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ELECTIVE POOL UNITS Unit

Prepare stocks, soups and sauces

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Subject code: SITHCCC008A

Prerequisite subjects: This unit must be assessed after the following prerequisite units: SITHCCC001A – Organise and prepare food SITHCCC002A – Present food SITHCCC005A – Use basic methods of cookery

Unit overview This unit introduces the skills and knowledge required to prepare various stocks, sauces and soups in a commercial kitchen or catering operation. Stocks, soups and sauces can vary widely in terms of style and origin. Some can be more traditional, whereas others are

SITXOHS002A – Follow workplace hygiene procedures Indicative HSC hours: 25 hours

more modern. Stocks, soups and sauces can also originate from a large variety of ethnic and cultural backgrounds – meaning that they can either be served hot or cold, depending on their origin. This unit applies to all hospitality and catering enterprises where food is prepared.

Employability skills For a full range of employability skills relevant to this unit, click Employability skills on the Welcome screen.

Key terms: accompaniment

essence

reconstitute

clarification

flavouring agent

sauce

clarifying agent

garnish

soup

convenience product

glaze

stock

derivations

portion control

thickening agent

emulsion 25


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cambridge hospitality second edition – ELECTIVE POOL UNITS

Prepare stocks, glazes and essences

Flavouring agents

A stock is a thin liquid produced by slowly simmering

to enhance the flavour of stocks. The ingredients are tied

meat, poultry or fish bones with various vegetables and

together so they can be easily removed once the desired

seasonings to develop maximum flavour.

flavour is reached. Lemon juice and white wine may also

A glaze is the thick, concentrated end-product that results when stocks are reduced to about 10 per cent of

Bouquet garni (a tied bundle of celery sticks, parsley stalks, a sprig of thyme and a bay leaf) is commonly used

be used as flavouring agents in the production of fish stocks and stock syrups.

their original volume. Ten litres of stock will produce one litre of glaze. Essences are flavourings and seasonings that have a

Trimmings Vegetable trimmings that are clean and in good condition

very powerful flavour and aroma. They are used purely

as well as meat scraps that are not fatty and appropriate

to impart flavour and are rarely made in a hospitality

to the stock being made can also be used.

enterprise’s kitchen. Common essences include anchovy, vanilla, peppermint and almond.

Ingredients used in stocks The three main ingredients used in the preparation of stocks are water, bones and vegetables. For chicken and beef stocks they are used in the ratio of 10 parts water:5 parts bones:1 part vegetables. Flavouring agents, such as bouquet garni, are also often used when making stocks.

Bones It is the bones in the stock that add most of the flavour. The gelatine in bones gives body to the stock. Bones are trimmed of excess fat and only washed if necessary to remove excess blood, as this can cause the stock to go cloudy. The most commonly used bones are beef, poultry and fish.

Vegetables Mirepoix (equal quantities of roughly cut carrots, onions and celery) is commonly used in stock production. These vegetables have a strong aroma and enhance flavour. Leeks are also sometimes used. In fish stock, onions are

Water In terms of quantity, water is the main ingredient used in stock production. Ensure the water used is clean and free of impurities.

Characteristics of stocks, glazes and essences A good quality stock should be clear, have a full-bodied flavour, be free from fat and impurities and have the appropriate colour and aroma. Meat and fish stocks should also be gelatinous. White stocks should have a light, clear colour and a dominant flavour of the type of bones used. Brown stock should have a clear, brown colour and a dominant flavour of beef and caramelised vegetables. A good quality glaze should have a syrupy consistency, a concentrated flavour, a glossy appearance, and be free from impurities and fat. A good quality essence should have a powerful flavour and aroma.

the only vegetable added. Vegetables that are strong in

Stock-making principles

flavour (e.g. capsicum) or colour (e.g. beetroot), high in

The type of bones and vegetables used will determine

starch (e.g. potatoes) or bitter (e.g. spinach) are unsuitable

what type of stock is produced. The four main types

for use in stock production.

of stock are chicken, white beef, brown beef and fish. Vegetable and stock syrup are other common types of stock. All stocks are started by placing the ingredients in cold water, bringing it to the boil, then simmering it for a set amount of time. The stock is regularly skimmed to remove any impurities and then carefully strained and stored. Brown stocks are made by browning the bones and

Figure 4.01 Mirepoix is commonly used in stock production

vegetables before adding them to the stockpot.

Cooking times for stocks • chicken stock – 2 hours • white beef stock – 8 hours • brown beef stock – 6–8 hours


unit 4: prepare stocks, soups and sauces

Fish stock Fish stock is made from white flesh fish bones and trimmings. Oily fish, such as tuna and mullet, are too strong in flavour for a stock and will result in a bitter taste. Fish stock is quicker to cook than other stocks, as it doesn’t take as long to extract the flavour from the bones. First, melt butter in a stockpot and sweat sliced onions. Add fish bones. Cover with a lid and sweat for 5 Figure 4.02

to10 minutes over low to moderate heat. Remove the lid

Simmering stock

and add cold water and wine. Bring to the boil, skim and reduce to simmer. Add bouquet garni and parsley stalks and simmer for 20 minutes, skimming regularly. Strain the stock using a chinois and filter paper. Then cool and store.

• fish stock – 20 minutes

Fish stock is used for soups, seafood dishes, glazes and

• vegetable stock – 30 minutes

poaching liquids.

• sugar stock – 30 minutes.

Common problems

Vegetable stock Vegetable stock is made from vegetables and does not

A common problem that occurs in stock production is

use any bones. Vegetables such as onions, celery, carrots,

when the stock turns cloudy. This may occur if the stock is

zucchini, leeks, fennel and garlic are commonly used.

boiled too rapidly, a lid is used, the stock is not adequately

Starchy vegetables such as potato should not be used as

skimmed or carefully strained, poor quality ingredients

they make the stock cloudy. Strong flavoured or coloured

are used or the stock is overcooked. Overcooking can also

vegetables such as cabbage and beetroot should also not

result in a bitter taste.

be used. Slice vegetables (onions, zucchini, leeks, fennel

Prepare stocks

and garlic) finely and sweat in butter for 5 minutes. Add enough water to just cover the vegetables, bring to the

White stock

boil and simmer for 30 minutes. A bouquet garni can

White stock is made using beef, chicken or veal bones.

also be added. Alternatively, chopped herbs (tarragon

Chop the bones to a suitable size and place them in the

and chervil) can be added for the last 5 to 10 minutes

stockpot. Add the appropriate ratio of cold water and

of cooking. Strain the stock using a fine chinois. Then

bring to the boil. Skim off fat and impurities and reduce to

cool and store. Vegetable stock is used for soups, sauces,

a simmer. Add mirepoix and a bouquet garni and simmer

glazes and poaching liquids.

for 2 hours (for chicken stock) or 8 hours (for white beef stock), skimming regularly. Strain the stock using a chinois

Sugar stock

and filter paper. Then cool and store. White stock is used

Also called stock syrup, sugar stock is a sweet stock made

for soups, sauces, glazes and poaching liquids.

from sugar and water, brought to the boil and simmered for 30 minutes. Lemon juice or orange peel and spices can

Brown stock

also be added. Sugar stock is used for sauces and glazes.

Brown stock is made using beef bones. Cut the bones to a suitable size and roast in single layers until light brown (approximately 30 minutes). Add mirepoix to the bones and continue to roast until dark brown in colour

Prepare soups

(approximately 30 minutes). Remove bones and mirepoix

Classification of soups

and place into the stockpot. Drain off any excess fat

Soup is a flavoured liquid eaten with a spoon. There are

and deglaze the roasting tray by adding water to it and

many varieties made from a range of ingredients. Soups

bringing it to the boil to loosen any brown sediments,

can be thick or thin, hot or cold, clear or stew-like.

then add this to the stockpot. Add the appropriate ratio of cold water to the stockpot and bring to the boil. Reduce

Thickened or unthickened

temperature to simmer, skim the stock and add a bouquet

Soups can be classified as thickened or unthickened,

garni. Simmer the stock for 6 to 8 hours, skimming

depending on whether they have or have not had a

regularly. Strain the stock using a chinois and filter paper.

thickening agent added to them. Thickened soups include

Then cool and store. Brown stock is used for brown

purée, cream and bisque. Unthickened soups include clear

sauces, pan gravy, glazes, soups and brown stews.

and broths.

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Clear

Cold

These soups are clear, usually delicate in flavour and of a

Cold soups are well suited to summer menus and hot

natural colour that reflects the ingredients used. The main

climates as they are served cold. The main ingredients

ingredient is stock, although a variety of garnishes can be

include fruits (berries, plums and melons), vegetables

added. Examples include beef or chicken consommé, fish

(potato, leek, cauliflower, carrot or tomato) and stock

or chicken bouillon and chicken noodle soup.

or fruit/vegetable juice. Examples include vichyssoise and gazpacho.

Chowder Chowders are thick, hearty soups based on a thin velouté or béchamel sauce. Chunky ingredients such as corn, bacon, potato and seafood are folded into the sauce, which is then simmered. Examples include clam chowder, corn and bacon chowder, seafood chowder and potato chowder.

Garnishes, decorations and accompaniments Figure 4.03 A clear chicken and vegetable soup

Garnishes are an integral part of soups. They enhance the visual appeal and provide variety in texture and flavour. All garnishes used should be appropriate to the soup and cut small enough to fit onto a spoon. Suitable garnishes include herbs, cream, sour cream, and julienned vegetables and croutons.

Broth Broths are hearty soups with a high proportion of garnish. The main ingredients are stock, meat, fish or poultry and vegetables and/or cereal grains. Some broths will thicken slightly during the cooking process as the garnish swells or breaks down. Examples include minestrone, scotch broth and chicken broth.

Purée

Decorations include chopped parsley, grated parmesan and sour cream. Unlike garnishes, they are not an integral part of the soup and are only used to enhance presentation and visual appeal. Accompaniments are often served with soup to make the meal more substantial. A traditional accompaniment for soup is bread. Variations include crusty bread, bread rolls, toast, melba toast, damper, herb bread and croutons.

Puréed soups are thick and hearty textured soups.

Common problems

They are thickened by puréeing the principal ingredient.

If a clear soup is cloudy it needs to be clarified. Purée

The ingredients are usually only stock and vegetables.

soups that are too thick can have more stock added. If

Examples include pumpkin, pea and ham, carrot, and

they are too thin, they can be simmered to reduce them

potato and leek.

further or more vegetable purée can be added. A poor

Cream Cream soups usually have a delicate flavour and a smooth,

flavour and aroma of soups may result from poor quality ingredients. A soup will curdle if it is allowed to boil after cream has been added.

creamy consistency. They are generally based on a béchamel or velouté sauce, and are finished with cream. The main ingredients are stock, roux and cream. Examples include cream of mushroom, cream of asparagus and cream of broccoli.

Bisque Bisques are thick, full-bodied soups made from seafood and fish stock. They may be thickened with a roux, cereal grains (such as rice) or a liaison. Examples include lobster bisque and prawn bisque.

Present and serve soups Portion control If soup is to be served as an entree, the serving size is approximately 200ml. For a main course, allow approximately 500ml per serve. This is a guide only: servings will vary in different establishments and often depend on the type of soup and accompaniments, if any, it is served with.


unit 4: prepare stocks, soups and sauces

Figure 4.04 Service vessels for soups

Service temperatures

Hot sauces

Hot soups must be served piping hot, at a temperature

Hot sauces are made from stock or milk and are thickened

above 85°C. To help them retain their heat, the service

with roux. They include demi-glace, béchamel and

vessel should also be heated where possible. Cold soups

velouté.

are served chilled and may even be placed on a bed of ice.

Demi-glace is made by adding brown roux to brown beef stock, producing a well-flavoured basic brown sauce.

Service vessels

Derivatives of demi-glace include bordelaise, diable and

All serviceware used for soups, as with any other food,

madére.

must be spotlessly clean and free from any cracks or chips.

Béchamel is a basic white sauce made from milk and

Service vessels for soup include:

white roux. It is commonly referred to as white sauce.

• soup tureen

Derivatives of béchamel include mornay, onion and parsley

• soup mug, bowl or plate

sauces.

• hollowed-out vegetables – pumpkin soup, for

Velouté (velvet) sauce is also a basic white sauce made

example, looks impressive when it is served in a

from stock, blond roux and seasoning. The type of stock

pumpkin shell.

used will determine the type of velouté produced. Chicken

• crock-pot.

and fish are the two main variations of velouté. Derivatives of chicken velouté include aurore, supreme and poullete.

Prepare sauces

Derivatives of fish velouté include vin blanc (white wine), cardinal and bercy.

Produce hot and cold sauces

Warm emulsion sauces

Sauces are thickened liquid seasonings used to accompany

Warm emulsion sauces are warm sauces made by

or enhance other foods. They may be sweet or savoury.

emulsifying a reduction and butter with egg yolks. They

The main functions of a sauce are to provide moisture,

include hollandaise and béarnaise. To make a warm

flavour, richness, colour, shine, interest and visual appeal.

emulsion sauce, egg yolks are beaten into the clarified

Some sauces are also used to bind ingredients together or

butter and reduced over a low heat. The sauce gradually

to help digest fatty foods. There are three main categories

thickens by the process of emulsification as the egg yolk

of basic sauces: hot sauces, warm emulsion sauces and

forms a layer around each tiny butter droplet and holds it

cold emulsion sauces. Derivative sauces are made by

in suspension. Derivatives of hollandaise include maltaise,

adding other ingredients to a basic sauce.

mousseline and mustard. Derivatives of béarnaise include choron, foyot and rachel

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Cold emulsion sauces

Store sauces

Cold emulsion sauces are cold sauces made by emulsifying

Basic hot sauces can be stored at 1–4°C for up to ten

oil and vinegar with egg yolks. Mayonnaise is a cold emulsion sauce. Its derivatives include tartare, rémoulade and Thousand Island dressing.

Other sauces

days. Derivatives will not store as long because their additional ingredients will cause the sauce to deteriorate sooner. If a sauce is to be stored, it needs to be strained to remove garnishes (these tend to break up when the sauce is reconstituted), cooled as quickly as possible, covered

There are a number of other sauces that differ in their

with a cartouche and refrigerated. Some sauces may also

preparation and texture. These include:

be frozen.

• miscellaneous hot sauces (e.g. jus lié, jus rôti, gravy, sabayon and coulis) • miscellaneous cold sauces (e.g. Worcestershire,

The temperature for holding warm emulsion sauces

horseradish, soy, tomato ketchup, barbeque and

is critical: if the sauce is too cold it will solidify and if it

coulis)

is too hot it will separate. Warm emulsion sauces should

• dessert sauces (e.g. coulis, chocolate, custard, sabayon and Melba) •

Hot and warm emulsion sauces can be held in a bainmarie at 30–37°C prior to service.

dressings (e.g. vinaigrette, lemon and mustard dressings)

• purée-based sauces, butters, and sauces based on cream reduction.

not be held for more than two hours as their holding temperature is in the danger zone. Cold emulsion sauces should be stored at 1–4°C. Mayonnaise has a shelf life of approximately three weeks.

Characteristics of quality sauces

Serve sauces

Characteristics of a quality sauce include flavour, colour,

The way a sauce is served has a big impact on the overall

the sauce that is being made. Basic sauces should have a

presentation of the food. In silver service, sauces are

complexity of flavours – if one flavour dominates, it will

always served separately in a sauce boat to allow the

affect the derivative sauces produced from it. The colour

customer to see the food before it is hidden with sauce.

of sauces can range from white (béchamel) to pale yellow

If the sauce is to be served on the plate, it may be served

(mayonnaise), deep red (raspberry coulis) to rich brown

under the food or partially masking it. Sauces should

(demi-glace). Basic hot sauces produced by reduction

never be served over crumbed or battered food as their

should have a gloss.

consistency and gloss. These all need to be appropriate to

crisp coating will become soggy. As a general guideline, allow about 50ml of sauce per serve, although this will

Consistency of sauces

depend on the type of sauce used.

There are three different consistencies that sauces can

Hot and warm emulsion sauces are best made just prior to service. Hot sauces should be served above 85°C and warm emulsion sauces at 30–37°C.

be produced to: pouring, coating and binding. The consistency will depend on the purpose for which the sauce is being used. • Pouring consistency – this is similar to that of single cream. The sauce will coat the back of a spoon and freely run off. Examples include jus lié, jus rôti and demi-glace. • Coating consistency – this is similar to thickened cream. Thicker than a pouring consistency, it should coat the back of a spoon. Examples include velouté,

Figure 4.05 A sauce boat is an appropriate way to serve sauce

béchamel and hollandaise. • Binding consistency – this is the thickest consistency. This sauce is used to bind ingredients together. The consistency is such that the sauce should stay on the back of a spoon when it is lifted out of the pan. Examples include panada and pie fillings.


Common problems and their remedies • Lack of flavour – may be due to insufficient cooking, a poor base stock or not enough ingredients in proportion to the liquid used. Remedies include reducing the sauce further or adding a meat glaze. • Starchy flavour – is generally due to insufficient cooking. The sauce should be simmered longer until the starchy flavour disappears. • Too thin - may be due to insufficient thickening agent or the reduction process not being completed. Remedies include re-thickening the sauce by whisking in a small amount of beurre manié (an uncooked paste of two parts flour to one part butter), bringing it to the boil and cooking for 5–15 minutes, or continuing to reduce the sauce. • Cloudy – may be the result of poor stock, insufficient cooking or puréed vegetable matter being in the sauce. Remedies include adding half as much good quality stock and reduce, continue to cook, or pass the sauce through a fine-mesh sieve. • Lack of colour – may be due to a poor stock colour or the base ingredients being incorrectly browned. Remedies include adding a meat glaze or adding well-browned mirepoix and/or bones and cooking for another 2 hours. Parisienne essence can also be used to improve the colour of a sauce. • Bitter flavour – may be due to the mirepoix, bones or sauce being burnt during preparation. Remedies include adding a little sugar, or if the flavour is not too strong, blending with a good quality sauce. If the flavour is very bitter, discard the sauce. • Lumps – may be the result of the liquid and thickening agent being mixed at too high a temperature. The remedy is to strain the sauce to remove lumps and continue cooking. • Split/separated – will occur if the temperature is incorrect (i.e. too hot or cold). This can be fixed by whisking a small quantity of the too hot or cold sauce with a little cold or hot water. If the sauce was too cold, do this over a hot water bath.

Prepare basic sauces Demi-glace Roast or fry beef bones to a medium brown colour. Add mirepoix and cook until dark brown, then add tomato paste and allow to brown slightly. Deglaze the pan with a small amount of beef stock. Add flour and cook until brown, stirring often. Add beef stock and seasoning (peppercorns, bay leaf, thyme and salt). Bring to the boil and simmer for 8 hours. Strain through a chinois.

unit 4: prepare stocks, soups and sauces

Béchamel Prepare a white roux (melt butter in a saucepan, mix in an equal quantity of flour and cook over low heat for a few minutes). Gradually add cold milk to the roux, mixing continuously with a whisk or wooden spoon. Continue to stir and heat the sauce until it simmers and thickens. Alternatively hot milk (that has often been infused with onion, cloves and bay leaves) can be added to a cold roux.

Chicken or fish veloute Chicken veloute is made using chicken stock, while fish veloute is made with fish stock. Both are made by adding stock (chicken or fish) to a blond roux and stirring continuously as the sauce comes to the boil and thickens.

Hollandaise or béarnaise Bring vinegar and peppercorns to the boil and simmer until they have reduced, then strain. Clarify butter and set aside. In a stainless steel bowl over a hot water bath, mix the reduction with egg yolks using a whisk. Gradually add the butter, whisking continuously. Temperature control is important with these sauces, too hot or cold and they will separate and curdle.

Mayonnaise Mix egg yolks, vinegar, Dijon mustard, salt and pepper thoroughly with a whisk. Add oil gradually, about 1 teaspoon at a time, whisking continuously. To help stabilise the mayonnaise, a little hot water may be added after the oil has been incorporated.

Jus Jus rôti is made by deglazing pan sediments with a stock appropriate to the meat being served. For example, a roast chicken pan would be deglazed with chicken stock, whilst roast beef would use beef stock. A jus lié is a jus rôti that has been thickened with cornflour.

Dessert sauces Coulis is a sweet or savoury sauce where the ingredients are puréed. Raspberry coulis is made by placing raspberries and stock syrup in a blender and puréeing. The sauce is strained through a fine strainer to create a smooth texture.

Thickening agents Through the process of reduction, liquids thicken naturally as water evaporates. However, it is generally necessary to add other ingredients to thicken sauces and soups. There is a range of thickening agents that can be used to thicken sauces and soups.

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White, blond and brown roux A roux is made by mixing and cooking equal quantities

• pastes – such as garlic, ginger, horseradish, chillies and tomatoes.

of fat and flour. White roux is cooked just long enough

Convenience foods are used for many reasons, including:

to remove the raw starchy taste. It should not colour and

• cost – it is often cheaper to purchase convenience

is only used for béchamel. Blond roux is cooked longer

foods than to prepare them yourself

and takes on a blond tinge. It is used for sauces based on

• save time in production

white stocks, for example velouté. Brown roux is cooked

• readily available for use all year round

until it has a light brown colour and nutty aroma, and is

• lack of expertise to produce a fresh product

used to thicken brown sauces. The browner a roux, the

• limited storage space

less thickening capacity it has. When a roux is mixed with

• boost flavour.

a liquid and brought to the boil it will thicken.

Beurre manié Beurre manié is an uncooked mixture of 2 parts butter to1 part flour. It is used to thicken sauces and soups at the last minute.

Cornflour, arrowroot or potato flour Cornflour or cornstarch is white flour made from maize. It is dissolved in cold liquid and then added to a hot sauce where it thickens at 85–96°C and creates an opaque finish. Arrowroot is a fine white flour made from a tuber (a native plant of the West Indies). Potato flour is extracted from dried, ground potatoes. Arrowroot and potato flour need to be dissolved in cold water and then thickened at 65–71°C.

Liaison or sabayon A liaison is a well-whisked mixture of egg yolks and cream that is used to slightly thicken sauces and soups. The egg yolks thicken by coagulation, which generally occurs at 80–88°C. Sabayon consists of egg yolk and a liquid that is thickened by emulsification. It is used in warm emulsion sauces and some desserts. Other thickening agents include modified starch and bread.

Store and reconstitute stocks, soups and sauces Stocks All stocks can be stored successfully in the refrigerator at 1–4°C for one week. They may also be frozen at -18°C for up to three months. When storing stocks, a cartouche can be used to stop foreign objects falling into the stock. It is important to cool the stock completely before storing. This is best achieved by placing the stock into small containers and stirring to reduce the heat evenly. The small containers can then be placed in ice or on a rack to allow air to circulate around them.

Soups Soups also need to be cooled before storage and should have any garnishes and decorations strained. Stored in the refrigerator at 1–4°C and covered with a cartouche, soups will last for up to three days. In the freezer at -18°C they will last for up to three months. When reconstituting frozen soups, they need to be thawed first to prevent the soup from scorching. It is advisable to add an appropriate liquid such as stock, water or milk when re-heating the soup to prevent it from catching on the pan and burning. All soups need to be brought back to boiling point when being reconstituted to kill any bacteria that may be present. Once the soup

Convenience foods

is reconstituted, the consistency and flavour can be

Convenience foods are foods that have been partially or

be reconstituted as they can’t be boiled.

adjusted. Soups that contain a liaison are not suitable to

completely processed by a manufacturer. Common types of convenience foods that may aid the making of stocks,

Sauces

soups and sauces include:

To store hot sauces they should also be cooled as quickly

• dehydrated – such as vegetables, herbs, spices, boosters, instant soups and sauces • canned – such as soups, sauces, vegetables, fruits and fish • liquid – such as essences, stock, soup and soup bases, prepared sauces and dressings • frozen – such as seafood, meat, poultry, vegetables, pastry and fruit

as possible, covered and refrigerated. The same principles should be followed as for stock. A cartouche should be used to prevent the sauce from forming a skin as well as foreign objects from falling into the sauce. Basic hot sauces will keep for up to ten days at 1–4°C. Derivative sauces, due to their additional ingredients, will not keep as long. Before sauces are stored they need to be strained to remove any garnishes as these will break up


when the sauce is reconstituted. Hot sauces may also be

unit 4: prepare stocks, soups and sauces

Warm emulsion sauces need to be held at 30–37°C.

frozen at -18°C – however, flour based sauces separate on

As this temperature falls in the danger zone, warm

thawing so a modified starch is a better thickening agent

emulsion sauces should not be held for longer than two

to use if a sauce needs to be frozen. When reconstituting

hours. They are unsuitable for reconstitution.

hot sauces an appropriate liquid should be added and

Cold emulsion sauces need to be stored in the

the sauce stirred frequently when put onto the heat. This

refrigerator at 1–4°C also with a cartouche covering the

prevents the sauce from catching on the pan and burning.

top. They will last for approximately three weeks.

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Unit summary At the completion of this unit, students will have discussed, researched and analysed:

• definition of sauces

• definition of stocks, glazes and essences

• basic sauces – hot, warm emulsion and cold emulsion

• ingredients used in stocks

• service of sauces

• characteristics of stocks, glazes and essences

• storage of sauces

• stock making principles

• characteristics of quality sauces

• common problems when preparing stock

• consistency of sauces – pouring, coating and binding

• preparation of stocks – white, brown, vegetables, fish and sugar • definition of soup

• common problems when preparing sauces and their remedies

• classification of soups

• preparation of basic sauces

• garnishes, decorations and accompaniments for soups

• thickening agents

• common problems when preparing soups

• storing and reconstituting stocks, sauces and soups.

• presenting and serving soups, including portion control, service temperatures and service vessels

• convenience foods

Unit summary questions 1 Define the following terms: stock, glaze, essence. 2 What are the main ingredients used in hollandaise?

6 What are the 3 consistencies of sauces? Give examples for each.

3 Explain the procedure for making a white stock and a brown stock.

7 What are convenience foods and why are they used?

4 What are the cooking times for the following stocks: chicken, white beef, brown beef, vegetable, fish and sugar?

9 Explain an appropriate method to present and serve a soup.

5 How can sauces be served? Explain, using at least two examples.

8 Describe in detail 3 different classifications of soup.

10 How are stocks, sauces and soups reconstituted?


unit 4: prepare stocks, soups and sauces

Multiple-choice questions 1 What are the three main ingredients used in stocks? a Oil, salt and meat b Water, spices and meat c Water, bones and vegetables d Oil, vegetables and meat 2 What is mirepoix? a A kind of stock b A tied bundle of celery sticks, parsley stalks, a sprig of thyme and a bay leaf c A soup d A mix of diced carrots, onion and celery in equal quantities 3 Which of the following is not a thickening agent? a Blond roux b Potato flour c Sabayon d Egg 4 A bechamel sauce should be of ________ consistency. a pouring b coating c stirring d binding 5 What is the approximate volume of a soup when served as a standard entree? a 200ml b 300ml c 400ml d 500ml 6 A good quality glaze should a have a syrupy consistency and a glossy appearance b have a concentrated flavour c be free from impurities and fat d all of the above 7 You are preparing a stock for the head chef to use in a later recipe. How are you able to tell when the stock is ready? a The stock has turned cloudy b The stock has a bitter taste c The stock has a brown colour and dominant flavour d All of the above

8 Convenience foods are often used in kitchens because: a they are a superior product than those produced in-house b they have a stronger flavour, as they are often made with ingredients not available locally c they are available in large quantities d they can save costs and time in production 9 What is a bisque? a A cold soup b A puréed soup c A delicate soup with a creamy consistency, usually finished with cream d A thick soup, usually made from seafood and fish stock 10 Which of the following statements is correct? a Coulis is a cold emulsion sauce b Mayonnaise is a warm emulsion sauce c Béarnaise is a cold emulsion sauce d Demi-glace is a hot sauce

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