Table of Contents I. First Quarter: 1. Quarter divider 2. Who is the fastest person in the class? 3. Stopping on a dime 4. Sticky sneakers 5. Newton scooters 6. The unsinkable ship 7. Sink or spill 8. Calculating & comparing density II. Second Quarter: 9. Quarter divider 10. Seesaw science 11. A paper screw 12. How high does a ball bounce? 13. Separating mixtures 14. Measuring matter 15. Marshmallows III. Third Quarter: 16. Quarter divider 17. Periodic table 18. Surface tension 19. Melting Ice 20. Matter movie 21. Can you graph gas behavior? 22. Oobleck 23. End of Bartholomew and the Oobleck 24. Which is easier? 25. Metals 26. Metal scavenger hunt 27. Alien periodic table 28. Chemical elements 29. Polymers 30. Polymer package 31. Clay sculpture
IV. Fourth Quarter: 32. Quarter divider 33. Atomic models drawing 34. Modeling atoms 35. Ionic compound formulas 36. Naming ionic compounds 37. Melting salt 38. Comparing molecular and ionic compounds 39. Whereâ€™s the evidence? 40. Balancing chemical equations 41. The effect of temperature on chemical reactions 42. The fire triangle 43. What makes a mixture a solution? 44. Speedy solutions 45. Wanted acid poster 46. Testing pH 47. Reflection essay
I. Title: Ionic Compounds
Name sodium bromide lithium oxide magnesium sulfide aluminum fluoride calcium fluoride potassium iodide potassium chloride magnesium chloride calcium chloride potassium sulfide sodium sulfide calcium oxide lithium chloride lithium fluoride magnesium oxide barium chloride calcium iodide sodium iodide magnesium fluoride beryllium chloride
Cation Na+ Li+
Anion BrO 2-
Formula NaBr Li 2 O
Ca 2+ K+
CaF 2 KI
Ca 2+ K+ Na+ Ca 2+ Li+ Li+ Mg 2+ Ba 2+ Ca 2+ Na+
ClS 2S 2O 2ClFO 2ClII-
CaCl 2 K2S Na 2 S CaO LiCl LiF MgO BaCl 2 CaI 2 NaI
I. Title: Naming ionic compounds:
Name Potassium Iodide Magnesium MgCl 2 Chloride Na 2 S Sodium Sulfide Al 2 S 3 Aluminum Sulfide AgCl Silver Chloride ZnO Zinc Oxide CaBr 2 Calcium Bromide Strontium SrF 2 Fluoride BaO Barium Oxide CaCl 2 Calcium Chloride Magnesium MgI 2 Iodine K2S Potassium Sulfide Aluminum AlCl 3 Chloride ZnBr 2 Zinc Bromide Cs 2 S Cesium Sulfide SrO Strontium Oxide Ca 3 N Calcium Nitride 2 BaF 2 Barium Fluoride CaO Calcium Oxide AgF Silver Fluoride
Title: Melting Salt Purpose: To compare the melting point of an ionic compound (salt) to that of a molecular compound (sugar)
Materials: cooking pot, hot plate, wooden spoon, 100mL salt, 100mL sugar
Procedure: 1. Heat sugar. 2. Make observations. 3. Repeat with salt.
Data: Compound Example
Time to melt More than 12 min.
Observations salt didn't change sugar turned brown
Analyze and Conclude: 1. Write a paragraph summary comparing the melting of sugar. 2. Why do you think salt has such a high melting point? Answers:
It was cool to see the sugar melt and turn black, then red. The salt has a high melting point because it is an ionic compound and it is strong. The ions are harder than molecules. Sugar melted faster because it is a molecular compound. Salt didnâ€™t change at all because its melting point is high.
I. Title: Where is the Evidence II. Purpose: Observing, predicting ,drawing conclusions III. Materials: A well, copper sulfate, hydrochloric acid, sodium carbonate IV. Procedure: 1. First you draw the data table on this page. Then you start of with sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. 2. Put a couple of drops of sodium carbonate and mix it with a couple of drops of hydrochloric acid. While these two are mixing, write observations. Also write predictions 3. When these two are done mixing, write more observations. 4. Now mix or heat the next substances. 5. Determine the chemical reaction for each. V. Data: reaction
observations observations before predictions during reaction reaction
observations after reaction sodium substances carbonate + liquid and it will change through it is bubbling hydrochloric color is see change chemical acid through substances reaction it is turning it is a black and sugar + heat solid it will melt brown brown color Copper sulfate + blue and the fluids it changed Sodium liquid, other will and turned it is a precipitate carbonate is see change blue solution through VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1. How do the results of each reaction compare with your predictions? 2. How did you know when the reaction was over? 3. What was the evidence of a chemical reaction in the first reaction? In the second? 4. Was the reaction in the second reaction endothermic or exothermic? 5. Was the reaction in between copper sulfate and sodium carbonate solution a solid, a gas, or a liquid? How do you know? 6. How do you know if new substances were formed in each reaction?
Answers: 1. They were very similar. I thought that the two substances were going to change even before the reactions. 2. After it seemed like nothing was going to change, it was obvious that that was the result after the reaction took place. 3. The reactions were all chemical reactions so you could see bubbling, the texture changed. 4. Exothermic because the energy was able to be released. You could see smoke coming out of the beaker which held the sugar. 5. A solid because the reaction formed a precipitate which is a solid that forms during a chemical reaction. 6. If any evidence was shown such as a precipitate or change in energy or color/texture.
I. Title: Balancing Chemical Equations
Unbalanced Equation H₂ SO ₄+ BaCl → HCl +BaSO ZnS + O₂ → ZnO + SO₂ Na + Cl₂ → NaCl K + H₂O → KOH + H₂ Ca(OH)₂ + (NH₄)₂SO₄ → CaSO₄ + NH₃ + H₂O Cu₂S + O₂ → Cu₂O + SO₂ Al + H₂SO₄ → Al₂(SO₄)₃ + H₂ Li + O₂ → Li₂O NaN₃ → Na + N₂ NO₃ + H₂O → HNO₃ + NO
Balanced Equation H₂ SO₄ + BaCl₂ → 2HCl + BaSO₄ 2 ZnS + 3 O₂ → 2 ZnO + 2 SO₂ 2Na + Cl₂ → 2NaCl 2 K + 2 H₂O → 2 KOH + H₂ Ca(OH)₂ + (NH₄)₂SO₄ → CaSO₄ + 2 NH₃ + 2 H₂O 2 Cu₂S + 3 O₂ → 2 Cu₂O + 2 SO₂ 2 Al + 3 H₂SO₄ → Al₂(SO₄)₃ + 3 H₂ 4 Li + O₂ → 2 Li₂O 2 NaN₃ → 2 Na + 3 N₂ 3 NO₃ + H₂O → 2 HNO₃ + NO
Title: The Effect of Temperature on Chemical Reactions Purpose: To observe how increasing temperature speeds up a reaction
Materials: antacid tablets, a beaker, hot plate, water, a thermometer
Procedure: 1. Get a beaker, water, a thermometer, and antacid tablets. 2. Pour the water into the beaker. Take the temperature and record it down. 3. For the first test, drop an antacid tablet into the beaker. Record your observations. 4. When nothing else is changing in the beaker, dispose the water and pour clean water into the clean beaker. 5. Now use the hot plate to heat up the water. Then take the temperature of the water and record it down. This will be for the second test. Next, drop an antacid tablet and record your observations. 6. Once again clean out the beaker and do step 5 again except this time the temperature of the water will be recorded for the third test. Make sure that the temperature is higher for this test than the first two tests.
Data: Water temp. (Celsius) 16
observations of antacid tablet dissolves slowly, no bubbles dissolves faster, bubbles it bubbled
Analyze and Conclude: 1. How did the reaction differ? 2. Why did the reaction occur faster in hot water? 3. Besides changing the temperature of water, what else could be changed to speed up the chemical reaction? 4. If there is time, test your prediction. Answers: 1. The higher the temperature, the faster the antacid dissolves in water.
2. Because the molecules moved faster, the antacid dissolved quicker. 3. Stirring the water and moving the antacid tablet.
I. Title: What Makes a Mixture a Solution? II. Purpose: To compare the appearance of two mixtures III. Materials: plastic cup, water, salt, pepper IV. Procedure: 1. Put about 50 or 60 milliliters of water into a plastic cup. Add a spoonful of pepper and stir well. 2. To a similar amount of water in a second cup, add a spoonful of table salt. Stir well. 3. Compare the appearance of the two mixtures. V. Data: Salt water the salt dissolved very fast you can't tell the difference the water is the same afterwards water is the solvent solution
pepper water pepper doesn't do anything water is the solvent pepper is solution stays the same solution
VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1. What is the difference between the two mixtures? 2. What is the solvent, what is the solute of both mixtures? 3. What kind of mixture is salt water? What kind of mixture is pepper and water? 4. What other mixtures are similar to salt and water? Pepper and water? VII.
Answers: 1. The salt dissolved but the pepper didnâ€™t dissolve. 2. Salt and water, the solute is salt and the solvent is water. For pepper and water, the solute is pepper and the solvent is water.
3. Homogeneous mixture. Heterogeneous mixture. 4. Powder lemonade and water. Rocks and water. I. Title: Speedy Solutions II. Problem: How can you control the rate at which certain salts dissolve in water? III. Materials: stirring rod, hot plate, salt(coarse and fine), beakers, water, timer, thermometer IV. Procedure: 1. Make sure that you copy the graph before starting. Make your hypothesis and now you can begin. 2. First you take water and you pour it into a beaker. Then you take a hot plate and you put the water to boil. After that take the temp. of the water and take it off of the hot plate. 3. Mean while, you take coarse salt and you break the pieces into smaller ones. Next you take those pieces and you put them into the hot beaker after taking the temp. of the water. Time how long it takes for the pieces of salt to dissolve. 4. Do these steps again except this time with the coarse salt but do not break it into smaller pieces. 5. This is for surface area. Now we are going to do heat and temp. 6. Begin by taking the temperature of the water. Then take pieces of fine salt and put it into the beaker and time how long it takes to dissolve. 7. Next, take the same beaker and put clean water into it. After that, set the beaker on the hot plate. Make sure that the temp. is higher than the one before. Also record the time it takes to dissolve. 8. Now we are going to finish off with motion. For this part you will need a stirring rod. 9. Take fine salt and a beaker full of hot water and wait for it to dissolve. While you are waiting, record the time it takes to dissolve. 10. After the salt has dissolved, repeat step 9 but this time make sure that you stir the beaker full of water. Also record the time. Write all the data on the graph and do the analyze and conclude questions at the bottom. V. Data:
heat and temperature surface area motion
dissolving time test 1
VI. Hypothesis: 1. The temperature will make the reaction happen faster so that the salt dissolves faster if the temperature is high and vice versa. 2. With a high surfaces area, the salt will take longer to dissolve. 3. With more motion and stirring occurring during the reaction, the salt will dissolve faster than without stirring. VII.
Analyze and Conclude: 1. Which is the manipulated variable in your experiment? Which is the responding variable? How do you know which is which? 2. List three variables you held constant in your procedure. Explain why controlling these variables makes your data more meaningful. 3. Skip this one because it involves a graph. 4. Skip this one because it involves a graph. 5. Does your conclusion support the hypothesis you wrote after the data table of your Plan? Explain. 6. What advantage would there be in running your tests a second time? 7. If you switched procedures with another student who tested the same variable as you, do you think you would get the same results? Explain why or why not.
Answers: 1. Heat and temperature, surface temperature, and motion. The salt is the factor that responds to that change. One variable is changed and responds and another can be manipulated or handled. 2. Temperature, the size of the substance, the motion that occurs during the reaction. You can control the time of the reaction during the reaction. 3. Skip. 4. Skip. 5. Yes. The temperature did change the time of the reaction. The size or the surface area of the salt also is controllable which changes the time that it took to dissolve. And the motion applied to the reaction. These factors changed the reaction. 6. The time could change because of the amount of salt. 7. Yes, but the time would be a bit different. The amount of salt and the amount of motion and temperature and the size of the salt all matter.
I. Title: pH II. Purpose: To determine whether various substances are acids or bases III. Materials: pH paper, various substances IV. Procedure: 1. Take a liquid, a piece of pH paper and put a little bit of the liquid that you are doing first and then determine what the pH number is using a pH scale. 2. Repeat step #1 ten times for each liquid. You may not use the same liquid twice. V. Data:
Substance Water Windex Gatorade Italian dressing 7-up Apple juice White board cleaner Ice tea Half & half Cleaning whips
Acid or Base? Neutral Base Acid Acid Acid Acid
pH 7 9 2 2 3 3
Acid Acid Acid
2 5 2
VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1. What is the difference between an acid and a base? 2. How many tested substances were acids? Bases? 3. Which substance had the highest pH? Lowest pH? 4. What are some uses of acids and bases? VII.
Answers: 1. The acidity of the liquid. Bases are less acidic than acids. 2. There were 7 acids and 2 bases. 3. Windex had the highest pH and Gatorade had the lowest pH. 4. Fertilizer, food, car batteries, cement, and cleaning products.
This year was awesome in the 8th grade learning about physical science. We started off with motion, forces, and energy. After that we moved on to talk about the chemical building blocks of matter. Next, for the last part of the year, we started to talk about chemical interactions. Altogether we did a lot of fun things although the labs turned into part of our portfolio. With the science books, the beakers, and all of the other things, science can turn out to be the best class in this school. In the beginning of the school year in science, we started to learn about motion, forces and energy. For a brief period we began to talk about plate tectonics and the never-ending motion of the seven continents. In millions of years the plates moved from being yards away to being miles apart. For this to occur there had to be energy and that energy was coming from under on the ocean floor where there was sea floor spreading. Motion involved energy and the forces which created Newtonâ€™s laws of motion. He is a famous scientist, who with the help of Galileo, made three basic laws which help understand motion, forces, and the energy which is created. Everything that moves and is alive needs energy to move which creates motion so that the living thing can survive. Next, we wrestled with our second, physical science book. Through this book we were introduced to the chemical building blocks of matter which are the basic fundamentals of chemistry. Chemistry is the study of matter in its many shapes and forms. Chemistry is very fascinating and although it can see complicated, it is amazing to learn about. I learned about the periodic table of elements and it is so cool to know that there is a way to group and to put all the know elements in a specific order. It is easy to read. There are natural elements and there are also manmade elements. It groups the elements into nonmetals, metals, and metalloids. Each family has a name and there are 18 of them. I also learned how to measure matter in volume, mass, and density. In chemistry there is also energy involved such as kinetic energy which is stored energy and potential energy which is in use. The labs helped clear everything out so thing made sense. In this book, I learned about molecules, atoms, and everything that makes an element. This is my favorite and most interesting part. Everything also applies in real life. Finally, we have finished off the year with chemical interactions. This book got into depth of the chemical building blocks which also talked about simple machines. This book is loaded with physical and chemical science. I learned how to name a chemical equation which is a way of showing a chemical reaction on paper. There are many reactions that can change a substance or its appearance. These reactions happened with atoms and molecules in substances. All creatures that breath or move and that can live on this earth are made of millions of atoms and cells and molecules. We use elements for many things and there are many reactions we use
to create these new substances and overall it comes to the same simple things. With fluids and beakers and test tubes and reactions, science is fascinating stuff that is right in our hands for us to explore and experiment. One word has a lot in it and that word is science. It seems so simple until you really explore what this one word means. With its many different parts, science is both complicated and fun. There are many things to learn every day. This year exploring physical science was awesome. There is a lot of work to be done in science class but because it is interesting and fun, it is worth paying attention and putting all of your focus into it. After all, science this year was so much fun and I cannot wait for next year.