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CONTENTS HISTORICAL SUMMARY ............................................................................................................ 4 LOCATION................................................................................................................................. 5 GENERAL DEMOGRAPHIC ......................................................................................................... 6 ECONOMY ................................................................................................................................ 7 TRANSPERTATION INFRANSTRUCTURE ..................................................................................... 8 EXHISTING VENUS.................................................................................................................... 9 GEOGRAPHIC DATA..................................................................................................................10 CLIMATE .................................................................................................................................. 11 ARTECTURE + ART ...................................................................................................................12 CULTURAL HIGHLIGHTS ...........................................................................................................13 KEYWORD 1: REBIRTH........................................................................................................ 14-15 KEYWORD 2: UNITY ........................................................................................................... 16-17 KEYWORD 3: MODERNIZATION .......................................................................................... 18-19 SYMBOL 1: STAR ................................................................................................................20-21 SYMBOL 2: ANDES ............................................................................................................ 22-23 SYMBOL 3: GEOGLYPH...................................................................................................... 24-25 EVENT POSTER ................................................................................................................. 26-27 SPORT POSTER: FRONT .................................................................................................... 28-29 SPORT POSTER: BACK .......................................................................................................30-31 PICTOGRAMS..................................................................................................................... 32-33 WEBSITE ........................................................................................................................... 34-37 WAYFINDING ..................................................................................................................... 38-39 ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................................................40-41 CONCLUSION / LINKS ........................................................................................................ 42-43


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HISTORICAL SUMMARY Santiago, Chile was founded on February 14, 1541 by Spanish conquistador, Pedro de Valdivia who was in search of fabled gold and silver of what is now central Chile. Native peoples of Chile such as the Mapuche, who had migrated nearly 10,000 years ago, fought the Spanish off and on for the next 200 years. During this time Native and Spanish cultures began to mix as a result of long time spans of military inactivity. This mixture resulted in the new national language of Spanish. In 1818 Chile became an independent republic under commander Bernardo O’Higgins. During this time politics was heavily influenced by the Roman Catholic Church wealth land owners. Not until the 1920’s did middle class Chilean people have the ability to elect a reformist president. This new political change brought many challenges during the next 15 years which resulted in a Radical Dominated Government for the next 20. In 1964 elected president Salvador Allende instated social reform that were often considered “extreme” even from the most right wing politicians. During Allende’s 9 years in office, the Chilean people became increasingly upset with the economy with strikes from teachers, doctors, students and copper workers. Allende was eventually overthrown by General Agusto Pinochet Ugarte which would become the most devastating leaderships in the countries history.

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Allende forcefully controlled chile from 1973 to 1988, exiling 30,000 and executing nearly 3,000 people within his 16 years. 1988 marked a new chapter in Chiliean history as a new president was elected. Since then Chile has seen economic and social growth, attempting to rectify the terrible genocide of General Allende.

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LOCATION Santiago is situated in a basin commonly called the central valley. It sits between the eastern costal and Andes mountain ranges. The city was first built along the Mapocho River and follow traditional Spanish style city structure with gridded roads. The city stayed relatively small until the 1930’s when expansion and modernization brought immigration from the northern and southern regions of the country. Santiago is the Capitol of Chile also containing 40% of Chile’s entire population. Santiago has a city population of 5 million within Santiago Centro, and a total of 7 million total in the metropolitan area. Santiago is one of South America’s largest cites and holds the regional headquarters for many international companies and organizations. Most major growth of Santiago has occurred within these last few decades after the Allende’s reign. The city has modern high rise architecture as well as classic aboriginal and Spanish style buildings. The construction industry in Santiago is quite busy and successful with many high rise business and dwelling projects.


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GENERAL DEMOGRAPHICS Chile has 16 million residents with 85% of the population living in urban areas, and 40% living in greater Santiago alone. Chile has a generally young population who are attracted to urban lifestyle and modern design and art. The median age of both males and females is around 30 years old, with the largest proportion being those 10-25 years old. In 9 years when games come to Santiago this group will be in the 18-34 bracket making the target audience fairly young. The Chilean people are a homogenous culture with 35% being white and 60% being mestizes (mix between Spanish and native cultures). Chileans have a strong national pride that has been increasing since the end of Allende’s rein. Nearly 70% of Chileans are Catholic with a strong influence of the church in the building of the nation. Only 15% are Protestant and 8% Atheist or Agnostic. The remainder are a mixture of other major world religions. In a survey of 10% of Chileans considered them Mapuche, the largest native group before the Spanish immigrated to Chile. Although only 5% actually continue to speak native Mapuche the culture has a strong influence.

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—85% OF CHILEANS LIVE IN URBAN AREAS 40% IN GREATER SANTIAGO.

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ECONOMY Economically Chile has seen no major economic downturn since Allende was replaced as president. The global increase of energy costs have gone up and Chile hasn’t had significant economic growth since 2006. The Chilean economy strongly encourages free trade and small government interaction with business. With the combination of decreasing unemployment, and the rising of wages coupled with the relatively low increase of inflation, Chileans have a much improved standard of living than previous decades. Over the past 20 years Chile has made strong advances in foreign trade. Chile exports mainly to Asia, Europe and the US with their largest market being in Copper. Copper has also increased in price globally over the past decade making Chile one of the top world producers. Another increasing sector has been in fruit export to the U.S. This has helped local farmers capitalize on the needs of foreign culture to help direct their farms, also stimulating the Chilean farming market.


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TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE Santiago has a major International Airport that services more than 9 million passengers a year. Santiago is a major hub in South America for international transfer flights. Bus lines and the Santiago Metro system connect people anywhere in the greater Santiago Area. The Santiago Metro system is the largest and most advanced in South America. The system is still being expanded and when completed will have over 107 different lines. The system transports 2.5 million people a day and can take a passenger from one end of Santiago to the other in 25 minutes. Also trains connect to every part of the country if the games were to be held outside of greater Santiago. But the easiest transport would be if opening ceremonies and the Olympic village were within city limits. Busses are available to all the major ski resorts and hotels.

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EXISTING VENUES There are several locations within Santiago in which new facilities could be built, but if budget and travel purposes require there to be a modification of existing locations Santiago has sufficient spaces that could be modified for the Olympic games. Although the majority of ice events take place indoors, opening and closing ceremonies will attract nearly 40,000 people to the event. This is larger than any indoor facility would be able to fill for the actual games, so a large pre-exhisting structure would be best. The Estadio Nacionel de Chile is home of the Universidad de Chile soccer club. It seats 65,000 fans and has been used for the FIFA world cup finals and a number of political rallies and musical concerts. The site surrounding the stadium could be retrofitted into an Olympic sports complex and village. There is enough room to build Also the facilities could be then be used by the Chilean national team and also be a great selling point for acquiring more major international sporting events. It there isn’t sufficient space within the Estadio Nacional grounds, Santiago has the 15,000 seat Movistar Arena nearby. This facility also has expandable open areas that could support new facilities. Outdoor events could be held in the Andes at the Valle Nevado resort. This facility has large open areas for the set up of sports facilities and shops. There are several hotels located in close proximity to the resort chair lifts with over 400 rooms available between them. Valle Nevado also connects to the La Parva and El Colorado ski facilities. This would give plenty of room for the setting up of luge, bobsled and snowboard half-pipe events. Valle Nevado is the only ski facility in South America with a high speed chair lift as well as 11 other lifts, making it the largest facility on the continent.


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GEOGRAPHIC DATA Chile is of unusual shape to most countries. Due to its long 4,000 mile length, Chile boasts several different climates. The country boarders the Pacific Ocean on its eastern side, Peru and Bolivia in the north, and Argentina to the west. The countries coast is mainly rocky with many islands along its entire coast. In the southern regions the cost has many fjords and snowcapped mountains. The country lies on the Nazca Plate and has had many major earthquakes over 6.5 in the Richter scale. Because of this many cities have taken careful building precautions with earthquake safe high rises and stadiums. Chile is a very rugged country with 80% of its land covered with mountains. The large ranges is the Andes, but the country also has many rolling peaks along the coast. The Andes are one of tallest ranges in the world with peaks reaching 22,608 ft. (Ojos del Salado. Dispite the way it may appear in contrast to massive Argentina, Chile has an areas only slightly smaller than two Montana’s.

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CLIMATE The Far North The Far North is home of the driest desert in the world, the Atacama Desert. Land here is dry, barren, and devoid of agriculture. Although this area can support some agricultural grown, it’s only major industry is mineral mining. The Near north This area receives considerable rain during the winter months, but also can be fairly arid during the summer with droughts. Ice melt from the Andes provide year round water supply. Vegetation in this climate is characterized with cacti and dry shrubs. Central This is where Santiago is located and the other two of the largest cities, Valparaiso, and Concepcion. Because of its mild Mediterranean climate this is where the majority of the Chilean population lives. The Andes raise quite steeply to the west and tower over the central valley. The northern and southern parts of central Chile have large amounts of agriculture and export large amounts during the Northern Hemisphere winter because it is Chile’s summer. The Near South This portion of the country has many lakes and rivers. Parts of this section are some of the wettest on Earth with up to 100 inches of rain annually. Although many of the rivers in this section are whitewater due to the runoff of mountain snow, this area has the only few rivers in Chile that can be utilized for any long distance travel. Unfortunately, some animal species are becoming endangered and moving south due to human invasion of land. The Far South This section of Chile is characterized with rocky coastlines, inlets, and fjords. The thousands of islands in this ares make a web of small rivers and channels. Large open areas of land make this section popular for farming grazing animals. The overall temperature is much cooler than the near south due to Arctic winds from the south.

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ARCHITECTURE AND ART Since 85% of all Chilean residents live in urban areas it should be thought that the majority of the people would identify with a modern approach to the games. But they also have a long history that is shown in their architecture and public art. Due to the structural qualities of Architecture, Typography can be extrapolated. There is also a sense of history in the typography that can be expressed. The city is hard to define color. Santiago is both old and new and often clashes styles to large extent. But an overall grey can symbolize urban, or in Santiago’s case a muted gold (bronze).

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CULTURAL HIGHLIGHTS Chile is unique in contrast to many other countries. Because of their homogenous culture, Chileans often embrace or disdain changes in their society. But this is also a unifying factor that gives each individual a common life. Also their mainly urban culture and youthful majority they share a modern outlook in design, clothing, and art. A major component to the lifestyle that Chileans have is their mixture of culture between the native peoples and the Spanish. Even today there is a strong mixture with the Mapuche culture as 10% still claim to be of Mapuche decent. Santiago is a modern city. They have seen unprecedented growth since Allende’s reign. Some economists would say that Chile is one of the model economies in the world. Surely in South America. Because of this modern architecture is prevalent in Santiago. North American influence through television and production can be seen in the modernization of their culture. Some unique traditions have endured the modernization of Chile such as the traditional folk music, traditional Chamanto and Chupalla dress at cultural events and in non urban areas, and the tradition of the Huaso, a outcast figure similar to the American cowboy.


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KEYWORD 1: REBIRTH After president Pinochet Chile began a rebuilding of its government policies, business, and moral. Pinochet’s reign was so devastating to Chile that it is important to recognize the difference in national moral after his presidency. Although some still believe Pinochet as a great leader, most have such a negative view of him that it drives their enthusiasm for change and rebuilding. Like our own political situation, Chile wants change and progress.

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KEYWORD 2: UNITY The Chilean people are culturally similar. 85% Live in urban ares with similar distributions of income, 70% are Catholic, and nearly 95% are either white of mestizes. This lack of cultural distribution actually gives the people a common tie, and since they are a majority urban, and young (on average), they have similarly tastes, and histories. Strong national pride places them among the top 10 in the world and as the standard of living increases the general public share a similar experience.

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KEYWORD 3: MODERNIZATION During the last hundred, and most notably the last 20, Chile has focused on creating an equal and modern society in all aspects. Through increased globalization during the past few decades Chile adopts aspects many aspects from Europe and the United States while not sacrificing what makes them culturally different. Their architecture, art, design are similar and often more artistic in its approach. This open artistic style coupled with support of the Chilean government is a catalyst to fast modernization in both its cities and overall industrial structure.

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SYMBOL 1: STAR This symbol was derived from the idea that things that are unified overlap. Inspired by Chilean street art, this symbol shows that colors common to the Chilean street scene. The movement of the triangles and the color red represents the rebirth of a nation while the overlapping crystalline quality represents modernization and the future.

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MODERN LOOK HUMANISTIC TOUCH

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SYMBOL 2: ANDES This mark is inspired by the modern architectural style of Santiago. It also is an infinity sign signifying Chile’s forward process into the future as well as an abstraction of the Andes mountain range. The dynamic perspective shifts keep the eye moving around the symbol and this motion and overall upward movement symbolize rebirth.

WINTER

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SANTIAGO2018 XXIII WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES

GOLD / EXCELLENCE

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CONTRAST OF ROUND TO STRAIGHT PROFESSIONAL YET YOUTHFUL

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SYMBOL 3: GEOGLYPH This mark was inspired by the geoglyphs that are present in the Atacama desert. This ancient geoglyphs are some of the most sought after tourist attractions in Chile. They also have a tie to the ancient past. By going from rough to more smooth. This symbols represents rebirth and Chile’s goal of modernization.

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EVENT POSTER The Official Symbol chosen for the games was The Star. This logo embodies the Olympic spirit through its similarity in color to the Olympic rings as well as its movement and form. However, the logo does not necessarily embody the idea of “winter� at first glance. In order to emphasize the winter games heavy use of contrast was applied as well as a common them of space and shape derived from the official symbol.

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OFFICIAL EVENT POSTER 18” X 24”


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SPORT POSTER: FRONT The sport poster utilized an abstracted view of a hockey player using the characteristic shapes found within the logo. The apparatus utilizes the dominant orange found in the mark to tie both color and shape back to the official symbol. The isolation and strong contrast emphasize the intimidating yet beautiful view of the hockey player. The subtle Olympic rings give both space as well as emphasis on this being “any� Olympic hockey player.

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SPORT POSTE R FRONT 24” X 18”


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SPORT POSTER: BACK The back of the sport poster contains nearly 200 years of history about the game of Ice Hockey. The timeline shows space and connectivity to both the official symbol and the front of the sport poster. This space was derived from a close up cropping of the hockey player. The poster also contains a written history of the game as well an outline of the rules.

The Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glance became the first international hockey foundation. Later to become the International Ice Hockey federation (IHFF)

First indoor game played in Montreal

1850

Lord Stanley of Preston gives an award to the top team from Canada. This was the first Stanley cup,

1870

1875 1893

1899

1908

First set of rules written down. Established 9 players per side and a square puck.

First Olympic Winter Games held. Canada out scores opponents 110-3.

1920

1924

1930

First recorded womans match in Canada.

First Olympic Championship played during the Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium.

International hockey rules change to allow passing forward to other players, changing the overall team strategy for the game.

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history

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Ice Hockey has been said to have originated from several different forms of field hockey such as the Irish sport of Hurling or the Scottish sport of Shinty as well as several Native American version of the sport. Defining when Hockey was originally first played is difficult due to the lack of written and visual resources that would verify it taking place. The first “official” recorded indoor Hockey game took place on March 3, 1875 in Montreal. Although this isn’t the first time the game had been played, it was the first historical record of a league game. The Society of International Hockey Research has been studying if this is indeed the earliest recorded game, but has found no eyewitness accounts or recording of a score until the 1875 Montreal game Since the first Montreal game, Universities and Clubs began adopting the game for league play. The McGill University Hockey Club drafted 7 official rules. In 1888 Lord Stanley of

rules

The game of Ice Hockey is played in an has six players, 2 Forwards (R/L Wing) men, and 1 goalie. To score the team m the opposite net. The players use hock puck but are allowed to use any part o the puck. They however cannot “kick”


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olympic ice hockey TM

Santiago 2018 The Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glance became the first international hockey foundation. Later to become the International Ice Hockey federation (IHFF)

First indoor game played in Montreal

1850

Lord Stanley of Preston gives an award to the top team from Canada. This was the first Stanley cup,

1870

First recorded game played by British Soldiers in Kingston, Nova Scotia.

1875 1893

1899

1908

First set of rules written down. Established 9 players per side and a square puck.

First Olympic Winter Games held. Canada out scores opponents 110-3. Canada and USA tie for gold after three scoreless overtime periods.

1920

1924

Canada and Czechoslovakia ties overall record with Canada winning the gold on goals 64-62.

1930

First recorded womans match in Canada.

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1936

The Soviet Union wins Gold in what would be their first of 7 in 8 tries.

1948

First Olympic Championship played during the Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium.

International hockey rules change to allow passing forward to other players, changing the overall team strategy for the game.

1952 1956

The Soviet Union enters its first Olympic games winning the Gold.

1960 1964

1972

Canada loses to Great Britain for their first loss since the Olympic games started.

USA wins its first uncontested Gold medal over Canada, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union

Sweden joins Canada’s protest against the Soviet Teams definition of Amateur Professionals are allowed in Olympic play, but schedules conflict between NHL and the Olympic games.

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1980 1988

Ice Hockey has been said to have originated from several different forms of field hockey such as the Irish sport of Hurling or the Scottish sport of Shinty as well as several Native American version of the sport. Defining when Hockey was originally first played is difficult due to the lack of written and visual resources that would verify it taking place. The first “official” recorded indoor Hockey game took place on March 3, 1875 in Montreal. Although this isn’t the first time the game had been played, it was the first historical record of a league game. The Society of International Hockey Research has been studying if this is indeed the earliest recorded game, but has found no eyewitness accounts or recording of a score until the 1875 Montreal game Since the first Montreal game, Universities and Clubs began adopting the game for league play. The McGill University Hockey Club drafted 7 official rules. In 1888 Lord Stanley of Preston became a fan of the game from watching his children play. He created the first Stanley Cup and awarded it to the winner of a tournament to determine the best team in Canada. This cup is still being rewarded to the winner of the NHL (National Hockey League). Professional hockey has now been around for nearly 100 years with leagues established in the USA, Canada, Switzerland, Ukraine, Great Britain, and Austria. This term of “professional” became controversy when the IIHF(International Ice Hockey Federation) and Olympic committees deemed it unfair for professionals to take place in Olympic hockey yet the Soviet Union, who had no professional teams, were playing professional quality athletes and dominating competition. 1920 was the first Olympic appearance of the game Hockey. It took place during the summer Antwerp, Belgium games. From 1920 to 1954 Canada showed dominance in the game by winning ever gold medal during that time. For the next decade the USA and Soviets traded victories before nearly 30 years of Soviet dominance in the sport. During that time both Canada and Sweden both don’t send Olympic squads to protest the unfair definition of “amateur” player as the Soviet Union were playing amateurs by definition, not by skill level. In the late 1980’s professional were allowed to play, but play conflicted with the NHL schedule. The NHL would later have an Olympic break to get the players an opportunity to play. In 1998 Women’s Hockey was introduced with the USA winning the first gold medal.

Both Canada’s Men and Women teams win the gold. It had been 50 years since Canada had won an Olympic Gold.

1992

Canada wins the Gold for the last time in the 20th century. Canada doesn’t send a team as a protest to the IHFF on their definition of “Amateur” players. They felt that the Soviet Union was abusing this definition.

history

Sweden beats Canada for their first Gold medal.

1994

1998

USA wins against the Soviet Union in what would be later called “The Miracle on Ice”.

2002

2006

rules

Womans Ice Hockey debuts with USA winning the gold. The NHL takes a break so professionals can take part in the Olympics. Czechoslovakia wins and the USA and Canada finish without medals.

The game of Ice Hockey is played in an indoor rink. Each side has six players, 2 Forwards (R/L Wing), a Center, 2 defensemen, and 1 goalie. To score the team must shoot the puck into the opposite net. The players use hockey sticks to control the puck but are allowed to use any part of their body to control the puck. They however cannot “kick” the puck around. Play is fast paced and doesn’t stop for the changing of players. The only stoppages in the game are when puck goes out of bounds or there is a penalty. When a puck is knocked out they restart play with a face-off. The IIHF permits 20 people on a team where the NHL only allows 18. In the event of a penalty, a player is sent to the penalty box for periods of 2, 4 or 5 minutes depending on the severity of the infraction. During this time the team in the penalty doesn’t have the ability to substitute another player and plays shorthanded while the other team with more players is now on a Power play. Most 5 minute penalties are a result from violent body-checks or fights. If there is a double major penalty with both sides at fault neither side loses a player and has the ability to substitute. Hockey has been historically characterized with fights and violent play, but recent changes in rule have made the game of about skill and movement than violent checking and fights resulting in slow play.

In an upset defeat, the heavily favored Canada loses on their home ice to the United States.

The Soviet Union wins it 8th Gold medal under The Commonwealth of Independent States. From this point on teams play as independent nations.

2010

2014

Both Sweden's Men's and Women's teams win Gold.

Russia wins on home ice against Canada for the first time since the break of the Soviet Union.

Olympic play differs from NHL in several occasions. There are no dies in Olympic play anymore. A tie results in a 10 minute sudden-death shootout and if needed a 5 on 5 shootout. The Olympic rink is 10 feet longer and 13 feet wider resulting in less body checking. Olympic rules call icing as soon as the puck crosses the goal line. In the NHL a play must touch it first before it is considered icing. Fighting is severely punished as participants are ejected from the game. Like Olympic soccer, any player is allowed to take a penalty shot unlike NHL rules that state that the offendee must take the shot.

SPORT POSTE R BACK 24” X 18”


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PICTOGRAMS The pictograms like the sport poster, are derived from the mark itself to create form. The stylized view of the athlete is given space through contrast in size and direction of the triangles. The use of white space to create the torso of each athlete keeps the mark open yet solid in the powerful contrast of shape.

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WEBSITE The Olympic website contains an immense amount of information. The site uses a dynamic drop out system to keep the page from being cluttered yet stilly contain all the links for the viewer. The index page sports a news banner to keep viewers informed of the most up to date information such as scores or important news. Accessibility options are always in view at the top of the screen to change languages, get help, or increase / decrease text size.

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WEBSITE INDEX


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WAYFINDING The wayfinding system utilizes the warmer colors of the Official Symbol to contrast with the cold colors found in the Andes and the grey of the city. The horizontal barricade banner is used to keep people away from certain areas, to stand out visually for performing athletes, and to signify being in an are associated with the Olympic games. The vibrant color of the wayfinding pieces make them stand out from their environment as well as contrast either collateral based off the sport poster or main event poster.

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OFFICIAL EVENT BARRICADE COVER 30� X 96�

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OFFICIAL EVENT BANNER 32” X 80”

ICE HOCKEY BANNER 32” X 80”


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ENVIRONMENT The environmental design will be through ally expanded, but these are some conceptual ideas to see how the mark and wayfinding system will be seen during the Olympic games.

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CONCLUSION The visual campaign for the XXIII Winter Olympics emphasizes the vibrant culture of Chile as well as the cold, dark, and beautiful aspects of winter to make a consistent yet versatile campaign. Thank you for reading. See you in Santiago 2018!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2018_Winter_Olympics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_Winter_Olympics_opening_ceremony

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_Olympics

http://www.modachile.cl/

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/olympics/2008-01/08/content_6377818.htm

http://www.sonik.cl/

http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Games

http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-18721163.html

http://abduzeedo.com/olympic-poster-design-over-last-112-years

http://www.turbosquid.com/FullPreview/Index.cfm/ID/268703

http://www.designobserver.com/archives/entry.html?id=191

http://www.logodesign.com/logo_design/2006/02/17/torino-logo/

http://en.beijing2008.cn/63/32/column212033263.shtml

http://www.designer-daily.com/design-at-the-beijing-olympic-games-985

http://www.insidethegames.com/show-news.php?id=4572

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pucon

http://www.ibigroup.com/facilities/ocs_overview.html

http://geography.about.com/library/maps/blchile.htm

http://agora.virtualmuseum.ca/edu/ViewLoitLo.do?method=preview&lang=EN& id=240

http://blog.wired.com/business/2008/08/olympics-peak-d.html

http://www.olymperial.com/indexb_v4e6.htm?mode_exec=norm http://www.enchantedlearning.com/southamerica/chile/flag/ http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/worldmusic/view/page.basic/artist/ content.artist/traditional_songs_of_the_mapuche_indians_35406

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaso http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arena_Santiago http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3778/is_1992_April/ai_12150923 http://www.allyoucanread.com/Top10_By_Countries/index.asp?id=35

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http://www.janeresture.com/easter_music/index.htm

http://www.angelkat.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santiago_Metro

http://www.nuestro.cl/eng/stories/recovery/historia_grafica.htm

http://www.hubdub.com/m24259/Will_Santiago_Chile_bid_for_the_2018_Winter_Olympic_Games

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFYfEgH2Rq4

http://www.hubdub.com/m24259/Will_Santiago_Chile_bid_for_the_2018_Winter_Olympic_Games

http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/chile.html http://www.chipsites.com/ww/culture-chilean-art-literature.html

X X I I W I N T E R O LY M P I C G A M E S

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chileans

http://www.chipsites.com/public/

http://www.mapuche-nation.org/english/frontpage.htm

http://www.daf.cl/

http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/southamerica/mapuche.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_Games

http://www.bariloche.com.ar/museo/MAPUING.HTM

http://www.zenakruzick.com/americas-tribal-art/americas-headband_mapuche_ chile-5930details.htm

http://www.spotlightchile.com/mapuche.htm http://www.sagoodnews.co.za/the_future/south_africans_high_on_national_pride. html

http://imagery.gettyimages.com/ http://www.plataformaurbana.cl/

SANTIAGO CHILE

http://www.archive.org/details/linktv_globalpulse20070621

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2006-12/11/content_755222.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cNrCPzdmy8

http://www.flickr.com/photos/maydos/3300868364/

http://www.archive.org/details/linktv_globalpulse20070712

http://www.drclas.harvard.edu/revista/articles/view/714

http://www.elcolorado.cl/

http://archaeology.about.com/od/artandarchitecture/a/atacama_glyph.htm

http://www.chileanski.com/eng/fotos.asp?centro=valle-nevado/hotel-puerta-delsol&foto=fachada

http://archaeology.about.com/od/artandarchitecture/a/atacama_glyph.htm


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Winter Olympics 2018 - Santiago, Chile  

Research Manual for Santiago Winter

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