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Yield enhancing technologies Rice production in the Philippines was significantly affected by three major

periods: the period of the so-called traditional varieties that characterized the years before 1960s prior to the establishment of the Los Banos-based IRRI, the period between 1960s to 1988 when IRRI and other breeding institutions introduced the co-called modern, high yielding varieties (HYVs) that are mainly for irrigated fields, and the present period when other rice ecosystems such as rainfed and fragile rice environments were recognized and given attention to. Rice Varieties Traditional systems. The rice production system at the early times prior to the introduction of modern varieties and technologies is characterized by single cropping per year, with yields ranging from 16 cavans in 1900-1913 to 28 cavans/ha in 1966 (Serrano, 1952). During this period, rice management is less influenced by technology or chemical inputs but only by the farmer’s direct experiences and field observation. Before the spread of modern rice varieties, Filipino farmers used to plant traditional varieties that are photoperiod sensitive. The leading varieties then include the Milagrosa (which is now one of the leading indica varieties being patronized in the US), Wagwag, Buenavista (Kasungsong) and those introduced from abroad, notably Ketan Koeteok from French Indo-China (now Vietnam), Fortuna from Formosa, Celery Sticks and others. These varieties, although resistant to most pest and diseases and have excellent eating quality, yields only 20-30 cavans per hectare, matures late at around 150 days, and grows by as much as 160 cm tall.

The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  
The Evolution of Rice Production Practices  

July 2005 Philippine Institute for Development Studies Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas For comments, suggestions or furth...