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How Europe is now turning to full filtration Techniques, figures and consequences By P ierre Vida llet

Bus in es s P rogra m ACCA 20 10 OU R CHAN GIN G LAN D S CAP E M o n d a y 11 t h O c t o b e r 2 0 1 0


CONTENTS

1.

The change in rules over the last decade

2.

The context for cremation planning

3.

Filtration techniques

4.

The impact on buildings

5.

Costs

6.

The impact on management and staff

7.

Heat recovery

8.

Waste management


1. The change in rules over the last decade

1970 1990 2000

• PERFECTING EQUIPMENT

• IMPROVING COMBUSTIO N

• BECOMING SUSTAINABLE


Chart comparing the regulatory demands of 12 European countries with regard to the atmospheric emissions of crematoria (A) Recommendation UK PG5/2

UK new sites

11% O² dry

Dust

GERMANY V.D.I. 3891

GERMANY 27 B.lm .Sch.V

ITALY

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

80

20

10

10

30

150

Mercury : Hg

NA

0,05

NA

NA

NA

Dioxins (ng/m3 ) : PCDD/F

NA

0,1

0,1

0,1

Carbon Monoxide : CO

100

100

50

Hydrocarbo ns : CxHy

20

20

Oxides of Nitrogen : NOx

NA

Hydrogen Chloride : HCl Oxides of : SOx

mg/Nm3

FRANCE Decree dated 29 Dec. 2004

BELGIUM BRUSSELS

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

100

30

30

50

100

50

125

0.1

NA

0,2

0,1

0,2

0,1

0,2

NA

NA

NA

0,1

0,1

NA

0,1

NA

NA

100

50

100

100

100

62,5

100

50

250

NA

NA

NA

20

150

?

20

20

20

75

NA

900g/cr

900g/cr

NA

700

400

NA

NA

NA

250

875

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

100

30

NA

NA

30

30

75

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

200

300

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

SWEDEN new equipment

11% O² dry

11% O² dry

20

20

10

10

NA

0,05

0,08 < 100 mg/ cremation

0,08 < 100 mg/ cremation

NA

NA

NA

500/5 min 500/1 min

50

100

150

150

100

20

20

20

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

400

NA

200

30

NA

40

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NORWAY > 200/yr

11% O² 11% O² dry dry

LEGEND : NA (Not Applicable)

DENMARK 01.01. 2011

11% O² 11% dry O² dry

NETHERLANDS AUSTRIA NeR*

CZECH REP

BELGIUM Vlarem II

SWEDEN old equipment

NORWAY < 200/yr

SWITZERLAND (Locarno) 2001


w ww.eurocrematoria.eu

The European Manifesto

30 May 2008  An inventory  A tool for dialogue  A base for proposals

www.eurocrematoria.eu


Proposed environmental standards drawn up in collaboration with the manufacturers of cremation equipment Under 11 % O2 dry 10 mg/Nm3

Dust Mercury (Hg)

0,2 mg/Nm3

Dioxins/furans

0,1 ng/Nm3

Carbon monoxide (CO) New installations

50 mg/Nm3

Old installations

100 mg/Nm 3

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) New installations

500 mg/Nm3

Old installations

700 mg/Nm 3

With a need to control coffins

Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)

30 mg/Nm3

Oxides of (SOx)

50 mg/Nm3

Volatile organic components (total VOC)

20 mg/Nm3

Under controlled conditions concerning coffins and their contents


New emission limits in France 28 January 2010

Dust

Mercury Hg

Dioxins Furans (ng)

CO

NOx

HCl

SOx

Total VOC

Old

100

-

-

100

700

100

200

20

New

10

0.2

0.1

50

500

30

120

20

Implementation is immediate for new crematoria. Existing crematoria have 8 years to comply.


Cremation components AIR


Mercury

1000 cremations

AUSTRALIA INDUSTRIES

50 g

13 000 kg

0.1g

140 g

0.05 mg/Nm3

Dioxins 0.1ng/Nm3

Source NPI 2008-2009


2. The context for cremation planning

FACT: IM PACT SURVEYS POPUL AT I ON AWARE NES S PLANNI NG DELAYS


NIMBY !


3. Abatement techniques

dust

mercury

dioxins


The principle Si l o Em ergency stack Stack

A dditivedosing

Furnace

Fi lter

Mi xing reactor Ga s cooler (wa ter)

Main radial fan

Data of installation 1 Cremator 3.500 N m 3/h 1 1 00 째C Furnace outlet 1 30 째C Filter inlet Dirty gas data Dust 1 50 mg/N m 3 Di oxines/Furanes 2 ngTE/Nm 3

Cy clone

Cleaned gas data Dust <5 mg/N m 3 Di oxines/Furanes 0,1 ngTE/Nm3

Reci rculation Additiv e Hy drated lime / coke

Re-cool er

Courtesy Dantherm


Courtesy TABO


The components

Stack

Emergency stack

Air blast cooler Mixing

F ilter

reactor

cooler

Analysis Compressed measurement

Cyclone Additiv e dosing

technique

air

station

Electrical tech.

Coffin

Cremator Combustion air fan insertion machine

injeciton air fan

Container for

Courtesy Dantherm

Recirculation

Container for residues

Main radial fan residues


FIXED BED

Courtesy GEM Matthews


REAGENT DOSING

Courtesy GEM Matthews


It may be complicatedâ&#x20AC;Ś.

Courtesy GEM Matthews


HEAT EXCHANGERS Installations in Italy

Courtesy Gem Matthews


FILTERS Installations in Italy

Courtesy Gem Matthews


A TYPICAL EXAMPLE


Filtration installation on 2 levels

Courtesy Facultatieve Technologies


Ciney, Belgium


WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE ?


WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE ?


WATER SCRUBBER

Courtesy Crawford


MERCURY ABATEMENT

Courtesy Crawford


MERCURY ABATEMENT

Courtesy Crawford


4. The impact on buildings

• • • •

Volume : 60 to 80 sqmx4m Ventilation Accessibility STRUCTURE

FUNCTIONS

• Lay-out • Design • Planning

• Budgets • Financing CAPITAL


VENTILATION ! 35 kW 13 kW

FOR ONE CREMATOR !


STORAGE  BUCKETS AND DRUMS  EMPTY AND FULL


5. Costs

Replacement

Investment

Running cost

Impact on cremation


INVESTMENT BUILDING > 140 000

1 single line : 500-570 000

1 double line : 650-700 000


REPLACEMENT

FILTER • • • • •

BAGS OR CASSETTES (material, manpower, disposal) 12-15 000 EVERY 4-5 YEAR?

BOILER ?


RUNNING COSTS

MAINTENANCE • Doubles • (typical 7000/line) • Repairs (2 000)

CONSUMABLES • Electricity 35kWh/cremation • Reagent • ( 2-3$/cremation)

WASTE DISPOSAL > 3$ / cremation


6. The impact on management and staff

 F R OM C R E M AT OR OP E R AT ION T O P L AN T M AN AGE M E N T E D U C AT ION AN D T R AIN IN G P R OC E S S P R OC E D U R E S ( D AILY C H E C K S ) W OR K IN G C ON D IT ION S R IS K AS S E S S M E N T M AIN T E N AN C E P L AN N IN G C OM M U N IC AT ION C OM P E T IT ION ?


STADE CREMATORIUM IN GERMANY

IFZW Installation


STADE CREMATORIUM IN GERMANY

Installation IFZW


STADE CREMATORIUM IN GERMANY

IFZW Installation


7. Heat recovery « Energy recycling »

E AC H C R E M AT I O N C Y C L E H AS S O M E H O W 350 KWH T O D I S S I PAT E T H I S I S E N E R G Y W H I C H M AY B E U S E D F O R ELEC TR I C I TY PR O D U C TI O N

O R C O O LI N G


8. Waste management


METAL REMAINS

Courtesy Orthometals

42


43

Waste hierarchy or the “Lansink ladder”

Prevention Reuse Recycling Energy recovery Incineration Landfilling

Guus Rang BV 2 010

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


44

Fly ash    

Guus Rang BV 2 010

Fly ash / filter waste contains mercury OSPAR recommendation 2003/4 Mercury is prioritised for its persistence, liability to bioaccumulate and toxicity Mercury removal techniques (Best Available Techniques (BAT))

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


45

Underground Waste Disposal in Germany 

First Underground Waste Disposal Plant worldwide by K+S in 1972.

Guus Rang BV 2 010

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


46

Salt mines | Mining â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Room and Pillar methode

Mining horizon, room Pillar

Guus Rang BV 2 010

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


47

Storage procedure | Stacking Kontrolle

Schacht

Strecke

Einlagerung

Guus Rang BV 2 010

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


48

Storage procedure | Walling off

Guus Rang BV 2 010

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


49

Guus Rang BV 2 010

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


50

Thank you for your attention Guus Rang BV 2 010

W astePoint Afvalbeheer ECN Conference, May


Your questions …


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