Founded   as   a   feeding   programme   in   inner-­‐city   Johannesburg   in   1986,   the   organisation   has   moved   away   from   spreading   the   gospel   through   upliftment   towards   walking   alongside   vulnerable   people   on   their   journey.   MES   challenges   individuals   to   take   responsibility   for   their   lives   and   works   with   them   so   that   they   become  reintegrated  members  of  the  community.       Outreach   workers   connect   with   and   assess   the   needs   of   destitute   people   by   going   into   abandoned   buildings,   parks   and   alleyways   by   day   and   at   night.   MES   mobile   clinics,   drop-­‐in   centres   and   feeding   schemes   help   establish   contact   with   potential   clients   and   build   a   trusting   relationship.   Destitute   individuals   are   invited   to   a   meal   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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and   service   at   the   B   G   Alexander   Centre   where   the   service   focuses   on   health   awareness   and   a   dialogue   about   what   it   means   to   be   living   on   the   streets.   Once   contact   has   been   established,   a   MES   social   worker   assesses   the   client   so   that   an   appropriate  intervention  can  be  planned.       MES   employs   four   full-­‐time   social   workers   and   takes   on   an   average   of   400   cases   a   month   at   the   BG   Alexander   Centre.   The   first   intervention   is   to   get   the   individuals   off   the   streets   into   a   shelter   where   they   are   cleaned   up,   given   blankets   and   clothes   and   offered   training   in   life   skills   over   three   months,   in   areas   such   as   conflict   and   anger   management,  managing  health,  budgeting,  building  hopes  and  dreams,  and  planning   for  a  future.  The  University  of  Johannesburg  undertakes  computer  training  courses   for  MES  clients,  while  other  organisations  provide  training  in  plumbing,  upholstering,   wood   work,   security   and   administration.   The   MES   experience   is   that   it   takes   about   a   year   from   the   initial   clean   up   and   counselling   for   individuals   to   be   in   a   position   to   sustainably  exit  the  system.       Job   placement,   follow-­‐up   and   after-­‐care   services,   and   the   availability   of   affordable   accommodation   help   ensure   the   sustainable   exit   of   clients   from   the   MES   programme.   The   ultimate   goal   of   MES   is   that   when   clients   exit   the   programme,   they   are   able   to   implement   the   tools   they   have   been   provided   with,   take   responsibility,   make   informed   decisions,   uphold   acceptable   moral   values,   and   develop   further   with   a  positive  self-­‐image.   Residential  care  for  the  vulnerable  –  Johannesburg   Madulammoho   Housing   Association   (MHA)   ia   a   non-­‐profit   social   housing   company   that   provides   clean,   safe   and   affordable   housing   to   low-­‐income   communities   in   Johannesburg.   In   particular,   the   MHA   provides   for   the   residential   needs   of   clients   transitioning   and   exiting   the   MES   programme.   MHA   currently   manages   a   range   of   residential  projects  around  the  city:   • New   Europa   House:   11   transitional   units,   48   communal   units,   14   self-­‐ contained  bachelor  suites  and  a  120  bed,  24-­‐hour  emergency  shelter   • New  Regent  House:  58  communal  housing  units   • The  B.G.  Alexander  Centre:  400  units   • New   El   Kero   House:   142   communal   housing   units   and   28   self-­‐contained   bachelor  units   • Allenby  House:  119  units   • Resdoc   House:   60   communal   housing   units   and   4   self-­‐contained   bachelor   units   • Cornelius  House:  67  transitional  units  and  14  communal  units.     MHA  is  also  developing  three  new  projects:  Esselen  Heights  (42  two  bedroom  units   and   54   bachelor   units),   Fleurhof   (90   bachelor   and   196   two   bed   units)   and   Jabulani   Views  in  Soweto  (140  bachelor  units  and  160  two  bedroom  units).  

Healthcare   South   African   cities   can   address   the   health   needs   of   their   residents   in   many   creative   ways.   For   instance,   delivering   health   messages   in   an   enjoyable   and   informative   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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manner   at   public   events   or   making   health   services   accessible   to   the   most   vulnerable   by   building   clinic   infrastructure   in   previously   under-­‐resourced   areas   or   by   using   mobile  clinics.     Using  sport  to  increase  HIV/AIDS  awareness  –  Buffalo  City   In  April  2012,  under  the  theme  ‘First  Things  First’,  a  Red  Card  sports  tournament  was   held  at  Jan  Smuts  Stadium,  targeting  youth  between  the  age  of  16  and  25  years.  An   initiative   of   Buffalo   City,   local   higher   learning   institutions   and   religious   groups,   the   aim   of   the   tournament   was   to   increase   HIV/AIDS   awareness   and   encourage   voluntary   counselling   and   testing.   The   programme   seeks   to   promote   the   involvement   of   young   students,   especially   men,   in   preventing   HIV,   sexually   transmitted  infections,  tuberculosis  and  unwanted  pregnancies.  It  is  hoped  that  the   tournament  can  be  repeated  annually  to  reinforce  effective  HIV/AIDS  messaging.   A  door-­‐to-­‐door  HIV/AIDS  awareness  campaign  –  Johannesburg  

  The  City  of  Johannesburg’s  iJozi  Ihlomile  HIV/AIDS  awareness  campaign  is  reaching  at   least   26   townships.   This   door-­‐to-­‐door   campaign   was   created   in   2005   to   assist   the   City  in  raising  awareness  about  the  disease  in  the  community.  The  programme  is  run   by  out-­‐of-­‐school  youth  who  have  been  trained  to  go  from  door  to  door  educating  the   public   about   sexually   transmitted   diseases,   how   to   prevent   mother-­‐to-­‐child   transmission   of   HIV,   and   the   importance   of   practising   safer   sex.   In   2013   the   City   allocated  a  R5,6  million  grant  from  the  Gauteng  Provincial  Department  of  Health  to   the  iJozi  Ihlomile  campaign.  Since  its  inception,  the  programme  has  touched  the  lives   of  more  than  2.4  million  people,  including  10  000  orphaned  children.   Revamped  mobile  clinics  –  Msunduzi   Msunduzi   Municipality   has   spent   more   than   R100   million   on   improving   the   City’s   fleet  of  mobile  clinics.  Most  of  the  vehicles  were  designed  in  the  1980s  and  could  not   travel  to  some  of  the  more  remote  areas  of  the  municipality  where  the  terrain  was   difficult.   The   revamped   vehicles   offer   improved   services,   additional   space   for   examinations  (able  to  accommodate  two  patients  at  a  time)  and  greater  privacy.  The   intervention  is  a  collaboration  with  the  provincial  Department  of  Health  and  forms   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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part   of   the   plans   to   prepare   for   the   implementation   of   the   National   Health   Insurance.   A   comprehensive   package   of   primary   healthcare   services   will   be   available   from   the   mobile   clinics,   which   are   fitted   with   electrical   power   and   water   sources,   and  have  low  fuel  consumption.  Through  the  mobile  clinics,  Msunduzi  hopes  to  be   able  to  improve  on  cancer  and  TB  screenings  in  areas  without  a  fixed  clinic  facility.   A  clinic  for  men  –  Johannesburg  

  The   Alexandra   Men's   Clinic   is   the   only   one   of   its   kind   in   Gauteng   and   is   aimed   at   managing  sexually  transmitted  infections  (STIs)  among  men.  It  was  runner  up  in  the   Innovative   Service   Delivery   Institutions   category   at   the   Centre   for   Public   Service   Innovation  Awards  and  was  nominated  for  the  first-­‐round  evaluation  of  the  United   Nations  Public  Service  Awards.     The  clinic  was  established  in  2005  as  a  partnership  between  the  Health  Department   of   the   City’s   Region   E   and   the   Centre   for   HIV   and   STIs   in   the   National   Health   and   Laboratory   Service.   A   survey   conducted   in   Alexander   found   that   men   with   STIs   are   generally   not   comfortable   with   being   treated   by   female   nurses   and   chose   instead   to   live   with   untreated   STIs,   which   results   in   the   continued   spread   of   STIs.   The   clinic   addresses   the   reality   that   men   attend   conventional   sexual   health   facilities   far   less   frequently   than   women   by   being   staffed   by   male   nurses   and   support   staff.   The   clinic   has  made  significant  progress  in  the  reduction  of  STIs  among  men  in  the  township  of   Alexandra,   while   an   increasing   number   of   youth   with   STIs   are   reporting   to   the   clinic.   The   clinic   also   caters   for   patients   referred   to   it   by   other   health-­‐care   centres   in   the   province.  

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Antiretroviral  treatment  clubs  –  Cape  Town    

  The   ART   model   needed   rethinking,   as   the   increasing   number   of   patients   on   antiretroviral   treatment   (ART)   using   public   clinic   facilities   was   creating   congestion.   Médecins   Sans   Frontières   (MSF),   a   non-­‐governmental   organisation   involved   in   healthcare  worldwide,  piloted  ART  treatment  clubs  at  Ubuntu  Clinic  in  Khayelitsha.   Patients   are   allocated   to   a   group   (maximum   size   30   members)   that   meets   every   second   month   and   is   facilitated   by   a   doctor   or   nurse.   At   each   visit,   members   are   clinically  assessed  (by  weight  and  symptom  screen),  participate  in  a  group  support  or   educational   activity,   and   are   issued   with   two   months’   pre-­‐dispensed   medication.   They  leave  the  clinic  in  under  an  hour.  The  club  facilitator  refers  any  club  members   with   symptoms,   weight   loss   or   other   clinical   problems   to   the   club   nurse   for   an   individual  consultation  on  the  same  day.  If  necessary,  they  are  referred  to  a  doctor   for   further   individual   care.   Patients   are   also   free   to   request   an   individual   consultation   with   a   lay   counsellor   if   they   wish   to   do   so.   The   increase   in   patient   satisfaction   has   resulted   in   better   clinic   attendance   and   improved   adherence   to   treatment.       In   December   2010   the   municipal   health   department,   in   partnership   with   the   provincial   Department   of   Health,   the   Institute   for   Healthcare   Improvement   (IHI)   and   MSF   rolled   out   the   ART   club   model   to   17   facilities   in   the   city.   IHI   provided   a   ‘breakthrough  series’  model,  which  allowed  staff  from  the  facilities  to  learn  how  to   apply   the   model   over   an   18-­‐month   period,   with   mentorship   support.     A   ‘Plan,   Do,   Study,   Act’   cycle   was   used   to   work   through   challenges,   and   staff   members   were   encouraged   to   find   their   own   solutions   to   implementing   and   running   clubs.   By   the   end  of  December  2012,  37  participating  clinic  facilities  were  running  more  than  600   clubs,   with   at   least   16   000   patients   receiving   care   in   this   way.   Over   16%   of   all   patients  who  received  ART  at  primary-­‐care  facilities  in  the  City  of  Cape  Town  were   provided   with   care   through   the   club   system.   At   some   facilities   more   than   30%   of   patients  received  their  care  in  ART  clubs.     This  project  provides  caring  on  multiple  levels:   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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• • • •

Clinic  staff  members  are  involved  in  setting  up  the  clubs  and  get  satisfaction   from  seeing  patients  so  happy  with  the  system.     Healthcare   workers’   skills   are   used   more   appropriately,   as   moving   patients   into  clubs  means  a  less  congested  service  on  a  day-­‐to-­‐day  basis.     Patients  transferred  to  the  clubs  report  high  satisfaction  with  a  system  that   caters  for  their  needs  and  reduces  waiting  times.     HIV-­‐positive   patients   in   the   routine   clinic   system   are   motivated   to   become   eligible  for  a  club  by  adhering  to  their  treatment  regimens.  

  MSF   has   developed   materials   on   how   to   run   the   club   system,   which   are   available   on   its   website,   so   that   anyone   can   start   a   similar   project   of   their   own.   In   February   2013   the  Western  Cape  hosted  an  outreach  learning  session  to  four  other  municipalities  in   the   country   (Johannesburg,   Durban,   George   and   East   London)   to   share   the   lessons   learned  through  this  project.  The  project  received  an  Impumelelo  Platinum  Award  in   September  2012,  and  reached  the  final  round  of  the  UN  Public  Service  Awards.  

Empowerment  and  Support  of  Women   Coaching  for  hope  –  Cape  Town   In  2010  NGOs  and  the  City  of  Cape  Town  formed  a  partnership  to  empower  women   and  girls  through  football.  Coaching  for  Hope  is  a  partnership  between  international   NGO  Skillshare  International  and  six  local  NGOs  (including  Isiqalo  Foundation,  Bread   for   Life,   Making   an   Impact   Through   Sport   and   Amandla   Edu-­‐Football).   The   partnership   arose   from   the   idea   to   use   sport   and   recreation   as   a   tool   for   community   development   and   the   need   to   empower   women   and   girls.   Programmes   focus   on   women   and   girls   playing   football   on   artificial   pitches.   The   Department   of   Sport   assisted   by   constructing   six   artificial   five-­‐a-­‐side   pitches   across   the   city,   and   30   coaches  were  procured  through  the  Expanded  Public  Works  Programme.           So   far   the   partnership   has   targeted   six   communities,   and   approximately   300   women   and  girls  now  take  part  in  the  Coaching  for  Hope  programme  weekly.  It  is  hoped  that   the   project   will   lead   to   the   establishment   of   female   football   clubs,   which   will   eventually  be  run  and  sustained  by  the  communities  themselves.  Most  promisingly,   even   though   the   Coaching   for   Hope   programme   has   only   been   running   for   a   short   while,  a  representative  female  team  recently  participated  in  an  international  football   festival  in  Turkey.  

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Challenging  violence  against  women  –  Johannesburg    

  After   widespread   xenophobic   incidents   in   May   2008,   the   Gender   Based   Violence   Project   (GBVP)   at   the   Centre   for   the   Study   of   Violence   and   Reconciliation,   University   of   the   Witwatersrand,   held   workshops   to   raise   awareness   of   violence   against   migrant   and   refugee   women   at   various   centres   in   Gauteng,   including   the   Central   Methodist   Church   in   central   Johannesburg.   The   Central   Methodist   Church   has   long   been  a  popular  refuge  for  thousands  of  Zimbabweans  and  other  refugees.  During  a   training  session,  it  became  clear  that  women’s  experiences  of  violence  extended  far   beyond  xenophobia-­‐related  violence,  to  include  domestic  and  sexual  violence  (even   within   the   Church   itself).   Twelve   members   of   the   Methodist   Church   community   formed   a   group   –   Wo(Men)   on   the   Move   –   and   undertook   to   act   as   monitors   of   violence   against   women   at   the   church.   The   monitors   underwent   comprehensive   training  on  gender-­‐based  violence  and  torture  and  subsequently  established  a  help   desk  at  the  church  for  women  who  are  victims  of  violence  and  survivors  of  torture.       Region  E  of  the  Community  Works  Programme  (CWP)  launched  the  2day  he  bought   her  flowers  campaign  in  response  to  the  brutal  murder  of  a  female  participant  in  the   CWP  by  her  husband  and  to  the  high  prevalence  of  violence  against  women  in  the   area.   The   CWP   is   based   in   Alexandra,  atownship   north   of   Johannesburg.   The   social   mobilisation   campaign   aims   to   organise   society   against   the   scourge   of   violence   against  women.  The  emphasis  is  on  preventing  abuse,  although  the  criminal  justice   system  also  needs  to  be  more  accessible  and  consumer  friendly  for  women  who  had   experienced  violence.  The  community  is  sensitised  about  domestic  violence  through   workshops,   circle   dialogues   and   marches   every   three   months.   At   circle   dialogues,   both   men   and   women   sit   in   a   circle   and   have   frank,   facilitated   discussions   about   domestic  violence  –  56  male  and  female  facilitators  have  been  trained  to  run  circle   dialogues.   Since   the   launch   of   the   campaign,   people   in   Alexandra   have   begun   to   talk   more  about  the  escalating  violence  against  women,  children  and  the  elderly.  Support   for   the   campaign   is   spreading   in   the   broader   community:   a   number   of   taxi   drivers   have   joined   and   partnerships   formed   with   the   South   African   Police   Service,   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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Agisanang   Domestic   Abuse   Prevention   and   Training,   and   the   Bombani   Shelter   for   Abused  Women  and  Children.    

Educational  and  Training  Support   An  ubuntu  partnership:  Masicorp  –  Cape  Town  

  Founded  in  1999,  Masicorp    is  a  community-­‐based  NGO  that  aims  to  benefit  the  poor   and   disadvantaged   residents   of   Masiphumelele,   a   township   of   38   000   people   on   the   Cape   Peninsula.   Masicorp   believes   that   ‘Education   is   the   route   out   of   poverty’   and   uses  60  volunteers  to  run  a  wide  range  of  projects.  These  include:   • A   community   library   and   learning   resource   centre   in   Masiphumele,   which   Masicorp   built   and   then   bequeathed   to   the   City   of   Cape   Town.   In   2012   the   library   loaned   out   more   than   40  000   books   and   offered   more   than   20   educational  programmes.     • The   Seedlings   ECD   project,   which   aims   to   provide   ECD   facilities   to   all   2  500   young  children  in  the  township.     • Teacher   training   and   support   in   English   and   science,   physical   education   coaches   and   equipment,   a   classroom-­‐makeover   project   and   school   management  support  at  Ukhanyo  Primary  School.     • The   maths   and   science   Saturday   club   at   Masiphumelele   High   School,   which   offers  support  to  more  than  120  learners  each  week  through  a  qualified  tutor   assisted  by  volunteer  teachers.     • A   university   student   bursary   programme,   which   currently   supports   22   students   from   Masiphumelele.   Recent   graduates   include   a   mechanical   engineer,   a   marketing   manager,   a   bio-­‐technologist,   a   B.Com   graduate,   an   accountant  and  a  maths  teacher.   • The   establishment   of   English…please!,   an   English   language   and   literacy   programme   for   30   Masiphumelele   learners   that   is   offered   at   nearby   Fish   Hoek  Primary  School.  The  programme  assists  learners  who  are  struggling  with   English  to  catch  up  with  their  classmates.    

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The   Evangeline   women’s   life   skills   programme,   which   offers   training   each   year   to   48   women,   many   affected   by   HIV/   AIDS.   They   are   provided   with   tuition  in  English,  IT  and  sewing  skills,  and  (upon  graduation)  given  a  sewing   machine  to  enable  them  to  seek  work  and  provide  for  their  families.  

  The   NGO’s   experience   has   been   that   the   more   practical   working   partnerships   developed,   the   greater   the   benefit   for   township   residents.   It   works   in   partnership   with   various   organisations,   including   six   other   NGOs,   the   Department   of   Social   Development,   the   City   of   Cape   Town   and   the   Western   Cape   Department   of   Education.   Social  support  services:  Makhulong  A  Matala  –  Johannesburg   Makhulong   A   Matala   was   established   in   2004   as   a   non-­‐profit   subsidiary   of   the   Johannesburg  Housing  Company  (JHC).  Its  task  was  to  give  community  development   and   social   support   services   to   social   housing   projects   established   by   JHC,   which   provide  homes  to  more  than  9  000  people.  Makhulong  A  Matala  supports:   • Tenants,   through   its   Tenant   Support   Programme,   which   is   provided   by   six   permanent  staff  members  and  various  volunteers  and  offers  a  wide  range  of   skills-­‐based   programmes,   including   tenant   induction,   financial   management,   budgeting,   managing   social   discord,   hardship   support   and   entrepreneurial   skills.       • Youth   and   children   (more   than   20%   of   the   occupants   of   JHC   buildings   are   younger   than   18   years),   through   the   early   childhood   development   and   learning  centre  programmes.  Community  crèches  in  four  JHC  buildings  offer  a   structured   and   stimulating   environment   for   preschool   children,   while   children  at  school  are  supported  through  a  learning  centre  programme  that   offers  mathematics,  life  skills  and  computer  literacy,  and  encourages  creative   methods  of  play.  Qualified  tutors  provide  the  programme  to  more  than  200   children  at  eight  different  centres.     Makhulong  A  Matala  plays  an  important  role  in  ensuring  the  social  sustainability  of   JHC  and  the  social  cohesion  of  the  neighbourhoods  where  its  buildings  are  situated.   Its   achievements   were   acknowledged   by   a   HalalaAward5  in   2009   for   its   meaningful   contribution  to  supporting  the  citizens  of  Johannesburg.               Inner  city  children  –  Johannesburg   The   School   of   Practical   Philosophy,   a   non-­‐profit   organisation   based   in   Salisbury   House,   offers   courses   in   culture   and   philosophy   to   the   broader   community   of   Jeppestown.  In  2011  the  school  received  a  Halala  Award  for  the  extramural  activities   and  outings  organised  for  inner  city  children,  including  concerts,  cultural  events  and   choir  festivals.  Other  initiatives  by  the  School  of  Practical  Philosophy  include  support   for  the  JPU  Community  School  and  the  Soweto  Teachers  Outreach  Programme.                                                                                                               5

The Joburg Halala Awards focus on the regeneration of the inner city, and honour residents and organisations, amongst others, for their contribution to community well-being and improved quality of life. It seeks to acknowledge originality, pioneering and innovative projects by brave thinkers whose passion has opened new horizons in the inner city. PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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Support  for  Babies   Abandoned  babies  –  Johannesburg   In   2010   the   Berea   Methodist   Church   established   the   Door   of   Hope   in   an   effort   to   reduce  the  number  of  infant  deaths  caused  by  abandonment  at  birth.  Members  of   the  church  installed  a  “baby  bin”  on  their  premises,  allowing  mothers  to  leave  their   babies  at  any  time  of  the  day  or  night.  The  door  has  an  electronic  activation  device   to  notify  a  member  of  the  church  on  duty  as  soon  as  a  baby  has  been  deposited  in   the  baby  bin.  Since  the  establishment  of  the  Door  of  Hope,  almost  1  000  babies  have   come   through   the   facility.   Caregivers,   in   collaboration   with   social   workers,   make   every  effort  to  find  a  loving  adoptive  home  for  each  child.              

 

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CASE  STUDIES  THAT  SHOWCASE  JOB  CREATION  INITIATIVES  IN   SOUTH  AFRICAN  METROPOLES     Job   creation   is   a   high   priority   for   all   spheres   of   government   and   the   private   sector.   Some   South   African   Cities   have   been   able   to   use   the   Expanded   Public   Works   Programme  to  provide  new  employment  opportunities.  However,  with  the  exception   of  eThekwini,  interventions  to  develop  the  informal  economy  have  been  limited.  Local   government   in   South   Africa   tends   to   deal   with   informal   economy   participants   largely   on  the  basis  of  by-­‐law  formulation,  rather  than  as  an  important  part  of  the  survival   strategies  of  the  poor.  The  restrictive  view  of  the  informal  economy  as  a  “problem”   has  contributed  to  its  marginalisation  within  official  economic  development  policy.    

Waste  Collection  and  Recycling  –  Ekurhuleni   This   project   was   implemented   in   Ekurhuleni   as   part   of   the   NETSAFRICA   Support   Programme. 6  The   community-­‐based   waste   collection   and   recycling   pilot   project   operates   in   Wattville   and   Actonville,   two   areas   selected   because   they   contain   a   mixture   of   residential   and   industrial   areas,   including   schools,   hospitals,   business   and   informal   settlements.   Waste   production   was   approximately   1.6   kg   per   resident   per   day   –   volumes   with   a   potential   for   developing   viable   recycling   businesses.   Several   informal   pickers   were   already   working   with   waste   and   on   illegal   dumping   areas.   The   collection   for   recycling   was   uncoordinated   and   in   the   hands   of   private   sector   operators,  and  no  drop-­‐off  points  for  recycled  materials  existed.       The   project   established   two   community-­‐based   waste   co-­‐operatives,   comprising   44   members,   of   whom   22   collect   the   waste   on   behalf   of   the   municipality   in   informal   areas   or   areas   of   illegal   dumping,   and   22   sort   the   waste,   which   is   then   sold.   The                                                                                                               6 NETSAFRICA is a network of Italian and South African local government. The NETSAFRICA Programme began in 2008 and concluded in early 2012. It was aimed at consolidating the role of South African local institutions in broadening democratic participation in local governance and in formulating policies and implementing initiatives to reduce poverty and ensure access to basic services, within the context of the National Framework for Local Economic Development (LED).

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municipality   is   planning   to   hand   over   the   management   of   a   truck   and   waste   equipment  bought  for  the  project,  which  will  eventually  increase  monthly  income.       A  key  element  that  contributed  to  the  success  of  the  project  was  the  establishment   of   a   dedicated   Training   Unit   within   the   municipality   to   serve   as   a   co-­‐ordinating   structure   and   provide   technical   and   training   support   to   the   co-­‐operatives.   The   provision   of   assistance,   training   and   ongoing   mentoring   to   the   co-­‐operatives   is   crucial   for   them   to   become   sustainable   small   businesses.   The   project   also   demonstrated  that  it  is  not  always  necessary  to  reinvent  the  wheel  and  much  can  be   learned   from   other   success   stories.   Study   visits   were   organised   to   waste-­‐recycling   projects   in   Italy   and   in   other   provinces   of   South   Africa.   Italian   experts   from   Cispel   Confservizi  (an  association  of  public  utility  enterprises)  and  CoopLat  (a  huge  service   co-­‐operative   operating   nationally   in   the   field   of   waste   collection   and   recycling)   played  a  key  role  in  formulating  the  waste  management  operating  model,  crafting  a   recycling   management   strategy,   and   providing   waste   and   business   management   training  for  the  municipal  Training  Unit.  

Developing  the  Informal  Economy  -­‐  eThekwini    

  In   2012,   eThekwini   had   about   22   572   (registered)   informal   traders   and   workers,   mostly   women   engaged   in   survivalist,   low-­‐income   trade   and   clustered   around   the   same  geographic  spots  within  the  city  and  town  centres.  Since  2000  the  Municipality   has   invested   in   infrastructure   and   services   for   traders   worth   R150   million.   These   include   water   and   electricity,   ablution   facilities,   storage   shelters,   kiosks,   business   support   centres,   container   parks,   markets,   flea   markets,   refuse   collection,   cleaning   and  security  services.         eThekwini   was   the   first   South   African   municipality   to   develop   and   adopt   a   metropolitan-­‐wide   informal   trade   policy   at   the   end   of   the   1990s.   The   policy   represented  an  important  shift  in  thinking:  the  informal  economy  was  seen  as  a  vital   sector   for   economic   development.   In   2005   eThekwini   facilitated   the   foundation   of   the  eThekwini  Municipality  Informal  Economy  Forum  (EMIEF)  which  was  mandated   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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to  implement  the  informal  economy  policy  in  partnership  with  representatives  from   various   sectors,   including   informal   trader   representatives.   Today,   a   dedicated   resource   within   the   Business   Support,   Tourism   and   Markets   Unit   provides   capacity   building,   aimed   at   promoting   traders   from   survivalist   to   growth-­‐oriented   entrepreneurs   so   that   they   can   make   significant   contributions   to   the   economy   and   employment  within  the  City.  The  following  interventions  are  offered:   • The  food  handler’s  programme  educates  informal  caterers  on  basic  hygiene   and  health  issues  pertaining  to  food  management.   • Financial  literacy  training  is  offered  in  partnership  with  banking  institutions.   This   programme   sets   the   foundations   for   improved   access   to   finance   for   traders.   • The   machinist   programme  develops  120  seamstresses  and  garment  makers   annually.     • Customer   care   training,   which   started  in  the  build-­‐up  to  the  2010  FIFA  World   Cup,   was   geared   to   prepare   traders   to   receive   tourists,   give   directions   to   attractions   and   generally   act   as   ambassadors   to   the   city.   The   programme   continues   to   be   relevant,   especially   in   tourist   destinations   around   Durban   and  along  the  beach  front.   • Equity  participation  was  initiated  to  organise  informal  traders  into  an  equity   company  that  could  acquire  a  stake  in  shopping  mall  developments.     • Exhibition   and   display   training   that   assists   street   traders   to   make   the   best   use  of  limited  space  in  order  to  attract  their  customers.     • Infrastructure,  through  the  provision  of  stalls,  toilets  and  storage  to  traders,   and  facilitation  of  access  and  maintenance.  

Assisting  Co-­‐operatives  –  Buffalo  City   The  municipal  local  economic  department  identified  access  to  finance  as  one  of  the   key  challenges  facing  primary  co-­‐operatives  in  Buffalo  City.  In  an  effort  to  create  jobs   in  previously  disadvantaged  communities,  the  City  has  spent  R1  million  funding  and   donating   equipment   to   12   co-­‐operatives   that   will   help   them   produce   high-­‐quality   products.   Equipment   included   chainsaws,   industrial   sewing   machines,   safety   clothing,   cement   mixers,   lawn   mowers   and   grass   trimmers.   The   initiative   is   a   partnership   between   the   municipality,   the   Small   Enterprise   Development   Agency   (SEDA),  Khula,  the  Eastern  Cape  Development  Corporation  (ECDC),  the  Department   of   Agriculture,   and   the   Department   of   Economic   Development,   Environment   and   Tourism.    

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Learnerships  –  Nelson  Mandela  Bay    

  On  16  October  2009,  the  Nelson  Mandela  Bay  Municipality,  in  partnership  with  the   Coega  Development  Corporation,  held  a  graduation  ceremony  for  learners  that  had   successfully   completed   the   Vuk’uphile   Learnership   Programme.   The   programme,   which  was  launched  in  February  2006,  is  a  two-­‐year  learnership  registered  with  the   Construction  Education  Training  Authority.  The  programme  was  open  to  60  learners   and   created   20   learner   contractor   companies,   each   with   a   manager   and   2   supervisors.  The  first  phase  of  the  programme  created  450  jobs  for  unskilled  people   and   afforded   them   the   opportunity   to   receive   training   on   both   technical   and   accredited  training  skills.    

Developing  Entrepreneurs–-­‐  Johannesburg   In   2006,   Sir   Richard   Branson   founded   the   Branson   Centre   for   Entrepreneurship   to   help   develop   entrepreneurs   in   South   Africa   and   other   parts   of   the   world.   Based   in   Braamfontein,   Johannesburg,   the   centre’s   mission   is   to   incubate   emerging   businesses   by   providing   practical   business   skills,   critical   resources,   and   access   to   markets   and   capital,   which   will   in   turn   help   create   employment   in   disadvantaged   communities.   The   Branson   Centre   has   funded   15   businesses,   of   which   11   are   still   operational  and  provide  a  total  of  146  jobs.  Businesses  include  fashion,  agriculture,   information   technology   (IT),   the   gaming   industry,   holistic   healing,   food   and   beverages,  sustainability,  landscaping  services  and  the  film  industry.       One   graduate,   Simon   Yiga   worked   in   IT   and   business   consultancy   until   meeting   his   future  business  partner  Gideon  Mulovhedzi.  The  partners  identified  a  need  for  safer   and   more   convenient   places   to   park   in   the   city   centre.   They   started   Afropark,   an   inner   city   parking   company   that   manages   car   parks   24   hours   a   day,   seven   days   a   week,  using  CCTV  camera  equipment.  Parking  bays  can  be  rented  on  an  hourly,  daily   or   monthly   basis.   They   employ   mainly   inner   city   residents   to   run   their   car   parks,   most   of   whom   were   previously   unemployed.   Each   employee   is   given   a   career   development  plan,  to  ensure  employees  progress  while  working  for  them.       PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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Dipuo  Marekwa  is  another  graduate.  When  her  daughter  reached  school-­‐going  age,   Dipuo   realised   that   the   transport   available   for   getting   her   to   school   was   unreliable   and   unsafe,   and   so   she   decide   to   found   her   own   transport   company.   In   February   2009  she  started  Pelontle  Marekwa  Transport  Services  with  one  14-­‐seater  taxi.  She   now   transports   80   students   to   ten   different   schools   and,   in   addition   provides   transport  services  to  weddings  and  other  events  in  the  community  and  to  businesses   that  close  late  at  night,  such  as  restaurants,  or  industries  that  employ  shift  workers,   such  as  mines  or  factories.  Regular  customers  pay  a  monthly  fee  in  advance.  For  all   other   services,   a   cash   payment   is   made.   Dipuo   is   now   looking   to   expand   into   new   markets  by  partnering  with  companies  in  the  mining  and  construction  industries.  In   addition,  she  plans  to  bring  her  services  to  more  restaurants.    

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CASE   STUDIES   THAT   SHOWCASE   PARTICIPATION   IN   SOUTH   AFRICAN  METROPOLES     Promoting   participation   is   a   key   tool   in   the   caring   city.   Fundamentally   it   is   about   making   governments   more   responsive   to   the   needs   of   citizens.   South   African   local   government   has   been   criticised   for   its   lack   of   openness,   unresponsiveness   and   poor   consultation.   The   original   positive   vision   of   local   government   became   lost   amid   mounting   concerns   about   service   protests,   mismanagement,   political   factionalism   and   self-­‐interest.   These   case   studies   highlight   areas   in   which   cities   are   working   to   shift  towards  more  participatory  governance.  

Water  services  and  Consultation  –  Cape  Town  

  The  Citizen’s  Voice  Project  is  a  government  initiative  to  involve  citizens  in  the  local   monitoring   of   water   and   sanitation   services.   Citizens   are   trained   about   their   rights   PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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and   responsibilities   in   order   to   hold   local   government   accountable.   The   municipal   authority  and  the  community  come  together  at  monthly  meetings  to  discuss  water   services  and  address  problems.  In  Cape  Town  four  pilot  areas  were  selected  for  the   project,   based   on   high   levels   of   water   losses,   and   over   2  000   individuals   were   trained.   For   the   city,   the   process   was   a   useful   way   of   gaining   a   better   understanding   of   service   delivery   problems.   The   pilot   project   resulted   in   reduced   water   losses,   increased   payment   levels,   and   citizens   who   are   empowered   to   play   a   more   effective   oversight  role  in  water  services  provision.      

African  Diaspora  Forum  –  Johannesburg  

  Migrants   from   other   parts   of   Africa   make   an   important   contribution   to   the   South   African   economy   but   remain   a   vulnerable   group   in   South   African   cities,   as   evidenced   by   periodic   outbreaks   of   xenophobic   violence.   Much   remains   to   be   done   to   break   down  the  barriers  of  mistrust  and  suspicion  and  to  facilitate  the  social  acceptance  of   migrants  by  communities.  Cities  can  do  a  great  deal  more  to  facilitate  social  cohesion   and  to  make  migrants  feel  welcomed  and  valued.       In   2008,   the   African   Diaspora   Forum   (ADF),   a   non-­‐profit   organisation,   was   established  in  response  to  the  xenophobic  attacks,  to  provide  a  platform  for  African   migrants  to  South  Africa.  Its  mission  is  to  ‘work  for  an  integrated  society  that  is  free   of   xenophobia   and   all   other   kinds   of   discrimination’.   Members   come   from   21   different   African   countries.   The   ADF   has   been   involved   in   many   projects,   including   organising   the   annual   Africa   Day   events   in   Yeoville   and   holding   a   concert   and   an   indaba   to   create   awareness   of   the   lives   of   African   migrants   in   South   Africa.   At   one   stage,  the  ADF  created  a  Migrant  News  section  that  was  published  in  The  Star  and   The   Pretoria   News.   The   ADF   has   partnered   with   the   Wits   Law   Clinic   to   challenge   policies  that  discriminate  against  African  migrants,  such  as  perceived  persecution  by   police   and   discrimination   by   financial   institutions.   The   ADF   also   helps   victims   of   xenophobic   violence,   creating   dialogues   with   local   communities   to   enable   the   African   migrants   displaced   by   the   violence   to   be   reintegrated   back   into   the  

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community.  The  ADF  also  runs  a  hotline  for  xenophobic  attacks,  to  assist  those  who   are  targeted  by  violence.  

Corridors  of  Freedom  –  Johannesburg   To   date   formal   interventions   to   enhance   social   cohesion   in   the   metropolitan   areas   have  been  limited.  The  challenge  is  how  to  achieve  a  sense  of  community  in  South   African  cities,  given  the  divides  left  behind  by  the  apartheid  past  and  stark  economic   inequalities.     In  his  May  2013  State  of  the  City  Address  Mayor  Parks  Tau  announced  the  creation   of   new   ‘corridors   of   freedom’,   or   well-­‐planned   transport   arteries   linked   to   interchanges  where  the  focus  would  be  on  mixed-­‐use  development.  These  corridors   would   change   the   current   settlement   patterns   made   up   of   urban   sprawl   and   uncontrolled   spread   of   low-­‐density   developments   on   the   fringes   of   the   city.   Instead,   high-­‐density  residential  space  would  be  supported  by  office  space,  retail,  leisure  and   recreational   opportunities.   An   effective   and   affordable   public   transport   system   would  allow  residents  to  travel  short  distances  between  home  and  their  workplace   and   cut   costs   and   travel   time.   Schools,   clinics   and   community   facilities   would   be   located  close  to  residences  and  workplaces.  Leisure  and  recreational  facilities  would   be   better   integrated,   leading   to   greater   social   interaction   between   people   sharing   the  same  geographical  space.  The  result  would  be  a  city  where  all  its  residents  would   have  equal  access  and  prosperity,  regardless  of  race  and  gender.  

Renaming  the  Yard  Streets  of  Gugulethu  –  Cape  Town   Gugulethu’s   street   names   (native   yard   or   NY)   date   back   to   the   founding   of   the   township  under  apartheid.  Renaming  these  streets  is  seen  as  part  of  the  process  of   reconciliation,  giving  people  an  opportunity  to  take  ownership  of  their  street  names   as   well   as   to   remove   offensive   native   yard   names   that   were   imposed.   The   City   of   Cape   Town   ran   a   public   participation   process   from   1   October   2012   to   31   March   2013,   during   which   members   of   the   public   were   given   an   opportunity   to   make   submissions   for   91   streets   to   be   renamed.   Methods   used   to   gather   input   from   the   public   included   newspaper   articles,   social   media   exposure,   radio   broadcasts,   going   door  to  door,  through  street  committees,  and  distributing  flyers  at  shopping  malls,   schools   and   taxi   ranks.   The   renaming   process   provided   job   opportunities   for   15   people   who   were   trained   and   employed   (taken   from   the   Expanded   Public   Works   Programme  jobseekers  database).  It  is  hoped  that  the  project  will  give  members  of   the  Gugulethu  community  a  greater  sense  of  belonging,  and  an  enhanced  sense  of   ownership  of  their  community.        

 

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CONCLUSION       Today’s  world  is  characterised  by  the  urbanisation  of  disenfranchised  communities,   poverty  and  inequality,  and  growing  dangers  related  to  climate  change.  Within  this   context,  the  utopian  ideas  for  creating  more  just  cities  have  failed  in  practice,  even  in   cities  with  plentiful  capacity  and  resources.  The  challenge  is  enormous  for  unequal   cities   with   low   levels   of   democracy   and   public   sector   capacity,   and   high   levels   of   inequality  and  service  backlogs,  such  as  those  found  in  South  Africa.      

  Cities  need  to  find  ways  of  offering  opportunities  to  all  residents  and  users,  and  to   place  the  concerns  of  communities  at  the  heart  of  decision-­‐making,  particularly  for   the  urban  poor.  They  need  to  move  away  from  a  narrow  focus  on  economic  growth   to   ensuring   that   the   benefits   of   urban   living   accrue   to   all.   This   means   developing   caring  cities.       The  caring  city  concept  relates  to  Ubuntu,  an  age-­‐old  African  term  for  humaneness,   or   the   caring   for,   sharing   and   being   in   harmony   with   all   of   creation.   Caring   cities   focus  on  people,  places  and  relationships.  They  strive  to  offer  a  high  quality  of  life,   allocate  resources  to  ensure  the  wellbeing  of  inhabitants,  protect  the  environment   and   involve   citizens   in   decision-­‐making.   Caring   cities   are   equitable   (enabling   all   groups   within   the   cities   to   reach   their   potential),   economically   efficient   and   keep   people   engaged   and   part   of   the   city,   which   is   crucial   for   the   democratic   process.   Caring   cities   make   conscious   choices   and   take   conscious   action   to   be   inclusive,   equitable,  hospitable  and  supportive.  They  are  cities  that  focus  on  caring  holistically   for  the  needs  of  residents  and  on  ensuring  sustainable  development.  They  prioritise   spending   on   infrastructure   that   enhances   access   for   the   poor   and   redistribute   the   benefits  of  the  city  in  favour  of  the  vulnerable.  

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Major   South   African   cities   are   promoting   a   caring   agenda.   Municipalities,   NGOs,   civil   groups  and  the  private  sector  are  contributing  to  building  cities  that  are  caring,  fair,   accessible   and   efficient,   and   offer   every   inhabitant   equal   opportunity   to   thrive,   prosper  and  achieve.  The  various  instruments  being  used  can  be  categorised  as:     • Planning,   which   in   the   past   actively   excluded   people   from   opportunity   by   locating   the   poor   on   the   urban   fringes   and   depriving   them   of   services   and   facilities,  offers  a  way  of  redressing  the  inequality  embedded  in  our  cities.     • Infrastructure   development   can   improve   the   living   conditions   of   the   poor   and   make   cities   more   efficient,   accessible   and   sustainable.   It   can   take   the   form   of   upgrading   informal   settlements,   extending   transportation   systems,   creating  recreation  facilities  and  promoting  energy-­‐efficient  projects.     • Social   support   is   a   vital   element   of   caring,   nurturing   cities   and   needs   to   be   rationalised   and   well-­‐co-­‐ordinated.   It   includes   assisting   vulnerable   groups   (homeless,  indigent  persons,  women  and  babies),  education  and  training,  and   healthcare.   • Job   creation   is  a  high  priority  for  all  spheres  of  government  and  the  private   sector  and  includes  both  the  formal  and  informal  economy.   • Participation   is   a   key   tool   in   the   caring   city,   as   it   is   fundamentally   about   making   governments   more   participatory   and   responsive   to   the   needs   of   citizens.    

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South   African   cities   are   among   the   most   unequal   urban   centres   in   the   world.   Although   state   interventions   since   1994   may   have   improved   living   conditions   for   the   poor,  growing  demands  for  better  service  delivery  leave  no  room  for  complacency.   The   answer   lies   in   caring   cities.   The   case   studies   in   this   report   show   that   cities   already   have   the   necessary   tools   to   create   caring   cities   –   places   where   the   African   tradition   of   Ubuntu   is   realised,   where   each   person   is   linked   to   community   and   to   wider   society   through   a   caring   and   sharing   system,   within   a   nurturing   and   protected   environment.      

                     

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REFERENCES     NPC   (National   Planning   Commission).   2012.   National   Development   Plan   2030:   Our   future   -­‐   Make   it   work.   Pretoria:   National   Planning   Commission,   The   Presidency,   p.   260.     OECD  (Organisation  for  Economic  Co-­‐operation  and  Development).  2011.  Divided  We   Stand:  Why  Inequality  Keeps  Rising.  Paris,  France:  OECD  Publishing.     Parnell,   S.   2013:   Inclusionary   approaches   to   urban   planning:   lessons   in   poverty   reduction   from   South   Africa.   In,   Mathur,   O.   (ed.)   State   of   the   Urban   Poor   Report,   2013:  Inclusive  Urban  Planning.  India:  Oxford  University  Press.     Parnell,   S   and   Lilled,   L.   2013   (forthcoming).   Fair   cities,   a   position   paper   for   Mistra   Urban  Futures.     UN-­‐Habitat.  2013.  State  of  the  World's  Cities  2012/2013:  Prosperity  of  Cities.  Nairobi,   Kenya:  UN-­‐Habitat.     UNICEF(2010)   Understanding   Urban   Inequalities   in   Bangladesh:   A   prerequisite   for   achieving  Vision  2021,  UNICEF  Bangladesh,  Dhaka  

PROMOTING  CARING  CITIES  –  THE  CASE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA’S  METROPOLES  

 

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Promoting Caring Cities the Case of South Africa's Metropoles