June July 2018 SABI mag

Page 1


ISSN 2071-1883

Fantastic food gardens Spotlight on water meters

Irrigation design focus Volume 10 • Issue 5 • SABI | JUNE/JULY 2018


How to create a water wise garden




Pressure Compensated Heavy Wall Drip Line for Orchards & Vineyards


Drip Tape for Fruit & Vegetables


Heavy Wall Drip Line for Use in Orchards, Vineyards, Fruit & Vegetable Farms.

Eurodrip Eolos features one of the largest inlet filters for flat drip emitters on the market. The additional filtration area provides outstanding protection against clogging.

www.Rivulis.com Available from participating agricultural retailer and irrigation suppliers nationwide. For more information on stockists or for technical queries, please contact Agrinet at Samrand: 012 657 2222, enquiries@agrinet.co.za, Bellville: 021 959 5420, belbestel@agrinet.co.za or visit www.agrinet.co.za. Eurodrip is exclusively distributed by


contents Carol Posthumus carol@sabi.co.za

Water meters


Selecting meters for irrigation water measurement

Riana Lombard riana@sabi.co.za Advertising Sales


Affordable Internet-based water meter logging to meet WUA obligations Smart water meter challenge in schools going great


Community Food Gardens


René van der Merwe

8 10

admin@sabi.co.za Subscriptions and circulation

Isobel van der Stoep

The Little Garden initiative


Food garden rises from ashes of xenophobia


Seeds of hope in KwaDukuza


Improving livelihoods of people with disabilities


PE Winners of the First Health in Action Awards




Technical Executive Officer

How to create a water wise garden


Get wise about using VSDs


Annemarie van der Westhuizen

Irrigation design focus & debate



Technical Assistant

Liam Hamer-Nel liamh@mweb.co.za | alliancephoto.com

SABI Approved Designers


What can farmers expect from irrigation system designers?


Join the Design Debate



Graphic Design



Martijn Aslander, Mike de Villiers, Philippe Vaas


Printing Colourtone Aries, Cape Town, RSA

How water leakage affects us and what we can do about it


Agri SA launches Water Desk


NAMPO Making a debut


Technology Winter orographic cloud seeding

Tel: +27 21 981 8873


Environment Distribution Ezweni Magazine Distribution www.ezwenimags.co.za

Media Support www.mediasupport.co.za


Do you know where our used oil ends up?


Unilever’s 7-year sustainability plan update


Agriculture How planting trees can protect cocoa plants against climate change


Cover Photograph

Rwanda training centre opened by KIA

Community vegetable gardens –


growing and growing.

43 44

Record almond crop


Published by SABI


(South African Irrigation Institute /

The era of knowledge workers 46

Suid Afrikaanse Besproeiingsinstituut) T: +27 21 850 8220 | E: carol@sabi.co.za

Regulars From the editor

2 SABI Approved Designers


Web: www.sabi.co.za

President’s message

3 Subscribe now


Address: PO Box 834, Strand, 7139,

Company members

Western Cape, South Africa

SABI magazine / tydskrif is a bi-monthly publication.

23-25 Training update



36 Advertisers’ contents


Dam levels

37 Contacts and diary


© Copyright: South African Irrigation Institute/Suid-Afrikaanse Besproeiingsinstituut (SABI). Requests to reproduce material herein should be addressed to carol@sabi.co.za. All rights reserved. Disclaimer: The views expressed herein by authors or advertisers are not necessarily subscribed to or endorsed by SABI or the editor.



From the Editor

About SABI

Editor’s message Food gardens Great nourishment Carol Posthumus


Indeed 28th of May was World Hunger Day; in a world where some have an excess of food and where food wastage is more of a worry than food lack - 1 in 9 people are chronically hungry. More than 60% of the world’s hungry are women and girls – social scientists say this shows how women’s access to resources is often limited from a young age.

Nourishing School food gardens go a long in providing nourishing fruit and vegetables to learners, some whose only meal may come from school feeding efforts. It is unacceptable

(South African Irrigation Institute) aims to boost optimal irrigation methodologies, water conservation and sustainability.

his edition contains our annual Food Garden focus. For us, food gardens that help relieve hunger in communities, are a vital part of food cultivation and poverty alleviation. The powerful stories behind each community food garden never fail to inspire anew. We have noted with delight that sophisticated irrigation systems, rainwater tanks and keen water conservation have become features in many community food gardens.

Cape Town-headquartered SABI

hardship that many of our South African children walk many kilometres to school, have not had breakfast and have no school lunch to enjoy. Nourishing fresh foodstuffs are great news therefore in many schools. Shoprite, the retailer, has been instrumental in many Food Gardens benefiting communities. We feature a selection of these in this edition. Most times it is just not the food that nourishes physically in a food garden, but also the spiritual or communal healing that comes with the human relationships and community that arise, while cultivating the soil.

Healing relationships There is a garden in Reiger Park, Boksburg, Gauteng which helped to heal a community ravaged by violence and

xenophobia. Please do read about it on page 13. Inmed, the non-profit, again impresses with their adaptive agricultural projects – great news that Inmed Partnerships for Children have received funding from USAID to expand its projects for people living with disabilities in the Free State. Notably, Inmed’s adaptive agricultural projects make use of aquaponics, an agricultural production and management technology, that combines hydroponics and fish farming. It is highly water-efficient and easily accessible to people with disabilities. (pg 12) Inmed are very involved in equipping schools with aquaponics and adaptive agriculture, boosting school veggie gardens considerably. It seems sophisticated cultivation techniques and technologies can really add more power to the goodness of food gardens! We hope you enjoy these uplifting stories on food gardens and much more.

Happy reading!

SABI promotes the sharing of irrigation knowledge via: • SABI membership and branch activities • SABI Congress, the bi-annual leading African irrigation event • IrrigationWise Academy courses in agriculture and landscape, presented nationwide with courses from entry to an advanced technical level • SABI magazine, the Institute’s official technical journal and the only irrigation magazine in South Africa. People from the irrigation, water, agricultural, landscape and related disciplines join SABI as they believe that responsible irrigation water use can result in water savings, increased socio-economic benefits, healthier communities, enhanced agricultural production, sustainable and attactive environments and further benefits such as energy saving. To advertise in SABI magazine visit: www.sabi.co.za, contact SABI on +27 021 850 8220 or email info@sabi.co.za



President’s Message

Irrigation design means Water and energy saving


s we head for mid-year and, as I write, South Africa is being blessed with some much-needed rain in the dry winter rainfall areas.

SABI seeks, in this edition, to look at some important debates in irrigation. Please join the debate – if you are designer or farmer or interested party – on irrigation design fees. Irrigation design was many years ago not a highly formalised endeavour. But as irrigation technology and practice has grown and become highly sophisticated, irrigation design, likewise, has grown into an important part of the highly essential equation of saving water and energy on-farm and in landscape developments. Over recent years as irrigation design has grown as a profession, the debate around fees has been one often discussed in irrigation. Somehow the professional fee element of irrigation design got

left behind as the profession formalised. SABI wants all in the profession to be part of the conversation on design fees – do join in! If you are not that familiar with design in irrigation, please read our article on what the farmer can expect from his or her irrigation designer – this will give you an excellent idea on just how much the science and art of irrigation design involves. Perhaps if you are one of our student readers information on design may stir your interest in making irrigation design your profession on day. Please note that SABI Approved Designers, who always appear in our magazine, sit for the SNE exam and once they pass, they are awarded SABI Approved Designer status.

Water meters We also look in this edition at the important arena of Water Meters. SABI’s Technical Executive Isobel van der Stoep writes an excellent article on “Selecting Meters for Irrigation Water Measurement” in this edition. The article presents an overview of the most commonly used water meters in pump supply systems. SABI Company Member IrriGator details how they have developed affordable water meter logging to meet Water Users Association’s obligations to keep records – this technology reflects the need in the Western Cape to monitor water consumption from various sources. Hunger, sadly, in our world remains a huge problem. In South Africa, community food gardens are becoming a major part of boosting nutrition and

Willie Vosloo – Preside


opportunities in many areas. Retailer Shoprite is doing a massive amount to assist with food gardens – and water saving. We present details on their endeavours and take our hats off to them – for all they do in assisting in communities. Hope you enjoy this edition, and don’t forget to join in the irrigation design debate! (you can email info@sabi.co.za)



Water meters

Selecting meters for irrigation water measurement By Isobel van der Stoep


ncreasing competition for water, decreasing availability and reliability of supply due to droughts and changing weather patterns, together with the call for greater water use efficiency are just some of the reasons that can trigger the need for a water meter to be installed. This article presents an overview of the most commonly available meters used to measure irrigation water in pumped supply systems. The selection of a measuring device for a particular installation will depend on how the characteristics of the available devices satisfy the requirements set by the responsible authority (usually either the Department of Water and Sanitation – DWS – or the Water Users Association – WUA), or as identified during a situation assessment preceding installation. In general, these requirements should make sure the following needs are addressed: The device performs the functions required by the reason for installation, The device performs to the required standard, and The device is the most affordable solution that satisfies the first two needs. The circumstances under which the meter is to be installed will determine which type of meter is the most suitable (and therefore the most likely to provide years of satisfactory service). These circumstances needs to be assessed before selecting a type of meter and some of the most important aspects include the following: Water quality: what physical and chemical impurities do the water contain? Flow range: the minimum and maximum flow rates that could occur at the point of measurement? Pressure loss: will the additional pressure loss caused by the meter influence the system pressure?



Accuracy: is the meter accurate enough to satisfy the requirements set by the responsible authority? Reliability: is the meter known to be used for irrigation water and what is the warranty? Installation conditions: indoors / outdoors, lightning strikes, power spikes, submergence, etc.? Data output required: electronic / mechanical, cell phone reception required for data transmission? Power requirement: is electricity required for the meter to operate? Maintenance, trouble shooting and repair: who will do it, are spares and support easily available? Resistance to tampering: what is the risk of tampering and how is the meter resistant to it? Four types of meters are widely used in South Africa and are discussed here – mechanical meters, electromagnetic meters, ultrasonic meters, and indirect measurement using the kilowatt-flow rate relationship of a centrifugal pump.

Mechanical meters Mechanical meters have rotor-mounted blades in the form of a vaned rotating element which is driven by the water at a speed proportional to the discharge. The number of rotor revolutions is proportional to the total flow through the meter and monitored by either a gear train, or by a magnetic or optical sensor. Distinction can be made between turbine, impeller, and propeller meters, based on the orientation of the vaned rotor in relation to the flow direction and the number of vanes. So-called irrigation meters often feature a rotor that is smaller than the pipe diameter so that it only obstructs a section of the flow path, as shown in Figure 1 and 2. This design makes it easier for debris to pass through the meter and reduces head-loss but accuracy is compromised in the process and the measuring element is located in the part of the meter body where air may accumulate and could stop recording flow if the pipe is not completely filled with water.

Figure 1 Turbine type

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Water meters Electromagnetic meters Electromagnetic meters, also known as “Magflows” or “Magmeters”, have been in widespread use for more than 40 years. This was the first meter type that had no moving parts and caused no additional headloss in the system, and is highly suitable for irrigation water measurement. In the electromagnetic flow meter, a magnetic field is produced across a cross-section of the pipe, with the water forming the conductor. Two sensing electrodes set at right angles to the magnetic field, are used to detect the voltage which is generated across the flowing water. The strength of the magnetic field is directly proportional to the velocity (discharge) in the pipe. Figure 2 Paddle wheel type

It is recommended that mechanical meters are installed after a filter or a strainer at a point where the pipe is always completely full of water.

Figure 3 Inline type

The meter causes no or little obstruction in the flow path of the water. Furthermore, it has no moving parts, is relatively insensitive to flow profile changes (in-line type), and can record discharge readings with errors less than ± 0.5%. Two types of electromagnetic flow meters are available for permanent installation, namely the in-line and the insertion type meter. Examples are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. The inline type offers greater accuracy but the insertion type is easier to install.

Figure 4 Insertion type (Metron Technology)

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Water meters Ultrasonic meters

This meter measures a number of electric variables and from this the flow rate and cumulative flow of the water can be established. It is thus not in direct contact with the water, but only measures the power inputs to a specific pump unit/set. The principle was developed in South Africa through a Water Research Commission project, a patent applied for and a commercial product developed.

Similar to electromagnetic meters, ultrasonic flow meters are non-intrusive devices that can measure flow at high accuracies (errors less than ±0.5% of reading), but are slightly more expensive. The biggest application of these meters in irrigation water measurement therefore is the use of portable clampon models for in-field verification of other installed meters or temporary measuring of flow at different points in a pipe distribution system, but permanently installed models are gaining popularity. There are two types of ultrasonic meters commonly used that each operate on a different principle for measurement, ie. the Doppler method, and the Transit Time (time of flight) method, which is mostly used in irrigation applications. The transit time type of meter comprises two transducers mounted at an angle to the flow and each acts as a transmitter and receiver. The transit time of the signal is measured in both directions between the transducers and then compared. The flow velocity is directly proportional to the difference in transit time in the two directions. Transducers can be installed in-line with each other, transmitting the signal directly across the pipe diameter, or next to each other, in which case the signals have to reflect off the inside pipe wall. The distance that the signal travels from one transducer to the next is called the path length.

Figure 5 Signal path and transducer positions of a transit time flow meter Figure 7 Typical installation of the indirect measurement method using the power-flow rate relationship of centrifugal pumps

Figure 6 Increased path length through multiple traverses (Crabtree, 2000)

Indirect measurement using the power-flow rate relationship of centrifugal pumps This measuring method is based primarily on the assumption that the efficiency of the motor and pump combination is constant for a specific flow-rate of the pump, and that this efficiency does not change significantly over time.

Results from tests during development showed that the meter could achieve a higher accuracy than available mechanical meters. The installation of the meter and its calibration on site is simple and does not involve any pipe cutting, but only electric power supply connections. The meter costs more than mechanical meters but less than electromagnetic and ultrasonic meters. The size of the meter does not vary with the pump’s delivery pipe size. Re-calibration of the meter is recommended to take place every two years, or when changes are made to either the pump or the electric motor.

Summary When selecting a meter, it is important to obtain all the technical specifications of a meter from the supplier and select the most appropriate type of meter for the installation conditions, not the lowest cost. A table with typical costs for 150mm meters of the types discussed above is shown below, together with prices of other devices such as modems for remote meter reading (where data is transmitted to a website). Installation of flanged meter bodies can add a

further R1000 to R3000 to the installation cost for flanges, reducers, straight pipe sections, nuts and bolts, etc.

on-farm and on-scheme irrigation water measurement) contains useful information for producers and water user associations.

The Water Research Commission of South Africa (WRC) has funded a number of projects regarding irrigation water measurement since 2001, of which reports TT 248/05 (Guidelines for irrigation water measurement in practice) and TT550/12 (Guidance for sustainable

These reports can be obtained electronically on the water meter project website www.watermeter.org.za, or for more information, please contact SABI Technical Executive Officer Isobel van der Stoep on isobel@sabi.co.za or 082 331 4987.


Price range(excl VAT)


Mechanical meter without pulse output

R 5 000 – R 7 000


Mechanical meter with pulse output

R 7 000 – R 11 000


Transit time ultrasonic meter

R 20 000 – R 30 000


Battery operated electromagnetic meter

R 25 000 – R40 000


Modem for automatic meter reading on any of the above

R 6 000 – R8 000


Indirect measurement using power (including modem for automatic meter reading)

R 17 000 – R 20 000


Automatic meter reading (data sent to a website)

R50 – R100 per month


Crabtree, M. 2000. Flow: Mick Crabtree’s Flow Handbook (Second edition). Crown Publications. Johannesburg. Metron Technologies, 2018. Website accessed May 2018. http://www.metrontechnology.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/MAG-Flow-Sensor-Installation-Example_Metron-Technology-1.png SABI | JUNE/JULY 2018


Irrigation Automation, Control and Monitoring

Affordable Internet-based water meter logging to meet Water Users Association (WUA) obligations


ith the critical drought the Western Cape is currently experiencing there has been an upswing in the monitoring of water consumption from various sources. The water users’ associations are under pressure to have records of water that has been abstracted from the rivers and dams that are under their jurisdiction. With this has come the request for simple; affordable equipment to monitor water meters and log the volumes abstracted. Irri-Gator, in partnership with associate entities, has developed a device which is powered by either standard AC mains power or long life lithium battery packs. The product is a GSM cellular phone logger which is connected to a web-based cloud server offering a web browser type user interface to enable access to monitor information.

The unit requires an input from a standard water meter equipped with a reed type EPC pulse switch. Pulses are logged on the unit and sent to a server which then stores the data and presents it via a user interface in various formats. In the case of a WUA, login is possible for the WUA representative to monitor all the sites on which they have meters fitted. The individual user who may have a single water meter on his farm, or others with many meters, can log into their own data and see their information. This allows for transparency and the individual farmer can benefit from the logger being a management tool with useful information and not just a policing device. As such improving buy-in to the system.

Water meter



These units are not aimed strictly at the WUA’s only but can be purchased and installed by individual clients wanting to log their consumption from, for instance, a borehole. As long as there is cellular network reception available (does not have to be very strong, high gain antennas are available) the client can fit a unit to his watermeter at the borehole and start logging the volumes abstracted from the hole on a daily basis.

Irri-Gator’s wide range of automation, control & monitoring In addition to this fairly new logger device, of which several hundred have been installed in the past two years, we at Irri-Gator Products continue to offer our wide range of tried and tested irrigation automation, control and monitoring products which include:

Gator wireless products for point to point (for remote switching or water pulsing transfer) and point to multipoint (for the remote control of valves, pumps, filters and other devices) systems. These products are used extensively in all spheres of irrigation control and interface seamlessly with our proprietary products such as the iGator PC based control system or the Gator 2000 irrigation controller as well as numerous other independent controllers on the market. Gator pump house controllers support pump controls, fertigation controls and real time system monitoring such as flows, pressures, energy usage, etc. Gator pump house controllers can also be seamlessly linked using various communications formats to the iGator PC based control system or other control platforms.

Long life lithium battery powered units

Irrigation Automation, Control and Monitoring The iGator PC based irrigation system automation package is truly the most affordable and flexible irrigation automation and management tool available in the local market today. It offers scalability of your system with a host of features. Senlan Variable Speed Drive motor control panels for integrated pump control solutions from single pump applications to any size of

pump station and incorporating full pump system management along with inter communications with our iGator PC based control system for control and monitoring were require. Gator hydraulic control valves in sizes from DN25 to DN200 and in various patterns and connection configurations. The Gator valve range is supported by an array of accessories such

as solenoids, pilot valves and hydraulic fittings. With more than 30 years of experience in this arena and several thousand systems in operation, we pride ourselves in being able to offer affordable automation, control and monitoring solution to our clients to meet almost any application we are confronted with. We strive to provide our clients with the

best possible service and have invested heavily in our well trained and dedicated technical team. We have outlets in Kimberley, Nelspruit, Pretoria and Cape Town with the view to extending our overall footprint in the future. Should you require any technical information or assistance we at Irri-Gator are always willing to offer our services!

Dashbord control panel

Graphical display of usage

Site information

Graphical display of usage

Graphical display of usage

Graphical display of usage

Water meters and food gardens

Smart Water Meter Challenge passes 100 school milestone Saving over 20 million litres of water


hoprite is dazzling with its commitment to growing vegetable gardens and water saving.

Tne hundred and ten schools saved 21 million litres of water. In monetary terms this translates to a total saving of R1,1 million in just over three months.

and report on water use by the minute. It also includes plumbing maintenance and interventions to affect behavioural change among learners and their teachers.

These figures indicate the success of the Shoprite Group’s Smart Water Meter Challenge, launched in November last year. These savings also come at a time when people living in the Western Cape are being urged to intensify efforts to save water living through the worst drought in a century.


Shoprite’s water-saving initiative involves the installation of smart water meters that measure

The retailer committed to installing smart water meters at 100 of the top water-using schools in Cape Town and got 82 corporates to pledge to install a further 260 smart water meters. One of these schools and a top performer in terms of water savings is Yomelela Primary in Khayelitsha.

The school’s water use averaged 49.5 kL per day before the installation of the smart water meter and without any water-saving interventions. Since installation and with plumbing maintenance its usage was reduced by 79% to 10.3 kL per day in the first few days of February. This amounts to a daily monetary saving of R3 800. The school has achieved a total saving of 1.7 million litres of water, which translates to a cumulative financial saving of R 98 000. Another way the Shoprite Group is reaching out to communities facing water shortages is with its till-point donation facility, through which Shoprite and Checkers customers can give R5 or more to its Disaster Relief Fund. All donations to the fund will go toward water relief efforts in Cape Town and other drought-stricken areas.

Shoprite addresses poverty and water shortage in rural Limpopo With irrigation systems and boreholes


ith access to drinking water and food security being a major challenge in the rural village of Tshavhalovhedz in Limpopo, the Shoprite Group partnered with the Mutshidzi Community Centre (MCC) to implement a number of sustainable solutions. The MCC’s 14 members offer skills development and home-based care as part of their goal to help alleviate poverty for 300 needy people in the area. The organisation also operates a chicken coop to produce meat and eggs as well as a food garden that provides vegetables for their soup kitchen. Unfortunately a lack of adequate infrastructure and access to water (both for drinking



and irrigation) severely efforts of the MCC.



Water tanks The Shoprite Group, along with its implementation partner Food & Trees for Africa, installed a borehole so that the MCC now has a sustainable source of water. With water tanks and an irrigation system in place, an

extensive food garden could be established complete with medicinal herbs and fruit trees. Infrastructure improvements included renovating the fence, building a toilet, installing composting units as well as moveable chicken pens for outdoor grazing. The committed members of the MCC are now working to ensure a consistent production rate, so that they may soon be in position to sell their fresh produce in order to generate an income.


Community Gardens

The Little Shop becomes the Little Garden


ou may have noticed Checkers recently launched a brand new collectable campaign consisting of environmentally-friendly Little Garden seedling kits. And more power to the group, as the retailer is, with the initiative, helping to encourage productive gardening. The kits are a delight with soil plugs, small biodegradable pot and seeds embedded in paper with name tags. every R150 spent in a Checkers or Checkers Hyper store. There are 24 different seedlings to collect including eight veggies, eight flowers and eight herbs.

“With Little Garden, Checkers hopes to encourage children and adults to get outside and spend some quality time together as they tend to their seedlings, and learn to grow their own fresh herbs, veggies and flowers,” say the group.

Big prizes

Customers will be rewarded with one Little Garden seedling kit for

All the materials used in the Little Garden seedling kits are

compostable or recyclable: the biodegradable pots are made of wood pulp and peat; the seeds are all natural and the soil pods are made of coconut husk. Customers also have the opportunity to buy a limited edition collectors’ case to keep all their seedlings in one place until they sprout. Additional Little Garden merchandise available for sale includes mini garden tools and gardening gloves. There are also some big prizes up for grabs with Little Garden. Customers who collect all 24

Little Garden seedling kits stand a chance of winning one of 20 Checkers vouchers worth R5 000. Additionally, school choirs who prove that they are the best at singing the Checkers Little Garden song could be one of three choirs to win a share of R60 000 for their school. Lastly, customers who buy any three participating brands stand a chance to win a Food Tour to Italy worth R100 000. Little gardeners are encouraged to visit: www.checkerslittlegarden.co.za for more information.

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Community Gardens

Hating becomes loving as a food garden Rises from the ashes of xenophobia


t is almost a decade ago since Boksburg was traumatised by a series of xenophobic attacks on non-South Africans living in the area. But ten years on, this dark episode has produced an inspiring outcome thanks to the dedication and vision of local community activist, Elaine Appies. This story started in 1997, when Appies established the Community Crisis Centre in Reiger Park. Initially her aim was to care for the area’s senior citizens. But over the years, her focus expanded to include orphaned and vulnerable children and child-headed households in nearby settlements. Appies was galvanised into establishing a food garden at the Community Crisis Centre when the xenophobic attacks erupted in 2008, leaving hundreds of people without food.

Victims “At first, the idea was to produce food parcels for victims of the violence,” explains Appies. “But the fact is that too many people from all backgrounds are at risk of starvation around here, especially children. Nowadays, our aim is to make sure that no-one in our community ever goes hungry – regardless of their background.” Today, the Community Crisis Centre’s food garden produces a reliable supply of organic vegetables including herbs, spinach, potatoes, onions, peppers, tomatoes and pumpkin as well as various types of fruit. Around 80% of this produce is sold to the community, 10% supplies the centre’s feeding scheme while the rest goes

towards the community members who work in the garden. Alongside men and women from Correctional Services, they include young people who left school without matriculating and now cultivate crops under the supervision of community elders. “As well as growing food, we also want to encourage a long-term interest in agriculture among our local youngsters,” Appies explains. Achieving her aim has become a lot easier thanks to the ongoing support from Checkers, which first became involved with the Community Crisis Centre’s garden on Mandela Day in 2014. Recognising the food garden’s rich potential, Checkers and its implementation partner, Food and Trees for Africa, recently completed an assessment to identify the best ways of further supporting Appies and her team. Meanwhile, the Community Crisis Centre’s food garden continues to go from strength to strength with record harvests. And to ensure that this success story lasts, the gardening team is busy teaching the next generation how to be self-sufficient in food by sharing their skills and knowledge with local schools.



Moving systems

Seeds of hope in



ouis Meyer and Simon Kwesaba are two community heroes who come from very different backgrounds, but who have been united by a single vision for almost two decades. Meyer is a passionate community activist who lives in middle-class Durban while Kwesaba is a pastor who works in Shakaville near KwaDukuza in KwaZulu-Natal.

Meyer and Kwesaba began by opening a crèche for local orphans. To feed them, they also established the Seed of Hope food garden.

“We originally met through the township’s Dutch Reformed Church more than 15 years ago. We saw the problems confronting the local community and decided that we had to step in and help solve them,” said Louis Meyer.

Formal co-op

Since then, the two friends have been working tirelessly to support the most vulnerable and impoverished members of the KwaDukuza community – and their efforts are paying off.

Over the years, the garden developed into a formally registered, 10-member cooperative feeding around 300 people every week. But despite their collective achievements, the co-op members realised that they needed to reinforce their skills and their infrastructure to produce a larger and more diversified crop. But sourcing funds was becoming increasingly difficult and morale among co-op members began to flag.

Then, in September 2016, Checkers reached out to the team at Seed of Hope and facilitated a series of practical farming workshops, including planting techniques. Trees and seeds were planted to increase crop diversity, whilst Checkers also funded the installation of a water tank and irrigation system as well as muchneeded kitchen equipment. Today the morale at Seed of Hope is booming and its food garden is flourishing. In addition to beetroot and cabbage, the garden now also produces spinach and chillies. This means Seed of Hope is able to provide people from the local community – especially children attending its after-school feeding programme – with more nutritious and varied food all year round. Better still, the revenue that coop members are earning from

selling their surplus produce to the community is making a huge difference to their lives.

Workshops Checkers reached out to the team at Seed of Hope and facilitated a series of practical farming workshops, including planting techniques. “The support we receive from Checkers has had a very positive impact on everyone here. The fact that our members are now able to make a living from the garden, rather than relying on hand-outs, has given them a real sense of pride. We’re all standing a lot taller these days. Empowering people to become self-reliant is helping to create a sustainable asset for everyone in the community,” says Meyer.

Pumping Heritage -Since 1913




USAID Awards Grant to INMED To improve livelihoods Of people with disabilities in South Africa


SAID Southern Africa has awarded funding to INMED Partnerships for Children to expand its Adaptive Agriculture Program (AAP) for people with disabilities in the Free State province of South Africa. Titled “Expanding Participation of the Disabled in ClimateAdaptive Agriculture,” the program will integrate people with disabilities into the mainstream economy through new, adaptive agricultural technologies and access to financing. “This project will not only benefit member agricultural cooperatives but will further build our capacity as an organization to provide better services to our members,” said Mlungisi Tolie, Provincial Chairperson of the Disabled People South Africa (DPSA) Free State Province. “We are truly grateful to the American People.”

INMED’s AAP represents a revolutionary approach to the interrelated issues of poverty, food security, nutrition, economic development and exclusion by preparing small-scale producers with disabilities and their communities to adapt to climate change while conserving natural resources and increasing access to economic and technical assets. Key to INMED’s AAP is aquaponics,

an agricultural production and management technology that combines hydroponics (a method of growing plants without soil) and fish farming in a closed, symbiotic system that generates year-round crop production at least 5 times higher than traditionally farmed plots of equivalent size. It also is highly water efficient because it uses 85-90% less water than traditional irrigation and it is easily accessible to people with disabilities.

in sustainable, climate-change adaptive agriculture, as well as substantial inputs to enable members of disabled persons’ cooperative groups in the Free State and Limpopo provinces to launch new income-generating enterprises,” notes Dr. Linda Pfeiffer, President and CEO of INMED Partnerships for Children. “Aquaponics also has improved food security and has greatly increased the dietary diversity of people with disabilities.”

Direct training

“USAID is very pleased to partner with INMED to help empower local disability groups to fully participate in the South African economy,” says USAID/South Africa Mission Director John Groarke.

“INMED has worked in the disability sector in South Africa since 2012, delivering direct training and technical assistance

your reliable water supply and effluent transfer brand

Pumping heritage - since 1913


Specializing in freshwater transfer, groundwater abstraction, pressure boosting, circulation, dewatering and sewage transfer, our team applies proven methodology and reliable equipment to look after our customer’s interest. Distributing out of Johannesburg and Cape Town, Elsumo carries a thorough variety of products to affirm its commitment. Specializing in:

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Preliminary Investigations Testing facilities Cost effective planning Design & Cost estimations Supply & Installation Technical advice & Service Maintenance programs & Backup assistance

Protea Road, Helu Park, Klapmuts, Western Cape Tel: 021 875 5781

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Industry | Agriculture | Mining | Domestic

At Elsumo, we dedicate our efforts to provide customers with the most efficient and economic water transfer equipment and concepts. Serving agriculture, industry, mining and the domestic market, Elsumo looks back at a history of over 100 years in the water transfer sector. With German heritage spreading over 4 generations, we firmly apply precision and expertise in all elements of our business.

Community Gardens

PE Winners of the First Health in Action Awards


tudents of Charles Duna Primary School could be heard cheering throughout their New Brighton community of Port Elizabeth when they heard the news that their school took first place in INMED’s inaugural Health in Action Awards—and with that, the children will receive a brand-new obstacle course worth R80,000 for their outdoor play yard.

used to improve children’s lives. A panel of independent adjudicators from Mondelëz South Africa and INMED determined the winning entries based on creativity and originality, teamwork, evidence of involvement of parents and percentage of the school population participating.

and AIDS. After having established a vegetable garden in our school with the help of parents, 2017 marked 10 years without having to bury a child from our school.” Charles Duna Primary Head Girl was equally excited. “This award will make a big difference in our school as we currently do not have a proper obstacle course,” she said. “We thank INMED, Mondelëz and our teachers for supporting the [Health in Action] programme and submitting an application on our behalf.” Second Prize and a R10,000 Builders Warehouse voucher went to Ben Nyathi Primary School in the Kwa-Zakhele community of Port Elizabeth. Health in Action has helped the school improve student nutrition and health through rigorous staff training. “Since we started this programme in 2016, our school has had a productive garden, and our food preparers and educators receive regular training on food preparation, nutrition education and physical activity,” said Ms Thomas, a Life Orientation Educator at Ben Nyathi. The educators are full of

In partnership with Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University and support from MIF, INMED trains unemployed youth who have graduated high school to facilitate physical education activities during break time and assist teachers with classroom lessons. “This skills development initiative has not only benefited youth living in communities with high unemployment rates, but also the teachers and students who catch their enthusiasm for making healthy choices in life.” Schools competing for the Health in Action Awards were judged on how effectively and creatively they are incorporating healthy eating into classroom activities, ensuring that physical activity is part of daily activities, whether the school has a food garden and how fresh produce is

Winning schools with their BTB’s

PE Mondelez Team with Unathi Sihlahla

Students from winning schools

Winning Principals

1st place Proud head Girl

1st place winners

2nd place winners

3rd place winners

An initiative of INMED Partnerships for Children / INMED South Africa in partnership with the Mondelëz International Foundation (MIF), the Health in Action Awards recognise excellence and best practices among primary schools that participate in the Health in Action programme. Launched in 2015, this schoolbased programme aims to improve the health, nutrition and wellbeing of children through nutrition and preventive health education, access to fresh foods through school gardens and aquaponics, increasing physical activity and promoting healthy lifestyles. x-head: Helping health Nombulelo Sume, Principal of Charles Duna Primary, was thrilled to hear her school announced for 1st prize. She has seen the health of her students improve significantly since her school started participating in the Health in Action programme. “Our school is servicing learners from poor households where there’s almost 80% unemployment,” she said. “When I started working at the school in 1998, we use to bury a child every year because of HIV


praise for the programme – it improves health and grows a beautiful garden. In addition to recognizing the schools’ staff, the event provided an opportunity to showcase the Health in Action Break Time Buddies. “We’re very proud of our Break Time Buddies initiative and how it has become a key component of Health in Action,” said Navisha Sewkuran, corporate and government affairs manager, Mondelëz South Africa.


Encouraging activity

About INMED INMED Partnerships for Children is a nonprofit international development organization that has worked in more than 100 countries for over 30 years to help create a world where all children are safe, healthy, educated and have access to opportunities to thrive. Through multisector partnerships and in-country affiliates, INMED builds effective systems that deliver innovative and sustainable approaches to break complex cycles of poverty for current and future generations. Since 2006, in-country affiliate INMED South Africa has been working in collaboration with a wide range of corporate, foundation and government partners to transform the health, lives and futures of South Africa’s most vulnerable children. INMED South Africa’s programs focus on food security, child and community health, and economic and social development via climate-smart agriculture and participatory education.


KSB Pumps for University of Pretoria laboratory SB Pumps and Valves has assisted the University of K Pretoria in the construction of a large controlledtemperature test unit, which will form the backbone of ongoing research into heat transfer, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics.

These include valuable research concerning concentrated solar power (CSP) research, nuclear safety as well as micro and powerrelated electronics, heat exchange tubes and clean energy studies among others being carried out by 10 staff and 30 full time students including 10 PhD students, as well as a number of Master’s Degrees students.

Intricate design ensures that researched have the right temperature fluids at their disposal

The impressive unit will allow students to plug directly into hot, moderate or chilled liquids to use on research projects and will shave approximately 50% off students’ overall project build-up time thereby allowing more time to carry out actual research. In addition, it is expected to save considerable costs in future.

to plug-in simultaneously without affecting either the flow rate, working pressure or temperature of the unit. This calls for absolute reliability and requires the best possible equipment to be used to avoid downtime that may impede any of the research programs,” says Danie Gouws, technologist of the laboratory.

Chairman of the School of Engineering and Head of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Professor Josua Meyer, says the multi-million Rand project was part-funded by the University, with donations from industrial companies like KSB Pumps and Valves for funding, equipment and construction of the system.

“In the research laboratory reliability is of the utmost importance and means that the University will not compromise on quality and will procure the best, most suitable equipment that money can buy.”

Critical studies About the centralized temperaturecontrolled unit, the Professor explains that the system relies on temperature monitoring of flow loops where water is conditioned through the relevant heat pumps and chilling units at near boiling or lower temperatures, as well as subzero degree Glycol at -20˚C. “The user demand within each loop is controlled using a system of pumps, variable speed drives, pressure transducers and special valves to allow up to 8 experiments

Etanorm pumps This meant that through its learned-team, the University specified five Etanorm 50/32/250 pump sets with 3 kW, 2.2 kW and 1.5 kW motors respectively according to flow rates, required pressure and other requirements. With their proven reliability and unwavering performance, they were selected to accomplish the main pumping requirements of the complex system. PLC- control ensure that all parameters are checked and balanced to ensure the system delivers fluid at the right temperature set points and flow conditions 24-hours per SABI | JUNE/JULY 2018

day, regardless of the number of students using the facility. It also ensures that ongoing and larger-scale research projects can be undertaken, including some cutting-edge research that is already being done in collaboration with other international Universities.


Committed to education KSB Pumps and Valves external sales representative, Dylan Mitchell, says the company was initially approached by Ascend

Professor Josua Meyer, Chairman of the School of Engineering and Head of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering of the University of Pretoria

Consulting Engineers to obtain data on the pumps. The company later revealed that a project was being undertaken for the University and that sponsorships were being sought. “In this regard we are always ready to assist educational institutions and gave the thumbs-up to the project. Wherever technical assistance was required we were happy to weigh-in with our expertise, but must commend the University, consulting engineers and the contractors who worked tirelessly to deliver a worldclass installation.”

How to ...

How to ...

create a water wise garden The drought conditions existing in the Western and Eastern Cape provinces have brought everyone to the realisation that we have to change our relationship with water. This has impacted quite severely on homeowners in previously waterrich areas. Most homeowners have reacted through the implementation of basic strategies such as the re-use of grey water and rainwater harvesting, however much more needs to be done. This editorial will focus on the topic of water-wise gardening.- by Mike de Villiers INTRODUCTION Gardens have always being the first casualty in the fight to reduce water consumption in the home. The implementation of water restrictions by Municipal Authorities has confirmed that we need to change our traditional way of thinking. Our responses to the sight of a sandy desert that used to be a lawn, 30 year old trees showing severe stress due to the lowering of the water table and pot plants and shrubs needing daily doses of water, have been varied. Many have merely accepted that they have no garden left and hope that sufficient rainfall will eventually occur to replace what they have lost. Others have installed excellent grey water systems that solve many other problems relating to lower water availability, as well as providing some relief to the garden. However, this strategy usually involves physical effort through the use of buckets and watering cans, which is



also a problem for the aged and many others. Rainwater harvesting through the installation of rain water storage tanks is the most practical as well as being the most visible change to our new relationship with water. However, one has to rely on regular rainfall to top up the tanks and this is, in essence, the heart of the problem. Artificial grass has successfully replaced many lawns, especially in schools however this is an expensive option. A further response to the drought conditions has been a sharp rise in the use of boreholes and well points for garden watering. However, groundwater resources are now also under severe stress due to the large volumes being extracted by every sector of Industry, as well as providing alternative water sources for municipal water supply.

How to ... WATER WISE GARDENING What is clearly apparent is that every option to maintain our traditional gardens is flawed and is not sustainable. What we are trying to do is to maintain gardens that require huge volumes of water that we just do not have available to us anymore. Fortunately the Landscaping Industry has thrown us a lifeline, known as “Water Wise Gardening”. To many, this is just a concept that we talk about without really knowing what it means and how to go about changing our gardens. Water wise gardening is nothing new to many avid gardeners and all the necessary materials and information are readily available from any of the many nurseries, DIY retailers, co-ops and the National Botanical Society gardens. The following suggestions are aimed at the many homeowners and gardeners who may need a “kick start” to doing something about salvaging their gardens and has been inspired by a blog from the SALI website, being the South African Landscape Institute.

6. Reduce your lawn area Didn’t we all have kikuyu lawns, which now look like a waste land! Artificial lawns are an option, but if not, reduce your lawn area to the minimum. Buffalo grass requires less water and less mowing, however there are other indigenous varieties of grass that can be used. Do not cut your lawn too short as the leaves shade the roots and reduce evaporation. 7. Water your garden in the cool of the day Early morning is the ideal time, as evaporation is less and the plants have time to dry out which reduces fungal diseases. Avoid watering at midday, especially on hot sunny days, when evaporation is at its highest. 8. Create shade and wind breaks Minimise evaporation through the planting of fast growing shrubs that provide both shade and protection from the wind. Ensure that the choice of water-wise plants is suitable for shady environments.

Water wise plants The following list of water wise plants has been extracted from an article provided by Cape Contours Landscape Solutions, with various authors. The full version may be found on the SALI (South African Landscape Institute) website. The plants have been grouped into their differing leaf structures and represent some of the most popular water wise options.

Water wise gardening tips: 1. Add organic matter to garden beds Organic matter, also known as compost, is available from the retailers or from your own composting sources such as leaves and vegetable matter from the kitchen. The use of organic matter improves the texture and water retention of your soil. 2. Use water wise plants that suit your location This is where one needs to consult with learned friends or professionals in order to select the correct plants and shrubs to give you a beautiful and sustainable garden that can be maintained on limited water resources. The available selection of water wise plants is dependent on the climate of the region where you live as well as the type of garden that will suit your life-style, therefore it is essential to consult experts with local knowledge. 3. Group plants together that have similar water needs Water-wise plants need minimal water, once established and grouping will avoid the problem of over-watering or wasting water on plants that don’t need it. 4. Use grey water Grey water is safe to use on most garden plants, however, avoid water containing strong detergents and disinfectants. Do not use grey-water from the kitchen because of the fats and oils contained in the water. Also let the water cool down before use on the garden. 5. Water the roots Pour water around the stem base. This is where the water is needed and the foliage provides shade, which reduces evaporation.

`` Small or needle like leaves Confetti bush, Asparagus ferns and Acacia trees: `` Succulent leaves Bulbine frutescens/latifolia, Sedum species and Senecio species `` Grey foliage Tulbaghia violacia, Pelargonium reniforme and Helichrysum petiolare `` Hairy foliage Carex grasses, Geranium incanum, Aristida junciformus `` Waxy leaves Cycas revolute, Plectranthus lanceolata



How to ... HOW TO PLAN A WATER WISE GARDEN Step 1: Decide which plants are too water intensive to survive • This will require some tough decisions for the avid gardener Step 2: Plan the water wise replacements with reference to Landscapers, seasoned gardeners and other garden professionals • The choice of water wise plants needs to be carefully considered in terms of your regional location as well as the micro climate that exists in your garden. • The style of garden that you are after will also play a significant role in your plant selection. • Soil conditions, the amount of sunshine and shade as well as wind exposure are additional factors to consider. • Plan your selection to include evergreen as well as flowering plants. Step 3: Follow the water wise tips mentioned above • The success of a water wise gardening requires strict adherence to the recommended planting and maintenance procedures. For example, the grouping of plants that require similar soil conditions and the same watering regime will greatly improve one’s chances of success and minimise the amount of effort to keep them happy.

CONCLUSION The prime objective of this editorial is to stimulate interest in water wise gardening. All readers are encouraged to refer to the many professional landscapers and enthusiasts located in all areas of South Africa, as well as the SALI website www.sali.co.za, amongst others. It will pay huge dividends in the long run! Happy gardening, and every success in these trying climatic conditions.

Starbucks new smash hit

Rooibos Latte


ooibos earned another stripe this past month when the world’s biggest coffee shop chain, Starbucks, introduced Rooibos Lattes as part of its new spring menu that has thousands of customers in the northern hemisphere hooked. Starbucks’ Rooibos Lattes come in two variants: Rooibos Tea Latte and Red Apple Rooibos Tea Latte. The drinks are described as “luxurious” and are made by using a new method to extract maximum flavour from the tea, which took the company two years to perfect. The much-anticipated Rooibos lattes were rolled out to 950 stores across the UK – one of the biggest tea-drinking markets in the world. Adele du Toit, spokesperson for the SA Rooibos Council says it’s a real thrill to have Rooibos feature so prominently on Starbucks’ UK menus and speaks to the growing popularity of the tea and demand for health-promoting beverages worldwide.

Big deal “In a region where a whopping 60 billion cups of tea are consumed each year, with over 1 200 varieties to choose from, it’s a big deal for Rooibos to have been given the nod by the Brits,” she says.



Aside from Rooibos’ many health benefits, due to its high level of antioxidants, du Toit also describes it as one of SA’s most versatile products, which big brands like Starbucks are capitalising on. “There is a lot of innovation happening in the Rooibos tea category and marketers are exploring with lots of different mixes and product offerings. Ready-to-drink tea products, such as Rooibos Cappuccinos and Rooibos Lattes are at the forefront of this growth as they fit squarely into the time-crunched, but healthseeking lifestyle of consumers. For the younger generation a standard cup of tea is no longer enough. Millennials want higher quality tea and lots of different options and flavours to choose from. “Personalised hot beverages are another emerging trend where in-store touchscreens and digital channels sync with shoppers’ social media profiles to

suggest different flavour combinations, based on their personalities. For example, consumers could select a Rooibos chocolate-, spice- or fruit infusion, while further toppings can be added to create a bespoke product that matches a customer’s personality or mood at any given time.

Exports “The global resurgence in the tea category points to consumers wanting to drink better quality tea when they do put the kettle on. Flavoured and speciality teas are perceived as more of an indulgence and consumers who are buying these drinks are willing to spend that bit more on their cup of tea,” remarks du Toit. South Africa currently exports Rooibos tea to over 30 countries, including the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and US. It is exclusively grown in the Cederberg area of the Western Cape and is arguably one of SA’s best exports. The growing global interest in

the tea will help to enhance the demand for local produce, while stimulating much-needed local economic activity. SA Starbucks fans can look forward to a range of new Rooibos Latte variants that will be available at local stores in the coming months.


Get wise about Using variable speed drives


he benefits of variable speed drives (VSDs) are making this technology a popular choice among users of electric motors; now, with the introduction of the WEG Insulation System Evolution (WISE®) to all WEG motor lines, customers have full assurance that all WEG motors are VSD-compatible. “Not all standard electric motors are suitable to be used with VSDs,” says Fanie Steyn, manager rotating machines at Zest WEG Group. “The motor insulation systems are susceptible to insulation damage caused by the harsh switching frequencies and voltage peaks generated by VSDs.” Steyn explains that VSDs use power transistors – typically insulated-gate bipolar transistors or IGBTs – for the switching process. To achieve the high frequencies necessary for switching, the transistors have to turn ‘on’ and ‘off’ to conduct current repeatedly at high speeds. This results in voltage pulses with a high dV/dt, or rate of voltage change over time.

High frequencies “When squirrel cage electric motors are fed by these high frequencies, the voltage pulses – combined with the cable and motor impedances – may cause repetitive conditions of over voltage or voltage overshoots at the motor connection terminals,” he says. “This may degrade the motor insulation system and reduce the motor’s useful lifespan.”



To ensure that this does not occur in WEG motors, the WISE® insulation system has been developed through the use of enhanced materials in the production of the motor insulation. These materials include VSD compatible wire, insulation film, impregnation material and suitable cables. WEG has also specially developed its LackTherm varnishes for the insulation systems of its electric motors, which are applied to the 99,9% pure copper wire during the enamelling process. These LackTherm varnishes have excellent dielectric strength, flexibility, hardness and chemical resistance, as well as strong adhesion properties. During the impregnation process, the stator coils receive layers of high solid resins and water based coatings which are environmentally friendly and free from harmful solvents – as required by the ISO 14000 guidelines. “This process allows any WEG motors to be used with VSDs, as the WISE® insulation system ensures that the motor windings are protected against voltage peaks and voltage variations,” says Steyn.

















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S A W Africa knowledge product success




Approved Designers

SABI Approved Designers Agricultural GAUTENG


Booysen, Juan Tel: 061 076 8691 (Brits) Claassen, Werner * Tel: 078 800 5148 (Brits) Grobler, Gerhard 082 329 8528 (Brits) Jansen van Rensburg, Theo * Tel: 082 498 5372 (Pretoria) Van der Stoep, Isobel * Tel: 082 331 4987 (Pretoria) Van der Merwe, Richard * Tel: 082 442 3300 (Pretoria)

Grobler, Johan Tel: 078 232 6360 (Tzaneen) Kotzé, André * Tel: 082 377 3099 (Mokopane) Mendel, Eloff Tel: 082 322 0181 (Polokwane) Muller, Heinrich * Tel: 083 730 7174 (Tzaneen) Oberholzer, Arie * Tel: 082 388 1024 (Marble Hall) Pretorius, Gert * Tel: 079 871 8502 (Mokopane) Van den Berg, Paul * Tel: 083 234 3163 (Tzaneen) Heymans, Charl Tel: 082 458 0235 (Naboomspruit) Wiers, Heimo Tel: 076 481 0171 (Letsitele)

EASTERN CAPE Ewels, Tony Tel: 083 654 7173 (East London) Frost, Hylton Tel: 082 896 1390 (Cradock) Loubser, Herman Tel: 082 477 0099 (Graaff Reinet) Mulder, Dassie * Tel: 083 423 9343 (Cradock) van der Merwe, Jarrod Tel: 074 799 7581 (East London) van Staden, Deon Tel: 082 615 0565 (Humansdorp)

INTERNATIONAL Hards, Adrian Tel: +61 45 1955 021 (Australia)

KWAZULU-NATAL Lotter, Paul Tel: 082 572 9218 (Pietermaritzburg) Nsele, Nkosinathi Tel: 076 196 5003 (Ballito) Pillay, Dan Tel: 082 857 7708 (Durban) Pottow, Rob Tel: 083 458 1220 (Pietermaritzburg) Raciborski, Franek Tel: 082 553 6073 (Pietermaritzburg) Vosloo, Willie * Tel: 082 571 2452 (Empangeni) Zartmann, Mark Tel: 082 806 5046 (Pietermaritzburg)



MPUMALANGA Paul, Lothar Tel: 082 699 9307 (Komatipoort) Mulder, Andries Tel: 079 236 0222 (Malelane) Opperman, Christiaan Tel: 082 440 5098 (Komatipoort) Slabbert, Riaan Tel: 083 631 8637 (Nelspruit) Van der Merwe, André * Tel: 082 563 4109 (Malelane) Van Rooyen, Willie Tel: 083 465 5060 (Nelspruit) Rossouw, Thys Tel: 082 415 1507 (Nelspruit) Singh, Yashiel Tel: 082 447 2639 (Malelane) Vermaak, Gordon Tel: 083 610 6105 (Barberton)

ORANGE (FREE STATE) De Wet, Sarel * Tel: 082 524 9152 (Hopetown) Eksteen, Johan Tel: 082 499 8430 (Clocolan)

WESTERN CAPE Austen, Jerry Tel: 082 558 8300 (Kuilsrivier)

Barnard, Johan Tel: 083 273 8354 (Riviersonderend) Boonzaaier, Andle * Tel: 072 198 3670 (Grabouw) Breytenbach, Theuns Tel: 083 641 1351 (Stellenbosch) Cherry, Charles Tel: 082 492 2508 (Grabouw) Cornelissen, André * Tel: 082 907 3129 (Vredendal) Croeser, Aubrey * Tel: 082 456 9934 (Ceres) De Leeuw den Bouter, Werner * Tel: 082 460 8833 (Somerset West) De Swardt, Jannes Tel: 083 227 5859 (George) Du Toit, André * Tel: 082 784 2694 (Ceres) Gerber, Ruan* 072 071 7955 (Robertson) Hugo, Alewyn Tel: 082 446 4470 (Montagu) Hugo, Roelf * Tel: 082 874 0411 (Citrusdal) Johnstone, Gordon Tel: 084 298 6193 (Cape Town) Lindeque, Alan * Tel: 082 783 4123 (Cape Town) Lourens, Tian* 072 234 4948 (Caledon) Millen, Emile Tel: 082 971 8181 (Worcester) Millen, Jacques Tel: 082 771 3696 (Worcester) Orchard, Craig* 072 806 9771 (Grabouw) Prins, Gerhard Tel: 082 802 1363 (Somerset West) Rossouw, Hilgard* Tel: 076 282 5531 (Grabouw) Van Eeden, Wilhelm * Tel: 082 468 0290 (Montagu) Van der Merwe, Jan Tel: 082 785 5535 (Cape Town) Van der Merwe, Sakkie * Tel: 083 675 8871 (Citrusdal) Van Zyl, Christo Tel: 083 444 0804 (Cape Town) Van Zyl, Danie* 076 225 5838 (Hermanus) van der Merwe, Philip Tel: 083 426 0296 (Citrusdal) Visagie, Barend Tel: 082 773 3105 (Villiersdorp)

* Approved irrigation system evaluators

Wentzel, Wimpie * Tel: 084 513 3864 (Bonnievale) Van der Merwe, Wiehan Tel: 082 615 6812 (George) Zimu, Mkhanyiseni 082 085 9734 (Bellville)

Landscape GAUTENG: Andrew McKenzie Tel: 082 450 4747 (Johannesburg)

Claudine Holness 082 929 6967 (Johannesburg) Peet Pienaar Tel: 082 923 7755 (Pretoria)

KWAZULU NATAL: Dan Pillay Tel: 082 857 7708 (Durban) Tertius van Staden Tel: 082 416 2878 (Gateway)

WESTERN CAPE: Grant Barrett Tel: 083 457 0154 (Cape Town) Duncan McKenzie Tel: 082 4504757 (Cape Town) Jaco Neethling Tel: 079 571 9283 (Stellenbosch) Adrian White Tel: 083 639 0107 (Durbanville)

Irrigation system designers


by Willie Vosloo, SABI President


he design of an irrigation system, according to the design norms of South African Irrigation Institute (SABI), the choice of efficient equipment, the installation of the system according to plan, as well as the efficient management and maintenance of such a system by farmers are all important factors, if producers and farmers want to utilise available water resources optimally and conserve water. It is, therefore, of concern that many farmers make decisions based primarily on capital costs of the system. Farmers should consider using SABI’s Approved Designers, who have theoretical as well as practical knowledge of design.

The discussion will be beneficial to both parties and assist in making an informed decision on the intended capital investment. In these preliminary discussions, the duties and responsibilities of both should be made clear.

The SABI Council’s opinion is that a design fee should be paid to consultants/designers who render a professional service for, or on behalf of, his client. There is no such thing as a “free design”, because eventually someone must be responsible for the cost and time that goes into the design, planning and specifications of each irrigation system. Remember that “buying cheap” can be detrimental in the long run.

Further information that buyers must obtain

The correct questions should be asked by producers/farmers to ensure that the design specifications of the selected system fulfill his or her needs. It is advisable that farmers discuss the aspects detailed in this article with their irrigation consultant and supplier before purchasing a new system.

Remuneration of consultant/designer

Designer qualifications What qualifications and experience does the designer have? (these would typically include: formal training from a university or technical college, SABI courses, SABI Approved Designer membership status, and/or registration with ECSA (Engineering Council of South Africa). Is he/she able to contactable provide references for similar systems and/or supply of materials?

Does the intended irrigation activities comply with the National Water Act? Good planning must be done regarding the availability and requirements of water for the planned crop and the irrigated area. Equally important is that a quality analysis of the water that is used – this is necessary to ensure a suitable system is designed with no negative effects on the crops or blockages etc. A soil examination and analysis regarding the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil is also required. The above information must be discussed with the consultant/designer.

What the irrigation designer/consultant should provide A signed agreement that the system has indeed been planned according to the SABI norms (motivation should be provided if the designer diverted from the norms) A suitable topographic survey A detailed technical design and report in which flow rates and pressures are specified. A scaled layout plan. Detailed installation plans of the system. Detailed product specifications (and tender documents, if required) that will be used for purchasing, installing and/or commissioning.



irrigation system designers A suggested management plan of the system – it is important that the designer and the producer, from the preliminary stage, communicate clearly to prevent any misunderstandings and to ensure that the producer understands the management inputs and maintenance requirements of the planned system well and agree with it. Only when concurrence has been reached on the matter should the planning of the system proceed. A capital versus running costs comparison as well as the expected maintenance costs over the lifespan of the system: in this way, the producer is informed of the expected benefits and costs

Design materials/system What is the expected lifespan of the material that will be used? What are the possibilities of extensions to the system? Which components are of critical importance and should get special attention? Has adequate provision been made for the requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act’s influence on the system?

System specific norms What is the design Emitter Uniformity / Distribution Uniformity of the system? Is the system easily adaptable to variable water requirements such as seasonal changes and what is the impact thereof on the management inputs? What about a suggested maintenance program for the system components, especially for electronic or hi-tech equipment?

Water requirements What is the peak daily requirement of the crop in mm/day? Has the system capacity been adjusted to make provision for this? What is the expected water usage per year in mm/ha?



If different crops/cultivars/ ages/root stock will be used, is the system planned as such to comply with the specific requirements of each block? Has the designer provided a pump curve that shows the flow rate versus pressure for the specific pump/motor combination? Has this curve been discussed with the producer? Has the pump installation been checked for secondary losses, especially on the suction side, to ensure NPSH requirements are met? What are the expected energy costs of a system in R per mm and water supplied in R per ha?

Filtering Is filtering necessary and if so, to what extent - and what type of filter is suggested? Will the filters backwash automatically or manually? How often and for how long must the filters be backwashed?

Flow measurement Is the system fitted with a flow measuring device? Can it measure the flow rate as well as a volumetric total? • Does the installation follow the manufacturer’s minimum installation instructions?

Pressure/air release and rinse Has sufficient provision been made for air outlet or inlet vales, pressure relief and scouring valves? Is water hammer expected and has provision been made to protect the system? Do the components and pipes have the correct pressure rating to match the expected operating conditions of the system? Has provision been made for the flushing of micro and dripper lines?

Guarantees Who will be responsible for what part of the guarantees – who will install, test and commission which system components? Which measurements and tests will be done to determine whether the system complies with the design specifications? Has the designer provided all the literature, guarantees and operating rules for the system?

Chemical injection Has provision been made in case a pipe burst occurs in one of the supply lines. Does the application rate of the equipment adapt to the system’s pressure and flow conditions? Can the equipment handle both chemicals and applied plant nutrients if necessary? Control tests and measures that should be done after the system starts to operate: Read and keep record of specific electric current (Ampère) and pump pressure for each set-up. Keep records of pressures at each block or control valve. Keep records of the flow rate for each block, if available. Keep records of the pressure differences over the clean filter bank, if applicable. Check the inlet pressure at each block against the minimum pressure requirements as per the design report. This information can be used to periodically check the system’s performance.


Much difficulty and upset can be avoided if the parties agree beforehand about responsibilities regarding the following: Arrangements regarding site clearing, e.g. bulldozers. Pegging out of the system. Civil works.

Electrical installations and applications. Provision of water, cement, sand and stone for thrust blocks. Supervision of the correct installation of equipment. Installation of the equipment inside the pump house. Who is responsible for equipment that fails? How often will the designer visit the site to ensure that equipment and installation comply with the requirements? If problems occur during the testing of the system, the producer and the designer need to come to an agreement on how the system must be improved to comply with the design specifications. The system may not function properly because of installation mistakes by the producer or design mistakes by the designer. If the farmer/ producer made the mistake, he/ she must carry the cost of the alterations and vice versa. SABI believes that the above suggestions are acceptable to farmers and designers and will lead to less misunderstandings as well as an improvement of the irrigation industry and water use in South Africa. SABI – Your guarantee for appropriate irrigation technology. SABI’s role is to actively promote and share knowledge to ensure the optimal and efficient use of water in South Africa, for the ongoing growth and sustainability of the socioeconomy and society in South Africa and on the African continent. SABI activities in agriculture and landscape include: Membership, SABI Congress, training and SABI magazine. Tel: 021 – 850 8220 / E-mail: info@sabi.co.za, www.sabi.co.za

SABI Designers

Irrigation design fees Join the debate Charles Cherry


ABI designers are exploring introducing design fees across the board. The SABI irrigation community would like to open debate on this topic, as there are many views on design fees. If you are a designer, farmer or from the business community please feel free to have your say.

“An important aspect is that a designer must base his price on time spent and the value of deliverables rather than on hectares,” comments Ian.

Notably, SABI designers pass a professional exam, which ensures the work they offer is of a high and approved standard. If farmers have a problem with a design, they are always welcome to contact SABI for an assessment of quality of work.

Paying for design is good news for all, client and designer. An advantage to the client in paying design fees, for example, is that “the moment you pay for the design you have an agreement on the deliverables,” says Ian.

The irrigation industry has, it must be noted, changed vastly over the years. Once design was routinely free - as part of the equipment (but sometimes charged for just hidden in the parts delivered as one senior designer suggests). Often irrigation design was done by the farmer him or herself back in the days when irrigation was mainly draglines or flood, notes SABI vice president Ian de Jager.

Savings However, with modernisation and the shortages of water, high prices of electricity and the moves to sustainable production, design has become more important says Ian. “Professional design results in big savings and efficiencies that all help to lower costs, improve yields and enhance sustainability.” Some designers feel as with any other professional service in agriculture or industry, designers must charge for their design work.

Charles Cherry of Cherry Irrigation says: “Each design case on its merits obviously - but overall charging a design fee to the client makes the process a lot more transparent for all parties. Then the costs of design are not ‘hidden’ in the materials’ costs, for example. Charging a design fee upfront, I believe, means a more positive financial transaction for both the designer and farmer. Clients should note too there are a lot of direct costs during the design process, and the designer needs to pay these upfront most of the time.” Ian says in his opinion it is about time designers should charge for their talents and skills. “A good designer will deliver what the client requires. He or she will become popular and will make a fortune in the future as water and energy is scarce and designs skills are no longer a luxury but a necessity. Of course, in establishing an excellent reputation as a designer one also needs to always do the correct installation the first time.”

Costly bargains? Clients who do not want to pay for design are getting rarer, as they are learning that not paying for a design is often a costly “bargain”.

It’s all about irrigation designer becoming wholly professional, Ian observes. It’s a new era where many farmers have broad horizons not just nationally but internationally, and professionalism is in order from irrigation designers across all categories: »» Client relationships, »» Communication

Ian de Jager

»» »» »» »»



Punctuality Excellence first time – no come-backs Staying up-to-date with all new equipment and irrigation trends, Taking part in talks and presentations and connect with other professional disciplines such as engineers. He or she must be able to connect other disciplines to their projects where necessary such as solar power, finance options, SCADA for ease of operation, pump and motor suppliers, Eskom advantages available for projects Social parts of client relationships, such as braai’s and sporting trips should rather be pursued at the successful end of projects and should probably be initiated by the client.

Sample idea of Irrigation Design Fees Courtesy Ian de Jager It is suggested, different deliverables at a cost per hour or deliverable. For e.g.

Design hours Drawings and maps Evaluation of system at start up Performance report Operating manual – computer programs Maintenance manual

R 800.00 per hour - with estimate total for project R 30.00 per A3 sheet R 3000.00 R 500.00 R 1000.00 R 1000.00

SABI wants to know what your view is on the topic of design. Email your inputs to carol@sabi.co.za or info@sabi.co.za and we will publish your views – anonymously if you please – in SABI magazine.




Local engineer in Chivas global competition With Vehicle Energy Harvesting System (VEHS) Clement Mokoenene


pitome Consulting, civil engineering and project management service provider, is behind its founder, Clement Mokoenene, who, following his Chivas Venture SA 2018 win, is gearing up for the global final. The Chivas Venture is a global initiative that provides a $1 million fund for social entrepreneurs that are tackling the world’s biggest problems. 27 regional finalists are selected by country based on their entries. The requirements are stringent and all innovations need to be commercially viable in the market.

Clement’s Vehicle Energy Harvesting System (VEHS) won the South African round and he will now join social entrepreneurs from around the world to pitch his ground-breaking idea for a share of $1 million in funding. The Chivas Venture Global Final takes place in Amsterdam. With the development of the VEHS technology, Clement has



been actively changing the way that energy is approached – from a scientific and sustainability point of view. His concept is simple – harness the missing link in the transfer of energy and convert it to create a new source of electricity.

Harness energy His idea was inspired by the pressure exerted onto the tarmac by the weight of a plane through its wheels when landing. He sought to find a way to harness the energy generated by that pressure in the same way that

coal is burned to create pressure to the power turbines that provide us with electricity. The VEHS takes this principle and applies it to cars. The system is fitted below the road surface, with the cars driving over it creating the pressure that powers a turbine. A two kilometre stretch of highway fitted with the system could potentially power an entire city. Clement has spent several years developing and testing the system and believes that it is now ready to be rolled out and utilised in the real world. This rollout

Energy being put forward by my fellow competition entrants.”

could happen rapidly because unlike more traditional energy infrastructure that takes years to construct, the VEHS infrastructure can be fully installed and operational within 6 months. “Everyone at Epitome has put their full support behind Clement,” says Epitome CEO, Joey Mokoenene. “His entering a competition such as the Chivas Venture makes perfect sense as Epitome has always held our people, the people around us and the world we live in as our number one priority. Our motto is ‘development through innovation’ and Clement’s VEHS is the embodiment of this philosophy.”

Civils and water As a husband and wife team, Joey and Clement Mokoenene have grown Epitome Consulting into a highly successful firm, offering extensive civil engineering and water delivery services in both the public and private sectors. Epitome’s primary offering is in six key service areas which

Rethinking “What I want people to take away from my entry and success so far in this competition is that it is a testament to Epitome Consulting’s on-going commitment to rethinking efficiency, sustainability, humanity and the transformation of business practices in South Africa,” Clement concludes.

Clement Mokoenene and Team

include; water and sanitation engineering, water conservation and demand management, roads and storm water management, civil and structural engineering solutions, project and programme management and developing emerging SMME’s. The secret to their success, Joey says, is in their approach. “What makes us different is the fact that we strive for more than just having a profitable business. We want to make our world a better place to live in, and we believe in using technology to do

that,” she explains. “It’s an honour to be recognized by The Chivas Venture awards and its accomplished panel of judges,” says Clement. “When I first started my career, ‘innovation’ was just a word we used to describe technology. The Chivas Venture has changed this into a way of describing a complete shift of entire industries. It’s humbling to be a part of something of this magnitude that is making a real change to the world around us. It’s also inspiring to see the inventions

Epitome Consulting is a wholly PDI owned and emerging multidisciplinary civil engineering consultancy and project management firm. The company has a diverse team of engineers and technologists able to provide services in the field of water and sewer infrastructure, water demand management, roads and storm water, structural engineering, project and programme management and SMME development and supervision.

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How water leakage affects us and what we can do about it by Darren Oxlee


ccording to World Wildlife Fund South Africa’s (WWF-SA) 2016 report titled Water: Facts and Futures… Rethinking South Africa’s Water Future, as much as “37% of water in our urban piped water systems leaks out or is used illegally”. That’s more than a third of our country’s water, going down the drain – and I believe that this number is conservative. With the water crisis in the Cape, looming water concerns across the world, and a growing population, this figure remains far too high. What effect does it have on us as individuals, communities, and businesses? What is being done? How can we make a difference?

Impact of water waste As can be expected, the waste of almost 40% of South Africa’s water exerts a significant impact on the entire national population. Here are some of the major costs: 1. Financial The financial costs of water leakage are in the billions. And we all feel it: as individuals, communities, businesses, municipalities, and participants in the broader economy. This is not just because we’re all paying for water that we don’t use, but because water loss results in bigger burdens, like higher water tariffs and water restrictions. 2. Socio-economic Water leaks cost municipalities billions in lost revenue; money that could have been better invested in community upliftment, reticulation, and service delivery. Further, water wastage results in water metering and billing for communities that, in the past, enjoyed free water.



3. Environmental As the 30th driest country on the planet, South Africa has a water leakage problem that impacts significantly on the environment. Water is a scarce resource and, as the human population grows, more pressure falls on water resources, agriculture, and local ecosystems.

What’s being done There’s been some progress on addressing leakage in parts of the country, especially given the water crisis in the Western Cape. With an increase in general awareness about water management, many of the major metros now have contact centres for reporting water leaks. Smart water metering, although early in its adoption, has also begun to provide better data on leak detection. This allows service providers to respond faster when problems arise.

Government to-dos To adequately address the crisis, government must proactively maintain our reticulation systems. This should start with proper funding allocated to the water and sanitation departments, for maintenance projects, skills upliftment, education and training.

Further, I believe that all municipalities should be given a non -reve nue -wate r-los s target – we should be aiming for 30% initially and 20% longerterm, at a minimum.

What individuals can do Government may have a big role to fill in addressing water leakage, but it’s important to remember that leaks can occur anywhere in the reticulation system – including end-points like toilets and taps. So we all play a part in the problem. Apart from finding and fixing leaks in our private homes, offices, and businesses, here’s what else we can do:

Individuals XX Implement smart metering to give alerts when leaks occur. XX Track water usage using an app and set water usage targets. XX Shower instead of bath.

Communities XX Educate children about the importance of conserving and managing water. XX Respect free water; it’s not something to throw away. XX Report water leaks as soon as you see them.

Residents’ associations XX Track and manage water at the bulk supply level and report this back to residents to create awareness about water consumption. XX Implement a smart metering solution to give alerts when water consumption

exceeds thresholds or leaks are detected.

Opportunity in crisis According to GreenCape’s 2017 Market Intelligence Report on water, “South Africa’s water infrastructure and resources are valued at a replacement value of around R1.3 trillion, while the average investment required over the next decade is R855 billion.” This opens up significant business opportunities for entrepreneurs and investors. For instance, in the months and years to come: XX Demand for plumbers and reticulation engineers will increase. XX Smart metering will become more important as we move towards smart cities. XX New and innovative ways of managing and saving water (smart taps, toilets, urinals etc.) will become more important. XX Any business related to the conservation and management of water resources, especially if innovative, will be well positioned to thrive. We’ve known for years that a water crisis was coming. With our poor national infrastructure and global warming on the rise, it’s likely that this is only the beginning. But with some initiative and a bit of forward planning, we may be able to lessen the burden of leakage. Dareen Oxlee is Chief Technical Officer at Utility Systems.


Lovol excavators make debut at Nampo


outh Africa’s newest brand of excavators, Lovol Construction Equipment, were at Nampo 2018 demonstrating their exceptional value to South Africa’s farming community. Dura Equipment Sales, the sole distributor for Lovol Construction equipment in South Africa, will show the new Lovol FR220D excavator alongside its wellestablished range wheel loaders which are already widely used across all industries in Southern Africa. The many exemplary testimonies available from these customers will form the perfect launchpad to allay any concerns over the quality of the product and aftersales service. Although considerably less expensive than big-brand machines, the Lovol excavators are a viable alternative, offering quality construction, fuel efficiency, reliability and high production outputs at a portion of the cost of comparable alternatives. The Lovol excavators are designed in Japan and use common components from world-class manufacturers such as Isuzu engines, Kawasaki hydraulics, KYB final drives among others, aboard an ultra-rugged undercarriage specially designed for African conditions Says marketing manager Ernest Human: “Lovol wheel loaders have been in the country for around a decade now and have established an exemplary track record in the mining, industrial and agricultural industries. We were therefore eager to share our customers experiences with farmers at Nampo and provide them with a more cost effective and robust machine

Good news for farmers “By comparison to these brands, our machine’s frame, metal and main underpinnings are designed to be tough and rugged. In addition, the excavators boast an ultra-reliable 6-cylinder Isuzu motor which is affordable and fuel efficient, Kawasaki hydraulics for maximum breakout force and optimum productivity, long undercarriage for greater stability. It is also hydraulically ready to accept any attachments such as hammers and drills and whatever farmers may require. “Further good news for farmers is the uncomplicated mechanical system which makes it comparatively easy and inexpensive for any diesel mechanic to service and maintain. There are no complex electrical systems to be dealt with which also reduces the cost of servicing. The low cost of parts and maintenance contributes to the overall low cost of ownership of the new machine,” says Ernest. Similarly, visitors had the opportunity to view the company’s range of wheel loaders that range from the small farm-ready Lovol FL920 machine to the biggest Lovol FL966. All Lovol loaders have wide variety of optional attachments making them suitable for multiple uses in the agricultural industry.



Simplicity first “We have found that at this end of the market farmers prefer more simple machines that are easy to service and maintain and have adapted our offering accordingly. But that doesn’t mean that the machines are low-tech. They have joy stick controls with an easy-tounderstand all in one console. The ROPS/FOPS cabs provide excellent all round visibility and are comfortable enough to work in for the whole day. On the outside the

machines are mechanically friendly with easy and wide access points for fast and efficient maintenance All new Lovol machines are supplied with competitive warranties, as well as tailormade service plans to suit the kinds of applications that they are used in. Aftersales servicing, field services and guaranteed spares availability through the Dura Equipment Sales nationwide branch and dealer network


Winter orographic cloud seeding Offers winter season insights for Western Cape


he results of a study on winter orographic cloud seeding conducted by Water Analytical Services (WAS) and Weather Modification International (WMI) offers insights into rainfall and water resource availability in the Western Cape for the upcoming winter season. WAS, cloud seeding specialists based in Middelburg, Mpumalanga, have spent the past two months conducting a study on Winter Orographic cloud seeding based on requests from potential clients located in the Western Cape. This increased interest follows WAS’s announcement in February that their cloud seeding services are available to clients in numerous sectors, nationwide. The study included a simulation which revealed that if cloud seeding was deployed at Theewaterskloof Dam in the Western Cape; precipitation would increase by potentially 40%-50% thereby bolstering the water levels at the dam and its associated reservoir. “Although the study was initiated by client requests, it is particularly relevant because the Cape experiences winter frontal systems and is a winter rainfall area,” says Franco van der Merwe, Managing



Director at WAS. WAS carried out the study in conjunction with their technology partner, an overseas cloud seeding specialist, Weather Modification International who are based in the USA. Weather Modification International conducted several simulations in 2017 which provide an indication of the amount of rain that can be precipitated in regions that would typically experience high winter rainfall. Their study was conducted within three areas that experience similar weather patterns to the Western Cape. The results show immense potential for boosting rainfall in the Western Cape during the 2018 winter season – rainfall that is greatly needed during the current drought.

Modern applications The study results showed that by deploying the modern application of cloud seeding a hydro-power company in the State of Idaho

saw a 16% annual increase in precipitation and a weather modification pilot program in Wyoming saw up to a 17% increase. When examining the results gained for similar projects in the United States following a contract for frontal winter orographic cloud seeding, it was determined that the client saw a cost-benefit ratio of 25:1. The achievement of results similar to these by means of cloud seeding would have a significant impact on current water levels in the Cape. “The Western Cape relies heavily on its winter rainfall, and this year more so than ever. These studies support the interest that we are seeing coming out of both the public and private sectors who are excited at the prospect of utilising cloud seeding as a way to increase winter rainfall, thereby alleviating the pressure on water supply and demand that is currently being experienced,” van der Merwe explains. Cloud seeding is the process of applying natural occurring materials such as dry ice or silver iodide to clouds that enhances the natural process in stimulating precipitation, thereby

creating rainfall. Cloud seeding has numerous applications in the agriculture, events and tourism industries as well as for government as a means of securing water security in drought-stricken areas. WAS has the ability to assist with cloud seeding in all parts of Southern Africa. WAS, in partnership with Ultimate Airways, are equipped with a fleet of aircraft fitted with flare deployment systems. According to Van der Merwe, the process has been extensively tested to the highest safety standards. “The process has been repeatedly proven to be 100% safe for the environment and to have no effect on water quality or the causing of excessive rainfall which some fear may result in flooding. We have also proven that encouraging rainfall in one area will have zero effect on the natural rainfall in nearby surrounding areas. The fact that we are looking at cloud seeding on a seasonal basis is proof that it is a highly precise process and that it has progressed to the point that it is far more accurate than it was a few years ago,” van der Merwe concludes.


BI unveils Agri-Smart Integrated solutions for farmers



eading supplier Bearings International (BI) showcased the latest design of its agricultural hub bearings at NAMPO 2018. In addition, it launched a bearing hub for planters, and displayed its full product range for the agricultural industry under its new Agri-Smart banner.

Agri-Smart allows BI to offer its agricultural customers a total solution for their specific requirements and conditions. “We continuously strive to develop new products for the farming community,” BI business unit head Ross Trevelyan notes. “We believe that the agricultural industry is of utmost importance to food security, and therefore to the economic development of our country. We strive to offer excellence to our customers in both service and product provision,” he comments. With the agricultural sector under increasing pressure to cut costs and improve productivity, BI has both the experience and expertise,

backed up by some of the best products available on the market, to assist farming customers in reducing their downtime and boosting productivity significantly.

Bearings BI’s diverse product line-up for the agricultural industry, under its Agri-Smart banner, runs the gamut from supplying bearings and chain to couplings and transmission products for arduous farming applications such as ploughing, planting, harvesting, and baling. It carries a comprehensive stockholding of critical spares, in addition to chain and V-belt drives, that can be dispatched to customers’ sites at short notice.

BI supplies bearings for agricultural equipment such as combine harvesters, planters, balers, tractors, spreaders, mixers, and hammer mills. Sprockets, chains, and accessories are available for major combine-harvester brands such as John Deere, Claas, Case, Clayson, Fahr, Laverda, Massey Fergusson, and Slattery. A range of sprockets is available for most agricultural implements, in addition to standard V-pulleys with adaptor sleeve bosses and axle couplings. Gearboxes can be supplied for slashers and cutters, production equipment, and other agricultural implements. Oils, hydraulic seals, and hoses are also available, as well as power take-off (PTO) shafts and variable speed drives (VSDs).

By farmers for farmers Main BI brands on display at NAMPO 2018 included a new range of hub units, designed and developed in conjunction with KML. Adhesives, sealants, and surface treatment from Loctite were also represented, as were Bauer aluminium threephase 380V and 525V motors, Citronol environment-friendly hand cleaners and degreasers, Makita cordless power tools, Rocol lubricants, and Dodge housed bearings and shaftmounted gearboxes. In terms of Jonnesway hand tools, Trevelyan reveals that NAMPO 2018 saw BI launch a ‘must have’ toolbox with a selection of tools selected by farmers for farmers. The toolbox was available for viewing and purchase exclusively at NAMPO 2018, and will be made available to the general market in due course.

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Seasonal Climate Watch May to September 2018 Overview


The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is expected to weaken from a moderate La Niña phase to a neutral phase through to early spring (Aug-Sep-Oct). Forecasts currently suggest that there is a high likelihood of an El Niño developing for early summer (Nov-Dec-Jan), however these forecasts tend to be less accurate during periods leading up to summer and it is advised that no drastic planning be made for the summer rainfall areas until such a time as there is more certainty in the forecast (usually during Sep/Oct).

Rainfall Frequency Predictions This product is a result of the SAWS operational multi-model system (MMS) where the 850hPa geopotential heights hindcast outputs are first statistically recalibrated and downscaled to observed number of rainfall days exceeding desired thresholds (derived from high resolution 0.1 X 0.1 degree (ARCv2) African Rainfall Climatology version 2 rainfall dataset) within seasons of interest over southern Africa by using model output statistics. The 850hPa geopotential heights are used here because they are found to be the best predictor of rainfall over southern Africa. These forecasts can be used together with the traditional seasonal rainfall total forecasts in that it can indicate the frequency of rainfall days where seasonal rainfall forecast areas expects belowor above-normal conditions.

There are still indications for above-normal rainfall during early winter (May-Jun-Jul) through to late winter (Jul-Aug-Sep), however late winter does not indicate sufficient confidence in the forecasting system and thus remains very uncertain. Number of rainfall days are expected to be higher than normal for the winter rainfall areas. This increase in rainfall days are only expected to be more frequent rather than extremely high rainfall amounts. It should be noted however that there is not sufficient confidence in the forecasting system for these forecasts, thus there is very high uncertainty in the rainfall intensity for the winter rainfall areas. Temperatures generally still indicate lower temperatures during early-, mid- and late-winter for the north-eastern parts of the country, and higher temperatures for the south-western parts of the country during the same period.

May-June-July 2018 rainfall days forecast. Forecast for high and low number of rainfall days exceeding 5 and 15mm without skill taken into account (left) and with skill taken into account (middle). Also included is the climatology for high and low number of rainfall days exceeding 5 and 15mm calculated over the period 1983-2009

June-July-August 2018 rainfall days forecast. Forecast for high and low number of rainfall days exceeding 5 and 15mm without skill taken into account (left) and with skill taken into account (middle). Also included is the climatology for high and low number of rainfall days exceeding 5 and 15mm calculated over the period 1983-2009.


The South African Weather Service will continue to monitor and provide updates of any future assessments that may provide more clarity on the current expectations for the coming seasons The South African Weather Service will continue to monitor and provide updates of any future assessments that may provide more clarity on the current expectations for the coming seasons. Please contact the South African Weather Services if you have any queries or suggestions on the new format.

May-June-July (MJJ) 2018 seasonal maximum temperature prediction without skill taken into account (left), as well as skill masked out (middle). Also included is the climatological average for MJJ (right) calculated over the period 1979-2009.

All the forecasts are a result of an objective multi-model prediction system developed at the South African Weather Service. This system consists of long-range forecasts produced by the following institutions: http://www.weathersa.co.za/home/seasonal (Latest predictions including maps for the whole of SADC) https://iri.columbia.edu/our-expertise/climate/forecasts/enso/current/ (ENSO predictions from various centres)

Information supplied by South African Weather Service.

For more information please contact: Cobus Olivier - Scientist: Prediction Research: cobus.olivier@weathersa.co.za Website: www.weathersa.co.za - Weatherlines: 012 367 6000 and USSD - *120*7297#



Dam levels

Dam Levels The levels of selected dams in South Africa, presented as a percentage of full supply capacity, as on 7 May 2018, as well as the corresponding date in 2017. % of Full Supply Capacity

7 May

2018 2017


% of Full Supply Capacity

7 May

2018 2017

Grootdraai (M)



Witbank (M)



Boskop (NW)



Middelburg (M)



Klipdrift (NW)



Bronkhorstspruit (G)



Erfenis (FS)


Rust de Winter (LP)



Kalkfontein (FS)

Loskop (M)



Buffelskloof (M)


Ohrigstad (M)


% of Full Supply Capacity

7 May

2018 2017

Darlington (EC)







Kommandodrift (EC)





De Mist Kraal (EC)



Rustfontein (FS)



Katrivier (EC)




Krugersdrift (FS)




Groothoek (FS)






Blyderivierspoort (M)



Sterkfontein (FS)



Lubisi (EC)



Klaserie (LP)



Saulspoort (FS)



Doornrivier (EC)



Ebenezer (LP)



Vaalharts Storage Weir (NC)



Waterdown (EC)





Bloemhof (FS)



Tzaneen (LP)



Douglas Weir (NC)



Middle Letaba (LP)



Magoebaskloof (LP)


OLIFANTS RIVER (WC) Clanwilliam (WC)

Hartbeespoort (NW)



Olifantsnek (NW)



Buffelspoort (NW)


Bospoort (NW)







Nagle (KZN)



Albert-Falls (KZN)



Inanda (KZN)



Hazelmere (KZN)





Voëlvlei (WC)




Wemmershoek (WC)





Berg River (WC)



Spioenkop (KZN)



Eikenhof (WC)



Driel Barrage (KZN)





Steenbras (WC)



Upper Steenbras (WC)



Woodstock (KZN)





Klipvoor (NW)



Brandvlei (WC)



Goedertrouw (KZN)



Vaalkop (NW)



Roode Elsberg (WC)



Klipfontein (KZN)





Pietersfontein (WC)



Hluhluwe (KZN)





Theewaterskloof (WC)



Pongolapoort (KZN)





Kwaggaskloof (WC)



Jericho (M)



Albasini (LP)



Duiwenhoks (WC)



Westoe (M)



Vondo (LP)



Morgenstond (M)



Heyshope (M)



Lindleyspoort (NW) Roodeplaat (G) Kosterrivier (NW)

Roodekopjes (NW) Marico Bosveld (NW) Klein Maricospoort (NW)











Wolwedans (WC)



Egmont (FS)



Kromrivier (EC)



Gariep (FS)



Vanderkloof (FS)



Kouga (EC)



Witklip (M)

Boegoeberg (NC)



Loerie (EC)







Nqweba (Van Rynevelds Pass) (EC)



Nooitgedacht (M)



Driekoppies (M)





Da Gama (M)



Inyaka (M)



Source: http://www.dwaf.gov.za

# Latest available data - * Water available to RSA from Lesotho SABI | JUNE/JULY 2018



Agri SA

Launches Water Desk


gri SA has formally launched a dedicated Water Desk that will focus on the need to ensure equitable access to water for farmers across South Africa. This initiative is in response to a host of external challenges facing agricultural water users, including severe drought, climate change and under-maintained infrastructure. The situation is all the more urgent given several policy proposals that may simultaneously increase the cost of water while reducing the availability to agricultural users. The Agri SA Water Desk will, amongst other things, focus on water policy and legislative proposals such as the draft National Water and Sanitation Master Plan and the National Water Resource Strategy. The current amendments to the National Water Act, for example, will determine the cost of water for agricultural users, which is why it is necessary to engage with government and other key stakeholders from the start to work towards a fair outcome. The Agri SA Water Desk will also give inputs to the Water Research Commission (WRC) on research priorities and will act as a forum for top water experts to share their insights in a meaningful way. The Agri SA Water Desk will be led by Janse Rabie, an environmental lawyer and head of Agri SA’s Natural Resources Centre of Excellence and Gregory Smith, a water scientist.

“The Agri SA Water Desk will be a one-stop-shop for Agri SA members, where they can get up to date information and advice on all things water-related,” said Janse Rabie. “Given the complexity of water rights and the fast-changing policy environment, we believe that a dedicated Water Desk is the best way to enable agricultural water users to stay abreast of all legal developments which will have an impact on the way they farm and do business.” “Agri SA is at the forefront of legislative and policy development regarding the water sector in South Africa. Agri SA strives to support government in this fundamental area through collaboration with key stakeholders and timely and well-researched inputs to policy development,” said Dan Kriek, president of Agri SA. Agri SA invites its members, and interested parties, to contact the Agri SA Water Desk to find out how they can get involved.

Ons volgende uitdagende geleenthede is tans beskikbaar:

TEGNIESE ADVISEUR – BESPROEIING LIMPOPO Die ideale kandidaat is ‘n entoesiastiese en dinamiese persoon met ‘n naskoolse kwalifikasie in besproeiingsontwerp of soortgelyke toepaslike kwalifikasie in die Landbou Siviele-omgewing, met ongeveer tien jaar ondervinding in ontwerp van landboubesproeiing stelsels. U moet bereidwillig wees om dikwels te reis en verplaas te word, indien nodig. Verantwoordelikhede behels hoofsaaklik:      

Bemarking van besproeiingsprodukte Uitreik van kwotasies Tegniese advies Die ontwerp van besproeiingstelsels Opleiding in besproeiingstelsels Ondersteuning en dienslewering aan kliënte

Belangstellendes kan Sanette Carrick by 021 9177177 skakel vir meer besonderhede. U kan ook n epos stuur na sanette.carrick@agriplas.co.za SLUITINGSDATUM: VRYDAG, 29 JUNIE 2018 Kaap Agri sal slegs in gepaste gevalle onderhoude met aansoekers voer. Indien u dus vyf werksdae na die sluitingsdatum geen reaksie op u aansoek ontvang het nie moet u aanvaar dat dit onsuksesvol was.




Do you really know where your used oil lands up?


id you know that one litre of used oil can contaminate one million litres of water? It is alarming what the unscrupulous are doing with used oil – and the harm it can cause, says the ROSE (Recycling Oil Saves the Environment) Foundation. It pays to be wary of fly-by-nighters profiteering from used oil with no thought for the harm this hazardous waste can inflict. Notably, generators of used oil bear responsibility – via a legal paper trail – for what happens to their used oil. Indeed, farmers, as generators of used oil, are required to make sure that licensed used oil collectors remove this hazardous waste and take it to a licensed processor for responsible recycling. However, after collection, the used oil is often sold by the collector to the highest bidder, who may be an unlicensed processor, or end user. Legally, the responsibility lies with the generator to ensure that the person who collects used oil is licensed, audited and can provide the legally required Safe Disposal Certificate and Hazardous Waste Manifest, and failure to do so can result in fines and prosecution of the generators and collectors.

Used oil still being used illegally Bubele Nyiba, CEO of the ROSE Foundation (Recycling Oil Saves the Environment) says besides oil ending up in landfills or down drains, an ongoing problem is that some used oil generators sell their oil to “end-users” who use it for harmful practices such as burner fuel for furnaces, painting vineyard poles and fence poles as a wood preservative or spraying of dirt roads as a dust suppressant. “Illegal practices such as those highlighted above allow used oil to make its way into the environment. Used lubricant oil contains harmful compounds and



carcinogens and one litre of used oil can contaminate one million litres of water – a fact which led it to be classified as a hazardous waste. Burning used oil before it has been recycled releases heavy metals and other harmful compounds into the atmosphere.” “In South Africa we have a system in place whereby the used oil collectors purchase the used oil from the generators. This model – which was pro-actively adopted many years before legislation governing the responsible recycling of waste, and the pricing of waste, was introduced - has been successful as it has given value to used oil as a waste, thereby incentivising its responsible collection. However, we now see a situation where used oil generators in South Africa are regarding their used oil as an income generating product and this has driven the price of this waste up to unsustainable levels,” says Nyiba.

Waste products commoditised? It is interesting to note that best practice in other developed countries sees used oil generators paying collectors to take away their waste, as opposed to the current South African model which is the other way around. “Used oil generators in South Africa often sell their oil to whoever

offers the highest price, regardless of the qualifications of that person. All too often we are seeing fly-bynight used oil collectors entering the industry who offer higher prices for the oil but do not take it to a registered processor for recycling - and so also cannot offer the used oil generator a Safe Disposal Certificate or a Hazardous Waste Manifest – both of which are required by law. Failure to be able to produce either of these documents if asked can result in stern penalties and even prosecution.” “A trick that generators should also be aware of is that unscrupulous collectors will offer more per litre but will then under-declare the volumes collected (effectively stealing the oil) – thereby paying the same total that a licensed collector would have.” Nyiba urges used oil generators to use ROSE licensed used oil collectors and processors who will come and remove the oil and take it to be recycled in an environmentally compliant and safe manner. “Registered collectors are compelled to issue you with a safe disposal certificate,” says Nyiba. “The safe disposal certificate issued by ROSE registered collectors also acts as a Hazardous Waste Manifest, thereby fulfilling the requirements of reporting by law.”

The Hazardous Waste Manifest explained As used oil is a hazardous waste, generators are required to maintain the below information on a Hazardous Waste Manifest: A unique consignment identification number; The generator’s contact

details, including the contact person, physical and postal address, phone and fax number and email address; The physical address of the site where the waste was generated; An emergency contact number; The origin/source of the waste (how it was generated); A description of the waste (waste classification and waste category) The physical nature / consistency of the waste (liquid, solid, sludge; pumpable, non-pump-able); The quantity of waste; Packaging (bulk, small containers, tank); Transport type (tanker, truck, container); Special handling instructions; The date of collection / dispatch; The intended receiver (waste manager).

ROSE registered collectors and processors are also compliant with all waste transportation legislation and are strictly managed and audited – further ensuring your compliance as a waste generator. “As the source of a hazardous waste which is governed by laws and carries repercussions, used oil generators must take responsibility for what happens with their oil and must ensure it is taken away by a licensed collector to a licensed facility – and must also insist on the paper work to verify this. Don’t leave yourself open to possible fines or prosecution should you not be able to produce the proper paper trail,” concludes Nyiba. For more information and to find out about a registered used oil collector, visit www. rosefoundation.org.za.


Unilever recently presented its update to its seven-year sustainability plan


nterestingly, research shows that 54% of consumers want to buy sustainable products. In the not too recent past “sustainable products” were probably considered the preserve of extreme Greenies – but, happily, not so these days! USLP is made up of three big goals and commitments across nine pillars, supported by targets that span across Unilever’s social, economic and environmental performance across the value chain. These three goals are: ]] Improve the health and well-being of more than 1 billion people ]] Decouple their environmental footprint from their growth ]] Enhance the livelihoods of millions of people “We are living in an increasingly uncertain and volatile world. Temperatures are rising, droughts are more frequent, food supplies are increasingly scarce, the gap between rich and poor is growing and billions still do not have access to basic hygiene and sanitation. “We see first-hand how people are already affected by these changes which pose new challenges for

us: fluctuating commodity prices, unstable markets and a shortage of sustainable raw materials,” explains Unilever SA executive vice president Luc-Olivier Marquet.

Blueprint The Unilever Sustainable Living Plan (USLP) is a blueprint for achieving their vision to grow their business, whilst decoupling their environmental footprint from their growth and increasing their positive social impact. It is driving growth through brands with purpose, taking out costs from their business, reducing risks and helping them build trust. Ultimately, it also sets out their plan for how they can make sustainable living common place, thereby create a brighter future for the consumers they serve. Seven years ago, Unilever launched the USLP to demonstrate to the world that a corporate can create value with human values at

its core. Economic development, through responsible business, is the best way to bring people out of poverty and address social issues. Today, Unilever shared their year seven update and how they have been addressing issues such as job creation, health and hygiene, sanitation and SMME development. Unilever has once again demonstrated how its high-profile sustainability strategy is paying off, as its designated sustainable living brands continue to outperform the wider business. The global consumer goods giant provided an update on its ‘Sustainable Living’ brands, confirming they grew 46 per cent faster than the rest of the business and delivered 70 per cent of Unilever’s overall revenue growth.

Products The update also confirmed the company has expanded its range of ‘Sustainable Living’ products, increasing the number of brands that have been awarded the designation from 18 to 26 last year.

More broadly the company said it was on track to meet around 80 per cent of the overarching sustainability targets it has set in its Unilever Sustainable Living Plan (USLP), including its pledges to helping more than a billion people improve their health and well-being by 2020 and halve the environmental impact of their products by 2030.  “However, with change comes opportunity. From this the USLP was born. We believe that sustainable and equitable growth is the only way to create longterm value for our stakeholders. For example, through our inclusive growth model, we have employed 124 individuals and aim to increase this to 350. That’s why we have placed the USLP at the heart of our business model,” adds Marquet. The recent year seven update included a trip to Kwa-Mashu to showcase Unilever’s School Hygiene and Sanitation Programme. Next stop was a visit to a Spaza shop, highlighting the company’s Township Job Creation Development Programme, concluded by an OLA Vendor Presentation. SABI | JUNE/JULY 2018


Sustainability Spaza shop “This event was an example of Unilever’s work in action and how these programmes are helping the company move towards achieving their goals,” explains Marquet. Unilever’s top six brands are Sustainable Living brands, and Unilever research shows us that 54% of consumers want to buy sustainable products and 1/3rd of them are already doing so. The USLP is the company’s key differentiator to build trust and reputation, and the results yield the following: ]] Operating sustainably future-proofs the supply chain against the risks associated with climate change and water scarcity. It lowers risk. ]] The USLP delivers savings to our business. For example, by using less energy, Unilever avoids energy costs in factories of more than €490 million since 2008. And by using fewer materials and producing less waste, the company has avoided costs of over €260 million over

the same period. ]] Building trust and becoming the No. 1 graduate employer of choice in the FMCG sector across 44 countries. ]] Our Sustainable Living brands delivered 70% of our growth in 2017.

]] OLA Vendors Improving thousands of lives through job creation, economic empowerment and capability building ]] Vaseline healing project By 2020, Vaseline will help the skin of 5 million people affected by poverty and emergencies ]] Domestos: cleaner toilets, brighter future Helping to capacitate schools as institutions to establish and maintain clean and usable toilets for school children. ]] National school hygiene and sanitation programme Unilever and the Department of Basic Education have entered into a 5-year partnership to reach 15 000 schools per year with a hygiene and sanitation behaviour change programme ]] Development of township spazas SA employment sits at 27%. With Unilever’s model, the aim is to employ sales people and develop their capabilities ]] Wildlands programme Climate change programme – planting 1 000 000 trees

Marquet adds: “We have much to do before reaching our 2020 goals, but what we have achieved thus far is a proud moment for me and the amazing teams that work behind the scenes. Many of our dedicated people work tirelessly on projects that are helping us reach our goals.”

Making a difference The impressive line-up of projects helping to make a sustainable difference are: ]] Sunlight water saving programme Focused on raising awareness of water security and water saving ]] Lifebuoy- helping a child reach 5 Handwashing with soap, a key intervention in saving lives.

and conversion of waste to school desks ]] OMO dig desk renewed project Providing desks for underprivileged children across SA made from multi-layer waste ]] LIV THOKOMALA Provide holistic care for children living without parents or household figures ]] Unilever centre for environmental water quality (UCEWQ) An established partnership with Rhodes university and the water research commission, looking at access to clean, safe water. As a responsible corporate citizen, says Unilever, the group “believes in making a positive difference, not only to those who use its products, but also to the communities in which it operates. The company ensures that its sustainability programmes extend further than what’s good for the company and always considers what’s good for all involved.”

Consumers to braai more pork?



ith the continued decrease in the price of pork whilst other meats trend higher, consumers who are feeling the pinch are most likely to settle for pork as an alternative.

which is a large component of animal feed.

The pork industry, unnecessarily suffered a severe blow following the recent outbreak of listeriosis, the loss to the value chain so far could exceed R1 billion, however, the positive end to this is that consumers have benefited from the lower pork price at producer level.

and safety concerns from the listeriosis outbreak, pork farmers have now had to redirect the pigs for the fresh meat market thereby creating a surplus and in so doing have further increased pressure on low prices,” says Paul Makube, senior agricultural economist at FNB Agri-Business.

Maize constitutes over 75% of livestock feed, hence its supply and prices have a major influence on the total cost to customers. This is particularly the case in poultry and pork as they are mainly produced under intensive feeding systems.

“Even though demand for processed and cold meats fell sharply due to the health

Another positive that is working in the favour of consumers is the decrease in the cost of maize,


Maize for feed

“SA now has a surplus in maize and the expected 2017/18 production is estimated at over 12.42 million tons. Therefore, if maize prices remain flat they

will have a major impact in sustaining the lower prices for consumers,” says Makube. Even though overall meat prices in general remain elevated, when excluding pork, meat prices at producer level are currently about 6% higher relative to last year, but marginally down on last year if pork is included. In the end consumers continue to benefit from the low producer prices for pork, and this is a trend that will hold over the short term with the possibility of a further decrease in the long term as the feed costs continue to decrease.


How planting trees can protect cocoa plants against climate change By Philippe Vaast


orldwide, areas suitable for cocoa production are predicted to shrink by up to 20-30% over the next 30 years. This is because cocoa trees are already struggling to cope with drier, hotter conditions – attributed in large part to climate change. Chocolate, one of the most popular and widely consumed products in the world, comes from cocoa trees. These trees produce pods that contain beans which are harvested, fermented, dried and turned into cocoa powder or butter. They grow in the humid tropics where temperatures range from 20°C-35°C, annual rainfall is over 1200 mm and the dry season is less than two months long. In 2016 the global chocolate market was valued at USD$99 billion. And demand for cocoa is likely to keep increasing as more and more people eat chocolate bars, drink hot chocolate or eat chocolate ice cream. Over 60% of the world’s chocolate is produced by smallholder farmers in Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana and Indonesia. They will suffer as a result of climate changes, producing less cocoa per unit area on their farms. They will get less money for their hard work as their profit share, along the cocoa supply chain, is unlikely to increase. This will have a huge impact on the livelihoods of about 25 million people. It will also have an impact on the economies of some cocoa producing countries, like Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana, that rely on cocoa for a large part of their export income. Our research shows that agroforestry is an excellent strategy to help smallholders cope with climate change and to avoid further deforestation in new cocoa producing areas. But it must be done wisely as the shade tree species must suit the local context and farmers’ needs.

Trees and cocoa Shade trees – such as Erythrina, Inga or Gliricidia in Latin America or Terminalia, Ricinodendron or Albizia in West Africa – are advocated as a key adaptation strategy against the negative effects of climate change. Shade trees buffer cocoa plants from heat and water stresses, and create conditions that benefit the cocoa tree growth. Other advantages include: -- enhanced soil fertility due to leaf shedding and pruning residues. These enrich the soil in organic matter and recycle nutrients. -- reduced soil erosion because the leaf litter, which covers the soil, prevents surface run-off. -- improved pollination by creating a more favourable climate for pollinators. -- enhanced biological control of pests and diseases by creating a more favourable environment for natural enemies. In addition, farm households benefit economically from using agroforestry. Their revenue streams are diversified, as they get fuelwood and timber, and food from fruit trees. Farmers can manage their cocoa plantations, with permanent shade, in a variety of ways: -- Thinning down the original forest canopy and keeping forest trees of interest; -- Planting fruit and timber species; -- Protecting the growth of valuable trees which grew naturally.

Context matters While the number of trees and tree species per hectare can vary widely, the trees being planted must be suited to the local context and farmers’ needs. It’s not worth trying to promote tree species that farmers do not want, are not suitable locally; there is no single tree species that can provide all the services needed. For example, some tree species have shallow root systems, which means they are well suited to wet areas, but will compete with cocoa plants for soil water in drier conditions. This was seen in our recent study in Ghana. Scientific knowledge has to be combined with farmers’ knowledge of tree species because rural communities have valuable experience with many local trees. This can be turned into decisionsupport tools, like the Shade Tree Advice Tool, which are becoming increasingly available and can help farmers make the right choices.

More steps Agroforestry is getting more attention. Locally, the increasing impact of climate change means more awareness of the benefits of trees to cocoa farms, landscapes and communities. Globally, increased consumer awareness of environmental and food safety issues means that cooperatives, like Ghana’s Kuapa Kokoo, are successfully promoting agroforestry and environmentally sound cocoa production. But more steps need to be taken to promote the use of trees. Policies have to be put in place that give rural communities and farmers

incentives to adopt climate-smart practices on their farms and landscapes. This includes passing laws and regulations that secure land tenure, encouraging farmers to invest in that land. Farmers also need to have ownership over trees, giving them the right to plant and nurture them, but also to fell them for revenue. Finally, farmers will more readily adopt agroforestry if they get economic incentives for various schemes; for examples, premium prices for eco-certification, payments for provision of environmental services at local level (water, scenic beauty) and at global level (carbon sequestration, climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation). Philippe Vaast is a Senior Coffee and Cocoa Agroforestry Scientist from CIRAD seconded to the, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)

Disclosure statement Over the years, Philippe Vaast has received funding from various organisations or governmental agencies to undertake exclusively research and development work.

Partners The Conversation is funded by Barclays Africa and seven universities, including the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Rhodes University and the Universities of Cape Town, Johannesburg, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Pretoria, and South Africa. It is hosted by the Universities of the Witwatersrand and Western Cape, the African Population and Health Research Centre and the Nigerian Academy of Science. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is a Strategic Partner.

This article is courtesy TheConversation.com




Getting the green light

KIA opens training centre in Rwanda To boost local agri sales


IA Motors has opened a new ‘Green Light Project’ (GLP) Vocational Training Centre in Rwanda, aimed primarily at teaching agricultural skills to young adults. The new GLP Vocational Training Centre is located in the densely populated Gahengeri Sector of the Rwamagana district in Rwanda’s Eastern Province. The Rwanda centre is the tenth GLP project that KIA has established across seven different African nations since 2012. By setting up the new GLP training facility, KIA hopes to foster greater self-sufficiency throughout the region, helping local communities generate sustainable income from agricultural sales. The local economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, with farmers making up 90% of the Gahengeri Sector’s working population. However, there are typically low levels of productivity due to the dense population and mountainous nature of the region. A lack of skills and machinery, as well as poor storage facilities and an inadequate infrastructure, also pose challenges.



KIA’s GLP Vocational Training Centre will not only act as a job training facility, it will also provide an agricultural machinery rental service and incubation programme to local farmers, supporting new and existing farms with harvesting, sales and distribution. “The aim of the Green Light Project is to improve social mobility and enable communities to become more self-sufficient,” said Kyehwan Roh, head of CSR Management Team at KIA Motors. “The new centre in Rwanda will help people across this region overcome a range of obstacles and challenges they

face in developing a livelihood from agriculture.”

The Green Light Project The Rwanda GLP vocational training centre is the latest stage in KIA’s ongoing ‘Green Light Project’ global corporate social responsibility (CSR) programme. The Green Light Project strives to improve access to healthcare, education and employment for disadvantaged children and young adults in some of the most underdeveloped regions in the world. The programme seeks to ‘turn the red light to green’ for individuals and communities, empowering them with the skills and opportunities they need to improve their lives. With the establishment of each Green Light Project facility, KIA’s final goal is to hand over full control to a local community.

The opening ceremony was attended by local residents and a host of dignitaries, including Rajab Mbonyumuvunyi, mayor of Rwamagana District; Fred Mufurukye, governor of Rwanda’s Eastern Province; South Korean Ambassador to Rwanda Eung Joong Kim; and Byung Hwa Lee, Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) Rwanda Director. Also present were Han-yoon So, Director of Merry Year International, and Kyehwan Roh, of KIA’s CSR Management Team, which oversees the Green Light Project. At present, KIA’s Green Light Project is working with local people on projects in six other neighbouring African countries – Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. KIA plans to expand its project continuously throughout other developing countries in Africa and around the world.


Record-Breaking Almond Crop Predicted for 2018


n spite of concerns about freezing weather during almond bloom, the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) is predicting a record crop in 2018. According to the NASS 2018 Almond Subjective Forecast issued recently, California almond orchards are expected to produce 2.30 billion pounds of nuts this year, up 1.3% from last year’s 2.27 billion-pound crop. “Almond farmers used a variety of techniques to manage freezing night-time temperatures in some parts of the Central Valley during bloom this year and those efforts appear to have worked,” said

Richard Waycott, president and CEO, Almond Board of California. “Every year weather impacts farming, but almond trees thrive in our state because California is home to the world’s most efficient almond farmers, who continually improve their practices and rise to the challenge.” Phone survey The Almond Subjective Forecast, the first of two California

almond forecast reports for this year’s crop, is based on opinions obtained from randomly selected almond farmers located throughout the state via a phone survey conducted in April and May. Farmers were asked to indicate their almond yield per acre from last year and expected yield for the current year based on field observations. Those estimates are then combined and extrapolated to arrive at the numbers reported in the Almond Subjective Forecast. While the Almond Subjective Forecast provides early estimates of the coming crop after it is set,

the 2018 California Almond Objective Report, which is released in July, uses a more statistically rigorous methodology. It is typically the more accurate of the two reports. Objective Report data is based on actual almond counts and measurements taken in orchards throughout the state, starting in May and ending in July. Last month, the 2017 California Almond Acreage Report showed bearing acres, that is orchards old enough to produce a crop, were up 6% at 1 million acres. Total almond acres for 2017 were estimated at 1.33 million acres, up 7% from the previous year.

South Holland province officials visit vegetable project CAU Futong in China


n Tuesday May 15, 2018, South Holland province and Hebei province officials visited the vegetable greenhouse complex CAU Futong Nanhe Industrial Cluster. The greenhouse complex is located in Xingtai city, in the northern China Hebei province.

During this official event, Hoogendoorn Growth Management, was one the of the keynote speakers. Martin

Helmich, emphasized in his presentation that the CAU Futong project is a great example for China in terms of safe food and

sustainable production due to the use of modern automation and irrigation technology. Safely produced vegetables in northern China The demand for safely produced food is ever-increasing, which raises a challenge for greenhouse

vegetable production worldwide. In one of the world’s largest countries, China, securing food safety is even a bigger challenge. The aim of the CAU Futong project is to make a tangible contribution to the growing demand for safely produced vegetables in northern China.


Next time

August September 2018 edition Special Women’s day edition! We celebrate Women’s Achievement in Irrigation in our next edition. Don’t miss our interview with dynamic entrepreneur and irrigation owner of H&M Machinery and Irrigation Mariska Sonnekus from Glencoe in KwaZulu-Natal.

A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for future close collaboration was signed during a ceremony by sales & marketing director of Hoogendoorn Martin Helmich and managing director of CAU Futong Prof. Tianzhu Zhang in presence of South Holland province officials and Hebei province officials.

Also in August September edition we bring you all the news, views and info on: - Filters - Dams, tanks and storage - Golf courses and sportsfields SABI | JUNE/JULY 2018



Neglecting the era of

knowledge workers by Martijn Aslander


ver the past 40 years our workforce has transcended from doing labour with their hands to working with their brains. We haven’t got the slightest clue what knowledge work is and that’s an enormous problem. This is according to lifehacker, globally renowned guest speaker and thought leader Martijn Aslander. The majority of today’s workforce is knowledge workers and for the past 25 years, they have been using computers to do their work. Today, it has extended to tablets and smartphones. Unfortunately, in most cases, they are just fooling around, trying to make sense of all the possibilities of these devices and the software and incorporate it into their workflows. As a matter of fact, most of these people are using their computers as a modern typewriter, using only a small portion of the true power of what these powerful devices can offer. It’s really bizarre that training and developing digital skills is nowhere on the strategic agenda of HR, management teams and board members. If the biggest cost in any organisation is salaries, it’s



strange that they don’t get how much time, money and talent they’re wasting every day.

Digital skills I actually think there’s a bigger issue than just neglecting digital skills. It’s my belief that all organisational models and insights were developed in a time when people worked with their hands. In that case, working 9 - 5 makes sense, also changing time for money, still the dominant payment system worldwide. But if you work with your head most of the time, it doesn’t make sense. We just never really considered that working with your brain is something totally different and needs a different approach. Research shows that one third of the people are more sharp, keen

and awake at 8pm than at 8am. What a total waste of human energy and talent to force them to join the traffic jams, deploying your most valuable assets - your people - and a time that they are the least productive. Roughly 25% of our energy is being consumed by our brains. So from a bio-chemical point of view, it would be wise to figure out how to deal smartly. In case of matters of the mind, the mind that is supposed to juggle with snippets of knowledge, information and ideas. Processing that data mentally to solve problems, creating opportunities and going after big challenges.

Brain power A lot of people have burn-out problems. Burn-out means that the brain can’t function anymore and that the willpower muscle is depleted by wrongfully using the energy reserves of the brain.

Most of the time because superiors had no idea that forcing employees to do their jobs in a specific way instead of trusting them to find their own approach, literally costs a lot of brainpower. What about the impact of interruptions. When someone is in deep concentration, focussing on a matter and is interrupted, it causes immediate concentration problems. It will take at least 8 minutes to regain the same amount of focus and concentration. Insights like these are really being taken into consideration when it comes to managing organisations. As a knowledge worker, we actually can’t work for 8 straight hours a day. We can pretend we do and we’re all doing it, but we are fooling ourselves. If you want your organisation to be ready for the upcoming disruptive ages, I think the best thing you can do is take knowledge work and its circumstances very seriously.

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Contacts | Diary

SABI Council 2018-2019

Dagboek | Diary

PRESIDENT – Willie Vosloo E-mail: aquadrip@iafrica.com Cell: 082 571 2452


PAST PRESIDENT – Tony Ewels E-mail: tony@amairri.co.za Cell: 083 654 7173

13 & 14 August 2018 Venue: Champagne Sports Resort, Drakensberg, KwaZulu-Natal The ILASA 2018 Conference explores the multiple expressions of connectivity. For more information,

VICE-PRESIDENT – Ian de Jager E-mail: ian@ifengineering.co.za Cell: 082 577 0677

please contact ilasa@ilasa.co.za or visit: www.ilasa.co.za

SECRETARY/TREASURER – Felix Reinders E-mail: reindersf@arc.agric.za Cell: 082 495 0332 |

GAUTENG BRANCH –Albertus Burger E-mail: aburger@grundfos.com Cell: 076 991 6842

EASTERN CAPE BRANCH – Graham Delmar E-mail: grahamd@humkoop.co.za Cell: 082 560 2163

KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH – Darran Boote E-mail: dboote@illovo.co.za Cell: 072 184 7978

LIMPOPO BRANCH – Francois Fourie E-mail: coisfourie@tt-i.co.za Cell: 083 626 6573

SANCID Symposium 2018

MPUMALANGA BRANCH – Michael Esmeraldo

13 -15 November 2018 Venue: White River, Mpumalanga, South Africa Theme: Opportunities to manage Climate Change

E-mail: Michael.esmeraldo@netafim.com Cell: 082 855 1987

ORANGE BRANCH – André Coetzee E-mail: andre@turf-ag.co.za Cell: 082 330 3456

WESTERN CAPE BRANCH – Jaco Neethling E-mail: jaco@loxtons.co.za Cell: 079 571 9283

SABI OFFICE GENERAL MANAGER – Riana Lombard E-mail: riana@sabi.co.za Cell: 083 303 3596

TECHNICAL EXECUTIVE OFFICER – Isobel van der Stoep E-mail: isobel@sabi.co.za Cell: 082 331 4987

A Premier event on the irrigation and drainage calendar, the Symposium aims to attract a multi-disciplinary group of professionals involved with irrigation drainage in Southern Africa. Academics, professionals, practitioners, policy makers, researchers and consultants are invited to attend and participate in this event that concerns an industry where engineering, agricultural science, economics, finance, development and the environment come together to create new opportunities and meet new challenges every day. The organising committee will endeavour to register this event as a Continuous Professional Development (CPD) event with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). For more information or booking for the event, please contact riana@sabi.co.za or visit www.sancid.org.

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ASSISTANT TECHNICAL OFFICER – Annemarie van der Westhuizen

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E-mail: annemarie@sabi.co.za Cell: 082 774 4163

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MEDIA MANAGER – Carol Posthumus E-mail: carol@sabi.co.za Cell: 083 298 7623

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E-mail: admin@sabi.co.za Tel: 021 850 8220

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IrrigationWise Academy L E A R N TO G R O W

Boost your irrigation skills today with one of our courses. • Irrigation design • Irrigation management • Landscape irrigation

2018 Programme available to view on www.sabi.co.za

+27 21 850 8220 | info@sabi.co.za www.sabi.co.za


WIRELESS IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT PROVEN QUALITY UNPARALLELED WARRANTY POWERFUL REMOTE MANAGEMENT TOOLS The best line of irrigation solutions is durable, rugged, easy to use and integrated. Zimmatic® by Lindsay is your single source to make the most of your operation. That’s our strong point. www.lindsayafricagb.com Richard Joseph +27 (0)82 853 0265 richard.joseph@lindsayafrica.co.za

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