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26 As early as 1919, transplanting rice in the lowlands during the dry season was practiced in places where there are irrigation systems. This was commonly called “palagad”. Early maturing varieties were planted as the second crop so it can be harvested before the next or main crop. These varieties gave better yields on rainfed areas than the medium late or late maturing ones especially when there are short period of rainfalls (Bautista, 1949). In 1929, transplanted rice was found to be better than direct seeding of rice in the dry season (Camus, 1929). Farmers observed that seedlings grow faster than weeds unlike the direct-seeded rice, weeds are minimized in puddled fields (hence, weeding was lessened) and soil fertility is claimed to be better maintained.

Fig. __. Rice transplanting on bunded fields, with music from a guitar during the old days, is common in lowland areas.

With irrigation pumps, the method of planting rice rapidly changed from direct seeding to the more profitable transplanting (Sta Iglesia and Lawas, 1959), although in some areas where water is scarce, the secano or sabog method was still practiced. Seedbed management. Earlier than 1921, there were three seedbed managements being practiced by the rice farmers. The first one was the “punlaan” where seeds were

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  
The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...