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35 classes and meetings to introduce modern crop protection technology in which farmers were also taught the use of resistant high yielding varieties as a preventive measure against the recurrence of the disease. More intensive campaigns were made in rice farming areas like those of North and South Cotabato, Davao del Sur and Zamboanga del Sur in sporadic proportion and especially in places where farmers still insist to the planting of susceptible varieties and lack the facilities and equipment to control the disease. In Mindanao, in late 1976, a new rice disease called infectious gall disease was discovered. The disease was serious, affecting over 1000 hectares of rice with an estimated loss of over 50 percent of the crop. With the vigorous campaign of BPI to plant high yielding resistant varieties like IR32, IR 36, IR42, the infestation of both the BPH and infectious gall were controlled (BPI, 1981). Weeds. In the irrigated lowlands of Muùoz, five common weeds in rice fields were identified: Monocharia hastate, Pistia strationles, Eichornia crassipes, Cyperus iria and Cyperus haspan. Hand weeding is employed and the weeds are being fed to their pigs (Aragon,1930). Aside from hand weeding, weeds were controlled by periodical application of water to suppress their growth. Those that survived were pulled from time to time and trampled into the soils (Bautista, 1949). Since the introduction of HYVs in the 1970s, however, chemical herbicides sprayed using knapsack sprayers before or after weed emergence have become common particularly in direct seeded fields. Golden snail. In the 1970’s, there was a worldwide craze to grow the golden apple snail for food purposes with both the government and private groups endorsing massive production of this snail for food and profit. After few years of production,

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...