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hazelwood blue-green infrastructure

Ryan Walker Fall 2013 Department of Landscape Architecture


special thanks This project was made possible through the participation and collaboration of: The Penn State Center Brian Wolyniak, Penn State Cooperative Extension, Allegheny Office Dan Sentz, City of Pittsburgh, Department of City Planning The Hazelwood Initiative Stuart Echols, The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Landsdcape Architecture The Residents of Hazelwood Thank you for your time, energy, and interest in this project.

Ryan Walker Fall 2013 Department of Landscape Architecture


table of contents Project Context................................................................................................................................................1 Pittsburgh’s Stormwater Problems..................................................................................................................2 Project Statement...........................................................................................................................................5 Project Goals..................................................................................................................................................6 Project Introduction Project Introduction: Blue-Green Concept................................................................................................7 Project Introduction: Infrastructure........................................................................................................8 Project Introduction: Components...........................................................................................................9 Urban Stormwater Retrofits Urban Stormwater Retrofits..................................................................................................................10 Urban Stormwater Retrofits: Analysis....................................................................................................11 Urban Stormwater Retrofits: Plan.........................................................................................................13 Urban Stormwater Retrofits: System Visualizations..............................................................................14 Urban Stormwater Retrofits: Plants......................................................................................................19 Tree Planting Program Urban Tree Canopy: Context...................................................................................................................20 Tree Planting Program..........................................................................................................................22 Tree Planting Program: Plan.................................................................................................................23 Tree Planting Program: Components.....................................................................................................24 Tree Planting Program: Benefits...........................................................................................................25 Tree Planting Program: System Visualizations......................................................................................29 Vacant Lot Incentive Program Vacant Lot Incentive Program...............................................................................................................33 Vacant Lot Incentive Program: Analysis................................................................................................34 Vacant Lot Incentive Program: Parks....................................................................................................37 Vacant Lot Incentive Program: Parks System Visualizations.................................................................42 Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure Phasing Plan Infrastructure Phasing: Years 1-2...........................................................................................................46 Infrastructure Phasing: Years 2-10.........................................................................................................47 Infrastructure Phasing: Years 10-15........................................................................................................48 Individual Stormwater Participation...............................................................................................................49 Ryan Walker Fall 2013 Department of Landscape Architecture


Project context Hazelwood is a neighborhood of Pittsburgh located southeast of the Central Business Distance along the Monongahela River. This former industrial neighborhood shared in Pittsburgh’s identity as a working class city. In the 1960s and 1970s, the steel industry began to decline rapidly and so did Hazelwood’s population, dropping from almost 10,000 in the mid to late-60s to just over 4300 today. The only surviving remnants of Pittsburgh’s industrial coal and steel past in Hazelwood are the railroad lines that run parallel to Second Avenue and along the northern bend of the Monongahela River, as well as some industrial buildings on the

ALMONO development site. Along with Pittsburgh’s industrial past came the environmental impacts that the boom of industry produced. Once known as the “Smoky City,” Pittsburgh’s residents suffered from poor air quality and even poorer water quality. The historic sewer network in Pittsburgh ran directly into the city and region’s waterways, including the Monongahela, Ohio, and Allegheny Rivers. Untreated sewer and rainwater contaminated fresh water sources. Pittsburgh’s combined sewer network continues to cause environmental and infrastructural issues for the city and Hazelwood to this day.

Allegheny River

Central Business District

Ohio River

Monongahela River

Hazelwood

Hazelwood’s location (GREEN) within Pittsburgh’s city limits along the Monongahela River.

The confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers forming the Ohio River.

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Pittsburgh’s stormwater problem In 2007, a Consent Decree was announced by the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority (ALCOSAN) over the state of its sewer system, water quality, and stormwater control methods. Before the plan was announced, 16 billion gallons of storm water and raw sewage was released into the region’s waterways each year (Hopey 2007). The consent decree forced ALCOSAN to develop a plan tasked with the improvement of the existing sewer system in order to drastically improve the discharges into streams and rivers as well as avoid further civil penalties that the federal government could levy upon the sewer authority. The original projection for the cost of these improvements was $1 billion, but these estimates have increased over the years as the cost of retrofitting a decades-old system continues to be understood. These estimates did not include the cost of improving city and municipal owned sewer lines and facilities, adding an initial projected cost of $2 billion (Hopey 2007). What is important to recognize is that the bulk of the cost for the improvements to ALCOSAN’s system, no matter how high the final estimates climb, would come from the customers of ALCOSAN representing the vast majority of people living in the Pittsburgh region. This infrastructural change raised questions about how Pittsburgh and ALCOSAN could handle stormwater in a more sustainable and effective manner. One such method is what is considered “Green Infrastructure.”

ABOVE RIGHT: Untreated runoff released directly into the Hudson River Estuary. BELOW RIGHT: This diagram explains what takes place in the sub-grade piping during a Combined Sewer Overflow event. *diagram from reformpittsburghnow.com, 2009

Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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* Orange lines represent municipal sewer lines

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Project statement Stormwater issues are an important and critical element for the quality of life in Hazelwood, Pittsburgh. Localized flooding creates temporary flooding events in the streets of Hazelwood and the flooding of private residences and businesses. The dated sub-grade sewer network beneath Hazelwood generates further flood-related issues such as the smell of back-up sewers in some of the flatter areas along Second Avenue and Riverside. Initially, the scope of this project focused solely on a stormwater management plan utilizing urban stormwater retrofits as the solution for localized flooding in Hazelwood and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) events occurring along the Monongahela River, Hazelwood’s southern border. As the design process continued and more inventory was taken of the opportunities Hazelwood provided for solutions to stormwater issues, the plan took on a more detailed and community-specific approach, unique to Hazelwood. This plan includes utilizing the community’s interest and investment in Hazelwood as a place they wish to improve themselves. The concept for this project includes the aforementioned technical approaches to stormwater management as well as a social approach to engaging community interest and involvement in order to ensure that the solutions presented are ones that will fit into Hazelwood’s existing identity and serve as a platform for enhancing the quality of life, community, and environment in Hazelwood.

ABOVE RIGHT: Looking south-east along Second Avenue towards the Car Barn BELOW RIGHT: A view into Riverside overlooking the railroad tracks headed towards downtown Pittsburgh

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Project goals Reduce localized flooding events and stormwater contributing to Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) events Improve stormwater runoff quality before its release into the existing sewer network Utilize existing community elements such as vacant lots and roads as design opportunities for stormwater management Improve Hazelwood’s urban tree canopy Enhance community identity through the creation of new park spaces ABOVE LEFT: An example of localized flooding on a back alley ABOVE RIGHT: One example of how chemicals can enter sewer networks without any filtration MIDDLE: One of Hazelwood’s vacant lots along Second Avenue BOTTOM RIGHT: Lewis Park, one of the few active public parks in the community BOTTOM LEFT: A view along Second Avenue showing low tree canopy coverage over the sidewalk and street

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Project introduction: blue-green concept hazelwood blue-green infrastructure reduce

improve

utilize

enhance

Conventional Green Infrastructure includes design and planning decisions such as stormwater management, urban habitat, sustainable energy products, and improved water quality. Although all “green infrastructure” practices are healthy and beneficial practices, the term “green infrastructure” is a misnomer. The term “Blue-Green” has been adopted for this infrastructure plan for Hazelwood because the focus of the design issues, opportunities, and proposals are focused on water and vegetation: Blue and Green. In many of the designs that make up the Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure plan, water, vegetation, and soil interact with one another and depend on each other in order to function and help solve the existing issues that Hazelwood faces.

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Project introduction: infrastructure Traditional stormwater management systems fail for a variety of reasons. One of the most common reasons is that, in the past, the approach to stormwater management was to convey the water off site to a single or a couple large holding or management facilities as quick as possible. This approach led to channelization and high volume stress on large scale systems that were designed as the last measure of stormwater management. A contemporary and sustainable stormwater management system does not rely on the singular, large facility, but rather, a large network of smaller facilities that work with natural processes designed to manage a smaller volume of stormwater during peak rain events. This system enables water to be managed at the source (where rain makes contact) more effectively, rather than pushing the “problem” further down the pipe. In turn, this approach reduces localized flooding and traps contaminants before they move off site and build up with other runoff. Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure adapts this systematic stormwater approach to a variety of scales. Just as a good stormwater management system has multiple retrofits in an area to disperse the load and energy of a rain event, so too does Hazelwood BlueHazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure Green Infrastructure have multiple systems Urban Forestry Parks all focused on one thing: the successful management of stormwater. The benefits Pocket Green Parks produced by this plan do not simply end Stormwater Parks with good stormwater management. This Hazelwood Tree Planting Program plan recognizes the value that Hazelwood Lined Flow-Through Planters offers to stormwater planning as well as the Curbside Infiltration Planters associated benefits that new stormwater Continuous Open Tree Pits management brings. Hazelwood Blue-Green Street Centerlines Infrastructure has three components: a Building Footprints tree planting program, a urban stormwater retrofit plan, and a vacant lot incentive Miles program. 0 0.125 0.25 0.5 0.75 Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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Project introduction: components HAZELWOOD BLUE-GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

Tree Planting Program

Urban Stormwater Retrofits

Vacant Lot Incentive Program

A tree planting program aimed at improving Hazelwood’s Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) that will help with the mitigation of stormwater impacts and provide other social and environmental benefits.

Small-scale retrofits such as continuous open tree pits, curbside infiltration planters, and lined, flow-through planters designed to reduce localized flooding and improve stormwater runoff quality.

A land development program utilizing Hazelwood’s existing vacant lots as an opportunity to create new public park spaces, contributing to the overall infrastructure plan while providing stormwater and social benefits.

Design Components:

Design Components:

Design Components:

Front-Lot Trees

Curbside Infiltration Planters

Stormwater Parks

Back-Lot Trees

Lined, Flow-Through Planters

Pocket Green Parks

Continuous Open Tree Pits

Urban Forestry Parks

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urban stormwater retrofits A central proponent of this overall stormwater system is to utilize the existing elements of Hazelwood that can contribute to a new stormwater plan. The stormwater retrofit components utilize elements of the existing sewer network within Hazelwood such as the current storm drains and municipal sewer lines as an indicator of where these proposed retrofits will have the best impact. This part of the overall plan recognizes the associated costs of new stormwater infrastructure such as new storm drains, or raised drop inlets, amended soils and subsurface aggregates and any additional subgrade piping under new stormwater retrofits like flow-through planters and infiltration planters. As much as possible, the urban stormwater retrofits component looks to reduce any future costs by placing design features above or near existing sub-grade infrastructure. The subgrade infrastructure associated with new retrofits will not be covered in detail for every space within Hazelwood. The plan recognizes the specific requirements that each individual designed location would need. This level of detail is one that would be handled at an implementation stage that is not covered in this proposed project.

ABOVE: Examples of various storm drains and their conditions in Hazelwood. Many storm drains are partially or completely obstructed with debris or trash while other drains have no ďŹ lter apparatus allowing solid waste to enter municipal sewer lines.

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urban stormwater retrofits: analysis Pittsburgh’s topography presents a challenge to stormwater management and the same issues are present in Hazelwood. Steeper slopes have larger impacts for communities when rain events occur. In Pittsburgh, the majority of storm events are short, intense rain events generating a large amount of stormwater in a short period of time. For Hazelwood, this stormwater will travel downhill quickly compounding localized flooding areas in the southern parts of Hazelwood, most notably Second Avenue and Riverside. Steeper slopes also limit the opportunities for infiltrating stormwater. In many cases, infiltration on steep slopes can contribute to landslide prone areas, which are recognized by the City of Pittsburgh. One way to adapt to this condition is develop a system that retains as much stormwater as possible at the upper elevations and all the way along the slope in order to mitigate flooding further downhill. Stormwater Stomrwater Challenges Landslide Prone High : 370 Low : 216.3 Gradient ProďŹ le Location

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urban stormwater retrofits: analysis

Existing Stormwater Network Storm Drains Combined Sewer Outfall Shallow Cut Interceptor Municipal Sewer Lines Deep Tunnel Interceptor Separate Sewer Area Combined Sewer Area Non-Contributing Area

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Second Avenue Conveyance Analysis No Conveyance Second Avenue High Conveyance Low Conveyance

Ryan Walker Fall 2013

LEFT: Analysis of the road network and its conveyance to Second Avenue informed the location of inďŹ ltration planters along Second Avenue and its intersections.

ABOVE: The location of existing storm drains is another important factor for the location of urban stormwater retroďŹ ts.

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urban stormwater retrofits: plan CURBSIDE INFILTRATION PLANTERS: Small-scale infiltration planters along street edges in flat areas of the community that intercept stormwater, improve water quality, and reduce stormwater runoff

LINED, FLOW-THROUGH PLANTERS: Lined, Flow-Through Planters intercept stormwater, reduce runoff, and improve stormwater quality by retaining stormwater as plants absorb the water before any excess runoff overflows into the sewer network

CONTINUOUS OPEN TREE PITS: These retrofits operate the same function as curbside infiltration planters but are large enough to accommodate street trees within them

Urban Stormwater Retrofits Lined Flow-Through Planters Curbside Infiltration Planters Continuous Open Tree Pits Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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urban stormwater retrofits

ABOVE LEFT: The existing stormwater management at the intersection of Elizabeth Street and Second Avenue. Ryan Walker Fall 2013

ABOVE RIGHT: How a curbside inďŹ ltration planter would look like at the same intersection.

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urban stormwater retrofits

Burgwin School Before Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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urban stormwater retrofits

Burgwin School After Ryan Walker Fall 2013

Open tree pits function as both a curbside planter as well as an effective location for new street trees. Depending on the location within Hazelwood, these planters could inďŹ ltrate stormwater.

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urban stormwater retrofits

Second Avenue Section Before Ryan Walker Fall 2013

The addition of curbside inďŹ ltration planters and lined, ow-through planters does have a physical impact on the organization of a street. In many cases, on-street parking is most affected.

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urban stormwater retrofits

Second Avenue Section After Ryan Walker Fall 2013

However, the addition of attractive and beneďŹ cial stormwater infrastructure is often an acceptable alternative to on-street parking.

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urban stormwater retrofits: Plants Elijah Blue Fescue Festuca glauca ‘Elijah Blue’

Orange Coneflower Rudbekia fulgida

Soft Rush Juncus effusus

Blanketflower Gaillardia aristata

Thread-leaf Coreopsis Coreopsis verticillata

New England Aster Aster novae-angliae

Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium

False Sunflower Heliopsis helianthoides

Butterflyweed Asclepias tuberosa

* These plants represent a sample of what types of species could be planted in the Urban Stormwater Retrofits. Specific plants are better suited to specific soils and soil moisture conditions, depending on their location within Hazelwood.

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urban tree canopy: context Many people underestimate the value that trees have in the urban setting. Trees provide a range of benefits for the environment and for residents of urban centers. Before this project examines the economic benefits associated with urban trees, and street trees specifically, general terminology about urban forestry and introductory figures for Pittsburgh’s urban tree canopy will be examined. TERMINOLOGY: Urban Tree Canopy: the leaves stems, and branches of a tree in a specific area as viewed from above Street Tree: any tree located on a street, sidewalk, or adjacent to a sidewalk, either on public or private land Urban Forest: all of the woody and herbaceous vegetation found within an urban area including street trees, trees on private property, trees on public area, in city parks and along river corridors Pittsburgh Urban Forest: all trees on public and private land within the city boundary Pittsburgh Tree Canopy

Pittsburgh’s urban tree canopy (UTC) as of 2011 is 14,883 acres, 42% of Pittsburgh’s total land area. Comparing the data of two previous tree studies in Pittsburgh reveals that only 3.5% of the overall urban tree canopy is comprised of street trees. This statistic is influenced by a range of factors including insufficient area for planting on sidewalks, poor growing conditions and overhead power lines which are kept free from any overhead obstacles.

Hazelwood Tree Canopy

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urban tree canopy: context Street trees can provide quantifiable benefits for a city such as conserving energy, reducing stormwater runoff, improving air quality, and reducing carbon dioxide levels. While reports over the past years have looked at the economic benefits for each category, this project will look specifically at the economic benefits for stormwater management. But first, we will look at how the economic benefits were calculated. Based on estimates generated in 2008, Pittsburgh’s 29,641 street trees produced a cumulative $2.4 million in annual benefits across multiple areas like those mentioned previously. This cumulative value equals $81 of benefit per tree per year. In order to determine the net benefit that trees provide, Pittsburgh’s $816,400 in annual tree-related expenditures were subtracted from the $2.4 million cumulative annual benefit for a $1.6 million annual net benefit to the city as a whole, bringing the benefit per tree down to $53 per year. For planners and designers, understanding the relationship between the benefit and the cost of trees is an important part of understanding the net economic benefit that a new design or planting program could create for the city. A Benefit-Cost Ratio, or BCR is a simple equation in which one takes the overall value of any system and divide it by the cost related to it, such as maintenance, upgrades, and associated administrative costs. In order to determine Pittsburgh’s annual BCR for trees, the overall benefit value of $2,400,975 is divided by the total costs, $816,400 which yields a BCR of $2.94. This is to say that for every $1 that Pittsburgh spends on its street trees, it receives $2.94 in benefits. ABOVE: A street tree program in the Greater Kansas City Region.

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tree planting program Trees can serve an incredibly valuable service for stormwater management. In comparison to expensive, traditional stormwater systems that look to collect, retain, and convey stormwater to another location, trees have the ability to intercept and hold rain water on leaves, bark, and stems, greatly improving the amount of rainwater storage and infiltration through its root system, and helping to prevent soil erosion. Overall, trees can greatly reduce the amount of peak runoff during a rain event and trees are more effective in controlling the amount of runoff generated during small storm events. However, simply planting street trees in any location does not guarantee the maximum benefits for stormwater management. In order for trees to be highly successful stormwater managers, they require non-compacted soils, adequate growing volumes for their root networks, and quality soil material. If street trees are not planted or designed in appropriate areas, they will require more maintenance, have a shorter life span and be less effective than a mature, well planted street tree. The Tree Planting Program for Hazelwood take into account the site-specific nature of the community and proposed tree plantings are located in areas that would be conducive to establishing a healthy tree within the Urban Forest of Hazelwood and Pittsburgh. TOP: Street trees along Second Avenue in Hazelwood. BOTTOM: Street trees along the Allegheny Riverfront Park.

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tree planting program: plan Compared to the analysis compiled for the Urban Stormwater Retrofits and Vacant Lot Incentive Program components of the Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure Plan, the Tree Planting Program consisted primarily of a “windshield analysis.” In order to determine the best locations for new trees in Hazelwood looking at individual streets and their openness as well as the amount of space available in the front yards of residences enabled this plan to inform the best locations for new trees. These locations were then referenced to aerial imagery to ensure that any obstacles to a new tree planting had not been missed.

FRONT-LOT TREES: These trees are classified as “street trees,” located either on the street edge or in front yards of parcels that would be used with the permission of property owners to provide stormwater, environmental and social benefits.

BACK-LOT TREES: Back-lot trees are considered urban forest trees only but still provide stormwater, environmental, and social benefits. However, as they are not considered street trees, these trees are not taken into account for stormwater value and volumetric calculations.

Hazelwood Tree Planting Program UTC Front-Lot Trees UTC Back-Lot Trees Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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tree planting program: components

Hazelwood Tree Planting Program Lot Status

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UTC Private Parcels

UTC Active Lots

UTC Public Parcels

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The total number of trees proposed in the Hazelwood Tree Planting Program is 425. When at young maturity, these trees can add a total of 834,485 square feet or just over 19 acres of urban tree canopy. Analysis of the proposed Tree Planting Program showed that this program can take on several different types. These types include proposed trees that are located on vacant parcels and those on active parcels. Another important component of the Tree

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Planting Program is the type of land which trees would be planted on. The relationship between publicly owned land and privately owned land can serve as an indicator of how quickly a new tree could be planted without the need of individual property owner approval. In theory, this enables certain trees of the program to have a higher chance of being planted before others.

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tree planting program: benefits

ABOVE: The existing economic value of street trees for stormwater management in Pittsburgh and Hazelwood Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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tree planting program: benefits

ABOVE: The potential economic value of street trees for stormwater management in Pittsburgh and Hazelwood as a result of the 425 trees in Hazelwood’s Tree Planting Program Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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tree planting program: benefits

ABOVE: The existing volumetric value of street trees for stormwater management in Pittsburgh and Hazelwood Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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tree planting program: benefits

ABOVE: The potential volumetric value of street trees for stormwater management in Pittsburgh and Hazelwood as a result of the 425 trees in Hazelwood’s Tree Planting Program Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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tree planting program

Riverside Train Tracks Before Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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tree planting program

Riverside Train Tracks After Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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tree planting program

Intersection of Path Way and Langhorn Street Before Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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tree planting program

Intersection of Path Way and Langhorn Street After Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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vacant lot incentive program One of the existing identities of Hazelwood is that of vacant lots. Currently, Hazelwood has roughly a 25% lot vacancy. Although the lot vacancy in Hazelwood can be seen as a planning problem, the lots themselves are an important asset that the community can utilize as an opportunity instead of a restriction. Along with the community’s love and ambition for Hazelwood, the identity of the community can be regenerated into a community with a connection to its public parks, green spaces, and blue-green infrastructure. LEFT: A view of one of the individual vacant lots along Second Avenue

Hazelwood Vacant Lots Hazelwood Vacant Lots

LEFT: Analysis showing all of the vacant lots in Hazelwood

Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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In order for the stormwater plan for Hazelwood to be successful, the community must be a part of the solution, not simply observe the infrastructural elements such as stormwater retrofits or an urban street tree program, however beneficial those elements may be. The identity that Hazelwood creates for itself with stormwater can be enhanced with a social or public element, one where members of the community can engage with one another in public green spaces that provide stormwater value, as well as a host of other social benefits. A Vacant Lot Incentive Program (VLIP) would achieve these goals by taking the existing vacant land and developing it into green spaces that the community can use while the spaces themselves help in the management of stormwater. The vacant lots can be developed into several different types of green space: traditional open green space, wooded park space, stormwater demonstration gardens, or rain gardens. The type of green space will also depend on a range of factors: size of the converted vacant lots, proximity to populated areas, proximity to existing stormwater infrastructure such as storm drains, and the amount of stormwater that is conveyed to the individual site.

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vacant lot incentive program: analysis

Vacant lots that are already in public agency hands would have an easier development transition into public green spaces that can handle stormwater runoff and retrofits. For privately owned vacant lots, more stakeholders would be involved in order to convert this vacant land into a valuable community resource. In some situations, several parcels of vacant land may be clustered together, but three different types of stakeholders may be represented. This situation creates a much larger obstacle for the creation of a public green space than the same amount of parcels all owned by one entity, such as the Urban Redevelopment Authority as an example. Vacant Lot Stakeholders Private and Commercial Owners Catholic Diocese od Pittsburgh City of Pittsburgh Hazelwood Initiative Inc. Hazelwood Initiative Inc. Port Authority of Allegheny County Urban Redevelopment Authority Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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vacant lot incentive program: analysis In order to maximize the amount of potential green space for Hazelwood, VLIP could be utilized in order to cluster lots into more effective open spaces. Private stakeholders will be encouraged to invest their vacant lot for public space development. These stakeholders can invest their land in either one of two ways. Private stakeholders could decide to sell their land to the City of Pittsburgh, thus transferring all the rights of the land to the city so that these former vacant lots could transformed into functioning stormwater management sites and public spaces. The other option for private stakeholders is to lease the development rights to the city but not sell the property. This lease would allow the city to convert the vacant private land into public land. However, should the city decide to redevelop this public green space into another land use such as a business development or housing development, the original private stakeholder will receive a portion of the Clustered Vacant Lot Ownership profit margin that the city would gain from the new development. Multi Stakeholder Clustered Lots URA Clustered Lots City of Pittsburgh Clustered Lots Private Clustered Lots Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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vacant lot incentive program: analysis VLIP would create a host of benefits for the community beyond the stormwater management practices in the individual spaces. As a land management program, VLIP would help re-densify Hazelwood for future development. As vacant lots are clustered, smaller groups of lots or individual lots would remain vacant encouraging developers to look to these smaller gaps within the fabric of Hazelwood as an opportunity for development. In the case of Second Avenue, VLIP could suggest open areas that can be developed into retail and office space or housing. Another benefit of VLIP is that as new green spaces and stormwater management parks are created, the property values of nearby land will increase, encouraging residents of Pittsburgh to buy and redevelop any undeveloped vacant lot remaining in Hazelwood. Other benefits would include improved air quality, increased biodiversity, the creation Vacant Lot Incentive Program (VLIP) of more public parks for residents of Multi Stakeholder Clustered Lots Hazelwood and improved opportunities for community engagement. URA Clustered Lots City of Pittsburgh Clustered Lots Private Clustered Lots Individual Vacant Lots Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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vacant lot incentive program: parks

In addition to the previously mentioned analyses, a different set of analyses is applied to the different parks to create a unique, custom-fit solution for each new space in Hazelwood. However, several factors can categorize the type of new space that would be most successful in Hazelwood. Three types of new spaces will be created from VLIP: Stormwater Parks, Pocket Green Parks, and Urban Forestry Parks.

Vacant Lot Incentive Program Parks Urban Forestry Parks Pocket Green Parks Stormwater Parks Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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vacant lot incentive program: parks The factors that were taken into consideration for the location of Urban Forestry Parks included the overall size of clustered lots, their elevation within Hazelwood, as well as the severity of the slope that is found on the lot cluster. Many vacant lot clusters created large plots of available land for development. However, the majority of these large clusters are located on steep slopes in the higher elevations of Hazelwood: areas that are not conducive for infiltration. As a result, the opportunity to create larger public spaces was utilized and took the form of Urban Forestry Parks. These public spaces focus on the creation of intentional miniature forest stands with pathways winding through them. In comparison to existing vacant lots that have been let to grow on their own, Urban Forestry Parks will focus on establishing a balanced planting program of trees, preventing aggressive species to overtake more open area within Hazelwood. This type of intentional approach produces a range of benefits. First, the increase in tree canopy increases Hazelwood’s ability to intercept rainfall and take up rainwater that is present underground from the soil. Second, the introduction of more trees will help, over the long term, with soil stabilization and erosion control. As the trees mature, their root systems Vacant Lot Incentive Program Parks develop and expand helping to create a more stable soil horizon. Finally, the Urban Forestry Parks introduction of a balanced planting Stormwater Parks program will encourage biodiversity Pocket Green Parks within Hazelwood. Street Centerlines

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vacant lot incentive program: parks The most important factor for Stormwater Parks is the feasibility of on-site infiltration. Wherever possible, Stormwater Parks were located in areas that were both suitable for infiltration as well as serving as a functional public space within convenient walking distance of many households. Although some parks that are categorized as Stormwater Parks may not infiltrate water on-site, they still provide a valuable service for stormwater management. This feature is the most distinguishing part of the Stormwater Park from the other two types of park. Unlike Pocket Green Parks and Urban Forestry Parks, the primary focus of Stormwater Parks is some type of stormwater management, whether it is infiltration, retention, or bioremediation. Stormwater Parks that infiltration water on-site are located in flat areas without steep slopes, but are located at a point where stormwater is already conveyed by steep slopes. Another key factor for Stormwater Parks is its proximity to Second Avenue. By locating these parks along Second Avenue, Hazelwood can Vacant Lot Incentive Program Parks demonstrate progressive, community engaged stormwater management in an Urban Forestry Parks area that is considered a cultural center Stormwater Parks of the neighborhood. Pocket Green Parks Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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vacant lot incentive program: parks POCKET GREEN PARK ANALYSIS An analysis of Hazelwood was done to show the existing parks and a quarter-mile walking radius to determine which buildings fell within that radius. Some buildings lay outside of the overall parks radius making a Pocket Green Park a suitable option for the vacant lots in the immediate area of these buildings so that they can have a park within walking distance as well. The clustered lots of VLIP helped show what lot clusters might be suitable options for a Pocket Green Park.

Pocket Green Park Analysis Parks Multi Stakeholder Clustered Lots URA Clustered Lots City of Pittsburgh Clustered Lots Private Clustered Lots 1/4 Mile Walking Distance Building Footprints

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vacant lot incentive program: parks The third type of new green space for Hazelwood is the Pocket Green Park. In some scenarios, VLIP identifies areas of small clustered lots that are either located in areas that cannot infiltrate stormwater or are too small in order to be effective for urban forestry. These clustered lots would be best suited for conversion into a Pocket Green Park. Although these parks do not have the primary focus of stormwater management, they still contribute to the stormwater plan. These parks would be planted with flowering shrubs, trees, and other plants that would help with the interception of rain water and intake of water within the soil through their root systems, much like the Urban Forestry Parks. However, these spaces act as small social spaces for members of the community to enjoy and interact with each other in. For households that are located far away from existing active recreation parks, a Pocket Green Park could include a small playground or a half-court basketball area. Another benefit of this park type is that it can be implemented in small Vacant Lot Incentive Program Parks vacant lot clusters that would otherwise be left vacant. Urban Forestry Parks Stormwater Parks Pocket Green Parks Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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vacant lot incentive program: parks

Intersection of Tipton Street and Second Avenue Before Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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vacant lot incentive program: parks

Stormwater Park at the intersection of Tipton Street and Second Avenue After Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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vacant lot incentive program: parks

Intersection of Elizabeth Street and Orinoco Street Before Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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vacant lot incentive program: parks

Pocket Green Park at the intersection of Elizabeth Street and Orinoco Street After Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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infrastructure phasing: years 1-2 An infrastructure plan at this scale requires a large amount of investors, stakeholders, and community volunteers and participants in order to be turned into a success. The 9-Mile Run Project in Pittsburgh set an encouraging precedent for the cooperation of a wide range of stakeholders to come together and work together for the good of the environment, the city, and the unique neighborhood. A phasing plan for Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure will focus on three different phases.

INTERVENTION PHASE: YEARS 1-2 This initial phase is focused on small scale implementations across Hazelwood, primarily through the Curbside Infiltration Planters and publicly owned lot trees. These elements of the overall program also have some of the most tangible benefits for stormwater management. An important element of this part of the infrastructure phase is community involvement. Although the trees in this phase may be located on publicly owned land, community members can be the ones who install the trees across Hazelwood. The same principle can be applied to the Curbside Infiltration Planters. Although the design must be done by an agency or landscape architect, as much of the installation of these retrofits should be carried out by community members as Intervention Phase Years 1-2 possible. Although this phase is a small Curbside Infiltration Planters percentage of the overall plan, it is the UTC Public Parcels most important because it establishes Street Centerlines the foundations for the new stormwater system and gets members of the Building Footprints community involved in the large-scale Miles plan. 0 0.125 0.25 0.5 0.75 Ryan Walker Fall 2013

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infrastructure phasing: years 2-10 SOCIAL PHASE: YEARS 2-10 The second phase of the Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure plan looks at improving the social aspects of stormwater management and Hazelwood’s enhanced community identity. The Pocket Green Parks and Stormwater Parks are designed and implemented in this phase along with more trees from the Tree Planting Program along with all of the Lined, Flow-Through Planters. At this stage in the project’s development, more outside stakeholders such as city planners and landscape architects are brought on to help the community design each individual park. However, the focus of the implementation of these parks is not driven by the designers’ own ideas, but rather through ideas put forward by the community Social Phase Years 2-10 through a collaborative design model. Pocket Green Parks Stormwater Parks UTC Private Parcels Lined Flow-Through Planters Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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infrastructure phasing: years 10-15 FINAL DEVELOPMENT PHASE: YEARS 10-15 By now, the majority of trees have been planted and all of the Curbside Infiltration Planters and Lined, Flow-Through Planters have been installed. The Continuous open Tree Pits are the last retrofit component to be installed in the project. At the beginning of this phase, the Urban Forestry Parks are in the beginning phases of design and planning. An important part of the process for the Urban Forestry Parks is a holistic inventory of the existing plant species or communities present in each of the four parks. Because these are former vacant lots, invasive species may have migrated into these areas. Before the planting of new urban forestry communities, invasive species such as Tree-of-Heaven and Norway Maple must be removed to the best degree possible. Final Development Phase Years 10-15 Urban Forestry Parks Continuous Open Tree Pits Street Centerlines Building Footprints

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inidividual stormwater participation What can I do? Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure encourages all residents of Hazelwood to think about how they contribute to the stormwater network in the community. Individuals can take several actions to help reduce the impacts of localized flooding and poor stormwater runoff quality. These include, but are not limited to:

Rain Barrels Downspout Rock Channels to slow down runoff from roofs Install vegetated bioswales or rain gardens in yards Plant mulch around plants and trees to slow evaporation and improve soil’s retention of moisture Re-use water from a rain barrel for landscaping needs Raised rain gardens connected to a roof downspout Ryan Walker Fall 2013

TOP LEFT: A raised rain garden BOTTOM LEFT: Downspout stone channel

TOP RIGHT: A rain barrel BOTTOM RIGHT: A downspout rain garden

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This document is a digital report to be viewed on electronic devices only. For a printable ďŹ le of this report, please contact Ken Tamminga, Department of Landscpae Architecture, The Pennsylvania State University or Deno De Ciantis, The Penn State Center.

Ryan Walker Fall 2013 Department of Landscape Architecture


Hazelwood Blue-Green Infrastructure