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VOLUME

V, NO. 1

JANUARY=FEBRUARY

1987

ISSN 0115-9097

•INDUSTRIAL PEACE: THE ELUSIVE RARA AVIS "Panahon talaga ang su,nusundot - ano ang kalagayan sa loob, magkano ang su weldo, paano sinasaman tala ang m anggaga wa - toga problema na dapat ipaglaban para malutas. " (Rough

translation: 'Tt is the condition of the times that' compels the workers _ what is the working condition, much -areproblems the wages, the workers how exploited t_at how have are to be fought for resolution_ ") - Labor activist from Valenzuela, Metro Manila, the '_trike capital "of the Philippines

in 1984-85.

EDITOR'S NOTE: _ Indg_trtgl peace remains to be an elusive dream for Philippine industry especially in the deeltde ,of,th_J970s .and 1980s. In general, the main reason attributed to the upsurge in labor restlessness is the political and economic difficulties that the country expe_ rienced during this period. As our guest writer notes, the actual number of strikes in 1971 pales in comparison with the 282 strikes in 1984 and 371 in 1985. Moreover, the full-blown economic crisis during the early part of the 1980s saw the decline of the industrial sector's growth rate by about 20 percent. In the same period, it was also noted that the bulk of the strikes occurred in this sector. With the rise of the Aquino administration in February 1986, there is still much speculation about'the relative uneasiness of the labor groups. Among several factors, the increasing propensity to strike may have been caused by the politicization of the labor

-Introduction:

movement,

and the coming out into the fore of such groups as the I¢ilusang Mayo Uno

In terms of the number of actual strikes, workers involved a11d manhours lost, the first half of the 1980s readily stands out as a period of industrial unrest. :it will be recalled that there was relatire calm on the labor front in the early years of martial law. But this was due largely to the restrictive atmosphere created by the authoritarian regime which .in:zarcerated a number of militant ,labor - :-._--adersand forbade all forms of concert,;,?d action through. General Order No. 5. "Moreover, the martial law administration was markedly reformist in those years. Meanwhile, the economy showed signs of' recovery (from the recession of the early 1970s) as a result of a price boom for the country's major export commodities, the launching of a massive construction and

(KMU) and the Pambansang Katipunang Manggagawa (PKM). The Aquino administration has seen major political and administrative changes and certainly, the Department ffLabor has not remained unaffected. This year's initial issue focuses on the topic of INDUSTRIAL PEACE. Our guest writer is Professor Rene Ofreneo, Assistant Professor at.the Institute of Industrial Relations, University of the Philippines. He teaches Labor Economics and is also the Coordinator of the Workers' Education Program at the Institute. infrastructure development program and the substantial inflow of foreign loans and investments. The Department of Labor was also very prompt and con.scientious in conciliating and arbitrating various labor-management disputes, In 1976, there was a partial liberalSzation of the strike ban policy as an offshoot of the precedent-setting strike conducted by the La Tondefia workers. This caused an initial upsurge of strikes in that year. However, the government found

ways to prevent the proliferation of strikes tkrough the maintenance of an expanding list of so-called "vital industries" where strikes were not allowed; the strengthening of the compulsory arbitration system (e.g., encouraging labor officials to "assume immediate jurisdiction of certain industrial disputes); and strict regulation of the conduct of strikes. After the lifting of martial law m 1981, the number of strikes quickly turned into an avalanche. The 260 recorded

CONTENTS: INDUSTRIAL

PAGE PEACE:

THE ELUSIVE

RARA

AVIS

_ ................................

I _IPDATE: NEW PUBLICATIONS ............................................................ SEMINARS ..... ..... : ........................................................... REGULAR PUBLICATIONS OTHER PUBLICATIONS ' 1

i

i

1

6 7 9-10 i1

" ' ii

i

i

ii


!

PIDS DEVELOPMENT

RESEA_

t NEWS

strikes and the 6.4 million manlaours lost in 1981 are roughly equal to the total number of strikes and manhours lost in the preceding five-year'period, 1976-8'0

2

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

TABLE, 1. NUMBER OF STRIKE NOTICES FILED, ACTUAL STRIKES, WORKERS INVOLVED ANDMANHOURS LOST BY YEAR, PHILIPPINES: 19701986

(see 1). In 1982, by theabout number of work table stoppages declined a hundred but the total number of manhours lost doubled to 1.3.4 million, clearly indi-

TOTALNO. OF STRIKE NOTICES FIELD

YEAR

cating longer duration of strikes and painfully slow settlement of disputes (See Table 2). In 1984 and 1985, in the wake of the political and economic crisis triggered by the Aquino assassination and th_ debt crisis of 1983, the number of strikes and lnanhours lost soared to a bistoric high. In the pre_martial-law period, the biggest number of strikes recorded was on the eve of martial law itself, (i.e., in 1971) when the country was in a similar crisis situation. The 1971 figure of 157, howexTer, pales in comparison to the 282 actual strikes in 1984 and 371 in 1985. The strike notices are usually four times the number of actual strikes. These strike statistics are not surprising given the close correlation of industrial strifes to political and economic troubles in the country. The previous administration imposed martial law in 1972 and curtailed civil and labor rights

TOTALNO. OF ACTUAL STRIKES

1970 819 1971 979 1972 (Jan.-Sept.) 1,043 1973-1.974 0 1975 (Dec.) 13 1976 305 1977 146 1978 295 1979 316 1980 362 1981 784 1982 743 1983 705 1984 960 1985 1,175 1986 1,425 Source: Labor Statistics Service DOLE

104 157 69 0 5 86 33 53 48 62 260 158 155 282 371 571

36,852 62,138 33,396 0 1,760 70,929 30,183 33,731 16,728 20,902 98,585 53,824 33,638 65,306 1.11.,265 167,424

7.9 11.4 8.0 0 .03 1.7 0.2 1.2 1.4 0.8 6.4 13.4 3.2 15.3 19.6 28.8

,_[ / _ ror_ .o_0_o_sr_,_.or_c__,_° [] _o,_L _, o, _o,o__,,,_

,_

i}-t VI _-t Iil [i-] t-_ l--

"]

The economy sliding1980-83 into a period recessionsaw andthethen into a full-blown depression in 1984-85, with the GNP growth rates turning negativ,e and the industrial sector shrinking by

_ iii F

- - about 20 percent. More thalr60-percent ...... of the strikes occurred in the manufacturing sector. As reflected .in Table 4, the greater part of the strikes in 1984 and 1985 were motivated by impending as well as effected retrenchments. However, unfair labor practices (ULPs) (e.g., harassment of-union members and union busting) were often invoked as grounds for mass action, obviously because ULP is a strikeable issue under the law. In some cases, union formation accompanied retrenchments, or retrenchments were used to lay-off active union leaders and members. In some interviews conducted by the author with unions which struck in 1984 and 1985 in protest of layoffs, some labor leaders explained that they resorted to work stoppages on II

MANHOURS LOST (1,000,000)

,,_L_.o,,,............. ,o7,_,_ _._E_.,_ ........... _...... INVOL-VED AND MANHOUR S LOST BY YEAI_I. pl4ll.lp PINES : 1970 -lg_g

decadethebutpromise the trade-off betweenlife freewith of a better for dom and economic development did not materialize. In fact, martial law culminated in the worst post-war economic crisis,

II I I

WORKERS INVOLVED

In Hundf_dn

everyone once the "emergency period" was over. The emergency period lasted a

I

1987

_ _-_ N _-it

l--i fiI_--

ii I--I --_ _i_ _ [f-l_ 1970

_71 *'72

1972 _ oon.-

'7_-'74_75

'TG

177

'79

IBO

_el

'1_2

_B3

'94

_B5

'86

Sept

,97_.D ....... _ ...... LaBOr stat_.rl

_ept. 1972 - 1_74 ; No _trikes recorded ......

bo¢ou_e of the striko ban.

ice,DOLE

the calculations that their actions would end up in a "tabla-manalo" (equal-win) situation. This means that they had nothing to lose even "if their strike could not be settled to their favor since the workers would have been laid off anyway due to the distressed condition of the firms as a consequence of external factors like the crisis in the letters of credit, shrunken domestic market, higher production expenditures, high interest rates, etc. Of course, the economic crisis coini

'7_

I_:: [=-1_

cided with the intensifying political crisis; both in fact were feeding on. each other. These twin phenomenon emboldened the various labor groups, especially the more radical labor centers and fedrations, to actively organize the agitate workers not only on the basis of tradirionalplanm level, labor-management" issues but also around national political and economic issues such as the debt problem and the Marcos leadership. The restrictive labor laws and strike procedures became meaningless in the face of workers' heightened


I

PIDS DEVELOPMENT

4 RESEARCH"%,-,-,/VS

jlAitance and defiance of govermnent authority. Strikes b'ecame a common phenomenon in hitherto strike-free areas like the Bataan Export Processing Zone. A number of strikes ended in bloody confrontations between strikers and military/ police forces, The situation was aggravated by the inability of the then Ministry of Labor and Employment to settle the mounting load of industrial disputes, In a way, tile industrial unrest in the

3

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

What then accounted for thebignumber of strikes in 1986? First, the usual reasons cited by workers when going on strike - ULPs, deadlocks on economic issues, layoffs, etc. were still there. The legacies of mass poverty, mass unemployment and stark social inequality were hardly altered by the 0.1.3 percent GNP growth rate.

1987

presidency. However, as obtained in Table 3, the number of existing registered labor unions in 1986 was just a little over 15 percent. In fact, the percentage did not vary much from 1977 to 1986. Of course, the management sector was unhappy over the strike situation. Management representatives decried the liberal policies of the new government and tt_e

r,BL_ .0............. 5_TLEO ._ TE...BORp.,L,PP'"_A_E_ HA.O_O.._*L_: ,*_-,_, ........ (in rh0u)ondl ) I0 Ca_,m_ Hendled

rABLE 2, NUMBER

OF LABOR

CASES HAN-

DLED, NEWLY FILED AND SETTLED BY YEAR, PHILIPPINES: 1982-1986

----_-_j

_

,., c.,.. _,l._ _

c........ ,,_

r:,_:._ "--=_;,i;¢ .... ti._::t _::_ ;':)Y

CASES HANDLED

NEW CASES FILED FOR THE. YEAR

1982 1984

7,238 6,427

4,390 5,170

5,076 4,190

,----4!ii_i)il .....!Ji- --;_._ _. -_,.:..,.,,.i:i

I986

7,708

5,695

4,555 "

2 .......

1985

7,226

5,922

5,213

YEAR

_Urce:

Labor

Statistics

Service,

I)OLE

CASES DECIDED SETTLED

9

!_i " :_:. [i"__:_;! i)i ....

_i

/

J v._:.:_

--

m":;" "!_i ,_iiI

' o

_._...i! _

FI;,_N Sou_. LoborNroTtlrle,,%rvici.DOLE

first half of the 1980s mirrors the general politico-economic crisis obtaining in the :ountry in the said period, Rise of the Aquino Administration In 1986, the biggest number of strikes was recorded. It reached a total of 571 actual strikes involving some 167,424 _vorkers and causing a loss of 28.8 million manhours. This happened in the first year _f Corazon C. Aquino as President of the Republic. Did the economic and political situalion worsen upon Aquino's assumption of power? Apparently not. In 1986, the GNP re_ ,istered a positive growth, rate of 0.13 9ercent. This is a miniscule figure indeed 9ut nevertheless it represents a reversal of :he negative growth rates of 5.5 percent n 1984 and 4 percent in 1985. On the 9olitical side, the ascension to power of _,quino ended the succession crisis and _ae tmce_tainties over what the country _buld be like after the end of Marcos's _e. Despite the various coup attempts md certain national controversies such as :he problems with local goqernment exe:utives, commonly referred to as OICs, he country was somewhat more stable, >olitically and economically, in 1986.

But there are reasons that unions do not .indicate when they file notices of strike. Foremost among these was the liberal democratic atmosphere obtaining in the country after the EDSA "revolution". It could be that the unions were giving vent to their long-held gripes and dissatisfaction during the Marcos years and were testing the limits to freedom under the new dispensationl President Aquino's appointnaent of a labor minister in the person of human rights lawyer Augusto Sanchez, who had been frank about his criticisms of present labor laws

perceived pro-labor senthnents of Minister Sanchez. Various management groups, particularly those identified with foreign capital, lobbied for the ouster of Sanchez, and for his replacement by Frantd.in Dril0n, a well-known management lawyer and Vice President of the Employers C0nfederation of the Philippines" Minister Sanchez was described as a major disincentive to investments. Another unstated reason for the increasing propensity to strike is the continuing politicization of the labor movemerit. It has been noted that the more

and the labor practices of transnational corporations, could have abetted the strike fever of some rations. President Aquino herself boosted the liberal atmosphere in the country's labor relations systern when she announced on May 1,1986 a number of reforms liberalizing the reqmrements for union registration and the conduct of strikes. Although no executive order was issued in 1986 to back up these reforms, the presidential pronouncements had a tremendous psychological impact on the unions. Proof of this is the fact that half of the 571 strikes in 1986 occurred 'in the first four months (i.e., March-June 1987) of President Aquino's

politicked the labor federations or centers are, the higher is their propensity to go on strike. This is borne out by the fact that about 60 percent of the strikes in 1986 were accounted by the Kilusang Mayo Uno and the affiliates of the World in 1986 were accounted for by the Kilusang Mayo Uno and the affiliates of the World Federation of Trade Unions, such. as: (1) the Trade Unions of the Philippines and Allied Services, and (2) the. Pamb'ansang Katipunang Manggagawa, all of which were known for their radical slogans and "red flags". Moreover, thegovernment'swithdrawal of its recognition of the Trade Union


1 PIDS DEVELOPMENT

RESE

FI NEWS

IN EFFECT

ANDWORKERS

YEAR

Workers doal6.O66 CBA's ineffect; 2.033

1977

in either registered or C ..... nan-registered unions

19BO

in_,h.... g,_t,_ed o_ ...... cBA's I,.ff,_fgl'terea unions., l.r20

Workers

Covered : 321,661

...... wo_k_, c..... d = 271,ols ,oo-r_g,_t._di° eith_r_l_ter,_ o_o_lo_ ' CNA'S

1987

COVERED BY YEAR,

PHILIPPINES: 1977-1986

188_

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

"FABLE 3. NUMBER 'OF LABOR. UNIONS EXISTING AND REGISTERED, CB, EFFECT AND WORKERS COVERED '.BYYEAR, PHILIPPINES.: 1977-1)8,

_,BLE NO-3:NUMBER OFLABOR UNIONS EXISTING AND REGISTERED, CBAs

4

Ineffect

= 1,779

1977 ,.1978 1979 1980 l 981 1982 1983 1984 1985 I 1986

EXISTING UNIONS

REGISTERED UNION S

1,417 1 414 1 576 1 747 1 890 1 813 1 659 1 804 1 996 2 355

163 213 240 181 185 187 146 138 192 360

2,033 1,961 1,715 1,720 1,852 1,729 1,779 ii,785 2,029 2,347

WORKER COVEREr 216,066 286,873 287,450 321',661 332,511 285,394 271. ,015 242,342 262,000 313,000

[

; Source: Labor Statistics Service, DOLE wo_ke_ c..... d-or _3.ooo ...... _._o_, CBA'sg_,t_,,a in effect _ 2,347

CBAs IN EFFECT

....

I diation of the foreign debt coupled with ]payment moratorium of 5-7 years, 'tProspects for Industrial Peace t Various management groups and cerI tain quarters in the government have expressed dismay over the Continuing _"tensions" on the industrial relations,

widen the scope of union organizing by allowing unions in the public corporatesector, a provision previously banned by 'the 1974 Labor Code. The framers of the new Constitution widened this further by emphasizing in several provisions the right of all workers, both in the public and pri- (

Congress of the Philippines as the sole legitimate labor center and the increasing involvement of various political parties in the labor movement intensified the existing rivalry among the various labor centers and federations. In turn., this rivalry could have led to an appearance of heightened militancy in the eyes of their respective members, Various attempts in the past to unite .competing labor centers and federations have not met with any degree of success, The latest unity attempt was the forma, tion last year of the Labor Advisory Consultative Council (LACC) composed of the major labor centers. However, the Trade Union COngress of the-Philippines (TUCP), which claims to be the biggest labor group, withdrew from. the LACC because of certain differences in opinion with the other LACC members. Nevertheless, three events in 1986 show that labor unity is attainable, at least on a_case-tocase or an issue-to-issue basis. These are

front, which are blamed for the slow flow of investments needed to realize economic recovery'. But the debates on how these tensions can be eased and how industrial peace can be forged have remained unsettled, There is, for instance, the classic debate on a more restrictive labor policy vis-a-vis a more liberal policy on union formation and ¢pncerted activities. The martial law experience shows that the former policy can only achieve at the. most, temporary peace for business and govermnent; moreover, there are indications that this sad experience in itself helped hasten the politicization of the labor movement in the 1980s. On the other hand, the Aquino government, while outwardly committed, to' a more liberal policy, appears uncertain as to how far it should implement such a policy. It took the Aquino administration 10 months before it released the necessary executive order implementing the

the common attendance of major labor centers for the Labor Day (May 1, 1986) celebration; the solidarity shown by other labor groups in. the funeral procession of slain KMU leader Rolando Olalia; and the July 1986 conference on "Labor's Vision of Economic Recovery" held at the U.P. Institute of Industrial Relations. In this conference, labor groups whose sentiments ranged from left to right, agreed on a common stand on economic recovery, calling for a halt to the progrmn of import liberalization and for selective repu-,

labor reforms promised on May 1, 1986. This executive order, however, does not cover all the reforms promised. Another proof of the administration's indecisiveness on this issue was the appearance of Ministry Order No. 9 in 1986 at the tailend of her state visit .to the United States. The Ministry Order which regulates picketing, strikes and related union issues was branded by the various labor groups as containing the worst features of Batas Pambansa 130 and 227. President Aquin0 also promised to

vate sectors, to form unions. However, in Executive Order No. 111, it was explicitly stated that only those in 'the goverrll ment corporate sector can org.aniz_, unions and bargain collectively." Thus, those in the non-corporate sector, who happen to be the overwhehidng majority of the public, sector employees, do not have these rights. The latter, accordingly, are covered by the Civil Service roles and can only organize "associations", Another policy debate revolves around the issue of what form or mode of dispute settlement should be encouraged. Officially, the Marcos government and now the Aquino administration are for the bipartite systemcenterhlg on. the process of collective bargaining, with the government-ran conciliation and arbitration agencies providing a supportive role. In practice, however, the government's role in dispute settlement has remained primordial, especially in the settlement of 'union representation issue (a very ticklish issue given the rivalry in the labor movemerit) and labor-management disputes

1986

keaend:

Ineither reglslered

[_IRogi

............

No_-Regi_ered Unions

....

i

j

ill

not settled in the collective bargaining I process. Very often, in cases of bargainingl deadlocks and strikes, government assumes jurisdiction of disputes and once it' does this, the burden of settlement faldl mainly' on the government. Some labi_ groups believe that the government's arbiters are too injunction-happy. These groups feel that in order to have free collective bargaining, the government _ould remove all remaining restrictions


a

PIDS DEVELOPMENT

RESEARCIq_EWS

5 TABLE

_n union formation, registration and 3argaining. There-are also those who drink that anaaay labor and management legotiating panels still lack the maturity Eo bargain in an honest-to-goodness man:let.

With regard

to the last pohlt,

some

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

1987

NO. 4 : PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ALL ISSUES OF ACTUAL STRIKES BY SPECIFIC TYPE OF ISSUE, 1985 AND 1986 /

ISSUE | t utegaldismissal/suspension ofunion officers/ members

_9o_

t906

16,7%

19,6%

Discrimination against/harassment members

13,0%

14.9%

0.2%

2. I%

Formation

of union

of company dominated unions

:ndustrial relations scholars are suggesting _-heutilization of certain Filipino values ike the concept of pakiki_ama (brotherly -ooperation), especially in building up ,ppropriate co.[-nnnlnication challnels be:wean the two contending parties. "These ;cholers believe that a "non-adversarial" ;ysteln of dispute settlement, using

Contracting outservices normally performed byestablishment

0.3%

0.1%

Refusal to bargain/bargaining

4. I%

4.0%

9.2%

7.6%

14.9%

19.1%

Collective bargaining Issues on wages, monetary benefits, leaves, welfare benefits

7.4%

9.4%

mique Filipino values, call be developed n the country. Hence, they have suggest-

Collective bargaining I,sues on union _urlty, check-off, management rights, job security

0.3%

0.0%

_d that the concept of "collective nego:iations", be used instead of the Arnefi:an-inspired "collective bargaining" sys:am, wh.ich tends to polarize the two

Retrenchment, rotation, reduction Inworking time,lockout,run-awayshop Violation of labor standards on wages, allowance Otherlaborstandardslseues

_arties. How these various cGlcepts can _e operationalized and popular_ed still ?elnains to be fleshed out. There is also the observation that nany managers mad capitalists need some _'ducation on unionism and industrial "elations, In. this day and age, there are _till capitalists who cannot accept the dea of a union being organized in their _irins. 'File horrified reaction of many rosiness groups to the "profit-sharing" dea advanced by then Minister of Labor kugusto Sanchez is a case in. point. The

Others

_,.,_,u,. ofLat, orandM_npower Studio* a common stand and to claim that they Liberal policy on unionism in general, really represent tile entire labor sector. Decisions on these policy issues can be In the case of the business sector, it is made easier if the government is followalso represented mainly by the business ing a coherent and consistent fr_fillework elite composed of representatives of of socio-economic development, say, one transnational firms and big Filipino busithat emphasizes economic sovereignty, ness establishments, social justice, human and labor rights and

;theme was immediately branded as a 'comanunist" idea and was used in a

Second, tripartite conferences are generally called to discuss labor relations

equa!ity.

:ampaign to oust a supposedly "leftealfing" minister_ It never occurred to :hese critics of profit-sharing that the ;oncept was developed by some capitalsts in Europe and the United States pre:isely to counter the inroads of socialist deas in the labor movement,

issues, which are usually mere consequen-

SELECTED REFERENCES

ces of bigger policy issues involvh_g the questions of industrialization, foreign borrowings, etc. Third, there has been a growing realizalion among the labor groups and certain

1. Book Five, Labor Code of the Philippines. 2. Gatchalian, Jose C-, "Proposal.for the 'Concept of Collective Bargaining' and Negotiations' ", position Paper sub-

At the national level, the goverrmaent tdheres to the policy of tripartism, wtfich neans the formulation of labor policies s a common task of the three leading tctors in industrial relations: labor, nanagement and government. During the nartial law period, tripartite proceedings vere used by the central government to repose predetermined labor policies to md the concentration of organized Fhere are also certain realities that miliate against the smooth fimctioning of !ripartism. First, it appears that both the labor md business sectors are divided. The ntense rivalry among the _abor groups md the concentration of organ_ed lnions in the bigger establishments pre,ent the various labor groups to arrive at

segments of the business sector that a fourth actor exists in the labor relations system - the IMF-led group of foreign' creditors, who, despite their non-attendance in tripartite conferences, are able to determine the basic socio-economic framework the country has to follow and wlfich, for better or for worse, affects all the three actors in industrial relations. Overall it is obvious that tile government will have a tlard time finding the

mitred to the 1986 Constitutional Commission. 3. Inciong, Amado G., "Labor Unions and Industrial Peace", Philippine La_ bar Review. Institute of Labor and Manpower Studies, Vol. I, No. 1, April 1976. 4. Jhnenez, Ramon T., "The Practice of Industrial Relations in the Philippines: An Assessment", .Philippine Journal of Industrial Relations, Institute of Industrial Relations, Vol. VI, Nos. 1-2, 1984, University of the Philippines.

In bad faith

violationof CBA Apprenticeship, of company

unr_msonoble quota, rules, new company

violation

rules

withoutnotice

not reported TOTAL !_OURCE:Labor Sl_ltlstle_ Service,

7.7% 3.7% 14.6%

6.6% 2.0% 8.9%

3. I%

3.5%

4.7"I, 99.9%

2.2% I00.0%

Department of Labor and Employment

right policy package to foster industrial .peace. It should be borne in mind that industrial relations is a multi-dimensional field involving economic, political and socio-cultural issues. :Moreover, there are policy choices, as indicated by the debate on whether to adopt a restrictive or

5. "Labor Relations", 1984 Annual Report of the Ministry of Labor and Employment.. 6. "Maintenance of Industrial Peace", Studies Of Philippine Labor, hlstitute


m

PIDS DEVELOPMENT

RESEA_

IEWS

6

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

198"_ I

of Labor,and Manpower Studies,'n.d.,

1979)

have sho,wn that •Philippine

tax

about

significant

structural

transfon_,

1985, Part III. 7. Malonzo, Ibarra A., "Trade Unions as Participatory Agents in the Philippine Industrial Relations System," Philippine Journal of Industrial Relations, TTp. Institute of industrial Relations, 91.VII, Nos. 1-2, 1985. "reneo, Rene 'E. and King, Amglita,

performance as measured by either the tax to GNP ratio or by the tax effort or international tax comparison is low. On a secular basis, there is evidence of a perceptible downward trend in the ratio of tax revenues to GNP over the last decade, from 12 percent in 1975 to 9.64 percent in 1984.

tion and wide-spread economic develol; merit. It argues that an agriculture-base, development strategy makes growth an_ equity goals consistent and supportive o each other. Moreover, rapid increases h agricultural incomes have strong growt] linkage effects on the whole economy a rural population consumption is heavil 3

_abor Relations in the Marcus Era: lplications for the Aquino Govern. mr", Labor's Vision of the Econo!c Recovery. Proceedings of the July 86 Roundtable Conference, U.P. Intute of Industrial Relations. ade Union Directory of the Philiples, Ministry of Labor and Employrot, 1983.

This study evaluates the performance of the Philippine tax system from the perspective of tax mobilization. The two measures of responsiveness used are tax buoyancy and tax elasticity. While earlier studies have been done on the Philippine tax system using these two measures, this paper updates and improves on these studies by presenting computed buoyancy and elasticity estimates based on the 1975-1985 tax revenue series of the

oriented to food and relatively labor intensive industrial consumer goods ant services. In the end, concrete policy re commendations form the agenda for th_ rural sector including the role of govern ment. This paper is a combined effort ol many individuals and institutions. Apart from the U.P. Los Babus and PIDS staff, there were other contributors like Dr. Cristina C. David and ErnestoD. Bautista

I

Ministry

of the International

I

pRATE

•_

of

Finance.

These

estimates

methofl and the dummy variable technique _of adjusting the revenueadjustment data for employed the proportional

International Food Policy Research lnstitute; Dr. Eliseo R. Ponce of the Visayas tute; Leonardo A. Gonzales of the State Dr. College of Agriculture; Dr. Saturni-

discretionary effects (e.g. statutory reforms in the tax rates, modifications in the legal definition of tax bases, or significant administrative changes in tax col. lection, etc).

na C, Halos of the National Science R_I search Institute; Dr.Zenaida F. Toquer_y of the International Development Research Centre of Canada; Dr. Mahar K. Mangahas, President of the Social Weath-

AGENDA FOR ACTION FOR THE PHILIPPINE RURAL SECTOR L "

nardo, Director of SEARCA. From the U.P. Los Banos group came the follow" ing: Dr.Agnes R. Quisumbing, Dr. Wilfri-

by: Agricultural Policy and Strategy Team (APST) University of the Philippines at-Los Babus

do D. Cruz, Dr. Fermin D. Adriano, Dr. Lourdes S. Adriano0 Dr. Cielito'F. Habito and Dr. Ponciano S. Intal, Jr. The Insti er Station, Inc.; and Dr. Fernando A. Beytute was represented by Dr. Mario B.

Agricultural Policy Research Program _'W 1_1_ |PJ

|__AT|n[_]_

and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies

PERFORMANCE

OF

IONAL GOVERNMENT TAXES, -1985 Rosario G. Manasan and Rosario G. Querubin Research Fellow and Research _ssociate, respectively, Philippine institute for Development Studies ;taffPaper Series 87-01 ious cross country studies (Lotz and Morss, 1967; Shin, 1969; Chelliah, 1971; Bahl, 1971; CheUiah, Baas and Kelly, 1975; Talt, Gratz and Eschengreen,.

group

of

researchers

at

the

University

Lamberte. Support was also given by the Department

of Agriculture

and

Food.

J

The APST was organized soon after the February 1986 revolution by a small ENUE

Rice Research Insti-

6f

the Philippines at Los Banos in recognition of fire critical =need for immediate

nlulp,/l:Tl:n _1_/.In

rnuor =

_TO

U/ 0

policy reform in the Philippine agricultural and rural sector as the basis for economic recovery. The paper attempts to put together coherent policy statements and pro-

INDICATORS OF SECTORAL OUTPUT by: Benvenuto N. Icamina The paper presents the results of a researoh undertaking which tries to identifl

grams for reforms in the agricultural sector. Moreover, it supports an agriculture.based development strategy in light of the importance of the sector in the economy and the failure of a strong industrial orientation in the past to bring

a system of leading indicators on econol micactivity, as measured by the real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its major sectoral components, i.e., agriculture, industry and services. Such indicators, toonitored on a quarterly basis, can assist

]


P

PIDS DEVELOPMENT -_olicy-makers sectors activity income The

_eeWS

in both public and private

7

Economics Philippines.

potential

SEMINAR-WORKSHOP

for using

indicators

forecasting

as

tectmique

Moreover,

a system

an has

the

of

alternative been

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

will also hold lectures at the'School

to gauge the pulse of economic even in the absence of national accounts.

leading lished.

RESEARCH

of

the

University

of

of

search Fellow of PIDS, shall serve as the

the

take-off

point for the discussions.

SEMINAR ON RURAL

ACTION

ON

THE

FOR

AGENDA

THE

RURAL

FOR

SECTOR

FINANCE

estab-

The Philippine

for Develop-

ment Studies, together with the University of the PlaJlippines at Los Banos, is holding a national conference on the "Agenda for Action. for the Philippine

changes or to data peculiarities, This paper underscores at least two important findings. First, a significant

uay 6, 1987 at the Central Bank Building in Maaila. The workshop is coordinated by the Technical Board for Agri-

Rural Sector" on January 14, 1987 at the Development Academy of the Philippines in Pasig. The consultation aims to elicit

number of indicators with (e.g., three to four quarters) h_dicating possible bottlenecks

long leads was noted, and rigidi-

cultural Credit (TBAC)with support provided by other sponsors, namely, the Quedan Guarantee Fund Board and the

comments on the findings and policy recommendations arrived at by the Agriculture Policy and Strategy Team during

ties in the Philippine economy. Second, certain inputs such as bank loans, financial investments in new businesses and/or

Agricultural Bankers' Club. The topics that will be discussed in the seminar include theories, policies and behavior of

their meetings for the past two months. Broad topics to be discussed by the working groups include: a) macroecono-

imported

fonnal

(directly

or in-

directly imported) were found to be erucial exp'tanatoryvariables in all subsectors considered. Labor proxies also appear to be strong indicators for some sectors. L

The Philippine Institute

for Develop-

ment Studies is one of the sponsors of a seminar-workshop on "Rural Financial Market Research" to be held on Jan:

inputs

of

Institute

indicators should be made an on-going activity inasmuch as the methodology is •known to be serLsitive to structural

material

identification

1987

and

informal

financial

institu-

mic perspectives

tions; behavior of borrowers and savers; and .lessons on rural fhlance as gleaned from experiences of other countries, The paper on rural finance prepared

of the

issues

by Dr. Joseph Lim of the School of Economics and Dr. Mario Lamberte, ReSEMINARS

D0p_rl;la_ll_

.......... "............... of _'r;tn_port;_lOh _nd _u_,raunicatt0n_ • BgkghU 0F _0_'_5 NATIONAh _A_ITAL I,_GION

,e_5 m_n, publication)

of

ur puhllsl_d

a_ b_v_ll

_lll_

t_

hl/ AC'_ _580, a,

r_q_llx'_d

_Ol'l_

1.0 In

accordancn

(otflc. of publlc_tio_d a/t_r w_th la_, Itureby mcbmi_. "Lhe

umended h_ ¢o_mon_ealCh

B

Act Nv,

201.

ZT_-=A B

O_ner _ablAnh,,r

....

Office or _ubl±e

SEMINAR

ON

The first

cheon issues

TERNAL

seminar

symposium to

be

held

on_

DEBT

for

1987

on

external

debt

Manila

Man-

at

the

is a inn-

30._i_old_r_,,

a,_,ou,,_ or _tocka=

_o_al

mur_ga_e_,

or other

, ...........................................

_evelopment -_hilippine

Studies

Econonric

(PIDS) Society

and

the

(PES),

the

event is expected to draw various representatives from governmer_t agencies, the academe, the business community, media While

and

other

interested

in the Philippines,

parties ..........

Dr. Dornbusch

hnl_rs

,,_,

.,

19.,

....................... •

_.

Sen_

_

o_h,,rs

_han

O_hing

one

.... pa_a

subser)_,u,s

..... ©a_n o_ ptlhl_oation ntl,er than d_l_y _otal •d3......................... ,......... _, others _ilnll _)_itt

sor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Jointly sponsored by the Philippine Institute for

s_a..ity

_,,, ,.........................................................

'

darin on January 6, 1987. The guest speaker for the occasion is Dr. Rudiger Dornbusch, a Ford International Profes .....

; t;l¢

...............

.f(

_,_.

-

_. _

")_ "_

of copi_

x._ .....

_(__0 {,. _.U_ ._I

nol_esit_el_u

N.A. humble

_ub_,erlbur,,

......

s¢,,

.........

i

_' N_, _"°"'_ lmm_ed l_""'_"""'°"__"'/ ' _--" ..a;, __3_.t'/"___27'Ce_'_il'iua_e

'_zo_t4_,_

_11

//{

--_._t.10_._d//l ,'?"_!ES_._

and pro-

blems of the rural sector _b) rural infrastructure; c) research and extension; and d) land reform and rural poverty

"_=;,V.---:_::_.cT ......

'

'.:

-,!.i_.!_, .... ,

,


PIDS DEVELOPMENT _IDS-MEDIAFORUM

RESEARL3'R, NP--WS ON'LAND

8

Two _more sessions follow for the

REFORM

month of March• These sessions are going to be held on March 6 and 13• For March

The PIDS-Media Forum Series holds its second session on Friday, February 13, 1987, and will focus on the issues and concepts on land reform. As is the usual practice, individuals who shall form the panel will discuss and inter-

6, the topic will be on "Methodologies in theMeasurement of the Impact Effects of the Tariff Refon_a Program" while for March 13, the topic is on "Studies on the •Effects of Tariff Reform and Import Liberalization on Selected Philippine Indus-

act with members of the press. Invited

tries"

Agnes FORTHCOM ------------IN6

as panelists are Dr. Mahar Mangahas of the Social Weather Station; Dr• Quisumbing and Dr. Lourdes Adriano of the Center for Development Economics and Management at U.P. Los Banos; Mr. Pancho Lara of the Philippine Peasant Institute; and Mr. Gerardo Bulatao of the Ministry of Agrarian Refoim.

SEMINARS 1. SEMINAR IN METHODOLOGIES IN THE MEASUREMENT OF THE IMPACT EFFECTS OF THE TARIFF REFORM PROGRAM Date Venue

)S-TARIFF COMMISSION MINAR SERIES ON TRADE BERALIZATION

: 6March 1987 : Operations Room NEDA sa Makati Bldg. Sponsors - PISS and Tariff Commis-sion

Philippines: Assessment- of Progress d Agenda foi Future Reforms" The 9ic draws on the major findings of the aeral report on trade liberalization Ihored by Dr. Erlinda M. Medalla and • John H. Power, Research Fellow and siting Research Fellow, respectively, the Institute. The second session on bruary 27 focuses on "Non-Tariff _asures Affecting the Philippines". The _ic draws on the highlights of the paper itten by Loreli de Dios, a Research. sociate of PIDS. Reactions to the per will be given by Mr. Raul Concepm, representing the Philippine Chainr of Commerce and Industry; Dr. vendolyn Tecson of the U.P. School Economics and Mr. Juan Bautista of ._Central Bank.

1987

THE PIDSRESEARCHPROGRAM

_

In accordance with its mandate of assisting the government in planning and policy formulation, the Philippine Institute for Development Studies has evolved a research program specifically aimed towards: (a) providing a framework for plan and policy formulation; (b) assessing the effects of policies, programs and Projects on the country's development goals; (c) helping in the identification of strategies designed to cope with anticipated bottlenecks in the long.run future; and (d) improving planning and approaches.

methods

The main basis for the substantive content of the Institute's research I program is the Philippine Development Plan. Accordingly, the program has emphasized policy issues sur-

The Philippine Institute for Develop,nt Studies (PIDS) togefller with the rift Commission (TC), sponsors a series seminars to discuss the findings of the )S-TC Joint Research Study on Trade 9eralization. For the month of Febtry, seminars are scheduled on two asecutive Fridays, February 20 and bruary 27 at 9:00-12:00 in the morlg. The first session on February 20 dl dwell on "Trade Liberalization in

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

2. SEMINAR ON THE EFFECTS OF TARIFF REFORM AND IMPORT LIBERALIZATION ON SELECTED PHILIPPINE INDUSTRIES Date Venue Sponsors

: 13 March1987 " Operations Room NEDA sa Makati Bldg. " PIDS and Tariff Commission

3. PIDS-NEDA-PCAC CONSULTANTIVE MEETING ON' ASEAN TRADE COOPERATION Date , - 20 April1987 Venue • Operations Room NEDA sa Makati Bldg. Sponsors : PIDS, NEDA and the Philippine Councilon ASEAN CooperationTectmical Board

rounding the question of how development can be accelerated and sustained with special attention being given to the expansion of productive employmerit opportunities and to the related question of how the benefits 'of development can be distributed more widely and equitably. In order to allow the research program to proceed cumulatively and in a coordinated fashion, PIDS research activities have been organized into five research themes, namely: *Employment,

Human

Resource

Development and Technology *Resource Mobilization *Trade Expansion, Agricultural and Industrial Development and Energy *Poverty, Income and Wealth Dis. tribution *Regional, Rural and Urban Development


PIDS DEVELOPMENT

RESERCI-

}S

REGULAR

9

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

PUBLICATIONS

PIDS WORKING

PAPERS

1. W.P. No. 8301

Studies on the Wood-Based Furniture, Leather Products and Footwar Manufacturing Industries in the Philippines, Niceto Poblador, Adriano Solis, Roy Ybanez, and BienvenMo Aragon.

2. W.P. No. 8302 3. W.P. No. 8303

Economic Policies and Philippine Agriculture. C-_ist'inaC. David. Changing Comparative Advantage in Philippine Rice Production. Laurian J. Unnevehr and Ar2enio M. Balisacan.

4. W.P. No. 8304

The Impact of Government Policies on Philippine Sugar. Gerald Nelson and Mercedita Agcaoili.

5. W.P. No.-8305

Comparative Advantage and Government John [I_ Power and Teresita Tumaneng.

6, W,P. No. 8306

Government Expenditures Manuel S_ J, de Leon.

7. W.P. No. 8307

Economic Incentives and Comparative Advantage in the Livestock Industry. Liborio S. Cabanilla.

Price Intervention

Policies in Forestry.

and Agricultural Policies in the Philippines 1955d980.

8 W.P. No. 8308

An Analysis of theEconomic Policies Affecting the Phifippine Coconut Industry. Ramon Clarete and J_ Roumasset.

9. W.P. No. 8309

Economic Incentives and Comparative Advantage in the Philippine Cotton industry. Arsenio Balisaean.

10. W.P. No. 8401

Intersectoral Capital Flows and Balanced Agro-Industrial Philippines. Manuel S.J. de Leon.

11. W.P. No. 8402 [2. W.P. No. 8403

Forest Land Management in the Context of National Land Use. AdolACbK Revilla, Jr. Policy Issues on Commercial Forest Management. CereniUa A. C_uz and Marian Segura-delos Angeles.

13.W.P. No. 8404

The Impact Nelson.

14..W.P. No. 8405

Population Pressure, Migration and Markets: Implications for Upland Development. Ma. Concepcion Cruz.

15. W.P. No. 8406

Tenure, Teclmology and Productivity trano and Sam Fujisaka.

16_W.P, No. 8407

Enviromnental Effects of Watershed Modifications. h:ilf?edo P. David.

17. W.P. No. 8408

Management and Cost of Watershed Reforestation: Jose A. Galvez.

18. W.P. No, 8409

Workshop Papers on "The Consequences of Small Rice Farm Mechanization in the Philippines."

19. W.P, No. 8501

A Review of Welfare in the Coconut Industry. Sylvia AT.Guerrero.

20. W.P. No. 8502 21. W.P. No. 8601

Financing the Budget Deficit in the Philippines. Eli 3I. Remolona. Trade Liberalization Experience in the Philippines, 1960-84. Florian Alburo and GeoC'fkeyShepherd.

22. W.P. No, 8602

Integrated Summary Report: Popul:ation Pressure and Migration - Implications for Upland Development. Ma. Concepcion J, Cruz.

23. W.P. No. 8603

Factors Affecting the Choice of Location: A Survey of Foreign and Local Finns in the Philippines. A le]andro N. Herrin and Ernesto 34. Pernia.

24. W.P. No, 8701

Macroeconomic Adjustment in the Philippines: 1983-85. ManuelF. Montes.

25. W,P. No. 8702

Costs of Agricultural Credit in the Philippines: The Short-Run Effects of Interest Rate Deregulation. Irma C Corales and Carlos E, Cuevas.

26. W,P. No. 8703,*

Can the Informal Leaders Be Co-Opte i_into Govenunent Credit Programs? Emmanuel F. Esguerra.

,

Forthcoming papers

of Government

Policies on Forest Resources

of Agroforestry

Development

Utilization.

in the

Gerald C.

Schemes. Ana Doris Capis-

The Pantabangan

and Magat.

1987


PIDS DEVELOPMENT RESEAI:._,

-WS

10

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

PIDS STAFF PAPERS 1. S.P. No. 8201 2. S.P. No. 8202 3. S.P. No. 8203 4. S.P. No. 8204 5_ S.P. No. 8205 6. S.P. No, 8301

An Analysis of Fertilizer in the Philippines. Cristina C David and Arsenio M. Balisaean. (Printed also in J'.P.D. 1981) Credit and Price Policies in Philippine Agriculture. Cristina C David. Government Policies and Farm Mechanization in the Philippines. Cristina C. David, Shadow Prices of Goods and Resources in the Philippines: An Assessment. Erlinda 34. Medalla_ An Analysis of the Behavior of the Commercial Banks. Mario B. Lamberte.

7. S.P. No. 8302

Exchange Rate Flexibility and hrtervention Policy in the Philippines, 1973-1981. Filologo Pante, Jr, On the Use of the DRC Criterion in Selecting Projects. Erlinda M. Medalla.

8. S_P. No. 8303

Monetary Aggregates and Economic Activity. Mario B. Lamberte.

9. S.P. No. 8304

Effective Protection Rates and Internal Rosario G. Mancrsan.

10. S.P. No, 8305

Indirect

Taxes in the Philippine

Setting.

Response to Balance of Payments Crises in the 1970s, Korea and the P1Rlippines. John H. Power.

11. S.P. Nq. 8401

A Study of Philippine Real Property Taxation. Cayetano W, Paderanga, Jr.

12. S.P. No. 8402

Public Enterprise in the Philippines in 1982: A Definitional and Taxonomical Exercise. Rosario G. Manasan, Estimating the Shadow Exchange Rate, the Shadow Wage Rate and the Social Rate of Discount for the Philippines. Erlinda M. Medalla. Development Finance and State Banking: A Survey of Experience. Edita A. Tan.

13, S.P. No. 8403 14. S.P. No. 8404 15 S.P. No, 8405 16. S.P_ No. 8406

Derived Protection for Nontraded Prinrary Product. Erlinda M. Medalla. Modelling the Effects of Devaluation on Prices, Output and the Trade Balance: The Philippine Experience. Ma. Cecilia Gonzales.

17. S.P. No. 8407

The Development Bank of the Plailippines and the Financial Crisis, A Descriptive Analysis, Mario B. Lamberte. The Protection Structure, Resource Flows and the Capital-Labor Ratio in Philippine Manufacturing: A Short Empirical Note. Erlinda M_MedaUa. A Decomposition. Analysis of Philippine Export and. Import Performance, 19741982. Poneiano S_ Intal, Jr.

18. S.P. No. 8501 19. S.P. No. 8502 20. S.P. No. 8503 21. S.P. No. 8504

Philippine Export.and Terms of Trade Instability, 1965-1982. Poneiano S. Intal, Jr. Methodology for :Measuring Protection and Comparative Advantage. _)'linda M. Medalla and John H. Power_

22. S.P. No. 8505

Food, Fuel and Urbanization in the Philippines. Alejandro N. tIerrin, Manuel F. Montes, Rodolfo F. Florentino.

23. S.P, No. 8506

Rural Development Experience: Economic Perspectives. Robert E. Evenson.

24. S.P. No. 8507

Financial Liberalization and the Internal Structure of the Capital Markets: The Philippine Case. Mario B. Lamberte. The Rural Banking System: Need for Reforms. Mario B. Lamberte.

25. S.P_ No. 8508 26. S,P, Na. 8509

Sodial Adequacy and Economic Mario B. Lamberte.

27. S.P. No. 8601

Impact of BOI Incentives on Rate of Return, Factor Prices and Relative Factor Use: A Comparative Analysis of Incentives Under the Omnibus Investments Code of 1981 (P.D. 1789) and the Investment Incentive Policy Act (B.P. 391). Rosario G. Manasan_ Financial Reforms and Balance-of-Payments Crisis: The Case of the Philippines. Eli Remolona and Mario Lamberte.

28. S.P. No. 8602

Effects of Social Security:

The Philippine Case.

29, S.P. No. 8603

A Macroeconomic Overview of Public Enterprises Rosario G. Manasan.

30. S.P. No. 8701

Revenue Performance of National Manasan and Rosario G. Querubin.

31, S.P. No. 8702

Rural Financial Markets: A Review of IAteratnre. Mario B. Lamberte and Joseph Lim.

32. S.P. No. 8703*

Residential Demand for glectricity and Pricing Policy Implication Economy: The Case of th _:?hJlippines. Clodualdo R. Francisco.

*Forrhcomii_g papers_

" .........

Government

in the Philippines, Taxes, 1975-1985.

1975-1984. Rosatqo G.

in a Developing

1987


L

IDS DEVELOPMENT RESEARL.. ..

i

i

|

S

11

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

i

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

1. INDUSTRIAL PROMOTION POLICIES IN THE PH ILIPPINES Romeo Bautista, John Power and Associates

P125,00

2. SURVEY OF PHILIPPINE MENT RESEARCH 1 "

V 30.00

DEVELOP-

3. SURVEY OE PHILIPPINE DEVELOP-

1'_ 30.00

MENT RESEARCH II 4. SUMMARIES OF COMPLETED

1_ 20,00

RESEARCH PROJECTS, VOL, I P" 2_.00

6. ESSAYS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS/N HONOR OF HARRY

1_ 50.00 (Paper. bound) I'I00.00

IS I ARTICI-

1_' 86.25

PATORY DEVELOPMENT? (;ella Castfilo 8. THE SPATIALANDURBAN SIONS OF DEVELOPMENT I

DIMENIN THE

I=125.00

I_35.00

MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICY RESPONSE TO THE 1983-84BALANCE OF PAYMENT CRISIS Maxio S. Lamberte, et aI, NO. IX:

I_45-00

•PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN PHILIPPINE MANUFACTURING RETROSPECT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Richard HooJey P40.00

PHILIPPINES Roberto S. Maxiano 21, MONOGRAPHIC NO. XI: A HISTORfCAL AND CURRENT PERSPECTIVE OF PHILIPPINE ECONOMIC PROBLEMS Gerazdo Sick1 t

1e'] 3_00

22. JOURNAL OF PI4/LIPPINE DEVELOPMENT

1_40-00 per copy

(1981, 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 issues)

P 75.00 mmual subs, eription

PHILIPPINES Ernesto Perrda, Cayetano W. Paderanga, Associates Victorma Hernloso and 9. ENERGY AND STRUCTURAL CIIANGE IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION (-PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTEEN PACIFIC TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE) -

P200.00

10. PHILIPPINE EMPLOYMENT IN THE SEVENTIES Rosa Lintta P. Tidalgo and EmmgJme] F Esguerra

I" 75.00

11, MONOGRAPH NO, 1: A STUDY OF ENERGY-ECONOMY INTERACTION IN THE PIIiIJPPINES

1_ 15,00

13, MONOGRAPH NO. Ill: ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE PHILIPPINE A LCOGAS AND COCO-DIESEL PROGRAMS Armando Armas and Demlis Joyee Cryde 14. MONOGRAPH NO. IV: A SURVEY OF MATERIALS IN INTRODUCTORY ECONOMIC EDUCATION Geraxdo P. Sicat

23. JOURNAL OF PHILIPPINE DEVELOPMENT (j 986 Double Issue)*

1_75,00

24. JOURNAL OF PHILIPPINE DEVELOPMENT (First Semester, 1987)*

Leander Alejo 12. MONOGRAPH NO. II: INDUSTRIAL F 18_00 POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE ASEAN COUNTP, IES Romeo Bautista

I

18. MONOGRAPIt NO. VIII: REVIEW AND APPRAISAL OF TIll GOVERNMENT

20. MONOGRAPHIC NO. X: FORECASTING MONTHLY INFLATION IN THE

(hardbound) 7. HOW PARTICIPATORY

P40.00

19. MONOGRAPH

5. INTEGRATION, PARTICIPATION AND EFFECTIVENESS: AN ANALYSIS OF Till OPERATIONS AND EFFECTS OF FIVE RURAL HEALTH DELIVERY MECI_ANISMS Ledivina Cari_o and Associates

T. OSHIMA

17. MONOGRAPH NO_ VII: PUBLIC POLICY AND THE PHILIPPINE HOUSING MARKET Edna Angeles

P' 50.00

P32.00

15, MONOGRAPH NO. V: MODELLING P35.00 THE IMPACT OF SMALL FARM MECHANIZATION [a to.publication venture with the international Rice Research Institute (1RRI) ] 16. MONOGRAPH NO. Vh PIIILIPPINE £45.00 POVERTY: AN ANNOTATED BIBGRALIOPHY, 1970-1983 • [a co-publication ventme "::ifi_the Institute of Philippine Culture]

,, _

P-40.00 per copy P75.00 armuai subscription

25_ ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR FOREST £17.00 ' RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (Summary of the Papers and Proceedings OF tile Workshop) edited by Will-ride Cruz 26, ECONOM IC RECOVERY AND LONGRUN GROWI'H: AGENDA FOR REFORMS VOLUME I (MAIN REPORT) FlorJan A. Alburo et al

l_SO'00

27_ ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND LONGRUN GROWTH: A REVIEW OF Thq': FIRST ELEVEN MONTHS OF TIlE AQUINO GOVERNMENT Dante B, Canlas, et al

t_30-O0

28. AN ANALYSIS OF Till INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF THE PHILIPPINE SHORT-TEILM FINANCIAL MARKETS Victoria S. Licmman

P56.00

29. AGENDA FOR ACTI'ON FOR THE PHILIPPINE RURAL SECTOR (MAIN REPORT). AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND STRATEGY TEAM. 30. AGENDA FOR ACTION FOR THE PHILIPPINE RURAL SECTOR: A SUMMARY. AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND STRATEGY TEAM.

*

Forthcoming IlllI

t_230.00

£15.00

Publications ............

1987


PIDS DEVELOPMENT

RESEAI

•J NEWS IL

12

JANUARY-FEBRUARY

DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH NEWS (DRN) is a bi-monthly publication of the PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DE. VELOPMENT STUDIES (PIDS). It highlights findings and recommendations cuUed from PIDS-sponsored researches or related studies done by other institutions. PIDS seminars, publications, on-going and forthcoming projects whieh_¢e of interest" to policymakers, planners, administrators, and researchers are also announced. PIDS is a non-stock, non-profit government research institution engaged in long.term policy-oriented research. This publication is part of the lnstitute's program to disseminate information in order to promote the utilization of research findings. The views and opinions published here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute. Inquiries regarding any of the studies contained in this publication, or any of the PIDS papers, as well as suggestions to or comments on the DRN are welcome. Please address all related correspondence or inquiries to: RESEARCH INFORMATION DEPARTMENT (RID) PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (PIDS) ROOM 515, NEDA SA MAKATI BUILDING 106 AMORSOLO STREET, LEGASPI VILLAGE, MAKATI, METRO MANILA Entered as Second._lass Mail at the MIA Post Office on October 13, 1983. Private firms and individuals are charged for delivery and mailing services at an annual rate of P50.00. Students, libraries, academic and research institutiom are charged at an annual rate of P40.00. For foreign subscribers, the annual rate is $12.00.

1987


Industrial Peace: The Elusive Rara Avis