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32 Insect pests. In the past, one of the most important insect pest is the migratory locust that are destroyed by driving them into pits. Another destructive pests reported by Camus (1921) are rice bugs, which are as destructive as the locusts but controlled by systematic crop rotation and clean culture. Another control measures done in those years were (1) using a putrifying meat in a bag as bait to attract adult bugs; this is afterwards burned and (2) early planting of rice as trap crop before the actual rice crop is to be established to allow the rice bugs to feed and live on the rice plants before the crop is burned together with the bugs, and (3) simultaneous and synchronous transplanting of varieties with the same maturity; however, this was not acceptable to other farmers because harvesting by hand was too slow and additional help is inevitable when all rice plants matures at the same time. Rice stem-borer came next to rice bugs. Cleaning around the field before transplanting was done to destroy the eggs of the stemborer. Leaf folders and cutworms or army worms were also common especially in places where continuous planting of rice is practiced. Clean surroundings and crop rotation were suggested control measures at that time. On the other hand, as early as 1930, the case worms (aksip na pula) was already a common insect pests in rice aside from rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis), rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta), and stalk borer (Schoenobius incertellus) [Aragon, 1930]. To combat the case worms, complete drainage of the paddy field was done until the pest was eliminated (Bautista, 1949). Almost all of the above insects were observed in 1952 with the addition of the occurrence of leafhoppers. Some control measures were done like poster campaigns by, informative articles, bulletins, circulars about the insects; application of calcium arsenate and other arsenicals, dust preparation,

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  
The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...

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