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12 environment, farmers can raise yields by up to 240 cavans per hectare per season or 12 tons/ha/season. When planted, the cultivation procedure of hybrid cultivars is basically the same as inbreds; reproduction is also thru self-pollination; and the harvest (palay) looks the same as that with inbreds (i.e., not partially filled, etc.) but it cannot be used for replanting because hybrid vigor is lost resulting in lower yield and non-uniform crop stand. At present, there are six commercial hybrids that are being promoted by the government starting 2000. PhilRice and IRRI developed three Mestizo hybrids while three private seed companies have produced their own hybrid rice varieties whose seeds are also being promoted through a government hybrid rice program being spearheaded by the Department of Agriculture. Because of aggressive government support, hybrid rice cultivation in the country is increasing, starting in 2000 with 5,000 ha to some 250,000 ha targeted in 2005-2006 to be planted in selected provinces, with targeted yield of 5.156.75 t/ha. Soil and nutrient management Traditional practices. Basically, lowland rice is best grown in easily drained heavy clay soils with not much nitrogen content while upland rice is best in loamy soils not too rich in nitrogen as high nitrogen content in the soil produce little grain and too much straw. With high N content, rice plants also become prone to lodging; this particularly occurs with tall varieties planted before as these were easily beaten by strong winds during the wet season (Camus, 1921). Thus, as early as 1920, the best rice

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...