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were done either manually or with the use of carabaos. Much of these practices have been romanticized mainly because the social life of farmers and their communities evolved within the conduct of these tasks, often done with the assistance of relatives and neighbors. There were less inputs needed as yield from the traditional cultivars was limited by the plant itself so that labor productivity and time as well as efficiency were of less concern compared to the drudgery in the conduct of manual tasks. The period spanning the introduction and diffusion of short-statured, non photosensitive and early maturing high yield varieties, coupled with the availability of irrigation water from newly constructed irrigation systems, were quite different. Demands for efficiency and time became of greater importance to attain the high yield and double crop potential of these modern varieties. Tasks which formerly were not given attention to, such as fertilizer management, chemical control, threshing and drying suddenly became important to small farmers who suddenly found themselves tillers and managers of their own land due to newly passed land reform law. Techniques and equipment to accomplish these tasks were developed or improved upon so that this period revolutionized the whole rice production system. Research on land preparation, planting, fertilizer management, pest management, harvesting and threshing as well as drying and milling were actively pursued and promoted although farmers were selective in adopting only a few of these new breakthroughs. The International Rice Research Institute led in both the development of these varieties, management practices as well as machinery to answer the needs of farmers at this time. After the Green Revolution, concerns on costs and productivity including sustainability continued to become important as Filipino farmers struggle to sustain

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...