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THE DAEIL

PRESS March 2019

No. 55


D

CONTENTS

SCHOOL EVENT The Daeil Scholarship Foundation

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LAWS & POLITICS

Article 10 of the Criminal Law, Isn’t It Abused?

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The US Government Shutdown 08 “SORRY AMERICA, WE ARE CLOSED” The Peace, New Future

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Should We Punish Conscientious

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Small Metal Calls for Control

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Objectors in Korea?

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


DAEIL ECONOMY

HUMAN RIGHTS

Investors Are On Pins and Needles

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The Way to Choose The Best Option, Nudge Marketing

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Cultural Appropriation and Blackfishing

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School Violence and Multicultural Students

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SOCIAL ISSUES If Nothing Hates, Nothing Breaks

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Starbucks’ Eco-Policies, Green Marketing or Greenwashing?

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Can Autonomous Cars Decide Whom to Kill?

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History Repeats Itself: The Ultimatum toward The Admission

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AI Translator, Future of Translation

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Publisher Lee Dowhon, Principal

The Truth of May 18 Comes Out Finally

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Directorss Woo Sunghee Ryu Dongyeon

Process

Editors-in-Chief Kang Taehyeon Kim Jungyeon Special thanks to 2018 Daeil Press Reporters and director Ryu Dongyeon.

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


Daeil Foreign Language High School


SCHOOL EVENT

Daeil Alumni

Scholarship Foundation

On December 29, 2018, Daeil Alumni Scholarship Foundation held a signboard hanging

ceremony. This foundation is composed of Daeil graduates who show genuine support

and make contributions that help ease the financial burden of students attending the school. This will be a great help for great talents of Daeil. Contributors’ names are on the signboard.

By Ji Eunjeong

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


ARTICLE 10 OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, ISN’T IT ABUSED?

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n October 14, in Gangseo district internet caf ?, a man called Kim Sung-soo killed a parttime work. The accused stabbed the worker with a knife used for climbing. They haven’t seen

each other before the day, and his motive for the crime was that the worker refused an absurd

refund request of the accused. He blamed his murder for the worker’s unkindness. This murder case

caused a huge resentment of the public. Even more, it was reported that during the investigation, the accused insisted that he was suffering from depression by submitting a medical certificate.

This preceded a tremendous petition drive in which more than one million people are participating. The petition got the highest number of participants since starting this online based petition service. The public was worried and annoyed about whether the defendant would get his penalty deducted

because of depression record. This is because of article 10 of the Korean criminal law mentioning that

for feeble-minded criminal, punishment can be mitigate. So, people argue that article 10 of the criminal law should be abolished to prevent immoral use.

This abolition argument started since 2008, when Cho Doo-soon, who was 56 years old at that time, had raped an eight-year-old girl named Na-young and was sentenced to only 12 years in prison just because he was drunk when committing the crime. The ruling was based on article 10 of the criminal

law, which states ‘For the conduct of a person who, because of mental disorder, is deficient in the abili-

ties mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the punishment shall be mitigated.’ People couldn’t agree to

this judgment, wondering how the felon was getting away with a slap on the wrist. This triggered large protests against the law. Subsequently, there were several judicial precedents applying the article 10.

Actually, this law was enacted due to mentally weak offenders who can’t make circumstantial judg-

ments. Based on the principle of liability, which means there is no punishment without liability, it was legislated to protect individuals from government’s excessive exercise of the right to punish. We can’t

expect mentally unstable person to obey the law, so we treat them with special article 10. At first, the

limitation of penalty, which was taking the socially weak into consideration was anticipated to make society more equal.

So, the proponents of this law are emphasizing the principle of liability. They claim that if we abolish

this law, it means we deem intended crime and unintended crime similarly. Also, the public consensus

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LAWS & POLITICS


LAWS & POLITICS

about the abolition will lead to stigma for people who are suffering from mental illness. Proponents say

these people should be provided with treatments regarding their illness, not just isolated in the prison. They assert that only 19% of the assertions considering them as mentally weak are accepted.

In contrast, the opponents of this law are talking about the weakness of this law, such as misuse by criminals to legalize their crimes, insisting they were in a feeble-minded situation. For instance, ‘the molar father’ [claimed] that he had taken a?hallucinogenic drug when he committed the crime to get

his punishment mitigated. Moreover, Incheon elementary school student murderer claimed that she has had Asperger’s syndrome to avoid the death penalty. There are no clear criteria for classifying the

range of ‘mental disorder.’ It just depends on the judges’ decision and can lead to results such as Cho Du-soon case. For these reasons, proponents of the abolition of article 10 empathize with the family of the victim.

Fortunately, professionals agree that the accused, Kim Sung-soo cannot be admitted as being a fee-

ble-minded person at that time, since he planned for his crime by taking a knife from his house. There also hadn’t been past cases which accepted depression as a factor of being mentally weak. Though the

possibility of accepting the suspect Kim’s request is extremely low, many people are focused on the trial. This burning issue about article 10 of the criminal law wouldn’t be forgotten among the public and is

predicted to be discussed. As the reason why the law exists, people should make an effort not to make unfair decisions by seeking solutions and alternatives toward this problem, in order to maintain the

spirit of the law Also, to keep an eye on this argument and supervise how the trial going would lead to a good decision for our society.

By Seo Yeeun

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


THE US GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN “SORRY AMERICA, WE ARE CLOSED”

O

n January 12, Trump government

For the recent shutdown, the disagreement be-

in US history. This government shut-

of which policy to fund. Trump and Republicans

some political problems related to a wall on the

struction of Mexico-US border walls. In contrast,

since this shutdown has a huge influence on not

argued that the renewal of DACA(Deferred

everyday life. So what is partial government

protecting minorities(especially immigrants).

America?

leading to the longest government shutdown

shutdown has tied a record for longest

tween appropriation bills derives from conflict

down was started on December 12, because of

insisted they have to allocate funds to the con-

US-Mexico border. It has become a “hot potato”

Democrats who are opposing to this border wall

only US and world economy but also residents’

Action for Childhood Arrivals), which aims at

shutdown which makes a significant change in

The two parties refused to give up their opinions,

The partial government shutdown is a temporary

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closure of the nonessential government offices.

Then what made people focus on this shutdown?

department, dozens of public departments and

economy. Since the start of the shutdown, econ-

ees from FBI, ATF(Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,

sulted in a steady decline of GDP, specifically

forcement Administration), the state department

The total cost of the shutdown has astronomical

occurs when Congress fails to pass appropriation

the border wall which is one of the main rea-

the bills.

to government workers, the situation becomes

Except for some essential services like the police

First, the shutdown has huge influences on the

agencies are closed. Even more, federal employ-

omists have predicted that shutdowns have re-

Firearms and Explosives), DEA(The Drug En-

there will be cuts about 0.1% every two weeks.

and NASA are working without pay or laid off. It

cost too: it would exceed the price of building

bills or when the president refuses to sign into

sons why this shutdown started. When it comes

LAWS & POLITICS

ever.


LAWS & POLITICS CAMPUS

worse. About 800,000 of employees have to cov-

products. Of course, the shutdown has huge in-

they can’t do anything but to stay home until the

Agriculture has announced that funding for food

er their household costs without being paid, and shutdown ends. It also depressed home sales and

retailer’s confidence, according to National Association of Realtors survey. 20% of agents being surveyed said their clients were impacted by the government shutdown.

fluences on poor families. The US Department of stamps and subsidized school lunches for poor

children would be suspended. This means child

nutrition programs which help impoverished

students to buy groceries and lunches cannot be provided to them.

Second, it has made people’s daily life incon-

As we can see from this, this shutdown would

rificed due to the late paycheck. Many of the

ever, we can see some of the press and politicians

venient. To start, airport security has been sac-

TSA(Transportation Security Administration)

officers who protect the flying public are calling in sick. The sick-call rates are rapidly increased about 10% than usual because they just want

to find immediately paid jobs. Lacking agent numbers will result in fewer inspections and

pat-down search. The safety of food, what we

need to buy or eat inevitably, is also threatened. FDA(The US Food and Drug Administration) announced that a government shutdown made it

more difficult for the agency to do food safety

inspections and review new drugs and medical

particularly worsen innocent people’s life. How-

are using this as a topic or an opportunity just to be famous. Recently, Trump mentioned the

possibility of declaring a national emergency if Congress does not budge their opinion not to give funds to Trump’s border wall business. Since shutdown is a sensitive issue to everyone, we

should not use this government shutdown as a mean to pursue individual’s own profit. We hope

this shutdown which makes the economy and people’s life worse would end soon.

By Seo Yeeun

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


THE PEACE, NEW FUTURE

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LAWS & POLITICS


LAWS & POLITICS

T

he inter-Korean summit on April 27,

the actual end of the war through the speech.

to reach after the very last one, made

livered each other’s message, and I’ve had the

which is the third one and took 11 year

all the Koreans surprised. Both of the leaders declared the peace of Korea and the reunion of separated families. This meeting was meaningful because it was the first time that a North Korean

leader came to South Korea. After one month,

Some people believe that two of the leaders desame thought. It was the first time that the South Korean president did public speech to the North Koreans, which has a big meaning. I especially

remember one passage from President Moon’s speech: “Our people are excellent. Our people are

the fourth conference took place.

strong. Our people love peace.?And our people

The next conference was also confirmed quick-

years and were separated for 70 years.” On the

summit, held on September 18 through 20 at

Moon and Chairman Kim climbed the summit

third Korean president who visited Pyongyang.

Korean First Lady Kim Jung-sook brought some

inspected, which means showing respect to him.

from Baekdu Mountain, which means coopera-

must live together. We lived together for 5,000

ly. It was the largest and longest inter-Korean

last day of President Moon’s visit, President

Pyeongyang. President Moon Jae-in became the

of Baekdu Mountain with their wives. South

When he arrived, the army’s honor guard was

water from Halla Mountain and mixed water

The agenda of this conference was “the peace,

tion of North and South Korea.

ference during visit. After the second conference,

A number of people hope that the unification of

ration. Main topics of this declaration are elim-

here is that it will take a lot of time and effort

development of the national economy, and fun-

achieved a number of the first, thus the mean-

They agreed to promote cooperation in various

‘the first thing.’ It should be a small beginning for

group’s performance in Seoul in October, and

to do with the North Korea. I believe that with

new future.” Two leaders had two times of con-

they announced a North and South joint decla-

Korea will be realized. In my thought, the point

ination of the risk of the Korean War, balanced

to make the one Korea. Our government has

damental resolutions of separated family affairs.

ingful accomplishments. However, it can’t be just

fields, which later resulted in a Pyongyang art

the whole Korea. We still have a lot of things left

even promised Chairman Kim Jong-un’s visit to

assertive effort we can set about the real PEACE.

Seoul. The Blue House stated that they declared

By Park Sooyoung

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


SHOULD WE PUNISH CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS IN KOREA?

R

ecently, there has been a very controversial

those ‘conscientious decisions’ do not belong to

Korea. It is ‘whether the country should

they changed their stance, saying the citizens’ con-

flared since the Korean supreme court changed

sonable answer not to go to the army. This means

cently.

the notion that the nation should respect their

Originally the Korean judiciary had hanged their

actions related to violence. So what makes this

individual if he refuses to perform military service

to respect the conscientious objectors’ rights and

their religion, conscience, etc. and accounted that

served or willing to serve in the military?

issue associated with military service in

the liberty of conscience. Contrastively, however,

punish conscientious objectors’. The debate has

science could be thoroughly understood as a rea-

their point of view concerning the argument re-

that the country will be officially supporting freedom to avoid killing, and maybe even any

position that it is constitutional to penalize the

so controversial and what should we do in order

only for a personal excuse alone, which includes

save equity between the people who have already

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LAWS & POLITICS


LAWS & POLITICS

Many considerations intensify the confrontation

There are two main sides to this linked issue. The

dispute. Primarily, people concern about na-

and conscientious objectors, insists that the term

between the advocates and the contrary to the tional military power. The advocates of the ongoing

issue argue that several countries such as the U.S. and Britain have already legalized conscientious

objection. Opponents to it, on the other hand, assert that we cannot compare the Korean situation

with other countries that allow conscientious objection in the point of the law; what Koreans

should not forget is that we are at war with the neighboring country.

first side, which includes human rights groups of the service shouldn’t be too long than the

normal service period (21 months currently); it

should be about 1.5 times longer than the normal one. The other group, which covers most of

the citizens and Ministry of National Defense, asserts that 1.5 times to 2 times longer than the

normal service period is appropriate. Connected-

ly, Ministry of National Defense is known to be considering 3 years of alternative service.

Furthermore, allowing conscious objection has

Despite being greatly controversial, one crucial

conscience? Opponents to the conscious objec-

not lawbreakers in Korea anymore. If we can’t

one significant hardship; how can we check one’s

tors believe the following notion; “We aren’t able

to demonstrate one’s conscience. Therefore, con-

scientious objectors shouldn’t exist, especially in

the public field such as military service. Moreover, when this is officially allowed, it could be used wickedly such as willful evasion of the military

service”. On the contrary, however, the adherents made a verifiable rebuttal; devotees can submit

the confirmation and show that their life and behavior correspond with the religion.

At any rate, the stance of the judicature has

fact doesn’t change; conscientious objectors are change this again, maybe it’s time we also under-

stood them as big-heartedly as possible. There’s no doubt we must seriously take account of the

fact that we are under suspension of fire. Having said that, what we should focus on prior to actually “winning the war” is to pursue the ultimate integration within the nation. Remember, Ma-

hatma Gandhi once said, “Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.”

By Lee Yoochan

changed. What is important, if we get to allow

people to refuse to serve in the military, is setting the appropriate reference point of alternative ser-

vice, regarding how long or which work the conscientious objectors should do. As the supreme

court also adjudged that it was a violation of the constitution not to provide any regulations in connection with alternative services, at least we

do need a form of law. So there comes another main problem to solve; How long should the

alternative service be if we are to make it as fair as possible?

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


SMALL METAL CALLS FOR CONTROL

A

Gun, an invention that shoots small metal using gunpowder, was a tremendous upheaval in history. The advent of guns made people hunt easier and helped them conquer other nations. A Gun gave convenience to mankind, yet it also gave a death risk. It can just take a person’s life easily by bending fingers. It not only kills “a person”, but also kill “people.” Gun is, a development as well as a weapon. In the United States, there were Las Vegas carnage in 2017, Florida high school shooting in February 2018, August Florida Offline Games massacre, Pittsburgh catastrophic in October, and Florida yoga class firing in November. These shootings cause a lot of casualties and the frequency is increasing. Even under these circumstances, people justify their possession of guns in the name of protecting their own safety. Under federal law, people over 18 can buy rifles, and from the age of 21, they can buy pistols. They can buy and own guns without a license. Citizens of US have no difficulties getting those weapons. They live in risky danger of unexpected gun accidents, however. Gun is capable of mass destruction over long distances, and easy to operate. It is also more dangerous because it is used in the shooting incidents through easy purchase and modification. It causes greater human damage. Moreover, with using guns, a gun malfunction may occur. Crime is not the only thing that becomes a gun accident. Guns carried to protect people’s own safety can cause unexpected damage to them. A three-year-old boy was mistaken for a toy gun and fired a real gun to others at a daycare center. In New Mexico, Sony Gilligan was shot by his pet dog, Charlie. Charlie accidently pulled the trigger with its foot and shot its owner.

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LAWS & POLITICS


LAWS & POLITICS

A high school teacher in California, who used to be a police officer, had a shooting accident while teaching about safety. People didn’t mean to, yet accident is always with them. The freer the use of firearms, the greater the likelihood of danger. Despite these reasons, then why are Americans not in favor of gun control? The ostensible reason for that is self-protection. This is based on of the Second Amendment, “A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.”, which was established in 1791. Proponents of the gun claim that “Article 2 of the Constitution” guarantees the possession of guns. However, there is a hidden reason. That's also a protection, though. It is, the protection of the interests of the gun industry. The US has had a lot of gun accidents and has always been vocal about gun control. However, it has always failed in the legislative process. This is because a group called NRA(National Rifle Association), a strong pillar of the gun industry, is holding out. NRA has a lot of influence, and politicians receive a lot of support from the organization. Thanks to the pillar and the second amendment, the opponents of gun regulation never back down. They do not yield because it is directly linked to their own interest. Every time people hear gunshots, they propose guns be regulated. However, because of the NRA, it was just always then. NRA claims that if they start little change, the regulation of guns would be wiser. Unless citizens of the US change NRA and their puppet's mind, the trembling voice of the regulation due to the massacre will not end. By Kang Taehyeon

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


Investors Are On Pins and Needles KOSPI 2000 line disintegration On October 29, a lot of people fell into fears. At 3 pm, KOSPI, Korea Composite Stock Price index, recorded 1997.87 points. According to Korea Exchange, it was 29.64 percent lower than the previous day and about 300 points lower than the previous month. It was the first time in 22 months for the KOSPI to fall below the 2,000 mark since December 7, 2016. KOSDAQ, Korea Securities Dealers Automated Quotations, also dropped by more than 5 percent. This was the lowest level since August 14, 2017, and reached rock bottom since the inauguration of the incumbent government. What does collapse of KOSPI mean? The stock is directly linked to the economy of a country. The fact that the stock market in Korea is poor naturally leads to the conclusion that Korea`s economy is not good and will also be poor in the future. The main factor of KOSPI 2,000 line disintegration is a considerable amount of foreigners’ stock sales in the KOSPI market. Between October 18 to 29, net sales had reached 1.9 trillion won. In October alone, 4 trillion won and 4.5 billion dollars went abroad. Regarding KOSDAQ, foreigners sold 455 trillion won in the local stock

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ECONOMY

market. Local investors also sold as much as foreigners; they sold 500 billion won of stocks in a single day. This phenomenon is called “Sell Korea.” One of the reasons for “Sell Korea” is the interest rates hike in Korea`s interest rate is 1.5 percent, while the interest rates of the U.S has raised from 2 to 2.5 percent. By raising interest rates of the U.S, Korea is disadvantaged like the outflow of domestic capital abroad. It would be easier to understand this situation if you come across the axiom that most people leave their money in a market which pays higher interest. This phenomenon will not only happen in Korea, but also in Hong Kong, Japan, and Taiwan. Another reason is that companies in Korea do not perform very well. According to a pundit, 173 companies listed on KOSPI, including the automobile, steel and shipbuilding sectors, made 213 trillion won in operating profit that was three trillion won lower than it was three months ago. Moreover, the government`s belated response made the situation worse. After share prices plummeted, Kim young, assuming the post of vice chairman of the Financial Services Commission, declared that Moon`s administration would invest about 500 billion won in the stock


ECONOMY

market to settle the situation, even though it was expected that it would have a subtle effect. Most economic experts criticized the government for the incident, asking why they didn’t stop it from happening in advance, calling it a “To lock the stable door after the horse is stolen.” Fortunately, the KOSPI recovered to the 2090 level, with trade talks being expected to ease between the U.S. and China. Foreign affairs are crucial to the recovery of the KOSPI, but nevertheless Korea should not stay still. The government should provide a lot of support for economic recovery and strive to strengthen our relationships with other countries. In addition, enterprises should strive to develop technology to increase competitiveness in the global market, and most importantly, build trust with customers. By Kim Beomjun

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


The Way to Choose The Best Option, Nudge Marketing

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ECONOMY


ECONOMY

Is there anyone that has heard about nudge marketing? If there is no one, guess

what it means. It is a compound word between nudge and marketing. ‘Nudge’

means coaxing or gently encouraging someone to do something. Nudge mar-

keting is one of the ways that marketers make consumers decide smartly and

indicate to purchase. The original way of marketing just focused on the feature of the merchandise to make people buy it, but nudge marketing now makes them choose it with a soft method. That is, Nudge marketing does not order or instruct directly but indicates to do the particular behaviors.

In our routine, we can see a lot of examples of nudge marketing in various forms. Actually, nudge marketing is already implemented in almost every time without people’s cognition. In the most common case, we can experience nudge marketing when we pay for the products with a card. People who are uncomfortable with an unaffordable expense, can take a load of their mind by using installment pur-

chase. We can also see an example of nudge marketing in many stores. Usually, in the store, low-priced

merchandises are displayed nearly the counter. A consumer who finished shopping, maybe naturally

get interested in those goods. The existence of a popcorn box next to the ticket box is a case of nudge

marketing, too. Like this, everything designed for consumers to be indicated to buy something can be called nudge marketing.

Then, how is nudge marketing being used by many companies? Many of the companies using nudge

marketing pay attention to every factor even though it may seem unimportant and consider the optimal nudge in the step of the planning commodities. Kakao used this strategy very well. In 2016, Kakao bank is established and they made ‘Kakao check card’, and there were adorable Kakao friends’ characters. In fact, Kakao bank was highly placed in only 3 months because of those characters. According

to analysts, the reason that Kakao bank was highly placed was nudge marketing. They used characters, which is the unnecessary factor on financial transactions, and, finally, they could cause emotional influence to the public. Another famous company that used nudge marketing is Orion. Orion released

Market O, and had a slogan that they use great ingredients and made homemade snacks that there is a

natural material flavor. Because of the fact, Market O is imprinted special by pricing as much as twice more expensive than other usual snacks and showing their luxury wrapping. This, nudge marketing gives a free of the personal choice to consumers,

but just suggests them to buy something. Every people pursue to have a

wise decision. However, it is not easy for everyone. Thanks to nudge market-

ing, those can do the wise decision. There is a possibility that nudge can fail, so nudge can’t achieve their

ultimate purpose, but, it is undoubtable that an attempt of a company can stimulate the behavior which can guarantee consumers’ more qualified livings.

By Choi Yoonjae

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


If Nothing Hates, Nothing Breaks

Hatred in Society Tears Away What It’s Made of: Trust

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SOCIAL ISSUES


SOCIAL ISSUES

R

arely everyone hates everybody, but the other way around is easier to find since most of the time, everyone hates somebody. Hatred is prevalent in every society, is universal, and is something so natural that many accept it not thinking twice. Lots of psychologists say that it’s hard to exactly specify the root cause of hate because it is generated under complex conditions, such as having a wide range of targets. Though a confident explanation is still yet to be found, there are suppositions that try to reveal the reason why humans tend to hate. So, why do people hate? Most perspectives regarding hate agree that it originates from tension or fearbased awareness between individuals/groups perceived “different” and works as an outlet of negative emotion or energy wasted. A.J. Marsden, assistant professor of psychology and human services at Beacon College, states that one reason humans hate is because they fear things that are different from ‘us’. Here, ‘us’ refers to a group an individual belongs to, or an “in-group”. Race, language, gender, or religion could be examples of the categories of these social groups. To explain further, hate could work as a simple manner to deal with differences. Lots are aware of the fact that diversity in society boosts social understandings and experience between different parties. However, when differences seem striking and therefore unbearable, individuals dread lacking sense of oneself and the identity of the group. So, when an individual or the group he belongs to meets a crisis, they are likely to show affection towards their favored while aggression and hostility to the contrary. According to the FBI, the rate of hate crimes has increased since 2016 and continued to rise in 2017. Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) found that there are at least 953 hate groups currently operating in the US, while a study conducted by SafeHome.org showed that the number of likes and comments on hate group accounts grew by 900 percent from 2014 to 2016. Anti-immigrant accounts had the largest average followers at 17,569, Anti-Muslim led the second, Anti-LGBT fourth, Black Separatism fifth, White supremacists sixth, and Anti-Semitic the last. Usually, hatred is something considered harsh and belligerent, but hatred in the statement “I hate spinach,” doesn’t really affect the whole society. Collective hate in society, however, is bound to have widespread social ramifications. When minorities become the subject of collective hatred, they fall so low as to become but a scapegoat. History supports this view. Nazism(holocaust), white supremacist, (fe)male chauvinism are all examples of tension between different social groups, form of a body bigger than an individual. Precedents do show that many were aimed at social minorities, and this still hasn’t changed. Hate may be an instinct or a mechanism for survival that is yet to be revealed. Nevertheless, one must face their fear of difference, the tension that derives from ignorance, and challenge one’s hate. Society also ought to fight for a better community for all. It should constantly be on guard to keep minorities from undue violence and find social relationship between hate among different bodies. By Kim Jungyeon

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


Starbucks’ Eco-Policies, Green Marketing or Greenwashing?

“Anti-straw movements should be considered.” “Last summer Starbucks brought out a surprising announcement : eliminating the entire plastic straws in 28000 stores worldwide until 2020.”

P

lastic releases bisphenol-A, which triggers hormone complication and cancer. This toxic chemical flows in the sea and harm the marine life as a form of “micro plastic”. Virtually, micro plastics are found in almost all seafoods we eat in our daily life. Not only the toxic chemical in it but also plastic itself is being a disaster on Earth. A short YouTube video of one sea turtle biology team removing a long plastic straw from damaged turtle in 2015 shows the exact danger of plastic itself.

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SOCIAL ISSUES


SOCIAL ISSUES

Just in America, 500 million plastic straws are disposed per day and about three trillion every year are disposed worldwide. If this situation continues, the number of plastics will excess the number of fish in ocean by 2050 according to a report by Swiss non-profit?World Economic Forum. Nowadays, some sort of words like “eco-friendly” and “green” can be found easily in caf ?s and cosmetics stores when walking around the street and shopping. As environmental awareness among the public has risen, more companies are following after Starbucks and offering their own eco-friendly alternatives to plastic products. In this situation, “Green” has become the key of corporate marketing. Starbucks is leading the “green marketing” abandoning all plastic straws and replacing with “adult sippy cup” lids and biodegradable paper straws in case of Frappuccinos. Starbucks estimates this will lead to elimination of more than 1 billion plastic straws globally per year. Now here, if you fail to penetrate the two side of Green business between “Green marketing” and “Greenwashing” however, you may be deceived by the cunning tactics of business marketing. Green marketing is the marketing of environmentally friendly products and services. It is being conducted popularly as more people are concerned with environmental problems and want to contribute to buying products in a way that is more eco-friendly to the earth. Green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including eco-friendly production, modification of production process,?sustainable package, as well as environmentally friendly advertisement. Greenwashing, which is a compound word of “green” and “white washing” can be considered as the other side of green marketing. It means to promote as if pursuing the green business even though it is far from actual eco-friendly business. Greenwashing can be defined in 7 categories : concealing the synergistic effect, that is focusing on just few environmental elements of the product, insufficient evidence of “eco-friendly”, ambiguous claim which distorts the product with unrelated facts, false information, and justifying harmful products such as organic

green pesticides. Nowadays as Green market being activated, lots of corporations deceptively promote the perception of environmentally friendly products, aims or policies. In other words, they are falling to Greenwashing, which results in distrust of eco-friendly products and hindrance of the green market growth. As most of Starbucks coffee chains are not located where coffees are cultivated, they are transported thousands of miles. Not only during transportation but also inside the shop, pollution is prevalent. The extensive resources which are transported from far away need to be heated, cooled, powered inside the shop. Wasteful water practices as well as contamination during process were the key point having been criticized by environmentalists. Historically Starbucks have shown us numerous environmental goals. The problem is that these just ended as a “goal.” A goal to reduce energy consumption by 25% only reached 7.1% in 2013 for example. In this point Starbucks can be considered to being greenwashed : concealing the synergistic effect. As it focused on few environmentally friendly elements and concealed the overall environmental influences, Starbucks is being criticized as just showing the image of environmental business leader to the public. As a result, anti-straw movements of Starbucks have possibilities to be greenwashed, used as a simple marketing tool. Large Franchise companies’ green marketing shows huge publicity which influence a number of publics. So if the accuracy and strong appeal are lacked, the damage the company has to overcome is much bigger. From now on, for the true green business, precise understanding of environmental problem and ethical green marketing are needed, not “greenwashing” or “image making”. As Starbucks started leading the Green business, it has to be responsible : should consider the environmental policies. Not only Starbucks but also businesses following its green business should try not to transmute into “Greenwashing”. By Yun Sarang

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Can Autonomous Cars Decide Whom to Kill?

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ver since AI became a new field of technology in the mid-1900s, the questioning of its morality and the choices it can make has been a mystery with no clear answers. For AI technologies haven’t really been grafted with everyday objects that can hurt humans physically, the numerous questions that ethical/ philosophical experts had were considered “at-advance” or futuristic. Well, at least since now they were. January, 2018, as the Hyundai Motor Company succeeded in performing a 4km ride with their new autonomous vehicle, the “Ionic” with no traffic control. AI Technologists consider autonomous vehicles completed by 2020. As companies grow close to actualizing the products, discussions about moral dilemmas are expanding larger than ever before. Whether it will make a convincing choice is still on debate. The ethical dilemma which they have faced could be explained by a similar theory called “the Trolley Problem”, suggested first by Philipa Foot in 1967. You are driving a runaway trolley without a brake. Ahead, there are five people in your way, and you are about to hit them. However, you see a lever that can redirect the trolley to another track. If you pull the lever, the trolley would hit one person on the other rail. So it’s either five people or one. Which sacrifice would you make? According to an online survey in 2007, most people chose to kill one person rather than five. There are many other versions of the trolley problem with psychological commentaries combined, like organ transparency and other. Although it is a dilemma: which means that there is no morally correct answer, people choose whatever

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SOCIAL ISSUES

http://img.etoday.co.kr/pto_db/2018/01/20180113123248_1175254_500_284.jpg

solution they think is right. But the problem is that AI can’t. Since AI is a creation of people, the ethical manuals are problems for the researchers to solve. Another easy way to understand fully of this dilemma can be found on the Moral machine site (made by MIT), where you can check your perspective and priorities by choosing whom to save on many different circumstances. Should the car crash into a concrete barrier and kill its passengers, or should it swerve and kill pedestrians? Should it save younger people? What priorities should they have when it comes to saving people? Is that choice socially acceptable? The result of this survey is pretty expectable, with the person with a stroller topping the list of the must-be-saved, followed by children and pregnant women. Preferences were also clear, executives over homeless people, humans over pets, and so on. However, there are other opinions including that the decision should be held randomly, or hurting the passenger is shouldn’t be an option because no one would want a self-destructing car. So the ‘problem of whom to save if a bad thing happens’ isn’t really going anywhere as a controversy. Even though the answer isn’t clear, the real solution to this social problem must be the AI automobile being safe to ride without leading to traffic accidents. Even if the developing of the technological spectrums of autonomous cars aren’t perfect yet, they will be soon. Whether the ethical problem will be discussed seriously or not will depend on the result. With the rising attention to AI’s capability of selecting while morally confusing challenges, peoples’ expectations are coming close to reality. By Woo Jeongsu

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http://www.hankookilbo.com/News/Read/201809071668083598: 사진 출처.

History Repeats Itself: The Ultimatum toward the admission process

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SOCIAL ISSUES

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n the end of 2016, it has been a big issue that Jeong Yura had unjust entrance process into Ewha Women’s University and though she had far fallen behind the criteria, she got good scores for the reason that her mother, Choi Sunsil had close relationship with the former president, Park Geunhye. Such catastrophe had raised the rage of the citizens, thus the government losing their trust in the current system of admission. Although there has been a big change in the political power after the candlelight vigil, the improvement is still a long way off as another adaptation of Jeong Yura, called as ‘the case of Sookmyung Girl’s High School’, has been generally known. In 2nd semester of Sookmyung Girls’ High School, it has been doubtful about the results of the final test. The point of the controversy was that the twins, who were the two daughters of head of the school affairs by then, had both got the first place, each place in the liberal arts and natural sciences. This result was questionable indeed, since those two students were not remarkable in any other mock tests. Before then, it was evident that they were not noticeable in school reports, as they had ranked 59th and 121th each, which was totally different from what it was in first semester. This was what made other students confused. That sort of rise in school reports was extremely rare, especially in this school, as it being the first top girls’ high school, with students admitted to Seoul University calculated more than 17 students. To address the continuous doubts, Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education and the police had conducted an inspection and announced the results. On 10 October, through the digital forensics inspection, the police had found out that there were small memos of answers on the phone of the twins, such as some questions from the integral calculus and some answers from English test, resulting in accusing the twins and their father of the problem. This tragedy made people all over the South-Korea fury, as it was made evident that the transparency

and equality of educational system can be simply ignored by individual’s ‘background’ like money and authority. It has made us furious even more since it also reminded us of not being able to get good results no matter how much our effort is, no matter how hard we try. Primarily, nonscheduled admission was taken action to help estimate students’ sincerity in its original purpose, but it is has been reported lot that it had caused adverse effects, with some individuals bending the rules to their favor. Last October, one teacher of Gwangju high school was accused of demanding one student the sexual intercourse for fabricating her transcript of school records. Public opinion is requiring for the transparent, fair and just solution to the problem. Some are protesting for the increase in the scheduled admission, since any interruption, such as money or power, can’t be realized in the process, for the scheduled admission only rate one with the exact numerical score. However, on the other side, the others argue the opposite. Although there were problems in nonscheduled admission, they insist that it allows students with various experiences, talents in diverse fields. In addition, if the scheduled admission increases, it is possible that private education’s influence would soar, thus resulting in gap between rich and poor acquiring much more influence in the process. Admission process is one of the turning points in each individual’s life, for what kind of university one enters is a heavy matter in society of South-Korea. Non-scheduled and scheduled admission process are like a double-edged sword. No matter what we will pick, it is evident that this is the last ‘ultimatum’ toward the administration. If there should be another repetition, there would be few chances that the administration could be absolved of the matter. By Oh Hayeajin

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AI Translator, Future of Translation

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SOCIAL ISSUES

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ne of the accurate AI translators, Papago, established by Naver, is now able to translate Kore-

an honorific. Since Korean is distinct language that has unique features and words, a number of people are striving to deal with some difficulties to translate foreign languages to Korean

and vice versa. As a result, we often find some translations are awkward or don’t deliver subtle nuance

of the specific expression between languages. RBMT (Rule-Based Machine Translation) and SMT (Statistical Machine Translation) were not the alternatives of Human translation. RBMT requires

linguistic scholars to spend so much time on inputting data. SMT as well as RBMT has a big prob-

lem. For instance, we put a sentence in Korean into SMT that is processing the translation to English sentence and put the English-translated outcome into same SMT, we find the result is not exactly the same as the original text. This is why AI translation is designed.

Let’s imagine that we have ideal things by which we can communicate with any other persons who are from foreign land. If the tools are implemented, we no longer need to study foreign languages.

In recent years, AI translation surfaced as a strong and promising tool in the field of translation. AI translation has made a great progress adding NMT(Neural Machine Translation) to conventional translation. According to Wikipedia, NMT is referred to as an approach to machine translation that

uses a large artificial neural network to predict the likelihood of a sequence of words, typically modeling entire sentences in a single integrated model.

The key factor which decides whether NMT is efficient or not depends on the amount of the accumulation of diverse meanings among languages. Thanks to the intense fight of IT dinosaurs such as

Google, Facebook to seize hegemony of IT World, we might possibly meet perfect translation methods in any form of languages in the near future.

But at this point, we need to consider accuracy of AI translation as well. One Google researcher noted

that “People naively believe that if you take deep learning and…1,000 times more data, a neural net will be able to do anything a human being can do, but that’s just not true.”

In 2017, there was competition between an AI translator and a human translator. The human got the overwhelming victory when translating literature. What I really want to say is that we need to cooperate with AI translator in this abruptly changing world and then we can knock

down the linguistic barrier among foreign people, but we need to consider whether it will be a good thing to our society or not.

By Park Sooyoung

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The Truth of May 18 Comes Out Finally

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n 1979, after former president Park chunghee died, people thought that autocracy would come to an end and democracy would open the new era. However, Chun doohwan and his military

came into power by overthrowing the existing government. Against the coup, people including

students started their protest opposing new military’s dictatorship. New military declared martial law in the name of preventing social chaos. Two days later, on May 18, university students and citizens had

protests against the martial law. After a violent confrontation, martial law army seemed to pull back.

However, the army returned to subdue civilian army. In this attack, numerous people were killed. Hereby, Gwangju Democratization Movement was over.

The May 18 democratic Uprising caused a change in Korea’s social movement which was originally leaded by intellectual and later became popular movements. Also, it has great significance in democratic process.

However, there are so many unsolved suspicions including statistics of the death and missing people, secret burial, person who first gave the word to fire and the torture that has been done to demonstrators. There were revelators who nerved themselves to expose the truth. Kim sunok who was sexually assault-

ed by martial law army said that she had hard time after she was detained and got torture and rape. Her memories in 5.18 made her isolated in that moment. Also, there were victims who suffered from a psychic disturbance. But there were no proper truth ascertainment and apology until then.

On May 18, president Moon jaein announced his 5.18 message saying that the government will rewrite

the history from embracing the women who were trampled at that time. He also said that government will organize a joint investigation group and made the truth ascertainment.

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SOCIAL ISSUES

Six months passed since then, on November 7, there was the first national approval about martial law army’s rape. Jeong kyeongdoo, the Minister of National Defense released a statement of apology to the

public. He said that “We introspect about martial law army’s ruthless suppression strategy that inflicted badly to innocent women.” Government investigation group discovered 17 counts of sexual assault and

numerous sexual tortures that had been committed to citizens. Victims were not only demonstrators but people who didn’t participated in the protest. Also, there were students and pregnant women. They

hid their pain because of the way others look at them. For this reason, there must be unrecorded victims till now. The minister promised to ascertain the truth and to assist the victims with recovering their honor and treating their mental, physical pain.

There is great significance that government has apologized for rape during Gwangju Democratization Movement since there were no national approval and apology for 38years after 5.18 democratic uprising.

However, as the government is admitting and apologizing for their fault late, they should apologize sincerely and feel great responsibility to the victims. Also, to prevent the repetition of the same woeful history, government should urge active investigation and punishment of inflictors.

Also, it’s time to think about wartime sexual violence, the root issue. Wartime sexual violence is literally

sexual violence that is caused during wartime. The May 18 democratic Uprising is actually not a war, but it can be regarded as a wartime sexual violence in that it happened during an armed conflict and in the confusion. This kind of violence is used as a weapon. It is distinctly gross violations of human rights. Anyone must not be allowed to insult human dignity under any circumstances. However, there

are still many wartime sexual violations happening. To prevent other occurrence of the innocent victims, international society must awaken and punish the inflictors while curing the victims.

By Baek Gaeun

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


Cultural Appropriation and Blackfishing

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HUMAN RIGHTS

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rom Ariana Grande’s tan to Amandla Stenberg’s shout-out for the lack of respect on black culture, the controversy on cultural appropriation has been steadily growing. Cultural appropri-

ation occurs when a certain group uses a different group’s (usually the group is divided by race

or country) cultural elements as their own. There is an eternal history of debating which actions are cultural appropriations and which are not. Braids and tans are one of them.

Ever since hip hop became a major role in the music industry, black culture also became a “hit.” Dread-

locks and grills suddenly gained popularity as a fashion item not only for black people but also celebrities of different race. This is when actress Amandla Stenberg stated her opinion about black culture

being a crucial factor to identifying black community. The suppression African-Americans go through

(for example, police brutality) haven’t gained that much interest in contrast to the non-black citizens’ approval of styles and music.

On 2018, assertions that white influencers are trying to become black has risen. The Kardashians, Ariana Grande, and a multitude of Instagram models were accused of wearing tan and using darker skin

products. This is where the term “blackfishing”- which is used to describe someone who pretends to be black -comes from. The main reason why “blackfishing” gets so many criticism is because, to the people who are on the list, neither black culture nor the people who own it are seen as figures that should be

respected, but factors of a trend that should be followed. Another causation of the crisis is the double

standard. For example, when African-Americans have braids, they are often seen as exotic or ghetto meanwhile Caucasian braids are shown to the public as a fresh or creative style. Different reaction leads to cultural appropriation, and cultural appropriation leads to profit in the white community.

So what can be the borderline between cultural appropriation and appreciation? It will remain a de-

batable topic, since it cannot be strictly defined. As opponents of cultural appreciation say, what can

be disrespect to those who take great meaning in the history of their culture must not be tolerated. Some say that the world is becoming a melting pot for all, and we should be able to share culture. The argument that culture evaluates as it grows is true, but we still need to gain respect for the culture of minorities in our culture.

By Woo Jeongsu

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DAEIL FOREIGN LANGUAGE HIGH SCHOOL


School Violence and Multicultural Students

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HUMAN RIGHTS

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ovember 3rd, 2018, one middle school student fell from a 15-story apartment building in Incheon. The Incheon Yeonsu Police Station announced that four boys had been arrested without warrants on

suspicion of causing fatal injury. It was homicide-suicide caused by school violence. Nowadays, in Korea,

teenage suicide cases by school violence occur frequently. This Incheon suicide case is just one of the cases. However, we have to notice the victim of Incheon suicide case. He is a multiracial student and his mother is Russian. Then why do we have to pay attention about this fact?

It is because many multicultural students have become victims of bullying. School violence has been a serious social problem in Korea, and it is spreading like poison. The damage it causes get bigger and bigger. Therefore the Korean government has enforced many policies to reduce the problem. However, it was ineffective. School violence was widened to multicultural school violence.

During the past six years, the number of multicultural students has been increasing by nearly threefold. Most of

them have become victims of violence because their appearance is different and they weren’t fluent Korean speakers. According to an investigation in 2015, 34.1% of multicultural students have experienced bullying from their class-

mates. One multiracial student said "I don't want to go school. My schoolmates said that my skin color was dirty. I'm so exhausted about their saying and bias towards me." Like this , many multicultural students have suffered from violence. The violence has expanded to bias toward multicultural families.

There are many victims suffering from school violence. Even then, we shouldn't treat the violence like it is simple. This violence shows bias in the Korean society implicitly. If we leave this circumstance to be, it can be developed to serious problems in the society. Multicultural students are also Korean.To solve the roblem, rather than only supporting multicultural families, it is better to carry out education of improve awarness for all Korea students si-

multaneously. Furthermore, we have to build supporting system to develop multicultire students' social competence by stages. Then finally, our society can develop to mature society by stoppimg to draw lime term of multiculture.

By Ji Eunjeong

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Daeil Foreign Language High School A. 116, Seokyeong-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul www.daeil.or.kr T. +82-2-940-1000

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The Daeil Press, No. 55 (대일프레스 제55호)  

The Daeil Press, No. 55 (대일프레스 제55호)  

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