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Fig. __. IRRI axial-flow thresher released by IRRI in early 1970s and commercial model at present. By 1975, these mobile threshers have quickly spread in the irrigated areas and became popular for contract operations. By 1982, 73% of the Central Luzon rice farmers were using them and by 1990, all other forms of threshing disappeared from the area. In some areas, however, the use of axial flow threshers also changed the labor contract labor system, taking out the share of manual labor in favor of the machine. This has become a trend for hand tractors as well. Custom service operation has caused small farmers to benefit from the use of threshers and hand tractors. The adoption of threshers also resulted in a decline of threshing labor requirements due to large gains in labor productivity, from eight labor days per ton of paddy for foot threshing to less than one day per ton. In Nueva Ecija, Laguna and Iloilo, postharvest labor in mechanized farms was around 25% lower than on farms in which rice is manually threshed, with roughly 31% coming from landless households. Using thresher, however, has resulted in considerable reduction of the drudgery of postproduction tasks. The lighter nature of the work made it possible for women and children to substitute for men in the threshing operation. Where off-farm employment

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...