Page 1

By Sabrina Plata

Fish Species Identification Research Project By Sabrina Plata Mr. Arrington

May 14 2013


Title: saltwater fishes

Species #: 1

Common Name: Angel shark Scientific Name: Pacific Angel shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: chondrichthyes

Order: squantiniforms

Family: squatinidea

Geography / Habitat: Angelsharks are bottom dwellers that live on ocean floors of depths from 10 to 4,300 feet (3 to 1300 m). They live in warm temperate oceans in the southern hemisphere. Life Strategy: Angelsharks reproduce litters of 8-13 live-born pups. the eggs hatch and the babies develop inside the female's body but there is no placenta to nourish the pups.

Food / Feed Strategy: Angelsharks eat fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. They spend the day hidden in the sand and rocks of the ocean bed. As fish swim by, the angelshark bursts up and surprises the prey, catching it in its trap-like jaws.

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Body Form or Style: depressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Angelshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 2

Common Name: basking shark Scientific Name: basking shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: chondrichthyes

Order: lamniformes

Family: cetorhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Basking sharks live in coastal temperate waters. They spend most of their time at the surface, hence their nickname the "sunfish." Life Strategy: They mate in the summer off the coasts of Iceland and northern Europe. The gestation period is about 3.5 years. Females give birth to 1-2 live young. which are about 5.5 feet (1.7 m) long. Food / Feed Strategy: Basking sharks are filter feeders that sieve small animals from the water.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: anguilliform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Baskingshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 3

Common Name: blacktip reef shark Scientific Name: blacktip reef shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: chondrichthyes

Order: carcharhiniforms

Family: carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: The blacktip reef shark is very common in the coral reefs and shallow lagoons of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. Some have recently entered the Mediterranean Life Strategy: These sharks are viviparous and have litters of 2-4 pups after a 16-month gestation period. Food / Feed Strategy: The blacktip reef shark mostly eats reef fish. It hunts in small groups during the day. It commonly preys upon sturgeon fishes and mullet.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Blacktipreef.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 4

Common Name: Blue shark Scientific Name: blue shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: chondrichthyes

Order: carcharhiniforms

Family: carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Blue sharks are pelagic; they are found in open waters. Like most pelagic sharks, they are found worldwide. Life Strategy: Blue sharks are viviparous. Litters consist of 4 to 135 pups; the number of pups increases as the size of the mother increases. The gestation period is almost 1 year. Females are mature at 5 years old. Food / Feed Strategy: The blue shark's diet consists mostly of squid, but it will eat almost anything; it is an opportunistic feeder.

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Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Blueshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 5

Common Name: bluntnose sixgill shark Scientific Name: bluntnose sixgill shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Hexanchidae

Geography / Habitat: The Bluntnose Sixgill shark lives in dark waters at depths down to 5900 ft. (1800 m), in dark or dim waters. It has been seen in coastal waters, usually below 330 ft. (100 m). It has also been see by the surface of open waters at night (probably hunting). Life Strategy: Females reach sexual maturity when they are roughly 14 ft. (4.5 m) long. They reproduce via aplacental viviparity; the eggs hatch inside the body and the babies develop inside the female's body. There is no placenta to nourish the pups. The Bluntnose Sixgill shark has litters of over 100 n pups. The pups are about 28 live-borinches (70 cm) long at birth. Food / Feed Strategy: The Bluntnose Sixgill shark eats large fish (like other sharks, billfish, dolphin, flounder, spurdogs, rays, and cod), crabs, shrimp, smaller fish, and squid with its very sharp, saw-like teeth. It probably hunts mostly at night.

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Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Bluntnosesixgill.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 6

Common Name: bonnethead shark Scientific Name: Bonnethead shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Sphyrnidae

Geography / Habitat: Bonnetheads are found in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, in the surf zone, reefs, on sandy bottoms and in estuaries. Life Strategy: Females are mature at 2.5 feet (75 cm) long and give birth in shallow bays to 8 to 16 pups about 14 inches (35 cm) long. Food / Feed Strategy: The Bonnethead shark has a varied diet. It eats both hard-shelled prey (like crustaceans and mollusks) and soft prey (like small fish), and has a variety of teeth to eat all these animals.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Bonnethead.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 7

Common Name: Broadnose sevengill shark Scientific Name: Broadnose sevengill shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Hexanchidae

Geography / Habitat: The Broadnose Sevengill shark lives in temperate waters down to about 450 ft (135 m). Life Strategy: Females reach sexual maturity when they are roughly 7 ft (2.2 m) long (males at 5 ft = 1.5 m long). These sharks bear live young in shallow bays. Females have litters of up to 80 live-born pups. The pups are about 16-18 inches (40-45 cm) long. Food / Feed Strategy: These aggressive sharks eat fish (including other sharks, rays, and bony fish), seals, and scavenged prey (including fish caught in gill nets and human corpses).

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Broadnosesevengill.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 8

Common Name: Bull shark Scientific Name: Bull shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: The bull shark is found close to shore and can live for a while in fresh water, frequenting estuaries, rivers and lakes. It has been found up to 1,750 miles (2800 km) up the Mississippi River in the USA and 2,500 miles (4000 km) up the Amazon River in Peru. It has been found in Lake Nicaragua (Central America) and the Zambezi River (Africa). Life Strategy: Bull sharks are viviparous (like mammals, giving birth to live animals that were nourished by through a placenta). Litters of 1 to 13 pups are common after a gestation period of about one year. Pups are about 28 inches (70 cm) long at birth. Very young bull sharks are frequently found in protected bays near the mouths of rivers, in briny water Food / Feed Strategy: The bull shark eats fish (including other sharks and rays), turtles, birds, mollusks, crustaceans, and dolphins. It will eat almost anything.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Bullshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 9

Common Name: dogfish Scientific Name: dogfish shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Squaliformes

Family: Squalidae

Geography / Habitat: The spiny dogfish shark stays in water that is between 45째F - 59째F (7째C 15째C). It will venture into brackish waters. Dogfish are mostly bottom-dwellers, dwelling in depths from the surface down to 400 fathoms (2,400 feet). Life Strategy: The spiny dogfish shark reproduces via aplacental viviparity and bears live young. About 2-11 pups are in each litter, these pups are between 8-12 inches (20-30 cm) long. The gestation period is the longest of any vertebrate, about 18-24 months after a winter mating. This is longer than elephants or whales. Male dogfish reach maturity at 11 years old; female dogfish reach maturity at 19-20 years old. Food / Feed Strategy: It eats mostly fish (including other sharks), but also eats squid and octopus.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Dogfish.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 10

Common Name: Galapagos shark Scientific Name: Galapagos shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Galapagos sharks live in warm waters. They are pelagic (live in open oceans) at depths ranging from 16-200 feet (5-60 m). Life Strategy: At birth the 6 to 16 pups are about 22-32 inches (57-80 cm) long. when they are very young, these pups stay in shallow waters away from adult Galapagos sharks, thus avoiding cannibalism (being eaten by other members of their species). Food / Feed Strategy: Galapagos sharks are benthic feeders, eating prey taken from the ocean floor. Their diet includes bottom-dwelling squid, fish, and octopus.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Galapagosshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 11

Common Name: goblin shark Scientific Name: goblin shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Mitsukurina

Geography / Habitat: The Goblin shark is a bottom-dweller found in depths of about 3,940 feet (1,200 m) in the western Pacific, the western Indian Ocean and the western and eastern Atlantic. Life Strategy: unknown Food / Feed Strategy: The Goblin shark eats fish (both large and small), including other sharks and rays. They also eat squid and crustaceans (like crabs).

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Body Form or Style: sagittiform

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Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Goblin.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 12

Common Name: Great white shark Scientific Name: Great white shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Lamnidae

Geography / Habitat: Great white sharks are found near shore along most of the temperate (not very hot and not very cold) coastlines around the world. Life Strategy: Great white sharks reproduce via aplacental viviparity; they give birth to 2-14 fully-formed pups that are up to 5 feet (1.5 m) long. Like all sharks, fertilization of the eggs occurs within the female. The eggs hatch within the female and are nourished by eating unfertilized eggs and smaller siblings in the womb. There is no placenta to nourish the babies they must fend for themselves, even before birth. They swim away from the mother immediately after birth, there is no maternal care-giving. Food / Feed Strategy: Young great white sharks eat fish, rays, and other sharks. Adults eat larger prey, including pinnipeds (sea lions and seals), small toothed whales (like belugas), otters, and sea turtles. They also eat carrion (dead animals that they have found floating dead in the water).

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Greatwhite.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 13

Common Name: hammerhead shark Scientific Name: hammerhead shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Sphyrnidae

Geography / Habitat: The great hammerhead swims in warm and relatively warm water along the coastlines. They live over the continental shelves and the adjacent drop-off (the upper part of the mesopelagic zone) to depths of about 260 feet (80 m). The great hammerhead is found in tropical and sub-tropical waters worldwide. Life Strategy: The great hammerheads are viviparous, giving birth to live young. The 20-40 pups are about 27 inches (70 cm) long at birth. Food / Feed Strategy: The great hammerhead is a fierce predator with a good sense of smell that helps it find its prey. The great hammerhead eats fish, including rays, and other sharks, squid, octopuses, and crustaceans. The great hammerhead has been known to be cannibalistic.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thinniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Hammerhead.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 14

Common Name: Lemon shark Scientific Name: Lemon shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: It lives near the surface and at moderate depths, frequenting bays, docks, and river mouths. Life Strategy: Litters consist of about 36 young which are about 18 inches long at birth. Food / Feed Strategy: It eats mostly fish (including other sharks), but will also eats mollusks and crustaceans.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thinniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Lemonshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 15

Common Name: Mako shark Scientific Name: Mako shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Lamnidae

Geography / Habitat: Short-finned Makos are found world-wide in temperate and tropical seas. Makos range from the surface to relatively deep waters. They are pelagic oceanic swimmers, but are occasionally found inshore. In warm, tropical oceans, they swim deep below the surface as they prefer cool water (about 65째F (18.5째C)). They are found off the island of Tahiti at depths of 650-1,300 feet (200-400 m).

Life Strategy: Makos reproduce via aplacental viviparity. The pups are cannibalistic in the womb. On average, 10 -12 pups are born in each litter and are about 2 feet (0.6 m) long at birth.

Food / Feed Strategy: Makos eat schooling fish, including tuna, herring, mackerel, swordfish, and porpoise. They are opportunistic feeders, eating just about anything.

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Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: thinniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Mako.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 16

Common Name: Manta ray shark Scientific Name: Manta ray shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Myliobatiformes

Family: Myliobatidae

Geography / Habitat: Mantas swim in tropical seas, living both close to shore and in open seas Life Strategy: Mantas reproduces via aplacental viviparity. Females give birth to a one or two pups which are about 45 inches (1.2 m) wide and weigh roughly twenty pounds (45 kg). Young mantas grow very rapidly Food / Feed Strategy: Mantas eat microscopic plankton, small fish, and tiny crustaceans. They funnel the food into their mouth while they swim, using two large, flap-like cephalic lobes which extend forward from the eyes. 


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Body Form or Style: depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: anguilliform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/rays/Mantaray.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 17

Common Name: Nurse shark Scientific Name: Nurse shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Orectolobidae

Geography / Habitat: Nurse sharks live in warm waters and are shallow-water sharks (going from the surface to 230 feet = 70 m deep). They are bottom-dwellers, living near sandy beaches, mudflats, and sandbars. They are common in coral reefs. Life Strategy: Nurse reproduce via aplacental viviparity. In aplacental viviparity, the eggs develop inside the body after internal fertilization and hatch within the body of the mother. Litters consist of 20-30 pups that are tiny replicas of the adult. Food / Feed Strategy: Nurse sharks eat bottom-dwelling fish, shrimp, squid, octopus, crabs, sea snails, lobster, sea urchins, and coral. The barbels (thin, fleshy, whisker-like organs on the lower jaw in front of the nostrils that sense touch and taste) help the shark locate potential food. Most hunting is done at night.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thinniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Nurseshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 18

Common Name: porbeagle shark Scientific Name: porbeagle shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Orectolobidae

Geography / Habitat: Nurse sharks live in warm waters and are shallow-water sharks (going from the surface to 230 feet = 70 m deep). They are bottom-dwellers, living near sandy beaches, mudflats, and sandbars. They are common in coral reefs. Life Strategy: Nurse reproduce via aplacental viviparity. In aplacental viviparity, the eggs develop inside the body after internal fertilization and hatch within the body of the mother. Litters consist of 20-30 pups that are tiny replicas of the adult. Food / Feed Strategy: Nurse sharks eat bottom-dwelling fish, shrimp, squid, octopus, crabs, sea snails, lobster, sea urchins, and coral. The barbels (thin, fleshy, whisker-like organs on the lower jaw in front of the nostrils that sense touch and taste) help the shark locate potential food. Most hunting is done at night.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thinniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Nurseshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 19

Common Name: spined pygmy shark Scientific Name: spined pygmy shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Squaliformes

Family: Squalidae

Geography / Habitat: The spined pygmy shark lives in deep waters (down to 6,550 ft = 2,000 m) but hunts at middle depths (about 650 ft = 200 m). 
 Life Strategy: The spined pygmy shark's reproductive biology is unknown. 
 Food / Feed Strategy: It eats squid, shrimp, and mid-water fish (especially lanternfishes). This uncommon shark lives in deep water (down to 6,550 ft = 2,000 m) but migrates vertically each day to hunt at night in mid-depth waters (about 650 ft = 200 m). 


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Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: thinniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Nurseshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 20

Common Name: tiger shark Scientific Name: tiger shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Tiger sharks go from the surface to 1,200 feet (340 m). They swim in tropical waters worldwide and in some temperate seas. They inhabit both the shoreline and open waters, ranging perhaps up to 500 miles. Life Strategy: Tiger sharks reproduce via aplacental viviparity; the young of tiger sharks are born live in litters of between 10 and 82 pups. Gestation takes about 9 months. At birth they are 20-30 inches (51-76 cm) long and are completely independent. Food / Feed Strategy: Tiger sharks will eat fish, turtles, crabs, clams, mammals, sea birds, reptiles, other sharks, and just about anything else that they can catch alive.

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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Nurseshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 21

Common Name: thresher shark Scientific Name: thresher shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Alopias

Geography / Habitat: The Common Thresher Shark swims from the surface to a depth of about 1,150 feet (350 m). It lives in open tropical and temperate waters, including the eastern and western Atlantic, the central Pacific, and the Indo-west Pacific. 
 Life Strategy: Threshers reproduce via aplacental viviparity; the eggs hatch inside the female. The developing embryos are ovophagous; they will eat smaller, weaker siblings while in the womb. Mature females (at least 10 feet (3 m) long have litters of 4 to 6 pups, bearing live young. These pups are 3.5 to 5 ft (1.1 to 1.5 m) long at birth.

Food / Feed Strategy: The Thresher eats squid and fish, corraling them with its elongated tail, stunning them with slaps from it, and catching them with its very sharp (but small) teeth. 


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Body Form or Style: compressionform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Nurseshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 22

Common Name: whale shark Scientific Name: whale shark Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Rhincodontidae

Geography / Habitat: Whale sharks live in warm water (near the equator) both along the coast and in the open seas. They spend most of their time near the surface. Life Strategy: The Whale shark was long thought to be oviparous (an egg 14 inches (36 cm) long was found in the Gulf of Mexico in 1953; this would be the largest egg in the world). Recently, pregnant females have been found containing hundreds of pups, so, Whale sharks are viviparous, giving birth to live young. Newborns are over 2 feet (60 cm) long. Food / Feed Strategy: The whale shark is a filter feeder that sieves small animals from the water. As it swims with its mouth open, it sucks masses of water filled with prey into its mouth and through spongy tissue between its 5 large gill arches. After closing its mouth, the shark uses gills rakers that filter the nourishment from the water. Anything that doesn't pass through the gills is eaten. Gill rakers are bristly structures (the thousands of bristles are about 4 inches or 10 cm long) in the shark's mouth that trap the small organisms which the shark then swallows. The water is expelled through the sharks 5 pairs of gill slits. The prey includes plankton, krill, small fish, and squid. The shark can process over 1500 gallons (6000 liters) of water each hour.

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Body Form or Style: depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/sharks/species/Whaleshark.shtml

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 23

Common Name: Killer whale Scientific Name: orca whale Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: cetacea

Family: delphinidea

Geography / Habitat: Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas. Due to their enormous range, numbers, and density, distributional estimates are difficult to compare but they clearly prefer higher latitudes and coastal areas over pelagic environments. Life Strategy: Mothers calve, with usually a single offspring, about once every five years. Birth is most common in the winter. Food / Feed Strategy: feed on salmon and some feed on seals.

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Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killer_whale

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 24

Common Name: humpback whale Scientific Name: Megaptera novaeangliae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: cetacea

Family: Balaenopteridae

Geography / Habitat: Humpbacks inhabit all major oceans, in a wide band running from the Antarctic ice edge to 77° N latitude, though not in the eastern Mediterranean or the Sea. They are migratory, spending summers in cooler, high-latitude waters and mating and calving in tropical and subtropical waters. Life Strategy: Females typically breed every two or three years. The gestation period is 11.5 months, yet some individuals have been known to breed in two consecutive years. The peak months for birth are January, February, July, and August, with usually a one- to two–year period between humpback births. They can live up to 48 years. Food / Feed Strategy: Humpbacks feed primarily in summer and live off fat reserves during winter.They feed only rarely and opportunistically in their wintering waters. The humpback is an energetic hunter, taking krill and small schooling fish.

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Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humpback_whale

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Title: saltwater fishies

Species #: 25

Common Name: Blue whale Scientific Name: Balaenoptera musculus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: cetacae

Family: balaenopteridae

Geography / Habitat: Blue whales were abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth until the beginning of the twentieth century. Life Strategy: mating starts in late autumn and ends in the late winter. Females typically give birth once every two to three years at the start of the winter after a gestation period of 10 to 12 months. The calf weighs about 2.5 metric tons (2.8 short tons) and is around 7 meters (23 ft.) in length. Blue whale calves drink 380–570 liters (100–150 U.S. gallons) of milk a day. Scientists estimate that blue whales can live for at least 80 years. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue whales feed almost exclusively on krill, though they also take small numbers of copepods. An adult blue whale can eat 40 million krill a day!

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Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_whale

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Title: Freshwater fishies

Species #: 26

Common Name: Goldfish Scientific Name: black moor gold fish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: outdoor pond, no shard dĂŠcor and is sensitive to low temperatures.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: anything really, pellets, flacks, frozen foods like daphnia, shrimp, bloodworms, and fresh veggies

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Body Form or Style: telescope eye, black and long flowing fins, and deep bodies. The tail is considered veil tail, and there scales are metallic with a velvet like appearance. Globiform ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Black%20Moor

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Title: Freshwater fishies

Species #: 27

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Suihogan Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin in china, and best kept in aquariums with no sharp objects

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: eat live plants also vegetables including- zucchini, peas, spinach, and lettuce. Also some worms.

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Body Form or Style: have a pair of large pouches of skin attached under its eyes jiggle as it swims. Have metallic scales, with deep-bodies ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

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Title

Freshwater

Species #: 28

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: celestial eye gold fish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from china and/or Korea

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: almost anything, flacks, and pellets

â—? â—?

54


Body Form or Style: Have metallic scales, with deep-bodies, widely in color, have telescope eyes, which are turned upwards. Fantailed ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Celestial%20Eye

55


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 29

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: comet goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from the USA

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

56


Body Form or Style: their red and orange also lemon yellow. Elongated body, with equally curved dorsal and ventral contours. Have metallic scales, with deep-bodies, single tailed. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

57


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 30

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: common goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from china, aquarium with colorful dĂŠcor or none.

Life Strategy: egg layers that spawn readily in the right conditions

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

58


Body Form or Style: their orange, white, and yellow. Stock body, with equally convex dorsal and ventral contours. Have metallic scales, with deep-bodies, single tailed. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

59


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 31

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: fantail goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from china and japan, and can be kept in outdoor ponds all year round but make sure it is deep enough

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

60


Body Form or Style: telescope or normal eyes. The anal and caudal fins are well divided into two matching halves. Have metallic scales, with deep-bodies, fantailed. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

61


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 32

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: lionchu goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from Thailand and live in an aquarium.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

â—?

Body Form or Style: the deep body, curved back and tail placement of the ranchu have merged with the lionheads large head growth. They also lack a dorsal fin. Fantailed. Globiform body

62


● ●

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

63


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 33

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: lionhead goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from china, and best kept in an indoor aquarium, where its colorful features can be easily seen

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: sinking food like pellets

â—?

Body Form or Style: Fantailed, and have a tremendous head growth, and are orange, white, yellow, and red. Globiform body. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform

64


â—?

Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

65


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 34

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Oranda goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from china and need clean water conditions.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets and will eat plants.

â—?

Body Form or Style: Veiltailed and has metallic or matte scales. Deep body with a long quadruple tail, they also come in a variety of colors.

66


● ●

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

67


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 35

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Panda moor goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from china, and like strictly cool water with no sharp objects.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

68


Body Form or Style: black and white pattern and have delicate projecting eyes, deep bodies, and long flowing fins. Can grow very fat, they are metallic scaled and are veiltaialed. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

69


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 36

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Pearlscale goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin china, japan, they are sensitive to cold water and should not be exposed to temperature reading below 55* F

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

70


Body Form or Style: the scales on this fish have a pearl-like appearance, metallic or calico in color. Globiform body. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

71


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 37

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: pompom goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin is china and japan. Colorful decor

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

â—?

Body Form or Style: have bundles of loose fleshy outgrowths on each side of the head, between the nostrils. Fantailed. â—? Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform

72


â—?

Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

73


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 38

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Ranchu goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from japan. Are well –adapted to water quality and Ph. fluctuations

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

74


Body Form or Style: globiform, downturned tail and tail fin, arched back and short tails that are tucked in at a sharp angle. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

75


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 39

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Ryukin goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin is japan, can live in aquarium

Life Strategy: egg scatterer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

76


Body Form or Style: globiform, pointed head and a pronounced hump on the back behind the head. Long or short finned, triple or quadruple tail, with a high dorsal fin. Colors are deep-red, red-and-white, white, or calico ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

77


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 40

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: shubunkin goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from japan, and is suitable for an aquarium or pond.

Life Strategy: egg scatterer during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

78


Body Form or Style: its coloration should include a combination of black, red, purple, blue, and brown. Rounded lobes. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

79


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 41

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Telescope eye Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin in china, not mixed with more active goldfish, and is housed in an aquarium without sharp objects

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

â—?

Body Form or Style: has enlarged projecting eyes, deep-bodied and long flowing fins. 80


● ●

Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

81


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 42

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Tosakin goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from japan, kept in shallow water with no current.

Life Strategy: Breeder Tosakins are described to be quite slow to spawn but can be artificially spawned if necessary

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

82


Body Form or Style: pointed head, round truck, and flat half circled tail that curls under ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform and is very weak swimmer ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

83


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 43

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: veiltail goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin is the US, can like in normal water conditions.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

84


Body Form or Style: shaped body that is deep and round, globiform, and is very flowy. ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

85


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 44

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: butterfly tail goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin is china, and can live in an aquarium

Life Strategy: egg scatterer during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

86


● ● ●

Body Form or Style: has butterfly shaped caudal fins. Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

87


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 45

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: curled-gill goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin is china, and lives in an aquarium

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

88


● ● ●

Body Form or Style: has curled gills Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

89


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 46

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: egg-fish goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from japan, and lives in aquarium.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

90


● ● ●

Body Form or Style: lacks a dorsal fin and has a pronounced egg-shaped body Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://www.desktopgoldfish.com/goldfishtypes.php?func=fishDetail&fish=Bubble%20Eye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

91


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 47

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Jikin goldfish (peacock-tail) Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from Japan, and can live in an aquarium

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

92


● ● ●

Body Form or Style: has a divided tail that is splayed outwards. Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

93


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 48

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Tamasaba goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from japan, live in normal water conditions in an aquarium.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

94


Body Form or Style: a body shaped similar to the Ryukin and a very long, flowing, single tail that is similar to that of a mackerel ● Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform ● Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

95


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 49

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Meteor goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from Japan, can live in an aquarium

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

96


● ● ●

Body Form or Style: globiform and has no tail fin. Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

97


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 50

Common Name: goldfish Scientific Name: Shukin goldfish Kingdom: animalia

Phylum: chordata

Class: actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: cypinidae

Geography / Habitat: origin from Japan, live in aquarium.

Life Strategy: egg scattered during the summer

Food / Feed Strategy: flacks or pellets

98


Body Form or Style: The Shukin has a body shaped like long type of Ranchu. But it also has a long tail fin like the Oranda. Shukins come in red, red and white, white, blue, and silver. Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldfish

99


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 51

Common Name: compass jellyfish Scientific Name: Chrysaora hysoscella Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Pelagiidae

Geography / Habitat: lives in coastal waters of the Atlantic and Mediterranean, including near the United Kingdom and Turkey. Life Strategy: Adults are hermaphrodites, and function initially as males before becoming functional females. Sperm is released from the mouth of a functional male, and drawn into a female, also through the mouth (the mouth being the only external opening). Fertilization then takes place inside the female. Free-swimming larvae (planulae) are released from the female during summer or autumn. They remain in the plankton for just a few days before settling as a polyp known as a scyphistoma. During the following spring, the scyphistoma produces tiny jellyfish (ephyrae) by a form of asexual reproduction. These tiny jellyfish detach, and quickly develop into mature jellyfish by summer. The compass jellyfish lives for around one year. Food / Feed Strategy: This jellyfish catches its food with its tentacles, which can be extended and retracted. Ranges of planktonic animals are caught in this way before being transferred to the central arms around the mouth.

100


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://www.arkive.org/compass-jellyfish/chrysaora-hysoscella/#glossary , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysaora_hysoscella

101


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 52

Common Name: flower hat jellyfish Scientific Name: Olindias Formosa Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Limnomedusae

Family: Olindiidae

Geography / Habitat: live in costal waters. Life Strategy: Their life span is one year. Many species of jellyfish are capable of congregating into large swarms or "blooms", consisting of hundreds of individuals. The formation of these blooms is a complex process that depends on ocean currents, nutrients, temperature and ambient oxygen concentrations. Jellyfish sometimes mass breed during blooms, a phenomenon thought to be tied to spikes in the fish populations they feed on. Food / Feed Strategy: eats small fish

Body Form or Style: cannot be determined

102


Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://animania-daily.livejournal.com/14378.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flower_hat_jelly

103


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 53

Common Name: common jellyfish, moon jellyfish Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Ulmaridae

Geography / Habitat: You will find this particular species of Jellyfish living everywhere in the oceans. They live in the warm waters as well as those that are cooler. Europe and North America are the most common locations for them. Life Strategy: In the summer time the Moon Jellyfish will take part in offering eggs and sperm on a daily basis. This is a process that will leave them weak and hungry. At the end of that process they will likely die. Food / Feed Strategy: feed on plankton that includes organisms such as mollusks, crustaceans, tunicate larva, rotifers, young polychaetes, protozoans, diatoms, eggs, fish eggs, and other small organisms.

104


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_jellyfish, http://bioexpedition.com/moonjellyfish/

105


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 54

Common Name: purple- stripped jellyfish Scientific Name: Chrysaora colorata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Pelagiidae

Geography / Habitat: exists primarily off the coast of California in Monterey Bay. Life Strategy: purple-striped jellyfish reproduces sexually to form planula larvae, they reproduce year round. Living in aggregation make it easy for the jellies to locate sexual partners these jelly has no sessile polyp stage instead the planula larva develops directly into ephyra stage , which grows to become a purple-striped jellyfish. Food / Feed Strategy: Its diet consists of zooplankton, including copepods, larval fish, ctenophores, salps, other jellies, and fish eggs.

106


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysaora_colorata, https://sites.google.com/a/richland2.org/ivey-league-animal-wiki/invertebrates/cnidaria/purplestriped-jellyfish-by-imani-p

107


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 55

Common Name: Australian spotted jellyfish or the white-spotted jellyfish Scientific Name: Phyllorhiza punctata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Rhizostomae

Family: Mastigiidae

Geography / Habitat: It is native to the West Pacific from Australia to Japan, but has been introduced widely elsewhere.

Life Strategy: In the medusa stage male jellyfish release sperm into the water column and the female jellyfish gathers the sperm into her mouth where she holds the eggs. Once fertilization occurs and larvae are formed they leave their mother and settle to the ocean floor. Once on the bottom a polyp form occurs and this form reproduces asexually by “cloning� or dividing itself into other polyps. Jellyfish can live for up to five years in the polyp stage and up to two years in the medusa stage.

Food / Feed Strategy: It feeds primarily on zooplankton.

108


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllorhiza_punctata

109


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 56

Common Name: lion’s mane jellyfish Scientific Name: Cyanea capillata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: cyaneidae

Geography / Habitat: Its range is confined to cold, boreal waters of the Arctic, northern Atlantic, and northern Pacific Oceans, seldom found farther south than 42°N latitude. Life Strategy: Lion's mane jellyfish have four different stages in their yearlong life span: a larval stage, a polyp stage, an ephyrae stage, and the medusa stage. The female jellyfish carries its fertilized eggs in its tentacle where the eggs grow into larva. When the larvas are old enough, the female deposits them on a hard surface where the larva soon grows into polyps. The polyps begin to reproduce asexually, creating stacks of small creatures called ephyraes. The individual ephyraes break off the stacks, where they eventually grow into the medusa stage and become full-grown jellyfish. Food / Feed Strategy: Lion's mane jellyfish eat plankton, fish, small crustaceans and even other jellyfish. They can spread their long, thin tentacles out like a net and descend into the water column, capturing prey as they go.

110


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lion%27s_mane_jellyfish,

111


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 57

Common Name: cannonball jellyfish Scientific Name: Stomolophus meleagris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Rhizostomae

Family: Stomolophidae

Geography / Habitat: Cannonballs live in warm, estuarian waters, with an average temperature of 23.1 째C (73.6 째F) and average salinities of 33.8 ppt. They have been found in the northwest and east-central Pacific Ocean (South China Sea to Sea of Japan, and California to Ecuador) and the mid-west Atlantic Ocean (New England to Brazil). Life Strategy: As in most cnidarians sexual reproduction is not an imperative way for cannonballs to reproduce. They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. During sexual reproduction, cannonballs shoot sperm out of their mouth. The sperm are then caught by another cannonball through the mouth and fertilization happens. Food / Feed Strategy: Cannonballs eat mainly zooplankton such as veligers, and also all forms of red drum larvae.

112


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannonball_jellyfish

113


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 58

Common Name: crystal jellyfish Scientific Name: Aequorea victoria Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Leptomedusae

Family: Aequoreidae

Geography / Habitat: Aequorea victoria are found along the North American west coast of the Pacific ocean from the Bering Sea to southern California. The medusa part of the life cycle is a pelagic organism, which is budded off a bottom-living polyp in late spring. The medusae can be found floating and swimming both near shore and offshore in the eastern Pacific Ocean; this species is particularly common in Puget Sound. Life Strategy: Each medusa is either a male or a female. The eggs and spermatozoa mature daily in the medusa gonads, given enough food, and are free-spawned into the water column in response to a daily light cue, where they are fertilized and eventually settle out to form a new hydroid colony. Food / Feed Strategy: Aequorea victoria typically feed on soft-bodied organisms, but the diet may also include some crustacean zooplankton such as copepods, crab zoĂŤals, barnacle nauplii & other larval planktonic organisms.

114


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aequorea_victoria

115


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 59

Common Name: Pacific sea nettle Scientific Name: Chrysaora fuscescens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: cnidaria

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Pelagiidae

Geography / Habitat: Chrysaora fuscescens is commonly found along the coasts of California and Oregon, though some reside in the waters north to the Gulf of Alaska, west to the seas around Japan and south to the Baja Peninsula. Life Strategy: Chrysaora fuscescens is capable of both sexual reproduction in the medusa stage and asexual reproduction in the polyp stage. The life cycle of C. fuscescens begins when females catch sperm released by the males to fertilize the eggs she has produced and is holding in her mouth. These fertilized eggs remain attached to her oral arms, and there they grow into flat beanshaped planula. Once they grow into flower-shaped polyps, they are released into the ocean where they attach themselves to a solid surface and undergo asexual reproduction. Food / Feed Strategy: In common with other cnidaria, Chrysaora fuscescens are carnivorous animals. They catch their prey by means of cnidocyst (or nematocyst) -laden tentacles that hang down in the water. The toxins in their nematocysts are effective against both their prey and humans, though it is typically nonlethal to the latter.

116


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysaora_fuscescens

117


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 60

Common Name: red-knobbed starfish Scientific Name: Protoreaster linckii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Starfish Asteroidea

Order: Valvatida

Family: Oreasteridae

Geography / Habitat: live in the Indian Ocean Life Strategy: All starfish become sexually active at the age of 12- 14 months old. Like fish, starfish start mating during the months of May and June. Starfish reproduces sexually, but the sexes are not together. This act and the fertilization of the eggs is external. The female releases millions of eggs the size of one- two cm. in diameter into the sea while the male releases his sperm in to the sea also. The eggs and sperm meet, fertilization is complete and a blastula is formed. Food / Feed Strategy: it will eat many different species, such as soft corals, sponges, tubeworms, clams, other starfish, and various invertebrates.

118


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red-knobbed_starfish

119


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 61

Common Name: chocolate chip starfish Scientific Name: Protoreaster nodosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Valvatida

Family: Oreasteridae

Geography / Habitat: The starfish quite enjoys the sea grass beds and sandy beaches of warm, shallow sea water ranging from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and Red Sea areas. Life Strategy: The starfish can reproduce both sexually and asexually. During sexual reproduction, the male and female starfish release egg and sperm into the water where fertilization occurs. The fertilized egg rides the current during the first month of its life. Food / Feed Strategy: These creatures are a scavengers, feeding in decaying plants/animals, sponges, and bacteria. They cover the prey with their whole body since the mouth is located on the underside of the organism. The stomach is pushed out and the digestive juices cover it. Cilia on the starfish then move the meal towards the stomach and into the animal.

120


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://creationwiki.org/Chocolate_chip_starfish

121


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 62

Common Name: crown-of-thorns starfish Scientific Name: Acanthaster planci Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Valvatida

Family: Acanthasteridae

Geography / Habitat: Usually the crown-of-thorns starfish live in the Great Barrier Reef, which gives this animal shelter and protection. The starfish will climb onto the coral polyps by putting its entire stomach over them. It occurs at tropical and subtropical latitudes from the Red Sea and the east African coast across the Pacific Ocean, across the Indian Ocean to the west coast of Central America. It occurs where coral reefs or hard coral communities occur in this region. Life Strategy: Spawning is the name used for reproduction of the crown of thorns starfish. Spawning can happen anytime during the summer, unless the water temperature isn’t right. The crown of thorns starfish stands on its tiptoes on top of rocks and releases its eggs or sperm into the water and at this time they meet with the opposite and are fertilized. Up to one-hundred million eggs can be produced by the female each year. Food / Feed Strategy: These starfish love coral and prefer to eat the more common species of hard corals, but when they run out they will settle for soft coral, algae, clams, and other assorted animals.

122


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown-of-thorns_starfish, http://creationwiki.org/Crownof-Thorns_starfish

123


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 63

Common Name: sunflower starfish Scientific Name: Pychopodia helianthoides Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Forcipulatida

Family: Asteriidae

Geography / Habitat: They are common in southern California and Alaska, but are largest in the Puget Sound, British Columbia, and Alaska. Life Strategy: The sunflower starfish has are separate sexes and uses external fertilization. The male begins by arching up its body with its arms so it is half up and half on the ground. It does this so its center were it releases its sperm is free from the ground. When this is done it will thin release its gametes into the water. When it does do this process there is only a chance that the egg will be fertilized. Food / Feed Strategy: the sunflower starfish is a carnivore. Some things they do eat are sea urchins, clams, crabs, snails, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, chitins and dead fish; they will even sometimes eat other starfish.

124


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://creationwiki.org/Sunflower_starfish,

125


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 64

Common Name: blue starfish Scientific Name: Linckia laevigata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Valvatida

Family: Ophidiasteridae

Geography / Habitat: The blue starfish is found in the Indian and Pacific Ocean near sunny reefs and reef fringes. Life Strategy: During sexual reproduction, the blue starfish releases gametes freely into the water when it spawns. Usually they hold the substrate with the tips of their rays as they arch their body and spray either sperm or eggs into the water depending on their sex, blue starfish have separate sexes. If a male and female spawn near each other the fertilized eggs grow into larvae in a few days. Food / Feed Strategy: The starfish is omnivore, which means it eats both animals and plants, it also eats waste. It averts its stomach while it feeds on coral. It eats small chunks of marine meat or clam for food and sometimes even bacterial films, small encrusting sponges, and dead mollusks.

126


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://creationwiki.org/Blue_sea_star

127


Title: saltwater/ marine invertebrates

Species #: 65

Common Name: common starfish Scientific Name: Asterias Rubens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Asteroidea

Order: Forcipulatida

Family: Asteriidae

Geography / Habitat: Found on a range of marine substrata including fine sand, rock and gravel. The common starfish can often be found amongst mussel beds and barnacles on British shores. Life Strategy: The sexes are separate, breeding occurs in spring and summer and fertilization occurs externally. The early larval stage of the common starfish (called a 'bipinnaria' larva) is planktonic, transforming into a 'brachiolaria' larva before undergoing full metamorphosis and settling around 87 days after fertilization. The life span of a common starfish is between 5 and 10 years. Food / Feed Strategy: Common starfish feed on mussels, crustaceans, worms and echinoderms (starfish or sea urchins).

128


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://www.arkive.org/common-starfish/asterias-rubens/, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterias_rubens

129


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 66

Common Name: mud Bithynia Scientific Name: Bithynia tentaculata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Caenogastropoda

Family: Bithyniidae

Geography / Habitat: This snail lives in slow-running freshwater habitat such as low-velocity rivers, and standing-water bodies such as lakes. The species flourishes in calcium-rich waters. Life Strategy: Bithynia tentaculata is dioecious (it has two separate sexes) and lays its eggs on rocks, wood and shells in organized aggregates arranged in double rows, in clumps of 1–77. Egg laying occurs from May to July when water temperature is 20°C or higher, and sometimes a second time in October and November by females born early in the year. Food / Feed Strategy: This species functions as both a scraper and a collector-filterer, grazing on algae on the substrate, as well as using its gills to filter suspended algae from the water column.

130


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bithynia_tentaculata#Habitat

131


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 67

Common Name: island applesnail Scientific Name: Pomacea insularum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Caenogastropoda

Family: Ampullariidae

Geography / Habitat: Pomacea insularum commonly colonizes small water bodies, such as roadside ditches and littoral edges of larger water bodies. Life Strategy: This snail lays pink eggs in clutches above the water level. Pomacea insularum egg clutches contain 2000 eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: Pomacea insularum voraciously consumes aquatic vegetation. The snail’s extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread.

132


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomacea_insularum

133


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 68

Common Name: Planorbella trivolvis Scientific Name: Planorbella trivolvis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Heterobranchia

Family: Planorbidae

Geography / Habitat: This species prefers habitats with floating waterweeds. Life Strategy: cannot be found. Food / Feed Strategy: This species functions as both a scraper and a collector-filterer, grazing on algae on the substrate, as well as using its gills to filter suspended algae from the water column.

134


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planorbella_trivolvis

135


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 69

Common Name: tiger snail, zebra snail, or zebra nerite. Scientific Name: Neritina natalensis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Neritimorpha

Family: Neritidae

Geography / Habitat: This species occurs in Africa: in Kenya, Mozambique,

Somalia, South Africa, and Tanzania Life Strategy: cannot be found. Food / Feed Strategy: This species is a common choice of algae-eating snail among

freshwater aquarists.

136


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neritina_natalensis

137


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 70

Common Name: white-clawed crayfish Scientific Name: Austropotamobius pallipes Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Astacidae

Geography / Habitat: It is found from the Balkan Peninsula to Spain and reaches its northerly limit in Great Britain and Ireland, where it also has its greatest population density, It Hides in rocks. Inhabiting in rivers, streams, canals and lakes. Life Strategy: Maternal-size-related variables and date of collection have been considered in relation to the number of ovarian and pleopodal eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: eats small fish and sometimes other crayfish.

138


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austropotamobius_pallipes, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/11250003.2010.501090#preview

139


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 71

Common Name: red swamp crawfish Scientific Name: Procambarus clarkii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Cambaridae

Geography / Habitat: P. clarkii is most commonly found in warm fresh water, such as slowly flowing rivers, marshes, reservoirs, irrigation systems and rice paddies. It is considered to be the most ecologically plastic species in the order Decapoda, and is able to grow quickly even in only seasonally present water, being able to tolerate dry spells of up to four months. Life Strategy: Procambarus clarkii normally reproduces sexually, but recent research suggests it may also reproduce by parthenogenesis. Food / Feed Strategy: Eat what ever

140


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procambarus_clarkii

Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 72 141


Common Name: Potamon ibericum Scientific Name: Potamon ibericum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Potamidae

Geography / Habitat: The natural range of Potamon ibericum is wide, but highly fragmented. In Europe, it is present in the Danube and its tributaries in Bulgaria, as well as rivers in Macedonia, north-eastern Greece (east of the Axios River), Cyprus and the European part of Turkey, and around the coast of the Black Sea through Ukraine to the Caucasus. Life Strategy: cannot be found Food / Feed Strategy: P. ibericum is an omnivore, eating detritus, filamentous algae and plant matter, as well as a variety of animals, including worms, amphipod crustaceans, aquatic insect larvae, molluscs, frogs and tadpoles, fish and carrion. It feeds on land during the night and, if the air is humid enough, also during the day.

142


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potamon_ibericum

143


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 73

Common Name: Appalachian elktoe Scientific Name: lasmidonta raveneliana Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae

Geography / Habitat: The Appalachian elktoe is endemic to mountain river streams in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. Life Strategy: The reproductive cycle of the Appalachian Elktoe is also similar to other native freshwater mussels. First, the male releases a trail of sperm into the water column. Then, when females come in contact with the sperm, they take it in through their siphons. Normally this process occurs during either respiration or feeding. Once the females have taken the sperm in, they retain it in their gills until the larvae (glochidia) have matured and are fully developed. Food / Feed Strategy: Currently, it is not known what the Appalachian Elktoe feed on. Like other mollusks, the Appalachian Elktoe feeds itself by picking out particles of food that are in the water.

144


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alasmidonta_raveneliana

145


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 74

Common Name: freshwater pearl mussel Scientific Name: Margaritifera Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Margaritiferidae

Geography / Habitat: Clean, fast-flowing streams and rivers are required for the freshwater pearl mussel, where it lives buried or partly buried in fine gravel and coarse sand. Life Strategy: Capable of living for up to 130 years, the freshwater pearl mussel begins life as a tiny larva, measuring just 0.6 to 0.7 millimetres long, which is ejected into the water from an adult mussel in a mass of one to four million other larvae. Food / Feed Strategy: Cannot be found.

146


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freshwater_pearl_mussel#Habitat

147


Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 75

Common Name: swan mussel Scientific Name: Anodonta cygnea Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae

Geography / Habitat: This species is found in rivers and lakes. Life Strategy: begins life as a tiny larva, measuring just 0.6 to 0.7 millimetres long, which is ejected into the water from an adult mussel in a mass of one to four million other larvae. Food / Feed Strategy: Cannot be found

148


Body Form or Style: cannot be determined Swim / Locomotion Style: cannot be determined Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swan_mussel

149

Fish ID project  

idenification of different types of fish species

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