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Ave Maria Grammar and Preparatory School Ave Maria, Fl

Science Portfolio

By Santiago Chaparro 2008

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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2nd Quarter Assignments (Fall 2008)

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Sun’s Rays and Angles Travel Brochure Cool Climate Graphs Layer of the Earth Drawing (20 points) Alfred Wegener’s Questions and Answers (20 points) Seafloor spreading model (30 points) Seafloor spreading essay (40 points) Modeling Faults Lab (30 points) Locating and Epicenter Lab (20 points) Creative Essay on an Earthquake (20 points) Seismograph Model (30 points) Where are Volcanoes Located Lab (20 points) Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes Lab (20 points) Viscosity Lab (10 points)

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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10. Sun’s Rays and Angles

I. Title: Sun’s Rays and Angles II. Problem: How does the angle of a light source affect the rate at which the temperature of a surface changes? III. Materials: books, graph paper, pencil, watch or clock, ruler, clear tape, 3 thermometers, protractor, lamp, scissors, black construction paper IV. Procedure: #1. Cut a strip of black construction paper 5 cm by 10 cm. Fold the paper in half and tape two sides to form a pocket. #2. Repeat Step1 to make two more pockets. #3. Place the bulb of a thermometer inside each pocket. #4. Place the pockets with thermometers close together, as shown in the photo. Place one thermometer in a vertical position (90° angle), one at a 45° angle, and the third one in a horizontal position (0°angle). Use a protractor to measure the angles. Support the thermometers with books. #5. Position the lamp so that it is 30 cm from each of the thermometer bulbs. Make sure the lamp will not move during the activity. #6. Copy a data table like the one above into your notebook. #7. In your data table, record the temperature on all three thermometers. (All three temperatures should be the same.) #8. Switch on the lamp. In your data table, record the temperature on each thermometer every minute for 15 minutes. Caution: Be careful not to touch the hot lam shade. #9. After fifteen minutes, switch off the lamp.

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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V. Data Table:

DATA TABLE 0° Angle 45° Angle 90° Angle Temperature °C 24 26 21 25 29 22 26 30 24 27 30 25 27 31 24 27 31 24 27 32 25 28 32 26 29 33 26 29 33 27 29 34 28 29 34 28 30 34 28 30 34 28 31 35 28 32 35 29

Time (Min) Start 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sun's Rays and Angles 40 Temperature °C

35 30 25

0° Angle

20

45° Angle

15

90° Angle

10 5 0 1

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

Minutes

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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11. Travel Brochure

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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12. Cool Climate Graphs I.

Title: Cool Climate Graphs

II.

Problem: What is the best time of year to visit various cities to enjoy particular recreational activities?

III.

Materials: a calculator, a ruler, 3 pieces of graph paper, black, blue and green pencils, climate map on pages 120-121, and a U.S. map with city names and latitude lines

IV.

Procedure: #1. Work in groups of three. Each person should graph the data for a different city, A, B, or C #2. On graph paper, use a black pencil to label the axes as on the climate graph. Title your climate graph City A, City B, or City C. #3. Use your green pencil to make a bar graph of the monthly average amount of precipitation. Place a star below the name of each month that has more than a trace of snow. #4. Use a red pencil to plot the average monthly maximum temperature. Make a dot for the temperature in the middle of each space for the month. When you have plotted data for all 12 months, connect the points into a smooth curved line. #5. Use a blue pencil to plot the average monthly minimum temperature for your city. Use the same procedure as in Step 4. #6. Calculate the total average annual precipitation for this city and include it in your observations. Do this by adding the average precipitation for each month.

V.

Analyze and Conclude: #1. City A. #2. City A is in one of the tundra area. City B is in one of the subarctic regions. City C is in one of the humid continental regions #3. City C was Colorado Springs, Colorado #4. Because it is different in the amount of snow and in the climate region that it is in.

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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VI.

Data:

City A Jan. Feb. Mar. Average High Temp. (ºC) 13 16 16 Average Low Temp. (ºC) 8 9 9 Average Precipitation (cm) 10.4 7.6 7.9 Months With Snow Trace Trace Trace

April 17 10 3.3

May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 17 18 18 19 21 21 17 13 11 12 12 13 13 13 11 8 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.8 3.3 8.1 7.9 Trace

City B Jan. Average High Temp. (ºC) 5 Average Low Temp. (ºC) -9 Average Precipitation (cm) 0.8 Months With Snow *

Feb. Mar. April May June 7 10 16 21 26 -7 -4 1 6 11 1.0 2.3 3.0 5.6 5.8 * * * *

July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 29 27 23 18 11 6 14 13 8 2 -4 -8 7.4 7.6 3.3 2.0 1.3 1.3 Trace * * *

City C Jan. Average High Temp. (ºC) 7 Average Low Temp. (ºC) -6 Average Precipitation (cm) 2.5 Months With Snow *

Feb. Mar. April May June 11 13 18 23 28 -4 -2 1 4 8 2.3 1.8 1.3 1.8 1.0 * * * *

July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 33 32 27 21 12 8 11 10 5 1 -3 -7 0.8 0.5 0.8 1.0 2.0 2.5 Trace Trace * *

25

12.0

20

10.0 8.0

15

6.0 10

4.0

5

2.0

0

0.0

Precipitation (cm)

Tempurature (ºC)

City A

Average Precipitation(cm)

Average High Temp.(ºC)

Average Low Temp. (ºC)

Month

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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35

8.0

30

7.0

25

6.0

20 15

5.0

10

4.0

5

3.0

0

Precipitation (cm)

Tempurature (ºC)

City B

-10

1.0

-15

0.0

Average High Temp.(ºC)

Average Low Temp. (ºC)

2.0

-5

Average Precipitation(cm)

Month

City C

3.0

35

2.5 25 2.0

20 15

1.5 10

Precipitation (cm)

Tempurature (ºC)

30 Average Precipitation(cm)

Average High Temp.(ºC)

1.0

5

Average Low Temp. (ºC)

0 0.5 -5 0.0

-10 Month

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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13. Layer of the Earth Drawing (20 points)

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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14. Alfred Wegener’s Questions and Answers (20 points)

I. Title: Alfred Wegener and the Theory of Continental Drift II. Answers: #1. He means that by discovering and finding out more information, you can really determine the truth. #2. Because it takes time to be able to find proof that the theory is true. #3. The facts that he had discovered such as the fact that there were two types of species of plants and animals on two different pieces of land. #4. Evidence from land features, evidence from fossils, evidence from climate #5. A landmass that existed about 300 million years that is a super continent formed by all of the modern day continents put together. After millions of years later, it broke into smaller landmasses or our modern day continents. Yes, Wegener was the first person to suggest Pangaea. #6. They rejected it. #7. There was not enough information to make it a theory. #8. Yes, but that was just no enough to prove his theory. #9. Sea-floor spreading. It was modified by Harry Hess, an American geologist said that the sea floor was spreading and that it wasn’t just the continents that were moving, but it was the continents and the ocean. The continents were part of huge plates. They also figured out that mid-ocean ridges were also moving the earth’s plates. #10. Because it wasn’t just the continents that were moving, but it was the continents and the ocean.

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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15. Seafloor spreading model (30 points) I. Title: Modeling Sea-Floor Spreading II. Problem: How does sea-floor spreading add material to the ocean floor? III. Materials: scissors, a colored marker, a metric ruler, 2 sheets of unlined paper IV. Procedure: #1. Draw stripes across one sheet of paper, parallel to the short sides of the paper. The stripes should vary in spacing and thickness. #2. Fold the paper in half lengthwise and write the word “Start” at the top of the paper. Using the scissors, carefully cut the paper in half along the fold line to form two strips. #3. Lightly fold the second sheet of paper into eights. Then unfold it, leaving creases in the paper. Fold this sheet in half lengthwise. #4. Starting at the fold, draw lines 5.5 cm long on the middle crease and the two creases closest to the ends of the paper. #5. Now carefully cut along the lines you drew. Unfold the paper. There should be three slits in the center of the paper. #6. Put the two striped strips of paper together so that their Start labels touch one another. Insert the Start ends of the strips up through the center slit and then pull them toward the side slits. #7. Insert the ends of the strips into the side slits. Pull the ends of the strips and watch what happens at the center slit. #8. Practice pulling the strips until you can make the two strips come up through the same time. V. Analyze and Conclude: #1. The mid-ocean ridge. The molten material. #2. They stand for the width and size of the magnetic waves. It stands for the sea-floor. #3. The floor close to the center of the mid-ocean ridge is higher and it is newer than the floor close to the trench. It doesn’t affect it. #4. The trench. Because they hold reversals of earth’s magnetic field. #5. Because the magma keeps flowing, the mid-ocean ridge keeps on moving and because of density, the oceanic crust and the continental crust collide, but since the Continental crust is denser; the oceanic crust goes under the continental crust, which forms mountains.

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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16. Seafloor spreading essay (40 points)

Science Essay In 1960, Harry Hess, an American geologist, proposed a radical idea. He suggested that a process he called sea-floor spreading continually adds new material to the ocean floor. In seafloor spreading, the sea-floor spreads apart both sides of a mid ocean ridge as new crust is added. As a result the ocean floor moves like a conveyer belt, carrying the continents along with them. I believe sea-floor spreading is happening due to evidence from molten materials, magnetic strips, and drilling samples. Sea-floor spreading begins at a mid-ocean ridge, which forms along a crack of ocean crust. Along the ridge, molten material that forms several kilometers beneath the surface rises and erupts. At the same time, older rocks move outward on both sides of the ridge. As the molten material cools, it forms a strip of solid rock in the center of the ridge. When more molten material flows into the crack, it forms a new strip of rock. Scientists found more evidence from magnetic strips than from another resources. The Earth behaves like a magnet with a north pole and a south pole. Scientists discovered that the rock that makes up the ocean floor lies in a pattern of magnetized “stripes”. The rock of the ocean floor contains iron and it began as molten material and when it hardened, the icon bits inside of it lined up in the direction of Earth’s magnetic poles. When this locked the iron bits in place, it gave the rocks a permanent “magnetic memory”. Now that we use sensitive instruments, scientists can now record the magnetic memory of rocks on the two sides of the mid-ocean ridge. This came out to help prove evidence from magnetic strips because scientists found out that these rocks forms lines in the direction that the magnetic field was. They alternated in strips. One pointed south and one pointed north; there were also different sizes. The pattern was the same on both sides too. They would point in the same direction and the pattern would be the same if the Earth’s surface didn’t move, My last proof comes from evidence from drilling samples. Believe it or not there was a ship the dug under the water and found rock samples and the drill was from a sidewalk all the way up to the top of the Empire State Building!. It was built in 1968 and they named it the Glomar Challenger. I imagine the size of the drill! This ship discovered the farther the rocks were, the older they were. This also concluded that the Earth is moving because if the sea-floor was not spreading out the age of the rocks would be about the same. Now you might understand more that the data found on sea-floor spreading proves that the continents are moving. I believe sea-floor spreading is happening due to evidence from molten material, magnetic strips, and drilling samples. I guess that Harry Hess and Alfred Wegener have good evidence that proves that the Earth’s continents are moving even though we don’t feel any movement. The Earth is amazing and its continents will keep moving. Who knows, we might be connected to China some day!

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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17.

Modeling Faults Lab (30 points)

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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18. Locating and Epicenter Lab (20 points) I. Finding the Epicenter II. Problem: How do you locate an earthquakes epicenter? III. Materials: drawing compass, outline map of the U.S. IV. Procedure: #1. Make a copy of the data table showing differences in earthquake arrival times. #2. The graph shows how the difference in arrival time between P and S waves depends on the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake. Find the difference in arrival time for Denver on the y-axis of the graph. Follow this line across to the point at which it crosses the curve. To find the distance to the epicenter, read down from this point to the x-axis of the graph. Enter this distance in the data table. #3. Repeat Step 2 for Houston and Chicago. #4. Set your compass at a radius equal to the distance from Denver to the earthquake’s epicenter that you previously recorded in your data table. #5. Draw a circle with the radius determined in Step 4, using Denver as the center. Draw the circles on your copy of the map. #6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for Houston and Chicago. V. Data: City Arrival Time Distance to Epicenter Denver, Colorado 2 min. 40s 1,600km Houston, Texas 1 min. 50s 1,100km Chicago, Illinois 1 min. 10s 700km

VI. Analyze and Conclude: #1. Kentucky #2. Chicago, Illinois. 600km. #3. Chicago. Denver. Greater than 3 min. #4. Greater than 2,000 km. P waves come first, and then come S waves. #5. Time increases as distance increases. #6. Because without the distance, you would never find out exactly where the epicenter is at or located.

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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19. Creative Essay on an Earthquake (20 points)

The New York Times By: Ryan Alias Yorkstone  

November 17,1999

      An

earthquake

has

just

occurred

here in San Antonio, California. We have found out that it is a size 6 on the Mercalli scale. We have just experienced an earthquake. This is and has injured 5 people so far. There was only slight damage. It happened just 5 minutes ago. Geologists believe that this happened by a reverse fault. This medium size, earthquake has caused a little bite of damage. Roofs of houses have been damaged. There have been some car accidents even though no one is dead. Tomorrow there might be a lot of traffic because of the slight damage made to public buildings. Everything will resume to normal on Monday. For any possible aftershocks, this city will try to be prepared. While they fix up this city everyone will have to adapt to the changes that have been made. This is Ryan Yorkstone from California.

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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20. Seismograph Model (30 points)

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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21. Where are Volcanoes Located Lab (20 points)

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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22. Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes Lab (20 points) Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes Volcanoes Longitude Latitude Longitude Latitude 120ºW 40ºN 150ºW 60ºN 110ºE 5ºS 70ºW 35ºS 77ºW 4ºS 120ºW 45ºN 88ºE 23ºN00 61ºW 15ºN 1210ºE 14ºS 105ºW 20ºN. 34ºE 7ºN 75ºW 0º 74ºW 44ºN 122ºW 40ºN 70ºW 30ºS 30ºE 40ºN 10ºE 45ºN 60ºE 30ºN 85ºW 13ºN 160ºE 55ºN 125ºE 23ºN 37ºE 3ºS 30ºE 35ºN 145ºE 40ºN 140ºE 35ºN 120ºE 10ºS 12ºE 46ºN 14ºE 41ºN 75ºE 28ºN 105ºE 5ºS 150ºW 61ºN 35ºE 15ºN 68ºW 47ºS 70ºW 30ºs 175ºE 41ºS 175ºE 39ºS 121ºE 17ºN 123ºE 38ºN

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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23. Viscosity Lab (10 points) I. Title: How Fast do Liquids Flow? II. Purpose: To determine whether honey or oil flows faster. III. Materials: honey, oil, paper cups IV. Procedure: #1. Fill one third of a small plastic cup with honey. Fill one third of another cup with oil. #2. Hold the cup containing honey over a third cup and tip it until the liquid begins to flow out of the cup. Time how long it takes from the time the cup was tipped until all the liquid drains out of the cup. Record the time. #3. Repeat Step 2 with the cup filled with oil. V. Data: Substance

Time (s)

Honey

55s

Oil

6s

VI. Analyze and Conclude: #1. Define viscosity. Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid flowing. #2. Which substance had the greater viscosity, honey or oil? Honey had the greater viscosity. #3. How did you measure the viscosity of the honey and of the oil? Honey is denser and took more time. #4. Why do you think one substance had a greater viscosity compared to the other? Because it took longer for one of them to be poured.

AMGP Science Portfolio 7‐8th Grade, 2008 

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Science Portfolio 2nd Quarter 2008  

Science Portfolio 7-8th grade AMGP, FL

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