Issuu on Google+

!i_!!:i! 存i12_2_u2_ _ __ _,i_i__o__how do wo_ d__ __ _ A ::: :: .mm_ber haseven swelled:due: to iarge-./::cope:wiftr_e situation? Is the current ....:iii scale undrained m_employmex_t caused: ilshort_tem_ preoccupation with .fisc_ re" ::i::::i bythere.centreeessionm_dpowercrisis,::: S_tandmonetaryceilingSm;_ia_gi'la e

::::} govemmet_t

iii:::i

:i ....

cope:

with

this :: ever-:i::

i::: .... >/:/::.

i::

_

tt_e economy's

:east Aslan ::country where me poor arei:: ,and ianother,:: aimed to sustmn gowm mcreusang:::m number.. W,despread:pov-and whose af[ectsare long term. : ert traced to _1_ef_tare of the ....... ...... : :..... econ:omy:to: grow rapidly; :sustain that: : : growth _nd provide:jobg'i:or: the people: : ............ ........ ...... , government impiml_ent:ed

:

: admirdstratio,_;:

importm_t Str'v_ctm'al re-program

l_.ger p_rt of the fiscal deficit may be ._mm_ced through loealbox_'owix_gSo The fi.na_cialmarketlibereCL_ationwl_ich has

low smr_ag

poix_b th.is

The govenm_ent cma then assmne part of NPC s lossea O_l_e_ix_2qastructme p_ojects should pri_rtru'ily be labor-i_tensi{,e m_d concentrated in the turn m'easo

: i _ : tt_e .... Me_wt_ile, fO_._Ow me Centr_ .amore gn-"owth.-orie_t'ed :. : Bank to tin, duct its o;_e_ations ..... more _or-

of spendi_ig is being advised

to

really,

the government

should assume

:o::;.... .... ,o


::5

¸>¸¸%5:.-, ::i% ¸:.......................

::

...... .......

::: 711:'7;:::

: :: >:-<:L<: :::::7 ¸¸¸;:¸ :C:::::'C':(: ">//:/:'%, ::::::::::::::: ....

':

:

:tax; :(2):_ts

tax deduc-

Sdeficitsunder:a Sepa;::: ti6ns busblesS:and nonfixed rate:acc0mlL At the ,same t_me, ttm crea' :income: earners; (3):adopts :a global I ..... ..... :: tion: o/: in d:epend en t ::::c_a!i:: m one{: : in::C0ine:tax:to ::: :ineiude :passive in corn es; WOride

.......

:

,_.: 2::_._.G: ..,;,.X _.c ;.._ ....., conomy, i t is c all e d th e" g

enviro_entalists increases:tim :: :

rerevenue

,

approved in October last year the convening of: a working group that will : tackletradeandenvironmelxtissues. The group evolved from thelast wave ofen- : vironmental, concen_s generated at the Stockholm Convention two decades ago.

.................

........... ::

_

: ledpump:primmg;however; :

....

" .... : : :

.........

__

shotdd not

:

.... .......

...........

:::las_:m:ore !!1an two:years, otherwise, ::flati0n: becomes: unmanageable.: :Private : :: education ....... ,:: ; ......... .........

:

.....

....

o

and primary : ..... • heath

and

....

of basic care. :

revenue

.......... .........

...... :

........... . y .

economm growth and eventuall wm collection: :::::the battle:against poverty::: o .............

',Q,.

,

=, ,_ e, .... :,

"_: i' Iti!"_"< t_'i "i .....

::

:' : ....

hasa

:.... ...... ::: ::::::: ....... .... .... ...... ......: :::: : : :: : An:efficient

: : Trading regimes either unde> n±_e tl_e environment or promote ecol. ogically sustmnable devdopment, h_te> .... ......... national exchm_ge: of goods increases ...... transport demand wlUch: esc_dates risks of marinea¢cidenis::depletes fossLlfuels .... and damages the: ozone layer. For this reason, it hasbeen taken:thatproduction .... for domestic consumption is more fa....... _ -__'" _ " " 'i _" 7_ ' ii_ !: : _ ) _ ):;!:; _]i :; _)),' :i i; i i } (i '_ii._ ,, ,',<: _ _ :i . ; 'Y" _.::":_ ....... ' ;._{: _, '_ _ , .... _ ,):_;l

:....... Pto-

r

:

dmsetts conveyed theimportanCe of the linkages between these tw0 sectors, reasons; she said,; are moral, etl_i.cal and eco:aomic.

.......

family planning programs :

disc_Ssion held

pr0ductivitycm_ be aithePiDS On 25Jm_e 1992 and attended rese_d_ and by trade and envil-onment experts, Ms. : Nati0nN Food Au- I LyubaZarskyof the University ofMassa-::

...... ........... .............. : thr0ugh

......... ...... :

in a ro_ndi,abie

_:: the: : thority (NFA)is its budget administration; Tties¢. reforms promote: can be reallocated for agriculmraI tech.., extension and h_.............. ................ ia_temationalcom-nolo .... gY g,eneration; .... ........ petitiveness; In particular, the:govern4::: rlgation::::Otherilistitutionalreformsin : include: (1) sup: ::: :::comm:6dities: for review) m_d: eiimh_ate ::port and: cxtensio!a: Services to be dol_ e (flmse regulated for reasons o;f ::by the Department:of Agriculture (DA); (2) pladngthePhilippineCom_ctlfor secu:rity) altogether in fl_e:F0reign In=:::Agricultureand Resources ResearchDe:reforms under Ex: ..... :::Vel:0p men:t (PCARRD) under : DA . .... . .. . eCUtive Order470 sh0uld becomplcted: :: :: ....... ..... h_ti_re6i:nstead:offive years: LoWer ta,iff: Equitable and efficient access tO : : : rates Will:_edUce: the impact: of cU.rrency : ::naiu:ralresources:can be achieved it the : depre¢ia:tioi_ on prices In the area of _0ven,m_ent (1)desi 'hates forest lands : : nancia! refm:ms; the government sl_Ould: for various Uses (agr:oforestry, tree plan: liberaiiZe the entry of foreign bankg;al: :tations, sdectlveloggh_g, biodiversity a_d low:::eXpOrters to retain i0{)percent of :protection); (2) proteCts fishing grounds receipts of Coa_tai and small,scaie:fisheries; (3) :: taxaswellas:theagri:agraandotherloan: d_ar_es:fees:on the use of: nafm-al re ..... the : environment; and (4) : : :: ...... . -: " .... " .... :: toenhancedomest_ccompehtiton; ....... NCilitatestherehabilitatiO_ofcdticalareas: ...........................

"

: : ........ : : : : : :N_oi_ than the G_eral AgreeTariff and Trade (GATT) has

ment:on

:fo_s::al:r_ady:: started

...... : ......

_.:

:: :

be:reflected in tl_e value of the ::agrarianref0rm. Reformsin the}ice and : pe_:_th0U_interventionfr0mthe::C_tral : corn: lands::should be completed. For B_.::::Tl_is is essential, in:restoring the:: lands devoted to :otl_er crops, priority ...... .... eountr ........ scorn.....p etitiveness ...... and mcon ................should ..... be ....g iveix to p ubhcl y _owned, ser_ng:interna[ionalreserves; ali:m_able:and disposablelands. Land :: ...... tax can:fa_itate fl'ie VolUntary transfers of idlepriva[elands; ::: ...... : ..... ...... : : .Agrieitliural

,

tracte speclansts; WhO are getting rr

tax byupnance:these:ref0rms mad reduce:the:bur: dating assessed v_ues. ....... :::denohtl_enationalgovernmenL ::: :: : :: :: : : e:g0vemmm_t should set up Changes in: fl_e:exchm_ge rate realistic target for

sh0uld: ::: ::

who are eyein;

.........

(3f

_

_ _i

I" "V'"

-

v-

[ i _ _r_'.*_. :-!.. +o

I #.... __

_

"

_l

_ _:

b '"..... _ ....

t _

e

i

_ '

;_*:¢

$

-

...... ,

:: ,,

,;

_-


:

:

::i::: i

:: i

est taT_in:¢:at the bvwavs0f rr

' o

: .1

-'

::

....

enhlg of:tradeissuesl,;: It ilWolvesl rade as part 0f ::their agenda: and: .... .... :....... ...... re: concerneaot ...... ...... the envlrolunent: ......... :

:

'

:

................i

::

:

i:

and: less efficient fo_s:of

the :: :

:::

production,

txma dispute between the US and Mex'co

.........

: i

classicexample.Ina_attemptto

interdependencylin: trade also regulateinternationalwaters, theUShas :pr0m0tes cooperation and harmony i limited the number of dolphins to be

among states and helps:trigger induskilled for tuna purposes through trade : trialization, industrialization per se is restrictions, To avoid similar controverl_ot averse:t0 the envirol_ment. Its adsies in thefu0are, measuresmustbeput verse:: effects ::are:normally: associated in place in order not to mingleonewith

withilineffident and antiquated strate-theotherandto : gies. Besides, trade can create sttrplus hlregulations. come which may be disposed offorbetter trade;i: treatrnent of the environment,

: :.........

spot:therealintentofthe

second :concern is howto

nUdge thethatproductionC°nceptsystems°f "green"willtrade so: environmental costs. : "If every nation .... adopts ecologically sustainable systems of production, there is no problem. The problem is, thea'e's no concensus," Ms. Zarsky admonished. : ::

........

....

and extensive

......

i

GOnse_S_is; No_ C:oe:'C_Oi"_.....

fertiliz4_ i

:_n howe.re;thismay: : result in::de_linated::andunpro:ductive:i Soil :tinay be wiserl to forgo an /when cat_fx0nted With :: ....: :

Actually; the problem is twoFirst, there are global resotLrces such as the ozonelayer, ocean, etc. that do not guarantee any stewardship, thus, everynation has an incentive to free-ride. Second, the mariner by whid_ countTies manages its resottrces _fects other countries, partic, alarly its neighbors. These realities underlie the need for collective

i:

:the::enVirdxlment, h1 :: Zarsky:: i id_tifiedlthreedirect_poSifiveeffectsof::il i : trade to the envir0nment:: (1) it expands : : i: the pr0duction possibility fr0nti_'; (2) it: : ::: , : allows eCOnOmies Of scale;and : ........ motes:: technol0gy and innovati0n i:

:

: :

{techndl0gyin

the : ..... ....

........... :

::

action ..... ............... :: :: .... .......... : If indeed the global economvis a public good as posited: by Ms. 2_sky, then the :solutions to gi:obal economic is needed problems mustbe collective. These ef-

trade tothe willbe theinlpact of i tl'dsonth_ec0nomy? Will greater corn .... trader:mine :trade regin_es' Coinpetitiveness? :

: ......... ............

_'_ ......... ......... ......... ....

i

i a

neligible g

:::::i{i:

....

..............

r: Poncim_o .....:: in the words of,D jr., PIDS President, : floors (memo,

: niesandindustries:to:findbetterwaysof : should not be must imposed,in place, least bythey the ..... .......... tions; as in regulations, will force corn a-ing, standm'ds) entail developed Countries be (inddentally,but they :C0stsinttie:sh0rttm_, bufwilldefinitely influence GATrdecisions). Theymust inl be voluntary, commodity-specific, not : ::thelong:run2:: : : globally uniform but flexible enough to: reflect that countries are not economi-

.....

cally equal yel, to 0shoulder : the cost to the :: environment.

.........i : by::freely_trading,, cofintries

i

ual countries. ....

i :

p

::i ......:: :: i

............

iorts havebeen Started at the Stockholm Convention arid era-fled on at the GATF. Notwithstanding:the mandate m_d the support given to GATT, itssuccesswill gn:eatly on the volm_tary: will of individ-

:ost to acountry'stradebalh_ fact; envilronmental considera-Intal, ,

i : :::: ii

::

is

the

i

..... i

i:

......


:: ::i:: 存存 :!:/:i::::::ii:::!:::ii::i :?Ci!:i:/:/i:/iVi: :::Ji:/:::I:::/:C::::::::::::/:::i:U//::/:CI:::<:':::; :::L.,intestinal :.,, :'::::. These componeaats were also ment were lower than ........ those::2:>: given by the :/'ratory, gastro and sick : rated by: _e resp0ndea_ts: Table 1.shows: i : whichloneS:were important tOti_em,

:n0n-poor, iindicating that they were aware of their sub-standard housing conditions,

;

p lems can be partly attTibuted to an environment thatis littered with garbage and

: i F0r: ex_ple, .their responses to thel exa'eta, nottomentionneglectbyneigh" ::: : As::expected; the: house's: age question,'using a scale of One (lowest) to bors to quarantine children afflicted with i Was:f0und tobe inversely related to the five (highest), how would you rate the i commm'ficable diseases. ..... : scores given by the poor. This result status of water supply, showed that they : ...... ii :: :i mightm_ that they value:their houses iWere hardly better off than the non-poor. : : In Table 2i the regression results i

:

lesserandl:egserasye_spass.Th:etype ...... show: t0iletfacili:ti:es,:source ofl drinking: water;: i:i:A impact garbage; : .... status fig_ :: : i : Tl_e::envir0ment affects a child's : eases, ......

``,andg;..... environ ofresl_i-:"more ..... tirneat home .... ....

Cornp ,laints "

"p'-

the housing components.' actual on tlle indices for children s health (e,gvfrequency of contagious di_ length ol[ illness episodes for con-

............ The components that have a great impact on the entire household's health. were found to beof t'he public goods type. These are goods: that can be en _ joyed, by the whole Community. Art improved sewage system, for example, gives squatters in its surrounding area a free ride on its benefits. .... : Yet; it is ir0nic that these very: :: same heal th-rela ted housing components command little market value. Regression analysis shows that a change in the importm_t housing characteristics (i.e., the public goods) does not substantially bring about a change in the marginal rent of the unit/house (Table 3). For instance, while an hnprovement in the floor material and windows will raise

..... .........

....

......

the rent by P70 and P85, respectively, better garbage disposal m_d a safer source of drinking water will raise the value by a measlyP17 and P15. Theseprici.ng suggests that the housing market puts m ore weight on space and location, and other structural characteristics thm_ on public i goods. ..... : I artiCipants of the semh_ar, imostly representatives from DOH and PIDS, therefore l_oted that government policies should intervene and place higher priority on the public goods type of housing components, e;g., sewage, gin': bage disposal system; etc. In the long run, improvements put on these: systems and the water supply facili ties. c_m be Considered as preventive rneastires ai'_d will lead to an in-,provemen t in the health of the poort For the government, this means lesser expenses that would eventually be alloted for publi c medical services m_d cma i_lstead be added to the budget :for other govemme_t services. O i


!::::/!!! i:: ¸ ............. 9<>,._,>,. :

adiuS_m :B Y : ::: ::: ......... cut: poll:ties: ....

........

: :

.... ,_ .

.... ::The::::analys!s grouPs::Can:_e::f02*_a, ::me::::adjustment: policies

vmious:componentsmdieS:liavebrought

_

<

:of ::MacroPoiiciS: ............. :::i

::::::: :....

u..

;

._

....... .....

_ .

,: ._ .......... .

:of the m_,pact:of .mac_occonom_ ......... households and firms is a fairly

.......

_,.

.,

_ ;_

,

: _

__

:

recent re.search:area:. I : lt grew out or me concern:: that licies :adopted by govermnents:to correct: m acroecon: : :ii: _2hu°n:i'm_]s_{:_ar_;:!c°n0mlc P0!! c!es :i ::Onl:ic i/Ttbalancesanct: pla cethe economy on a sustainable effects on:various:groups of: :: : ..... llle::tinclh'tgsof:tlle:ComDo:nent : .... ..... ., : ,. _ o. :stu:ai:es unil_ Please: iI:werepi_ese_ tea_: i :me:::socm ty.::::m m o st::cases_:-me most vulnerable groups .... gr_.ater:i:id_t:a,i!ii_the

:

inTagayeayCit:y:

:

mscusslon::::

E_ertswerein:vited:to

:

rigor0usreview ::

:i:

:::::::

....

.....

and ......

........

:

: :i: "_'he:_ to:woo: [he infm:mal to !businessmanwouldWant: :tl_emahlstreamof.hmnaiity, among them: • .... _ 4.... .... ............... ..... that ls;rcg_ster::and : theKalakalan2Oand the Magma Carta:: taxes; ....._v:f! orn::the: bmfks: :and:: ::for::::Small:: and :: Medium :i::::indu stri es. source::liiSmputsandmarkethison_uts ;Kalakalan:20;arehash 0f:the ertswhile

:i

:

:

and insights on the _iakah:m: 20 and the i i Magna Cart:a; but n0ted the lack of a *'ramework to m_alyze the li_nkof macro= : economicpoiideS {o theobsez'ved infm= : reality of trade, pariicularly, that of ex_ :port, Tlie micro ..... : impact:of hnpor[ liberalization; mriff:rcstriCtlons;cxd_m_e rates and h_vestm en t incentives; accor_li ing toher, also needsto be elaborated

::: :::::: : ::::::::: :

;:::::::: :::::::in:pr0b:ing: [iie:hffomiai seCtOr : :: and:: hlduStrial:::: Sectors; :PrO f:::::Ran_on : Quesada :of fl_e:Center f0r Researda and :

....... ::: :

ttie: prolifefatio_ of info:_ai:: bush_esses duet0 :policies :: that::::arei:eiih:ei:in trh_siCally:::ba d: polp

i : ::i ::ind0singthegapbetw_:flmbiackmarket :foil6: f0:rlending tosmM1 and medium ::: :i :::rate and: the:;offidal exchange rate by::: enferprises;: wi-_ile:: these :reforms are:: : factors innoble:inlh_tc,ntion,:businesses willalways cludin ,en:ed:hl:thC:1980s ::ilpu:t:profitabili:ty c0nSidetation first, so :: :ithatiln:fl_eehd;:theh-fformalremainsin-

i ::

::::iformaL::: : ......... .... ........................ iand:::dm: i ties:slapped:: on the jewelry se.ct0r:have: ::i ....... matting fo the paper, L_.: Er: likewise en¢0nraged:the jewellers to:g0 :: linda: Me:daUa, PIDS Research Fellow,: unLergrom:_d.

:::

Govemment;asa

:

con-: lauded:theverymtcreSth_gobServations:

::

is, therefore;important tobe hmovative ..... h_ tracing the micro impact of macro" : : economic policies:through: transmission ::: medmnismsh_ fl_en:atural resource and i environmentsectc)r ..... : i :: i ii i: i ThestudyofDfiHermh_i:aFrancisCo office University of the Philippines at Los Bafios dens with the effects of macroeconomic

:

:

policies :on the rate of.

:i:: i :

:::

l


: :::i¸¸

:/

how::theSeate: ....:....

ttanslated: to Welfare r

g

...... ...... .... ,, ............ more ......... :give_: .... .......... y ...... :data:_u!e avaktable: :: ::

,.

emj_. .

g

,

negative

......... ........

were examined h_ ttu'ee areas, namely, entry,, : pridng ........... and operations, and exitl

x ...... ...... g: tl_e :dlsCUsskmi,. ...... i_"was: .... : ....... :qoine of fl_ere.g_flaLim_s .... to e_:_try.. ..... : dai:i_fi6d ti_at:¢a __ital±h_t¢_lsive m_d_ large t_ave.... eifl_er been lii'ted, or......... eased among : scale :t:edat_ol0gies arenoe:alwaysbad for them, the lidt-h_gof monopoly by' the Na _

[oi:L2r_ : of the Na[io:ihai:Ecot_0:mkia:nd Develop* :: plant due t0 erlviron:me:nfai conceittas_ " "-, : _ : . .._ : , " ? _geies/PIDbkesearchFel:,_ ment _uthontg (NEDA}, rewews the .... .... ........ 0ft_4gula{i0n, takes stock of:: : Mem..i_Vhiie,:Dr MarieI,m-nber:t.e .... : ..... ..... _ ?, _-, :., . i i ialtcmati:v_,:apl_ir0ad_¢ She,suggestediis to::: :recent deregulatmn eftorts and exa:m ..... IIDS "Vme.,.l:res_de._at: would like to see i power! : t:hec0rrelationofpowersuDplvtoh_dus.., : Ace0i':ding to him; : : tries m_d labor markeh To ii_cm_porate i

....

.....

ef<: :: list:: down : fl_e:ipositive:::m_d

i:i:i::i

.....

:

maCr(_<ie0a°m!<ePgli:cies;an

ai_d g e0 :clistribut'ed in: guzom

hydro coping mechm_isms to theframework, he : 7:6pe{'cent .... : ........ : Reg,]latio._s ::: :: : T0p_ge.iTY.ig.


:

,''f '_:'_i'"M_:N1 _.... __,''o_ _'_ ;,_ t,I.V. ............. ,,_EI _:_,,_I:K,"

: ...... ....... ..........: .............................

Sustainable:D:eveloprnent:Ai :i : :: : : byPoncian : : :

................

:

:

Preside

_....

_,_


;:::: LLS:; .................... :L;!/)(!b u;(

C:;::i,:::>/:C: 5iNi ep dpai:resear ers of: ie

ofHeal 's

:U;:_ :__:._.::/IC_:_._:_:_:_::: :/I/T_::TTT: _:_ _..:_::_ :_:_::_ ._.... ::?_C(%:_< :<:::&&:::(_ _._:__C;C_;, ....:_........_0_:_<r6"e_t6n_"Baseline_-,_:_ :::i::5°ng _ _ gP_ :_1_ __...._ ....... Studies for Health Care Financing Re.__i ::: ....... : :: :: :: ::::: : : i :::form,_ preSented the methodology and features of_iheirindividuat last May:and June. These researchers:saw the need t:o _ , _: ,, _ _, .... ._ .... exchange ...... Meas: and sohcut comn _ents ...... and crxtNues h_ cm an audx: ence :comp0sed mostly of:representatives ff0m govemrnen.t inst.itu,. i:::tion:s 0f tiealtharelateh functions .... ..... .... :

iii i

:

....

i .......

......

i

i

0ftheir: i:ser_ce

i :: :: : :: : : ::

[::: ::: :::::::: :: : ::::

: : ::

: :::::::::::::: :::

:

hea!th:_sUranceindustry

...- ........ ....

: ::::::::sharaig ::schem_ in: fin_i_g cm'e:fo r the Urba:npoOn : ::

mre:i _an :b6::made aff0fdable: m_d: e¢o_ : : :nomiCN ......... t6 re:any :Fi_lipinos if ih e private::::

:

...................

:

:

s health:

il_ei:Medi.ca:re pro-: i: : i the :i forum during: the growtK: i: seminar hcld last May 22 gave its prfilci, .......... : ..... :: ........ :: p:'alreSeardier, DrO1 .... ....... : ............... . . .... y_ ipiaMalan . . y don Was pr ._mted ::: Oftlae :'HEALTHDEVInstI[ute,:Ateneo de : in:the:lSMays_h_arattendedbYrepre41111Ma_ila University;: further insights on National Statistical:: the .flaws m_dlimitations of risk-sharing BoardI:(NSCB)_ schemes that are 0pen to this beneficiary Medlcal:Care Commission (PMCC)i group.:::::::: I ii

i:

Phi!ipPines

i ......

: .....

i

(DAP)'

:

: ......

:

:of healtii : m:ea_s of f[iiai]cillgmep00r )s healtll : : needs: : .... .....

........ "_e .... study delves, on the

to:thepoor

ofthestudy

:: ii

......

.... :

: Ms........ Irene [ anuza). ,its:prlnci :pN

is:able fo gent: attitudes on risk : investigator;discussed sources and them. Part: :i:p00ffs pefcepti0nS:and heal.th.n_-aintenm_ce uses offtmds (their levelstheand compost; deterrents

....

.... : .....

:: : .....

i_y:(

_ ,up: _i:k_?a

.:

; _mry Group. foCus_.s :_ on the

:

.... ::: : :i

i

tion)in the Philippilxeheaith sect°r, with :: emphasis on non-insurance finmadng sot_cces. : : :...... : :: : N pm_ticttlm_) thed,effiCie:ncy an : equity aspects of the following finm_cLng sources £re being investigated: (1)taxes; (2) foreign assistance fie, foreign_ lo;ms ............... ii m_d grm_ts); (3) user fee s in pubh.c hospb tals; m_d (4) non-govenm_ent organiza _ tions (proximate sottrce),. Ms. Lanuza is also examining the prospect of these as iI sources of health funds for the poor. : ..... _,hi'C_h,i i:_kii"_::

:[: :

(Non-Insmance)Fmanong: :::tl_e 0ng0ing Study:presented underscores need:to .... ..... .....

.... Schemes, on May _, "1 exhaust

.....

of the Me&care systmn, fl_e study EvNu...... .... .... : :i:: Topage12::::

:


.....

....... .........

:: ...... :

:

:i

:

:

from the cost-minimizing t_havior? What

::

:_i_ :_:::: i_i_::i:::i _i_i_i:_!_: :_ _:: !::!::: :i:_:i:_ :_:: ;_:_i _::::::::_:: _: i:::_ ::: :_:: _i :_: :i_::: _i_: _:_ _::: i::: :_ ::7 __: __!:__:_: ::_ _ii:!:_/:: :_ _: _:_ _i _:_ i:_!_ :_ :! _i_::_e : :_ve:r._ti_ale: anathemeth'_ i_is the_ect_ofsuchd_parturesontotal_:__, : : :::::

: :::: ::::: :: :: ::: :: : : : : : :::: : : :::: :i:odologyof theresearch activitywerepre-: : ati0n:6f M_care: AdminiStrativelSsues" :::: seminar, Edfiard0GonzaieSdetermin6s:the:::: ::ii::: ::: :::: :::: :: : :: nd inefficiencies of theMedicare's :: A $_idy:0_: P[_ _Ippi_e H0sp[ta_

: i ii i

the:: study's: : method010gy onMay29.:

i.....

:sinCe : twenty::y_

and::i: iiSystems :: ........

....... ....................

iMedi_ i::i ago, it has ::

cost? These are just three of the questions this ongoing study attempts to answer. : ...... Ching favOrS the statistical approach rather than the accounting iii: : :: approach in analyzing the costs incurred : by hospitals. : i _ofthe ..... .... : : ........ ii i .... :0ng0ingresearch on Ar'iatysls of:HeaHVi Manpowe_ _ : i Philippine hospital: _ehcw_oi':, f"oc_s O_ NWSIak_S: : ...........

: :

:

......

..... [:: phenomenall'

....

last Jtme 15. Its au-: in Servicing: oubpatients. Among these I thor, ......Dr, Fred : are the production: and cost of out-pa_:: .... : ::Avestruz, dis:cussed i tient services, the prices of such, physicoretical and: cians, participation i:n health financingl : :i: :::iempirical: frame-: schemes and their: career decisions, and works before an au _ theprovisionofMedicarebenefitstoout, : i :diencecomposed of :

other ....... :ferin ThuS,:the:st-ud,

i :: : :::::

:

: ::

: ::

:::

:

: :::::

:

to: critique his frameworks

and suggest: : schemes: affecting

fl_em: Like the other

: : :: ::: : : : :: :: : _:: GonzalesfS work is the ::_c' :: i inputs t0the met!_odology. ..... studies un,der the DOH-funded program, :: : ond: !on tl_eMedicare, : : :: Ms. Kraft s output will serve asa basis :::............... ::: The P.:econ0mic:: : : Dr:::AveStruz's: work C0mpl_ for drawing up policies that are consis: : : ::: efficiency:of:the Program;: :: : ::: ents 0ther:0ngo!ng: baseline studies by: tent with: the five policy reform areas :::: :::::: : :: ::: ::::::::: : : providingkey_0rmationonthePhilip-:: :: ....... : .A:f:_G_ewock fO_":Ai_L_y:Z!n9 tt_e :: pine: h0:Spital_S:pr0filei behavi0r, capa-L ..... ::

CGe

tndu_try :::::: : :: : :: cial st_dmg:: m_d:::efficicncy levels--all:: : :::: ::: ::: ::......: ....... ....... :: : : :: ge_ed toward improving hospit_s' effi-: ........ ....... :........ ..... ' .... ............... .......... .... ,...... ..... , ..... ................................... in ..... drawing up a health ....... care h ....c:tency and .... : cost of serv, ce ...... .....

: :

TtTe vrovision

:

: {'_' _i_, ......... _,_._._ i__,_, __._: _i_ .... '_,':.' .... : _"''_v_''''?/'_ _l_, _,_ ..... _/_ _ll _,'_,,_ _ .....

: ....

.......... ::i: ..... : :: ::: : ::_eOfltsexpectedcontrlbutions: : .............. ........ , .......... : ..... : factor con_der, After all, the leg al.... and ......_s to .... mvesti .... .... to......... ......... gate ......the .....m_P act of the Local ..................... ........ ....... : ......regulatory envir0nm_t may:car_ hos.... ...... :

: : :requirements0f

:

:

:

: ::

:

:!4AFrame:w:6rk f0r::Anaiyzh_g: theEffecis: : : : :: ::: :: : : ofth¢:Legal::EnVlrotm_e_t:0rt file He,alth : As exi.lained in the ]m_e1_ aninvea::: seininar; D_ Panfiia .......... care:lndu:sUy/' :: thusiindudes _ ..... ...... Chia_g'sstud y looks, t0ry of relevant laWs (dem_ees_executive i:nto the;ec0non_es of scale and scope of :orders; etci)on:thehealti_ Care system: hospitaiproduction and cost. In pal"ticu,-:

:i

:

t/ iI t/ () {9 [ _) _

.... :

I

|:

(lo)

_ft_{_ :: ......

: 't_;i_)_l)): : : .... : ::

I

: P : ......: _-.......... : : :

:- i__,, _'"°

I ,

_ ::

Finan

::

.....: ..... ...... .....


:::mgthodi: it

:

i


::

.............

;inmostcases in : ':Diokn0

:::

: :_DAI analysis should Consider

.........: : suggestedl :: trieS:be:

::

: :

i

ilha:t:h0u_h0!ds:and indus: :i to: the demm:id :for::

cterisfics of the : and the subsequent computable unit: :::This: consideraequilibrium (CGE) models,

::: Varied roles in society and_ hence, have :: : :: Tl_e: proposed frame, i : :::: F0r!t_is:parti Dr. Gilberto Llal_fO ::W0rk_ hoWeVeri sli0uld anaiyze changes power because::of changes in

: i Of ex-i : : : i i ii : :i : Healso :ii : be:_ighkening to : Seemingl ili COilSistency etermine: th:ei:saVings:paftem of womon betw:e_:thedosDetoderegulatem_d:the: :vis_azviS::men: and if :w0men could c0ntinbed:teg_tioii of resources better:: (eig:, training,

:

iimplicati0n:0f

: ::

sec_

:Ma_0eeonomic:poli:cies h_turn,

eXp6ndi_teg;

par ficui:arly 01"1 place an added bur, : :i:: homemakers: : : ..........:and :pr0d6:cers 2he ,htenb_g: of': the labor: :fi_aNet due: to ::g0vernment's:

:

general .....

i

ii :their productivity is National I Statistics Office (NSO): ' accesS:and pricing of: en-: ::enhanced tl_r0ugh gender-differentiated : : : : health and educa-: ..... All thhlgs coilsidm,eGDr Diokno .... Y offi)ms: .... i " ' " .... : po/mted tothe computable general eqlzi:i :: :: librium 'model as the most promisin :: ........ methodology. For example, .NPC as a :adVersely:affected

....

i.

tmabl'e to handle other macroeconomiツ「 ..... policies. The net /mddence analysis; .... mea_wl_i.le, is restricted to tra'cing inddence in govenm_ent spending and taxes and would reqtm'e merged dam from. tax files with those supplied by

assets ::::in i chaiige

:

:

....... The first appr0ach is a higl_ly ttieoretlcal model which can detea-mine the appropriate level of public allocation m_d spending that are consistent with taxpayers' willingness to pay, but it is

:::i : : i:

a ss tl eeavproaches:

to m_alyze these typeSof linkages: (1) private-ownership economy with public .... goods provision; i2) net inddenceanalysis; and (3)generalequilibriurn analysis

:

:

.......

affect affectl

public firm iS affected bY gツーvernment regulations, Given these constraints, .NPC reacts, and these reactions affect

:

:

....

....................... ................. ..................

.......

......

....

:a

.......ice ha s:iNctease d: th e i.ncid en Ce o f b_ter- : national lab0r :::migratlon;: pattiCnIarly: : : : the: eテ用Ort: Of::women;:: : :::: i: : : :

:

Mai_ila:Ufi.i:Verslty offe:rs aiiex-_tension: of::

:i

I!prOposeS:that the

:

monefized: and subsistence tOeXiend:

: :i::il_eSe linkages, however,

are not simple

as they seem,: thus_ it isvirtually impos: dete_tmine/tlie effect Of Changes:in:: fl_e sibletoprediCt:apriori::th:eimpact ofad _ ilprovision :of goods:and: the resources con _: :fl_e labor:markets on relative incomes,i : : frolled by:file poor: :: their

: :This was the: attribution

UniverEco:(UPSE)::;inanalyzh_g thevarious

...... i :: :i :

made

i

:aiidworkall0cafionandsuggeststhatthe::

:termS: of income

leVel; prices i

ii;):i

::

i ::

:

: :

i :

....... : ...... .......

i tirms m_d households. Using the CGE model, we can ex.'wn.inea _e__rio wherei_ NPC .isd_reg_ated and privatized. What would its effects be on Lncomes and prices and, subsequently, on firms and hot_seholds? :

: ....... :

Analysis of th e impact of macro-

economic policics should also take into ......... accotmt two other factors not necessarily built-in in fl_e model: (1) that policies : have vm'ying effects on the poor because policies are not homogeneous m_d so are : : i the poor; an d (2)that policies willalways

.... : ....:

:

..... ....


::::::/':: :i':!)::i:i::: :/II!::?,Z::I:!I::!I;:I?:: ::::-.'Z::I> 7":":-:.::::ii i'i :L::Z/: ......... ::.:::::: :::: :::.,:::': <!:-%::::::: ........

.:_

i::iii!:!' _._-

:

::i ii:

_ _-

_: .

_ _ :_ ._.

_

be diciated by i i siblei

_ >

_

_.._.._

_

_ _ <.7_:L--_.._I__..-_

"_" _i>-_

_

".

_....

_ _

_

:_

_ _

_

_

_-

_

......

.

--

::result topredicfabie outcomes. Policies gated data and betterestimatesofexpen-i icould alSO i be analyzed in terms of ditures, income and price elasticities, credibility: and dynamics 0f adjustment, i : ..... :: : :i :: Dr_ : Fleurl de lys Torres recog: .... iii*t--_,,,s accordln6 t0 Dr loser Yar_ PIDS: : ......i nized thework done bv Dr. Herrha as :

Wha¢ is: polifiCaiiy:fea': :

FolloW'are: due to daia :: lemg and the: limitations of ecofiomiC: theory To_ze these .... .... _:_........ _ : ' .. _: one: .... : sl_ould: inake : assumptions aria ..... :

::::::

:

:

:

:..... : : i

and serviceS market;: and public goods ii are more likely influenced by calamiand services: These:changes lead to spa _ tieS; (2) house&old d_oices onnu_.tion : : ::ci:fiCoutcomesl on: employment, output :aremade by mothers; hence, their educa; and prices as measured: by unemploy-tion is crucial; (3) database on education : me_t, gross national Product and infla: should include intamN efficiencymeas ..... .iii fionrates. These macro outcomes m'e m-eslikecohortsurvivalratesandexterto households m tax,ms of hal productivity o.f graduates; mad (3) income and prices which, in _m, af.fcct specSfic expenditures, particulm'ly in : : huzman capital outcomes (health, nutri_ education, should be closely examine& tion m_deducation)throughhouseho]d: :

of i:: choices:

:

:: _e_:_Sur_n_ Up fO _he Ch_Iler_ge

the

eCoiiomy m_d ...... classifies sets..... of "variables, as they_ affect:, fl_e poor who m'e the most v_haerable to other:sets of variables: Itwas designed economic change .... :: : ::to emphasize procesSeS and outcomes. : : .... i i : :: ..... .......... i :: i The h_mework assumes fl_e s0piiistkatiori of2 Based 0n Dr: HerriWs review of: quanntative measm-es (life expectancy, is: just

in total has not : :to :substantial ....... the pro!pOse:of MIMAP,:aS pointed ou¢ : Cutbacks in:the:all0cation:of reso_zrces ...... Pregident2: i for :social Services:Rather, it is the prD :defined by i: vateindividual wl_oseper capita income policy becomes times who ::

data)itlshows

that a reduction

:,,,,,,

:

:

01_th:e obj:ectives :decideSiospend;lessonhealthm_d : : :i cation,

:

edu;

h0um. :: canbe

_: . ............ ............ v*ewed dffferently:fromamone _

....... ...... hold chmces are:: shown by data on service uti]ization:,nutrient retake

show :

P

The: study i by Dr. Rodolfo Norentino of the Food and Numtion Resem'ch Lasfim_e concm_s wire the monitofi_ag of the social _md welfare conditions of fl_e popNa_ion, parti_l_]y

to the Philippine

Despite

.... :

_

"

?

i

EXPe'!_el °f:Ba$]C N_ed_ i important contrfbufioi_to the analysis of : :i:. adjustment policies. A more c_-udM is- .... .... : cut ingovemment expenm* sue, however, is how to minimize fl_e : tm*es0nhealthasaresult:otmacroecon" , ...... fth olicies ._,:_ _;.._.,_._]_:_.'_;:_.._ ...... _ an neganve _mpac_ o :t ese p . O11 UL ¢.1UJ U _ U_t I ¢_.O. _.,ullk.Jk_ _.U_U ilk __a.,

(2) expectations :and: their relation Ttie::- framework used bg Dr.: (3)imamierofrepreSentil_gmm'ket ::: Aiejandro Herrin of UPSE in analyzing inthemicro level;and(4): the impact of:macroeconomic policies exoge_ous and:endoge:ne.: health, nutrition and education is i ous variables. A listing of: institutions:i: more of a taxonomic orgm_izing tool flaat

....:

i

for hospital ..... iTtie of th:e next out-patient depm.tments which then . _ :aevetopment plan --- world compefi::invoiveS:acldifional cost for patients, m fiveness and totalhtmx,Kn development the econ- --brings home m_important mes._ge: omy Could result to of basic economic strategy should address both socla! sex v ces, _ncems slmultaneously 'vath httle h'ade _ : ..... offs in-betWeeaa, i 6nset; ima_oeconomi.C : : p6iicieS: affect relative l prices (interest To c0ntribute to the anNySis, ..... i rates; govemme_t revenues, expenditt_r_,: Dr.i Torres_i offered the following infof etc.): which_ in _arn/affect labor, goods mation: (1) social sector expendi_u'es

four things: :(1)rigiditieS:

eetNar

_ _ _

:

:

::: : : : :::

:

_.

:

:_

then:cod .....

the:

of di_aggre.,. "

mortality)and the qualitaave measures (health:andnutrition:: status, litexacy, mxd t_aces theirlinkages to thenationalandintea_na ... tional economic enviro_m_ent. Before : deriding on the kind of data thai will be. needed, Dr. Florentinosmweyed existing monitoring and statistic_flsystems: collecting social welfm'e indictors. Th_._,se include (1) NSO's Integrated Survey of Households;(2)NSO'sFami yIncome . .q ...... m_dExpend,tures_urvey; (3) NSO , sNa-• tional Ce_sus on Population and Housing; and (4) several admi:nistrativeteportmg: systems m_d sm:veys of various agencies. : ' ,_:....... ._,_i _0 pug¢._o ....


i:

mea

..........

i: i ...... ..... _i ]ght; ir_rtion::of:

........

HILIF....

:

::

: .... o.t!the NSO;Congression_i:Planl_ing and

data i i BUdget Offlce Y levelmav ., be '....... _

aI_d the

philippine

Rural

• • PrO_oses t, .......... i run:aS the volu_teer-o tt_edeeen trMization Of_hePh_Iippine s_a.., mo_'e i tisticalsystem;O ........ :......... i i i

i

! rl o

i : ............ :: :i: i:i: :

......... pre;:: gatl_eringat fl_ecommunit ................. ..... ............

iii

I

....

:

:

: :


IHHP Study Shows Link Between Health and Housing