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Fig. __. Manual pounding using mortar and mazo with bilao for winnowing. Kiskisans.. In the 1920s, rice mills along the railroad stations started to become common in rice provinces. Some were water-powered mills, normally found in Cavite, Laguna and Tayabas. They charge from 20 to 50 centavos for each cavan of rice while other mills receive only the by-products as payment. This rice mill is called “kiskisan� which is an adaptation of the European coffee grinder and is a one step process of rice milling. It has a robust cast iron construction where a screw action forces the grain into the milling chamber from one end. The husks and bran layers are removed by friction of the grain rubbing against each other inside the chamber. The bran, useful as animal feed, gets mixed with crushed hull and broken grains and comes out from a screen below the milling rotor while milled rice comes out at the other end for further sifting. Because of high breakage, the total milled rice recovery from kiskisans is low (from 50 to less than 60% out of the potential 70%) and the resulting whole rice grains are also very low. This poor performance has led the government in the early 1970s to discourage its use and

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...