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NUSSIR MINE In Finnmark, Norway

Francisco Rodríguez Saa Guðrún Lilja Jónsdóttir


“We need to view the fragility of the planet and its resources as an opportunity for speculative design innovations rather than as a form of technical legitimation for promoting conventional solutions. By extension, the problems confronting our cities and regions would then become opportunities to define a new approach” Quote from the book Ecological Urbanism that we think should be the guideline for Nussir mine program.


NUSSIR ASA was established in 2005 to develop the Nussir and other nearby copper deposits in Kvalsund municipality, near Hammerfest in north Norway. Nussir is one of Norway’s major undeveloped copper deposits, and exploration has demonstrated that. The company aims at commencing mining operations on the ore deposit at Nussir and Ulveryggen simultaneously, with a common processing plant for copper ore at Repparfjord. The facilities will be the largest ever for copper in Norway.









Rep par







The planned mining and industrial activities is in Kvalsund municipality in Finnmark county. The extraction area is located about 12 km in linear distance east / southeast of the town Kvalsund, about 9 km west of Skaidi and 35 km south of Hammerfest. Situated close to ice-free fjord with easy access to national highway, high powerlines and public services.


R ep par

fjor d

Nussir I

Processing plant


fjor d

Mining area

Nussir II K VA L S U N D M U N I C I PA L I T Y



4 km

Finnmark - Cu Areas

To World


Copper Sea Shiping

roads and communication Roads 3.7.1 Industriområdet related to the planned new mining operations will be attached to the RV. 94 as the Kvalsund går from Skaidi and on to Hammerfest. From Skaidi går Ev 6 on to Alta and Lakselv southwest towards the Southeast. From Folldal verk to the Kvalsund is approximately 14.5 km distance, while spanning approximately Skaidi is to 10 km. Route 94 går today at industriområdet by Folldal Works with turndown service på the upper side of the road and kai på nedersiden plant. Airports The nearest National Airport from Folldal verk is Hammerfest airport which is about 50 km away. Other airports are Alta lufthavn Lakselv airport and, both of which are respectively 92 and 99 km from Folldal verk. Furthermore, a new airport is planned to be på Grøtnes, which is located på-absolutely up to Kvaløya, Tromsø kommune boundary of Hammerfest. The existing airport in Hammerfest has strong restrictions på because of its unfavourable position. På this background created Hammerfest and Kvalsund municipality, an airport selection in 2006 to consider options for location of Hammerfest and Kvalsund airport. The Committee has appointed Grøtnes as the location for future Airport (Hammerfest municipality, 2009). Scheduled to regulatory work associated with future airport på Grøtnes start våren 2010. transit and ferry transport The public transport in Finnmark geography stubs are long route buses that take you daily to and from, inter alia, Hammerfest, Alta, Porsanger. Long route buses stop as of today only at the Skaidi. There are no local buses in Kvalsund. transport. technical infrastructure outside the 3.8.1 & utilities It is not accessible by municipal water or waste wires inside, or in the immediate vicinity of the plan area. Power Existing high-voltage cable running along the Bay on the South side of Rep. pair of Rv. 94. Connection to the existing network and the supply of electric power are considered problematic.

Influence Factors


Melkøya - Industrial Island

Copper Sea Shiping

Train Shiping


Kvalsund - Cu Areas

Proposed Connections


Existing Connections

25 km

94 Kvalsund Nussir I

Relationship with Reppardfjord

Nussir Grinding Plant


Ulveryggen Nussir II

Wega Mining

To Alta 70 km

To Smorfjord 25 km Lakselv & Kirkenes



To Kirkenes 240 km


Nussir Grinding Plant and Pier

Area Assigned for Nussir Activity within the Kommune Copper Ore Deposits, NGU

Kvalsund Municipality

5 km

Open Pit Spots & Access to Ulveryggen Mine - Wega

Ship Routes


94 Nussir Grinding Plant

10 km

Hammerfest has grown as one of the main ports on Coastal Norway. Snow White is the main productive enterprise influencing Hammerfest and Kvalsund surroundings, bringing in population and a demand for housing and new 1970’s infrastructure, this enterprise leads the economical activity in the area. Pollution is one of the issues, Melkøya Island, an Industrial settlement, has contaminated seafjord surroundings. The watersewage system concentrated on lake Storvatn from Hammerfest is also polluted, which is connected to the Fjord. A bridge connects Kvalsund, which is part of continental Norway, where mining is the driving force for economical growth. Together with Kvalsund, Skaidi is the closest town to the Nussir processing plant which is also influencing a river Delta at the botton of Repparfjord where copper tailings from Nussir processing plant are meant to be thrown on the fjord basin, therefore highlighting biotopes on the Fjord Seawater, and inland biotopes like reindeer affecting areas that were last open in 1970’s by previous interventions.

Hammerfest Structure

Pier Secondary Roads

Kvalsund Structure

Water river 94 Slow Lane Roads Landmark

Mine Sorroundings

MINING PLANS IN REPPARFJORD PLANS FOR THE MINING ACTIVITIES Folldal Works has been mining in Ulveryggen mountain since 1972, called Reppafjord mines. That is surface mine and waste is put in the open pit from the blow out. The new Nussir mines are devided in two; Nussir I and Nussir II. First phase is mining in Nussir I. Nussir mines and Reppafjord mines will have common prosessing plant. 1. Current open pit mining (purple) in Reppafjord mines and waste deposits (yellow).

Here are current and future plans for the mining activities in Kvalsund.

2. Plan sketch for underground mining in Nussir I. Possible tunnels, access tunnels and waste deposits.


2. Nussir I 4.


Nussir II

Repparfjord mines 1. ULVERYGGEN MOUNTAIN

3. Current prosessing plant for Repparfjord mines. The plan facilitates a lot of warehouse, storage area for asphalt production plant, as well as receiving, storage and shipment of oily waste from offshore operations.

4. Plans for new industrial area of 45 ​​ acres, plus access and public recreation area of approximately 112 acres. The plan facilitates the earthworks of rock and soil and preparation for later development of industry area.


CONTINUOUS ORE BODY The surveys that have been made, show continuous ore body in Kvalsund. With quite of metabasaltic lavas and tuffs about 2 km thick. The ore deposits in Repparfjord are mainly copper. Those deposit sits in sedimentary layer of dolomite and slate that contains very low levels of both sulphides and heavy metals.




18 g/t


0,2 g/t



Core drilling has followed the ore body up to 500m below surface–the character of the deposit suggests deeper ore body.

Nussir: Cu in the dolomite and shale ~ 3 m mighty and 8 km long. Reserves: 25 million tonn with 1.2% Cu + Au, Ag, Pt, Pd STEINFJELLET/ NUSSIR

Ulveryggen: Generated: 3 million tonn -0.7% Cu. Resource: 8 million tonn -0.8% Cu


approved extraction area approved exploration area

Surveys results Geophysical Mapping and Structural Geology Investigations:

1. Supports theory of continuous ore body.

2. Supports theory of possible extensionto the south-west.

3. Indications of double ore body in part of deposit



mill tonnes

“indicated” resource


mill tonnes

“inferred” resource




About 97% of the ore is crushed to less than 0.1 mm size and must be deposited, while the remaining about 3% is a copper-containing concentrate which is shipped to smelters abroad for further processing. Possilbly to Sweeden and Germany.


CONFLICTS DUE TO SEAFILL Conflicts are between Nussir ASA and advocates for white fish, salmon, water quality and seabed cause of the impacts that seafill might cause.

Waste from coppermines are much more toxic than waste from other minerals The planned seafill will be about 25 million m3 BY DUMPING WASTE IN THE FJORD COULD CAUSE IMPACTS ON: Fish Salmon Marine life Water quality Seabed fauna Tidal zone

Possible seafill in Repparfjord


“There are such high concentrations of heavy metals that it will be acutely toxic, and acute death in the parts that are affected by these emissions. There are five to seven square miles at least, so there are large areas” says senior researcher at the Institute of Marine Research.

Previous stages in the plan showed two options for the waste to be dumped: 1. Dam construction for a possible landfill 2. Plant for seafill in Repparfjord


Now Nussir ASA has planned to dump 2,800, rising to about 5,500 tonnes/day in controlled seafill in Repparfjord



It has previously been deposited waste in the shallower part of the fjord. Nussir now plans a landfill further out in the fjord at 90 m depth.



Tailing in the fjord will cause acute death in the area the seafill will be placed. ESTIMATED VOLUME OF LANDFILL:

2.800 - 5.500

tonnes / day

The cost is very high for building a dam construction on land, while it is much cheeper to place the waste in the fjord.



Nussir ASA have applied for a permit for the operation of the coppermine: 1 million tonn masses pr year, with possible increase up to 2 million tonn.

The project aims to contribute that 40 % of all jobs associated with mining operations directly and indirectly, shall be lied by people from Kvalsund and surrounding areas.

The outlet will provide around 25 to 50,000 tonnes of copper concentrate per year. With yearly profit of 75 - 150 mill US$ / 450 - 900 mill NOK

Their calculations show that Nussir itself will provide

150 new jobs, an annual turnover of one billion and around 500 jobs as a result of the whole

The whole value of the mine is about 20 billion NOK calculated with estimated 35 million m3 of masses. Of that amount 1,2% is copper that will give about 420.000 tonn copper. If that is calculated with the current copper price the value of the mine can be estimated.





60% Other workers

40% Local workers






COPPER PRICE & FINANCING The financing activities of the mine has followed the copper price

US$ pr. tonn 10.000

Copper price increases intensively; beginning of Nussir mine


New drilling programme commenced autumn 2007 after 2nd equity injection.

The program set on hold! Capacity costs have been substantially lowered The company has insufficient funds to finance necessary investments


Halvor H. Holta Holding AS takes over all shares from previous largest shareholder, BIO Information Technology AS, thereby entered position as largest shareholder in Nussir ASA

7.000 6.000 5.000

The program set on full speed!


First new drilling season during autumn 2006 financed through equity injection.

4.000 3.000 2.000


In end of 2012 they plan to invest for 65 mill US$ with finace from own capital, bank loans and forward selling of copper.



Company transformed into public limited company (Allmennaksjeselskap)


The share placement of NOK 15 million was guaranteed by Halvor H. Holta Holding AS.





LIFE SPAN & TIMELINE OF DEVELOPING LIFE SPAN OF THE MINE This copper mine project is estimated about:

30-50 years of lifetime

Refund on Research projects on Soil Recovery and recuperation contaminted by copper

New drilling programme commenced Drill results and geophysical mapping indicates basically continuous ore body

Political planning decisions





First new drilling season

Ore body first discovered during1970’ies



Planprogram adopted



2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


Exploitation concession application Discharge license Sporadic drilling along strike zone during 1980’ies and 1990’ies.

Company transformed into public limited company (allmennaksjeselskap)

Zoning plan

Consultations in the reindeer herding and the Sami Parliament

Construction in 2013

Time Line Norway 22.08.2007 1) WMN2 Nussir Wega Mining Wega owns 25% of Nussir AS, which has an exploration permit in Kvalsund municipality. Nussir is believed to be Norway‘s largest copper deposit. A 2,700 meter drilling program was conducted in 2006, concluding a 2.5km long and 2.5-4.5m wide dolomite layer with 1.6-1.8% Cu extends in depth past 500 meters, indicating a targeted 10Mt deposit. Since 1979, 62 holes have been drilled. A decision to extend the survey at a grid size qualifying for a Bankable Feasibility Study will be taken during 2007. 2) WMN1 Repparfjord Wega Mining, through our Technical Director Tore Birkeland, holds exploration licences on the Repparfjord old copper site in Kvalsund municipality, Norway. Repparfjord was run as a copper mine for nine years, from 1971 to 1979, by Folldal Verk A/S, during which 4Mt of copper ore in the 1.5-1.7% grade range during the 1970s, after which it was closed due to poor profitability. Currently, a company involved in aggregates production operates in the area. We see a potential for profitable operations from Repparfjord provided a decision to develop Nussir. No drilling has been planned for the area for 2007


Details from near surface exploration works in the cublem part of the Nussir deposit, in the area section P-1 and P -2. Separate layer show copper, gold, and platinum/ palladium grades respectively. April 2008, GoodKart AS I.J Rai







Helicopter-Borne EM 34144 Hz. inphase and quadrature data

Site Landscape Elements 70.45ยบ N 24.27ยบO Hole on the Ground About 4 m Erected Landscape Element Concrete element Spot for Truck Maneuvers

Mountain Ridge

Spot for Truck Maneuvers

10 M

Nussir - Deposites and Toxidity What to do with the waste ?

Landfills and tailings


Only Norway Defender coastal landfill! Sydvaranger Mine emits large amounts of mining waste in the sea. Nussir plans to do the same in Kvalsund. The Norwegian Government would like to base the Norwegian mining of such coastal landfill. However, around the world there are very few countries now use coastal deposition, and Norway is the only country that does it in relatively shallow water. This says in a memo that Mads Løkeland in nature protection Association have created about mining and international view of coastal deposition.

Nussir an applicant for a permit for the operation of the copper mine in Kvalsund, Finnmark (2010397) 26.01.12 Announcement in Altaposten, Finnmark Dagblad and Norwegian Dutch magazine that Nussir ASA applying for withdrawal of approximately one million tons of loads per year initially, with a possible increase to about two million tonnes per year. Consultation deadline is 9. March 2012. The outlet will give a similar production of 25-50 000 tonnes of copper concentrate per year. Mineralholdige output from turndown process (about 2800, rising to about 5,500 tons a day) are planned to be added in a controlled sea disposal in Rep. couple. The output will contain the remains of flotasjonskjemikalier. It is deposited in the shallower mine output section of the Bay. Nussir plans now a landfill later in the Bay of 90 metres. The measure is konsekvensutredet for the plan and building law and is the Manager of the municipality. Successful Conference on coastal deposition in Egersund In early september, it organized a Conference on the disposal of mine waste in Slough hotel with inspection of Titania. The Conference brought together experts on the topic from around the world. From inspection on land disposal Titanias A number of examples, both successful and not so successful the landfills were presented. Norway was from the sea and land Titanias landfill, AS Sydvarangers plans for disposal of Beech and Nordic sea deposition Minings plans in the Førdefjorden presented. It was also presented projects from Canada, Papua New Guinea, and Greenland. A number of professionals gave presentations that summed up the good advice on what it takes for such a project to be successful. In conclusion, it was worded message about what entake home for successful disposal of mining waste. Issue is being followed up by the Norwegian Mining industry has set up a working group to look into the issue of mining waste disposal sites. The working group consists of: Øystein Rushfeldt, Nussir Paul Norkyn, Nordic Mining Roar Sandøy, NCM Arnstein Amundsen, Hustadmarmor Per Weekend Høgaas, As Sydvaranger Mine

Nussir - Reclamation What is it to become?

Strings allow to read terrain shape from far

Operations Dig out non-toxic and Refill with toxic

On the ground


non-Toxic Refill

Toxic Refill

Fjord Basin

On the Ocean Basin

Whale Technology

Space Technology Submarine Technology Double check Valve

to design Plastic Bag

Pick-up Ship Drag it.

Put in in a Plastic Bag and drag it.


Access Pier

Rail to transport material from the shore

Buoyance force of an air bag

Sea le 0 m vel , +10 1atm m. . Air

13.15 MILLONES M3 1 BAG = 33510 M3 390 BAGS IF R=20M


Fjord Basin


-10 m +10 , 2at m. m. h



Copper tailings Density = 1,5210 ton/m3

air bag -20 vol m um +10 , 3a e. m.. tm. 1/4 . th a ir b ag vol um e


Seawater Density= 1,0280 ton/m3


Air Density at Sealevel means 1atm at 15ยบC = 0,001225 ton/m3

REINDEER HERDS AT NUSSIR THE SAAMI´S IN FINMARK There is little mention of the role of the Saami considering the Nussir mine. The Saami people are the Arctic indigenous people that encompasses in Finmark. For traditional, environmental, cultural and political reasons, reindeer herding is legally reserved only for Sami people in certain regions of the Nordic countries, including Finmark.

REINDEER ROUTES AT MINING AREA Grazing areas in Finnmark

20 22

The Finmark plateau is the reindeer herd´s pasture and some of these cores are in calving grounds. Areas of grazing in Finmark have been listed and Nussir mine and Repparfjord mines are affecting two of these areas. Area 20 and 22. Area nr 20 is grazing area that cover areas of the spring and autumn migration. Area nr 22 is grazing areas used for spring, summer and fall grazing. In spring the area is part of a major calving area where the bulk of the cow herd is present in the calving and imprinting period. The areas on and around Nussir also used as a staging area. Of these reasons the herders are conserned about losing presious pastures cause of the new plan of Nussir mine in the grazing areas.

Rep par fjor d Grazing areas in Kvalsund

Nussir I

20 spring and autumn


22 spring, summer and fall

Nussir II


POSSIBLE IMPACTS ON HERDS Saami herders are affraid that if the pastue areas will decrese cause of the mining activities, the reindeers will be forced go to other areas and the herds could get lost or mixed with other herds, that could lead to lot of other problems for the herders. Saami herders are conserned about the sum of all impacts the mining activities and other activities in Kvalsund can have on the herd. Impacts like: Nussir´s new mining operations Old mining (Repparfjord mining) Planed windmill park (north of mining area) Planned new electric powerlines Expanding recreational settlements All these issues are to scare the reindeers away or reduce their pastures.

Migration route spring April-Mai Migration route sept-okt

CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES There are two main conflicts because of Nussir ASA mining plan. The grazing areas for reindeers that are within the mining area and could be effected by the mining activities and the waste deposits that they wish to be tailed in to the bottom of Repparfjord.

Issue 1 -pasture areas for reindeers

Reindeer herders have consernes about the grazing areas they might lose with the establishing of the mine and that the herd will move to other places and get lost or mixed with other herds that could cause many problems. And other issues for the reindeer pastures are: old mining, planed windmill park, planned new electric powerlines and expanding recreational settlements. All these factors could scare of the animals or reduce their grazing areas.

Nussir I N

Nussir II


Issue 2 -tailing in Repparfjord

There are conflicts because of the possible impact the waste from the mine could have on: white fish, salmon, water quality and seabed fauna.

Nussir - Deal - Sami Parliament Mining prospects in arctic Norway also causing controversy A front page story in today's 'Norwegian news in English' proclaims, “Prospects Bright for Arctic Mining.” There is little mention of the role of the Saami considering these ventures are in the high arctic, in Finnmark Province, clearly in Sapmi. Test cores been showing gold, copper and platinum. The mining company Nussir ASA intends to apply for permission to extract the minerals and if successful, production might start in year 2011 (the international mining company Wega Mining owns 18% of Nussir). Member of the Norwegian national parliament was quoted as criticizing reindeer husbandry for being subsidised, not moving with the times and standing in the way of development. “The Finnmark plateau is our pasture,” said reindeer herder Alf Johansen during a recent conference with Labour Party deputy leader, Helga Pedersen. He thinks that reindeer grazing areas should have as much legal protection as a crop farmer’s fields. Some of these cores are in calving grounds. Egil Olli continues to state that any mining projects will be rejected by the Saami Parliament in the Finnmark area.

sunday, april 25, 2010

Also at issue is if the mining moves forward, the Saami Parliament demands that resources and mineral exploration should benefit mainly the local Saami communities and population, as the proposed mines are in Saami lands, and will effect the ability to maintain a traditional livelihood. This brings up the controversial ongoing debates regarding indigenous land rights in the region. Additional links: posted by mervisalo at 1:41 pm 0 comments labels: mining indigenous sami

The Mine 5



3 3

The Mine Nussir

5 4


5 kM 2


Politics and News

Lifespan & Community

• The population in Kvalsund municipality will increase by two percent each year starting in the second year of project implementation. • Number of new company formations in Kvalsund municipality will increase the project period with three new companies each year. In the region as a whole, the number of companies that supply goods and services to Nussir increase by a further three companies a year. • The proportion of people aged 20-34 years in Kvalsund municipality will increase by ten percent during the project period. • The proportion of women in Kvalsund be increased by 10 percent by the end of the project. - This is a community development project in a large scale. Here we want to mobilize all citizens in Kvalsund municipality, city manager says Oddbjørn Nilsen.

In the small Finnmark Kvalsund municipality they work hard for the local community will reap the benefits if Norway's next industrial adventure becomes a reality. By: Building industry | Published: 06/10/2011 2:05 p.m. | Last Modified: 06/10/2011 2:19 p.m - Through LUK, we have found the new regional co-operation models to ensure the effects of the mining effort. Nussir will be the mainstay, but this is not just a business project - it is also a community development project that is very important that småkommuner Kvalsund, says the mayor of the municipality Kvalsund Thu Myrseth. They have always known that the mountains of Reppardfjord was more than just mountains. There, on the south side of the 14 kilometer long fjord in Kvalsund municipality, there were copper deposits more tempted to try to bring out. But they did not find enough, it was too irregular, and one by one they gave up. The mining company Nussir ASA has not yet identified sufficient resources to profitable operations for 20 years if copper prices remain stable. Experience shows that increases the lifetime considerably by new discoveries if the operation first commences. Now they wait for the necessary permits. If everything goes all right to mine is put into operation at the end of 2013/2014. But wait Kvalsund municipality they do not.

Connects expertise In order to be ready when the train passes, Kvalsund municipality received help from the Finnmark County Council. The county has seen that many municipalities in the county are simply too small to handle the challenges they face, and will pave the way for new structures of cooperation across traditional municipal boundaries. As part of LUK-county effort has therefore helped Kvalsund municipality to develop a project for the ripple effect Kvalsund and the region that will use Nussir-establishment to increase the skills of "how regional industrial and social development can increase the impact of future industrial establishments." - We have tried to connect the municipalities that have slightly different skills. Alta has such a large plan area and can assist Kvalsund in this field, while Hammerfest can share their experience from a large industrial establishment in Snow White, said assistant business manager Per Øyvind Voie in Finnmark county. He gets support from the city manager Oddbjørn Nilsen. - Such ventures require extensive expertise in planning page. Each municipality, as Kvalsund, can not alone account for zoning and other plans. Therefore it is important to cooperate in the planning of a common infrastructure, said Nilsen, who sits in a project with the county council, regional council in West Finnmark, the municipalities of Alta and Hammerfest and mining company.

Several residents - The value of being prepared from day one, our "little" community and partners around us, will be located in both the social and economic. Cooperation between municipalities means a lot for the mining effort Nussir planner, says mayor Myrseth. The goals are high, very specific and thus easily verifiable:

-650 new jobs The challenge for Kvalsund and the region is to ensure that mining needs for services resulting in the food establishment and healthy jobs locally. The ripple effect the project has set a goal of 20 new jobs in Kvalsund region, outside of Nussir. It shall now by contributing to the establishment of new businesses and to increase the robustness of existing businesses locally and regionally.

The project aims to contribute to that 40 percent of all jobs associated with mining operations directly and indirectly, shall be filled by people from Kvalsund and surrounding areas. At the same time that municipalities and businesses in the region has sufficient knowledge of the mineral industry to the local and regional companies to offer services at least 2/3 of the contracts Nussir post. In the mining company are happy for local involvement. Their calculations show that Nussir itself will provide 150 new jobs, an annual turnover of one billion and around 500 jobs as a result of the operation. If specific goals - There are good examples of establishments that Nussir in Sweden and Finland, in the same areas that were characterized by depopulation and small private businesses. They are good references in order to see what effects such a project can get, says CEO Øystein Rushfeldt in Nussir ASA. He pulls himself up Talvivaara in Finland. There, the mining company 430 employees in their own companies. In addition, it has been established around 2000 jobs in other businesses and the public sector. It has been carried out investments for a little over four billion, of which the public sector has accounted for a tenth. - From the very beginning we have been Nussir clear that we would rather see that we organize ourselves in a common effort to help each other. The fact that we create a project with very specific goals, and work on a broad front with land, property developers, businesses that want to establish themselves and NAV, says Rushfeldt. Co-infecting Kvalsund municipality has been clear that they want more people aged 20-34 years. People who can revitalize the community, and "force" the new service and a different society. These are important terms that Nussir must take into account when the mining company to begin recruitment. But the project is about much more than the mining project. By developing good inter-municipal cooperation structure, hope Finnmark county that they can find the key to how local communities can solve future challenges. - We see that this could be the project to be followed in other areas, that local authorities work together on things that are important across municipal boundaries and where we can play the role of facilitator. An example is fisheries and aquaculture and the development of a regional plan for it. We hope the local authorities see that they get something in return for cooperation and that it can play more than in other areas, says Per-Øyvind Voie in the county. - You do not fear that the project crashes? - No. There is a tremendous drive for regional achieve this.

Sources: Sweco (2010). Planprogram: Reguleringsplan med konsekvensutredning for planlagt gruvedrift i Nussir og Ulveryggen i Kvalsund kommune. Mostafavi and Doherty (2006). Ecological Urbanism. Harvard Universty. Map with mineral profiles page 21, three spots including Nussir Google Maps Maps from: Pictures from Kvalsund Municipality and Hammerfest Municipality. Zoning Program for Nussir and Kvalsund Pictures: Influencing factors from Hammerfest Municipality, City Pictures, and Land Use for Hammerfest: Pictures from Nussir Time line Lifespan: Environmental test for Nussir and analisysis from KLIFA webpage and specific documents listed on this page. NIVA: NRK Sapmi Radio

Nussir - Perforated Landscape  

Analysis of Nussir Intervention on Repparfjord