FORM-BASED CODE FOR SOCHI POST-OLYMPIC INFILL DEVELOPMENT Seyed Hassan Ameli, University of Utah, School of Architecture and Planning, Spring 2013
Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................. 4 Chapter: The Context of Sochi...................................................6 1.1 City and Regional Context.............................................8 1.2 Site Location...............................................................10 1.3 Physical Challenge .....................................................11 1.4 Place Character .........................................................12 1.5 Market Challenge........................................................14 Chapter 2: Vision and Design Principals.................................16 2.1 Vision 1......................................................................18 2.2 Vision 2......................................................................22 2.3 Vision 3......................................................................26 Chapter 3: Design Proposal......................................................31 3.1 The Riverside..............................................................32 3.2 Project Summary........................................................35 Chapter 4: Form- Based Code.................................................37 4.1 Main Street.................................................................38 4.2 Community Street.......................................................40 4.3 Garden House.............................................................42 4.4 Avenue Rowhouse......................................................44 4.5 Main Street Mixed-use................................................46 4.7 Riverside Residence....................................................48 Conclusion..................................................................................51 Illustration/ Photo Credits.........................................................52 Bibliography Credits..................................................................53
FORM-BASED CODE FOR SOCHI POST-OLYMPIC INFILL DEVELOPMENT
Seyed Hassan Ameli, University of Utah, School of Architecture and Planning, Spring 2013
Sochi is often called the unofficial ‘Summer Capital’ of Russia, or the Black Sea Pearl. This is the country’s biggest and busiest summer sea resort, attracting more than 4 million visitors annually with its amazing mountainous coastline, endless shingle beaches, warm sunny days, and bustling nightlife. Strangely, only 3 percent of this visitors’ crowd are international travellers, and even the frontier location of the city doesn’t help to change the situation. Being selected for 2014 Winter Olympic Games is an exceptional opportunity for this local resort destination to become an international sport-recreation destination. This book is an attempt to achieve a new development model for post-Olympic Sochi to become a pedestrian-oriented and mixed-income community with regard to its historical and environmental context.
The Context of Sochi
Roza Khutor Alpine Resort, Sochi
City & Region Context
The Sochi area is located along the coast, sometimes expanding into the mountain valleys until the Main Caucasian ridge for a distance of 40 to 60 km. The total length of Big Sochi is about 105 km. However, to drive the entire length of the Big Sochi on a mountain road, it is necessary to overcome the significantly greater distance (about 140 km). Due to the construction of new bridges and road tunnels the distance will be significantly reduced. The city is located about 43 degrees north latitude (approximately midway between the North Pole and the equator), or approximately latitude of Nice, Toronto, and Vladivostok cities. Sochi is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia. Greater Sochi sprawls for 145 kilometers along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains.
The most important resort factors that attract people to Sochi city are the beaches, warm climate, mineral springs. Virgin Colchis forests of Western Caucasus located partially on the city area (Caucasian State Biosphere
Reserve) are listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sochi as well as the rest of Russiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Black Sea coast south of Tuapse is located in the zone of humid subtropical climate, which strongly distinguishes this region from a northern section of the coast from Anapa to Tuapse, dominated by the typical semi-arid Mediterranean climate. The climate is very humid. The climate of the similar kind is observed in neighboring Abkhazia as well as in south-eastern United States (Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia). Maximum precipitation occurs in winter season, mainly in the form of rain, less often - the snow. Winters are warm and summers are hot and humid. This type of climate is favorable for the cultivation of various kinds of subtropical and temperate crops. As Sochi city is located on the northern border of the subtropics, in winter frost and snow are possible.
Sochi was founded in April 21, 1838 as fort Alexandria. The purpose of the fortifications had been suppressing the slave trade and smuggling of weapons sales to mountaineers. In 1839 the fort Alexandria was renamed to Navaginskaya fortress. During the Crimean War the garrisons located in the area were transported to Novorossiysk because of the English-French squadron appeared in the Black Sea. In 1864, the fortification was rebuilt as fort Dahovsky. Since 1874 it was known as Dahovsky Posad, from 1896 - Sochi (after the name of the river Sochi, on the banks of which the fort was standing). In June 14, 1909 the first resort â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Caucasian Rivieraâ&#x20AC;? was opened. It is the date of beginning Sochi as a resort city. In April 1920, the Soviet power was established. After the Civil War the considerable attention was devoted to the development of the resort industry in Sochi. From 1937 Sochi is the city of Krasnodar krai. Olympic Site, Sochi
Site is located at the north west part of the city. Its distance to the airport and the Olympic site with around 23 miles and proper access to the city center and the Black Sea shoreline with major arterials make this location an ideal choice for the city post-Olympic development.
Sochi Airport Sochi 2014 Olympic Site
Sochi Rivers is one of the unique natural opportunities of the site which could provide a great walking experience for citizen although there is no accessible walkway today.
Aerial View, Sochi
The site is limited by the Sochi River from the east and by a forest from the west. This flat and buildable area with around 600 acres is taking advantage of proximity to the river, city center and a large shopping center.
Bloshi Ice Place, Sochi Olympic Park
Place Character and Materiality
The place character of Sochi is tied to its location. This resort city where located beside the Black Sea coast & mountain is the best recreation destination. In addition in recent years that the city is preparing for Winter Olympic 2014 the city character has been changing to new sport development. This international event gives Sochi an international reputation. Therefore this event is changing the place character of Sochi from a resort city to the international sport center. Additionally, the modern architecture design in Olympic Park is completely different with existing building character in Sochi. Accordingly, character of new development would influenced by both types.
Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi
The place character of Sochi is tied to its location and climate. Four seasons Sochi has variety of attractions for different times of the year. This resort city where located beside the Black Sea coast & Caucasus Mountains has been the best recreation destination for Russian. In addition, in recent years that the city is preparing for Winter Olympic 2014 the city character has been changing to new sport development. This international event gives Sochi an international reputation. Therefore this event is changing the place character of Sochi from a resort city to the international sport- entertainment destination. Additionally, the contemporary architectural language used to design the Olympic Park is completely different with existing building character in Sochi. Accordingly, both types would influence character of new development. Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi
DEVELOPMENT & MARKETING STATEMENT
Sochi has for many years been a favorite holiday spot for Russian tourists. Sochi separates the beautiful Caucasus Mountains from the Black Sea and is quickly becoming the gateway to winter sport in the area. Although it may sound like Sochi is a small beach resort town, Sochi is a bustling city. In Summer Sochi truly comes alive as thousands of Russian tourists flock to the city. Beach side sunbathing on small rocky beaches, high-rise hotels, carnivals, concerts, dining and night clubs all form part of Sochiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s somewhat unusual make-up. Sochi will be the host city for the 2014 Winter Olympic Games and the 2014 Paralympic Winter Games. It will be the first time that Russia has hosted the Winter Olympic Games. In 2018 Sochi will host some games of the 2018 Football World Cup. This kind of huge event is a perfect opportunity to have the whole region developed. A huge amount
of construction is currently in progress to ready the city for the Olympics. High attention needs to be paid to the essentials for making post-Olympic Sochi a successful destination. The climate, almost unique in Russia, ensures that Sochi remains a popular holiday location, while the nearby ski fields receive consistent snow each winter. Sochi combines subtropical coastal lowlands with the nearby mountain resort venues of Krasnaya Polyana. Financial viability requires that both areas be active the entire year. A state-funded tourism board needs to take its lead from local tourism firms to generate yearround demand. Sochi should become the national sports center, providing training facilities for both summer and winter sports. With its Olympic aura, a mild climate permitting year-round summer sport, extended
Black Sea, Sochi
winter training options and high-grade facilities remaining after the games, such a move would make sense.
prohibitive and in short supply, so developing affordable housing is essential.
With few modifications, these facilities could become revenue-earners able to be leased out to European football clubs and other sports groups seeking offseason training facilities similar to those found in Spain and elsewhere.
Sochi was, is and likely will always be a middle-class resort destination, and the middle class is the target audience it should court, rather than trying to go upmarket and compete with more established venues in Europe. Unfortunately, for many projects being built, the ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ego, rather than market demand, is guiding development. As a result, Sochi has a strong trend toward overbuilding or over-branding.
A huge problem not being addressed is the availability of affordable housing to attract and retain moderately paid hotel staff and other tourism workers. Local rents are
Urban Design VISION & DESIGN PRINCIPLES
2.1 Vision 1:
The Riverside streets will promote healthy lifestyles by encouraging walking and bicycling to daily and occasional destinations. The Sochi new neighborhood will develop as continuous, active promenades. The public domain contains and integrates squares, parks and playgrounds. There are active links between the neighborhood center and the Sochi River. This model will encourage walking to various destination. By shaping future built forms to encourage greener modes of travel, Sochi can create new developments without further burdening the
environment. High levels of pedestrian activity will encourage social opportunities as well as physical activity, which has been shown to reduce social isolation and associated mental health issues. One of the necessary factors for attracting different groups of people is providing public spaces that are safe and easily accessible, as well as a range of good facilities such as public toilets, playgrounds and public seating.
Sochi Riverside Promenade
Principle 1: Encourage walking to shops, restaurants, transit, parks, and other destinations to promote daily physical activity. Providing opportunities for stopping, sitting, talking, and interacting with neighbors within residential and commercial areas in addition to facilitate public spaces by transit, shops and will encourage people to walk.
Principle 2: Create â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;eyes on the streetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; through high levels of pedestrian activity, which has been shown to increase safety and reduce violent injuries. Streets are safer when people are able and willing to watch the street from windows. Designing the buildings facing to the street and walkway and providing more openings will make the safer neighborhoods.
Principle 3: Build a wide pedestrian network that will help to connect activity centers, and identify and remedy gaps in pedestrian accessibility to destinations;
Defining activity centers as a destination, connected with pedestrian and bicycle network will encourage people to walk rather than driving vehicles. This pedestrian network will be enhanced by providing finer grain, higher residential density, mixed use and well designed street and landscape. In addition, ground level transparency, and active building frontage will promote walkability in new development.
2.2 Vision 2:
Strong Street Character
Key streets will incorporate a combination of pedestrian, cycle and vehicular traffic with high quality landscaping and streetscapes. Sochi is in need of more instantly appealing and inviting public spaces. A lack of public life is a self perpetuating process; a lot of public life tends to generate more life, while a lack of public life has the opposite effect. Many of the existing public spaces provide a limited range of activities. One of the goals of new development in Sochi is to increase the number of residents in the neighborhood. An important way of achieving this goal is to develop public spaces which provide for the needs of this neighborhood residents, recognizing that private open spaces will be limited.
A guiding principle is to develop a hierarchy of accessible and attractive public spaces which provide for a variety of activities and a wide range of users. To create a fine grained and attractive network of public spaces a program of public space upgrades and a street scape plan specifying design and detailing is recommended along with other exciting projects including public art and directional signage. In time the public spaces will evolve to be as important for the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, history and culture as the built form.
Provide strong visual connections from through the Sochi River to promote urban legibility through the precinct. Sochi River is one of the most important natural heritages of the Sochi. It makes the city more imageable and helps people to navigate the city easier. Providing visual connection through the River should be considered for future development.
Principle 2: Create a finer grain network of streets within the urban living precinct that reflect the residential nature of the area. Finer grain promotes small blocks in close proximity, each with numerous buildings with narrow frontages, frequent storefronts, and minimal setbacks from the street. Also, as there are more intersections, traffic is slower and safer. This fine grained approach to cities offers many opportunities for discovery and exploration. Innsbruck, Austria
Sochi Riverside Promenade
Principle 3: Provide street planting, wide footpaths and landscaping treatment to key streets to improve pedestrian comfort and character of the streets.
Sochi new development needs stronger street character. Providing different modes of transport beside public transit and vehicle means more option. Narrower streets allows pedestrians and bicyclists to feel safer, while encouraging car traffic to slow down.
2.3 Vision 3:
Sochi new neighborhood will design as a green network, Enhancing its long-term environmental functioning.
The development of large tourism center significantly greengages the environment through pollutants and direct effects of tourist flow, owing to alienation of land through new construction sites and new infrastructures. Streetscape and proper landscaping in Sochi new development will increase ecological value of public streets for people and wildlife . Moreover, using sustainable streetscape materials in street design taking into account of life-cycle
energy costs of such matterial. The future growth of the city will assist in creating a sustainable local public transport. The ability to link all key residential, educational, recreational and tourist attraction, hotels, sport and health facilities through a cost efficient transport service would provide a safe and convenient form of transport for the community. Increased accessibility will increase the vitality and viability of the linked services.
Use durable, re-used, and/or recycled materials for paving, site furnishings, and other streetscape elements that take into account the materialsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lifecycle costs. Durability of urban furniture and using recycled material is one of the way to protect our environment. Recycling saves resources, prevent pollution and support public health.
Principle 2: Maximize benefits from the urban forest, including shading, wildlife habitat, and air quality improvements. Environmentally, they are the most crucial natural resource components of a community as they clean the air we breathe. Psychologically, they contribute to reduced stress, less domestic violence, bring people together, and offer a sense of community. Riverside, Sochi
Lastochka (Desiro RUS) train
Principle 3: Minimize localized contributions to global warming by using less resource intensive travel modes such as walking, bicycling, and mass transit.
Multimodal transportation will offer residents and tourists more option for their daily trips. Considering easy access to the public transportation and well connected street networks and bike paths reduce car dependency and consequently enhance using greener modes of transport.
Sochi, view from Black Sea
Riverside as a new development model for post-olympic Sochi, located along the Sochi River. Proximity to the River is a unique advantage of this development. The Sochi River is the natural green corridor which provides pleasant walking experience and connects the Riverside to other part of the city.
forms a backbone of this new development. Main Street starts from southern part to connect Gagarina street to the Riverside and continues parallel to the Sochi River toward the north.
The grid increases the permeability and walkability of the Riverside. In addition, Main Street with proximity to the Sochi River and shopping opportunities provides connections to the parks and entertainment at the middle and the end of the development.
Memorial park located at the middle of the Riverside surrounded by high density apartment. Variety of housing type, size and density provide various options for residents. Single family detached residential, rowhouse residential, mixed-use and apartment are four different building types considered for the Riverside.
Main Street is the Riverside central boulevard and retail corridor which
Block size and east-west orientation is designed to maximize the sunlight and the view towards the Black Sea.
Msin Street Mixed Use Riverside Residance Avenue Rowhouse
Residential uses with 28% dominates in the district. The project grosses over 12 units per acre, is higher than most of other developments in Sochi which is expected to have growing population in near future. There two parks located in the Riverside with 10% of total area. Majority of residential buildings are apartments with 2352 units. Riverside apartments includes variety of sizes from one to three bedrooms. In addition, some other public spaces are considered such as gathering hall, children playground and gym. Garden House is the Riverside sigle family housing type with more than 2000 total units in the district.
Building Type Breakdown
Main Street Mixed Use Garden House
Main Street Mixed Use Riverside Residence
Garden House Avenue Row House Riverside Residence
Avenue Row House
Total Parcel Acreage (ft²)
Commercial Land Area
Pct. 5% of Total
Street Right of Way Open Space Area
Residential Land Area Commercial Land Area Open Space Area
Units 22.5% (Pct.)
Total Parcel 31.63 Acreage (ft²)
Pct. of Total
Parcel Size (ft²)
Parcel Size 5741 (ft²)
Street Distribution Land Right of Way Residential Land Area
Total Acreage Gross Units Summary
60 1.7 2 6.40
60 1.7 2
Gross Units Per Acre
Form Based Code
A method of regulating development to achieve a specific urban form. Formbased codes create a predictable public realm by controlling physical form primarily, with a lesser focus on land use, through city or county regulations. Aerial View of the Sochi
Main Street Main Street, surrounded by three stories mixed-use buildings is the heart and vibrant center of the Riverside. An extension of Gagarina Street will bisect the western part of the river. This new amenity will anchor a mixed-use area with major office and retail near mass transit. This boulevard covered with Patmore Green Ash trees creates the main pedestrian spine of the Riverside. A great promenade lined with trees, cafe table and variety of shops will encompass dedicated bike lane, two lanes of traffic and one lane of on-street parking on each side.
Standards TOTAL RIGHT OF WAY: 132 feet SIDEWALK WIDTH: 18 feet TURN RADIUS: 15 feet PLANTING ZONE: 5 feet MEDIAN: 12 feet LIGHT SPACING: 70 feet TREE SPACING: 35 feet FURNITURE TYPE: Benches, flower basket, garbage cans, public art, mailbox, bollards, bike parking
Community Street Community, the landscaped, pleasant and safe street will form the connection of the residential part of the Riverside to the Main Street and Sochi River. This narrow street provides a low speed vehicular access and encourages walking and biking through the district. Three different residential building types with different proportions, set backs and designs will give the Community Street diversity. Consequently, pedestrian will experience different sense of enclosure in various part of the Riverside.
Standards TOTAL RIGHT OF WAY: 64-89 feet SIDEWALK WIDTH: 7 feet TURN RADIUS: 12 feet PLANTING ZONE: 5 feet LIGHT SPACING: 70 feet TREE SPACING: 25 feet FURNITURE TYPE: Sidewalk planters, garbage cans, bollards TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Stop Sign
Garden House Situated at western part of the Riverside, Garden House is the single family housing type with 2160 units ranked as the second dominant residential type. The detached house is located at the middle of the 11440 square feet parcel to maximize opening opportunities toward outside to take advantage of natural light and transparency.
The Garden House includes two on site parking. The vehicular access is allowed only from one side of a parcel while the other side is dedicated only for bike and pedestrian access. The building form which reflects the different function of each space.
Guidelines USES: Residential allowed. PARCEL SIZE: 130 feet by 88 feet SETBACKS: Front setback 25’ and back setback 55’ minimum, side setbacks 15’ minimum LOT COVERAGE REQUIRED: 40 percent minimum F.A.R: 0.80 HEIGHT: Two stories maximum MATERIALS: COLOR PALETTE:
Avenue Rowhouse 1/4
Avenue Rowhouse is the three stories residential building type. A folded surface covers the building and formed the slopped roof to protect it from the rain while this surface visually enhance a sense of support and caring. More over, each level is separated from one another with a horizontal surface that provides each floor a terrace facing to the streets.
The building is located right at the edge of the parcel and is connected to the walkway from one side and stepped back from the other side to allow vehicular access.
Guidelines USES: Residential allowed, office with conditional use permit PARCEL SIZE: 130 feet by 42 feet SETBACKS: No front side setback permitted, back setback between 45 to 70 feet LOT COVERAGE REQUIRED: 45 percent minimum F.A.R: 1.32 HEIGHT: Three stories maximum MATERIALS: Concrete, high quality stuck
Main Street Mixed Use The mixed use building type f the Riverside establishes the foundation of a lively=y commercial and residential area. A ground floor comprised of four retail bays allowed local business owners to establish themselves. Above, eight residential units (across two floor) lend the district 24-hour vitality.
The building formed by four volumes separated with circulation spaces and terraces. To maintain the street edge of the Main Street, no setback allowed from boulevard side. Parking is provided in the back.
Guidelines USES: Retail, restaurant and cafe on ground floor, residential and office on second and third floor PARCEL SIZE: Minimum size of 130 feet by 127 feet SETBACKS: No front side setback permitted, back setback minimum 73 feet LOT COVERAGE REQUIRED: 32 percent minimum F.A.R: 0.95 HEIGHT: Three stories maximum MATERIALS: Concrete, high quality stuck
Four stories apartment complex is a high-density residential development within the Riverside which includes variety of apartment for families with different size and income level. The complex is fitted into a whole neighborhood block with 530 feet by 321 feet. Riverside Residence is designed in order to provide multiple pedestrian accesses from each side and providing open spaces and play grounds within the complex. Underground parking is provided for each units.
Guidelines USES: Residential allowed only PARCEL SIZE: Minimum size of 530 feet by 209 feet SETBACKS: No setback allowed LOT COVERAGE REQUIRED: 60 percent minimum F.A.R: 2.43 HEIGHT: Four stories maximum MATERIALS: Concrete, high quality stuck
Sochi has for many years been a favorite holiday spot for Russian tourists. Sochi separates the beautiful Caucasus Mountains from the Black Sea and is quickly becoming the gateway to winter sport in the area. 2014 Olympic Games and the 2014 Paralympic Winter Games and later international sport event in the Sochi is the perfect opportunity to have the whole region developed. High attention needs to be paid to the essentials for making post-Olympic Sochi a successful destination. Sochi should become the national sports center, providing training facilities for both summer and winter sports. With its Olympic aura, a mild climate permitting year-round summer sport, extended winter training options and high-grade Sunset view from Black Sea beach, Sochi
facilities remaining after the games, such a move would make sense. With few modifications, these facilities could become revenue-earners able to be leased out to European football clubs and other sports groups seeking offseason training facilities similar to those found in Spain and elsewhere. The Riverside is an attempt to create a model for post-Olympic Sochi to provide a pedestrian-oriented and mixed-income community. A mix of building typologies accommodates many different types of households and contributes to a vibrant neighborhood.
Credits 1. Illustration and Photos Summer in Sochi http://www.flickr.com/photos/sochi2014/7919874758/in/set72157631380707500
Sochi Aerial View http://www.flickr.com/photos/sochi2014/7919874758/in/set72157631380707500
Sochi http://www.flickr.com/photos/anarcissus/267709629/sizes/o/in/ photostream/
Roza Khutor Alpine Resort http://www.gamesbids.com/forums/topic/22052-sochi-2014-venuesupdates-gallery/page-12
Summer Activity, Sochi http://www.flickr.com/photos/sochi2014/4036915405/in/photostream/ Winter Activity, Sochi http://www.flickr.com/photos/sochi2014/sets/72157626349377807/
The Sochi River 16 http://russian-pictures.net/desktop-wallpapers-Russian-pictures-en/SochiRussian-pictures-wallpaper-1366-768-Russian-pictures-The-Sochi-RiverRussian-Ni767187.shtml San Francisco Ameli, S. Hassan
Nice, France http://www.flickr.com/photos/tysonwilliams/3389090813/
Sochi Olympic Park, Aerial View 9 http://www.uia-sport.com/the-olympic-speed-skating-oval-in-sochi-russia/
Glasgow, Scotland http://www.flickr.com/photos/7501678@N03/8520164659/
Sochi Satelite View Google Earth Pro
Innsbruck, Austria http://www.flickr.com/photos/matt_burke/4748198556/
Sochi Aerial View 11 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RIAN_archive_308905_Panorama_ of_Sochi.jpg
Sochi Park http://s55.radikal.ru/i148/0909/5e/1b2c43933df1.jpg
Bloshi Ice Place, Sochi Olympic Park http://keskustelu.jatkoaika.com/archive/index.php/t-49378-p-3.html
Sochi Street http://img-fotki.yandex.ru/get/3500/stv200991.db/0_10ff2_5f42ffef_XL
Sochi Ski Resort http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5172/5406892727_87b27318fa_b.jpg
Lastochka (Desiro RUS) train http://flickriver.com/photos/sochi2014/sets/72157629980548750/
Sochi View http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1471279
Summer in Sochi http://www.flickr.com/photos/sochi2014/7919874758/
Krasnaya Polyana, Aibga ridge, Sochi- Winter http://www.flickr.com/photos/sochi2014/5406901829/in/set72157626349377807
Sunset, Sochi, Black Sea http://www.flickr.com/photos/43767123@N02/8225457559
Krasnaya Polyana, Aibga ridge, Sochi- Summer http://www.flickr.com/photos/43767123@N02/4058841286
1. Literature Credits Berg, N,. 2008, Building a Resort on an Olympic Foundation http://www.planetizen.com/node/36133
Gehl, J,. 2010, Cities for People, Island Press
Harry H. Hiller., 2007, Post-event Outcomes and the Postmodern Turn: The Olympics and Urban Transformations, European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4, 31332, December 2006 Henry LA and Douhovnikoff V. (2008) Environmental issues in Russia. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 33: 437-460. I Molodikova and A Makhrova Urbanization patterns in Russia in the postSoviet era Lab, A., What Happens to Olympic Host Cities After the Games? http://www.outsideonline.com/blog/outdoor-adventure/what-happens-toolympic-host-cities-after-the-games.html Lappo, G., 2001, Urbanization in European Russia: The process and its results, in: Nefedova, T. G., Polyan, P. M., and Treivish, A. I., eds, Gorod i derevnya v Evropeiskoi Rossii: Sto let peremen, Moscow: OGI, pp. 124â&#x20AC;&#x201C;155. Parolek, D, Parolek, K,.2008, Form Based Codes: A Guide for Planners, Urban Designers, Municipalities, and ..., John Wiley & Sons. Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Scharr, K.,2012, Sochi 2014: Olympic Winter Games between High Mountains and Seaside, Journal of alpine research http://www.sochi2014.com/en/ http://www.sotschi.ru/ http://www.planet-sochi.com/history_of_sochi http://sochimagazine.com/