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21 The combined method of planting is still observed at present mainly due to reduction of costs than any other reason. Rice transplanting is done during the wet season where risks of poor crop establishment is higher in broadcast seeding method due to unpredictable rain occurrence. Broadcast or direct seeding is done during the dry season where water is more controlled and pests and disease seldom occur during the hot summer days. Besides, more labor is required in transplanting than in the direct seeding as seed bedding and seedling pulling are eliminated while establishment time was lesser with direct seeding. It is also common in irrigated areas during the wet season for farmers nowadays to direct seed than to transplant as a result of less labor and less cost with the former method. Water management and weeding practices. The weeding practices also changed with the manner of water management in the rice field. About ninety percent of the total rice production management was formerly devoted to weeding (92% to transplanted, 99% in direct seeded, and 97% for the combined methods). With the availability of water, weeds were controlled and labor for weeding was also reduced to 52.5% for direct seeded rice, 13.5% for transplanted rice, and 35.8% for combined methods of establishment. With the advent of the new and selective herbicides, manual weeding became supplementary to chemical control. The high labor cost of weeding was reported to have been compensated by the relatively lower price of herbicides applied in the direct seeded area. With these improved and more efficient production management, an increase in yield of 36.4% was observed in the fully irrigated areas while 5% in partially irrigated

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...

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