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33 and oil emulsions; encouraging rearing of predators and parasites that attack the various pests and cultural measures, e.g. timely application of derris and pyrethrum (Otanes, 1952). Two years after, in 1954, the brown leafhopper (BPH), a new pest of rice was widely observed in the Philippines. It was first observed in Calamba, Laguna but has not become serious until 1973 when thousand of hectares were destroyed by the BPH. The infestation continued through 1974 in Laguna affecting over 10,000 hectares. In 1976 serious outbreaks were observed in Mindanao causing considerable losses. Along with BPH, the grassy stunt virus transmitted by the BPH soon made its appearance in Laguna rice fields, greatly compounding the losses in yield suffered by the rice farmers. During the infestation, technical personnel, chemicals and equipment were pooled to suppress the spread of the pest. The farmers were organized into pest control groups to cover wider area. Educational drive was also undertaken among farmers to introduce modern crop protection. Upon the initiation of the Bureau of Plant Industry, a rice planting ban during the 1974 dry season was instituted in Laguna in an attempt to break the BPH cycle with grassy stunt virus. Only rice variety IR-26 was used for planting (BPI, 1981). Extensive use of chemicals or insecticides was commonly practiced and even calendar spraying was recommended through the Masagana 99 rice program of the 1970s. The farmers believed that all insects are harmful and were not aware that there are also friendly insects in the rice paddy areas. Continuous spray of the insecticides, however, caused the build-up of insect immunity of to insecticides and their increase in number while also killing the friendly insects. The harmful effects of chemicals on the

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...