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Plato


In Plato’s

the Gorgias, Plato writes about his teacher Socrates. The book is mainly an argument held between Socrates and Gorgias, the orator. In this book, many issues are explored like, their places in current society, what oratory is, and more. One in particular that Socrates argues with Callicles over is the topic of injustice. Socrates addresses the issue and manages to have Callicles see things his way in the process by appealing to him. Socrates is a skilled orator and knowledgeable in rhetoric which is evident throughout this work. He knows how to argue and back up what he is saying. Injustice though, is the topic of focus between him and Callicles. He makes his argument clear about the issue and presents solutions and advice on the topic of injustice.Doing something unjust is something that Socrates finds to be more harmful to the doer of injustice rather than anyone else affected. Injustice is defined simplyas unfair treatment. Unfairly accusing somebody of something they did not do is an example of injustice. A more specific example of injustice would be where a person is sentenced to death for something that was not their fault. The person who sentenced the innocent person has, according to Socrates, done more harm to himself than he has to the victim. People are unjust all the time in the modern day world. From news stories about the Syrian government gassing their people to people getting away with murder, injustice is just everywhere nowadays Socrates is a skilled orator and knowledgeable in rhetoric which is evident throughout this work. He knows how to argue and back up what he is saying. Injustice though, is the topic of focus between him and Callicles. He makes his argument clear about the issue and presents solutions and advice on the topic of injustice. Doing something unjust is something that Socrates finds to be more harmful to the

Socrates is a skilled orator and knowledgeable in rhetoric which is evident throughout this work. He knows how to argue and back up what he is saying. Injustice though, is the topic of focus between him and Callicles. He makes his argument clear about the issue and presents solutions and advice on the topic of injustice. Doing something unjust is something that Socrates finds to be more harmful to the doer of injustice rather than anyone else affected. Injustice is defined simply as unfair treatment. Unfairly accusing somebody of something they did not do is an example of injustice. A more specific example of injustice would be where a person is sentenced to death for something that was not their fault. The person who sentenced the innocent person has, according to Socrates, done more harm to himself than he has to the victim. People are unjust all the time in the modern day world. From news stories about the Syrian government gassing their people to people getting away with murder, injustice is just every-

where nowadays.

The person who sentenced the innocent person has, according to Socrates, done more harm to himself than he has to the victim. People are unjust all the time in the modern day world. From news stories about the Syrian government gas-


Those It seems people as if Socrates is teaching a lesinflictson from Christianity. ing those They say in the Catholic actions are Church, “Do unto others as hurting themselves worse than the you wish it be done to you”. Socrates people who were gassed believes that a just society is able to be as good as possible. Being good is something or killed, according to that affects other people’s lives in a positive Socrates. He argues against people about this and convinces way. Socrates believes that it all starts with the leaders, the guardians. Socrates criticizes a few people like Callicles to see this issue his way. Socrates was a very the leaders of Athens for basing their policy good arguer and also had many other on pleasure and the esteem of their subjects. The downside of this though is that the future arguments in which he was able to triumph over his opponent using his generation will suffer from the present luxuries. He then illustrates his point with the honed rhetoric skills. story about a chariot driver who falls off Socrates asks the question to his chariot and how a politician Callicles, “Is it when a pershouldn’t fall off his chariot son doesn’t wish to suffer when in power. These two then what’s unjust that he go on to talk about a ruler will avoid suffering it, and a kid who aspires to be or when he procures a just like this ruler. This rulpower to avoid sufferer, however, is one of those ing it?” (90). Callicles rulers who can do whatever then answers “when he wants and get away with he procures power” it. Socrates then explains (90). Socrates tries to that the kid will ruin his make a point here with soul and become unjust when Callicles. He later goes he does all these unjust things on to build on this questhis ruler does. He then illustrates his tion and explains that doing point with the story about a chariot driver wrong and escaping punishment leads who falls off his chariot and how a politito a wretched existence. Socrates is cian shouldn’t fall off his chariot when in intent on showing those of the body. When one does something unjust, their power. These two then go on to talk about a ruler and a kid who aspires to be just like soul is the thing that usually gets this ruler. This ruler, however, is one of hurt the most. Doing injustice is more those rulers who can do whatever he wants of a moral issue if anything. Doing and get away with it. Socrates then explains wrong onto others does not cause physical pain on one’s body. Instead the that the kid will ruin his soul and become unjust when he does all these unjust things soul takes the punishment of that acthis ruler does. tion.


Socrates says “his soul is corrupt and mutilated on account of his imitation of the master and on account of his power” (92). This backs up Socrates’ argument about how it all starts with the right ruler and then everything else will fall into place afterwards. If there is a good ruler, then the young people of that ruler’s dominion will look up to them and aspire to be like them most likely. The same is, unfortunately, with a bad ruler. If the youth of the corrupt, or unjust, ruler’s kingdom look up to their malevolent ruler, then they might start to act like them and possibly commit the same acts that they did. Socrates makes a great point there.

Socrates makes another argument about dying and what happens in the afterlife. Dying is the separation of the soul from the body and according to Socrates, in happens in such a way that each aspect retains its nature from when they were joined and alive. Socrates goes on to explain how the actual body will retain all of its physical features that it had during its lifetime. The soul however, will be visible to judge in the afterlife. The soul can no longer hide behind the body because they are now separated. Socrates tells a story about this in which he says “And he saw that the soul was full of distortion and ugliness due

In the end, Socrates makes a valid point about injustice and how it ruins society. There were also a few lines of indirectly foreshadowing of his death while teaching about injustice. Socrates was killed because of injustice, the very thing he was set on ridding Athens of. Callicles in one line finally agrees with Socrates’ points saying “Do you see, Socrates, how I am ready to applaud you whenever you say anything right? I think that this statement of yours is right on the mark” (91). In “Is Google Making Us Stupid?”, Carr analyzes the internet and claims that it is affecting people’s neural circuitry. By using the rhetorical appeal ethos, he argues that the internet could be affecting our mental circuitry. He utilizes the three sub points of ethos: credibility, authority, and benevolence. He shows credibility in his work by using historical and scientific evidence. He then commands authority by using scientific evidence and attempting to gain our attention with information that could affect humanity. Finally, he shows benevolence in which he appeals to both sides of the argument he presents. Nicholas Carr, the author of the essay, is stating an argument that Google is altering human brain circuits. He makes a reference to the movie Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey in the beginning and the end of the essay. He compares himself to the supercomputer HAL when Dave unplugs his memory circuits. Carr says that he feels like someone is tinkering with his brain and remapping his neural circuitry, which is kind of what happens to the supercomput er HAL. He then states that how he has been having trouble reading and would read all the time but, currently, he cannot stay focused while reading anything that is more than two or three pages long. He believes that the internet is rewiring


He supports his argument with scientific and historical evidence. Newspaper articles, books, and websites are used throughout his essay to back up his argument. He also supports his claim with tales of history like the story of Gutenberg’s printing press. He recollects from the story that some people were worried that others would become less studious with this new and convenient printing press. Carr also goes on to tell about Google’s plans for the future. He quotes the Google

Eric Schmidt, who says that Google wishes “to systemize everything” (Carr 6). Also, Carr quotes Sergey Brin and Larry Page and both seem to be striving to build the ultimate artificial intelligence. Brin says “An artificial brain that was smarter than your brain would make you better off ” (Carr 6). In the end of his essay he then

Carr also does some scientific research for his essay. He quotes a professor of neuroscience, James Olds, who says “The brain has the ability to reprogram itself on the fly, altering the way it functions.” (Carr 4). Using these two kinds of evidence, and a few other pieces of historical and scientific evidence, Carr is able to make a credible argument. One gains credibility usually by working for it. Carr works to find principles already accepted and he connects them with his beliefs. This ultimately makes his essay credible as well. Another part of ethos is to present authority on a topic. Carr does this by using scientific evidence. For example, he talks about an experiment involving brain circuitry and it explains how the brain is wired differently for different mental circuitry emerges in people who read in different characters, like Chinese, rather than using an alphabet. It goes on to say that when people read things on the Net, mental circuitry is woven differently than when it is woven by the readings of books. One other way Carr is able to gain authority is by utilizing modern day examples of technology to gain our interest. He emphasizes on the website Google especially, which is a website that many people go onto. Carr gathered interesting information from


He quotes the Google chairman, Eric Schmidt, who says that Google wishes “to systemize everything” (Carr 6). Also, Carr quotes Sergey Brin and Larry Page and both seem to be striving to build the ultimate artificial intelligence. Brin says “An artificial brain that was smarter than your brain would make you better off ” (Carr 6). In the end of his essay he then claims that humanity might ultimately rely on computers to mediate our understanding of the world. He finishes by saying “it is our own intelligence that flattens into artificial intelli-

He quotes the Google chairman, Eric Schmidt, who says that Google wishes “to systemize everything” (Carr 6). Also, Carr quotes Sergey Brin and Larry Page and both seem to be striving to build the ultimate artificial intelligence. Brin says “An artificial brain that was smarter than your brain would make you better off ” (Carr 6). In the end of his essay he then claims that humanity might ultimately rely on computers to mediate our understanding of the world. He finishes by saying “it is our own intelligence that flattens into artificial intelli-

Brin says “An artificial brain that was smarter than your brain would make you better off ” (Carr 6). In the end of his essay he then claims that humanity might ultimately rely on computers to mediate our understanding of the world. He finishes by saying “it is our own intelligence that flattens into artificial intelligence.” (Carr 8). Carr shows credibility in his essay by using both historical and scientific evidence to back up his purpose. One historical account that Carr spoke of was the Gutenberg printing press. Carr quoted Italian humanist Hieronimo Squarciafico who commented saying, “The easy availability of books would lead to intellectual laziness, making men “less studious” and weakening their minds” (Carr 7). Then Carr quotes New York University professor Clay Shirky who



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