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2011 AnnuAl RepoRt

N ew J er sey A g r i c u lt u r A l experimeNt s tAt i o N

tAble of contents

N ew J er sey

i i

stAff iNformAtioN we hAve the stAte covered


fuNdiNg sources ANd expeNditure

1 3

commeRciAl AgRicultuRe Managing Stink Bugs; Constructing High Tunnels Enhancing Agritourism; Educating Women Farmers

5 7

enviRonment And nAtuRAl ResouRces IR-4 Pesticide Research Support; Aerosols and Air Quality Research Building Rain Barrels and Gardens; Responding to Storms and Floods

A g r i c u lt u r A l experimeNt s tAt i o N


9 11

fisheRies And AquAcultuRe Fisheries Leadership Reorganized; Improving Fisheries Management Developing Oyster Genetics; Sea Grant Funding for Aquaculture

13 15

food, nutRition, And heAlth Supporting Endocrine Health; Promoting Nutrition and Health “Grow Healthy” Wellness Program; Creating Healthy School Meals

17 19

home, lAwn, And gARden Greening the Turfgrass Industry; Fertilizer Law Sparks Training Growing Community Gardens; Sustaining Urban Environments

21 23

Youth And communitY development 4-H Food and Fitness Ambassadors; Building Community at 4-H Camp Robotics Improves “STEM” Education; Programs Teach Science Literacy


economic development Developing Natural Plant Products; “Agriculture in the Middle” Initiative


suppoRting njAes Honoring Phillip Alampi; Promoting Cranberry Research


oArd of mANAgers stAtewide Advisory commit tee couNt y ex teNsioN offices


off-cAmpus stAtioNs ceNters ANd iNstitutes

jeRseY Roots, globAl ReAch

N e w J e r s e y A g r i c u lt u r A l e x p e r i m e N t s tAt i o N

ouR mission To enhance the vitality, health, sustainability, and overall quality of life in New Jersey by developing and delivering practical, effective solutions to current and future challenges relating to agriculture; fsheries; food; natural resources; environments; public health; and economic, community, and youth development.

RobeRt m. goodmAn

lARRY s. KAtz

mARgARet bRennAn-tonettA

Executive Dean of Agriculture and Natural Resources Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Senior Associate Director Director, Cooperative Extension 848-932-3591

Associate Director for Economic Development 848-932-3776

bRAdleY i. hillmAn

Associate Director, Cooperative Extension 848-932-3583

Executive Director 848-932-3600

gAil AlexAndeR Chief of Staff, Offce of the Executive Dean 848-932-3501

Senior Associate Director Director, Cooperative Research 848-932-3777

jAcK RAbin Associate Director, Farm Programs 848-932-3610

mARY jAne willis

cARol hARveY Assistant Director for Administration 848-932-3775 harve

we hAve the stAte coveRed ReAching All 21 new jeRseY counties: Rutgers Cooperative Extension Statistics 270,301 participants in educational outreach

5, 377 volunteers trained

2,473 active Rutgers Master Gardener volunteers

57,301 programs conducted

11,862 one-on-one visits to homes, farms, felds, and industries

50,412 4-H Youth Development program participants

18,087 issues of various newsletters with a circulation of 60,110

2,660 4-H volunteers

1,402,863 downloaded publications and documents


outh and 2,855 adult EFNEP participants reached in behaviorall focused nutrition education classes

50,335 outh and 3,882 adult SNAP-Ed participants reached in behaviorall focused nutrition education classes

njAes plAYs A significAnt Role in the stAte’s economic gRowth bY: • Funding cutting-edge, innovative research • Fostering technology and innovation transfer to industry

• Launching start-up enterprises through incubators and business development support • Providing a well-educated, highly skilled workforce


• Developing sustainable growth strategies for urban and rural communities

funding souRces

expendituRe bReAKdown 42.7% GRANTS AND CONTRACTS










* Includes in-kind salaries paid by counties to RCE faculty and staff. ** Facilities and Administration Costs (F. & A.) were previously referred to as Indirect Costs. These are costs that are incurred for common or joint objectives and therefore cannot be identifed readily and specifcally with a particular sponsored project, instructional activity, or any other institutional activity. Facilities costs include building and equipment depreciation, operation and maintenance expenses, interest on debt and library expenses. Administration costs include general administration and general expenses, departmental administration, sponsored projects administration, student administration and services.

Base funding from the State of New Jersey and from USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture formula funds provides NJAES with a foundation for program development and delivery, while competitive grants, contracts, and gifts increase the scope and impact of research and education programs. The state appropriation for fscal year 2011 totaled $21.742 million. “Other� funding includes restricted and unrestricted gifts, income from sales of service activities, and patent and plant licensing income. County appropriations include salaries paid by counties to Rutgers Cooperative Extension faculty and staff. We gratefully acknowledge the personnel, facilities, and other support that many counties provide to Rutgers Cooperative Extension.

NJAES expended a total of $87.1 million in funding to support research and extension activities in FY11, representing a slight decline in spending over the $89.8 million expended in FY10. State appropriations supported 25% of FY11 expenses, compared to 28.5% in FY10, highlighting the declining role of state support. Increased funding from grants and contracts largely offset this decline in state support, allowing NJAES to maintain its research and extension programs. More than 50% of grant fund expenditures came from awards to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed/Extension), the IR-4 program, the Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, the Offce of Continuing Professional Education, ii and the Center for Environmental Prediction.

commeRciAl AgRicultuRe mAnAging stinK bugs

constRucting high tunnels

The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) caused serious agricultural problems in 2010, causing an average of 58% damage in infested peach and apple orchards and up to 70% damage in some pepper felds. While damage was less in 2011, the insect caused a two- to three-fold increase in pest control costs for growers as it has no effective native, natural enemies and over 300 alternate hosts, enabling adults to constantly migrate and re-infest crops. Since many commonly used insecticides prove ineffective against BMSB, the IR-4 Project supplied data that was used to support an emergency use approval of a previously unregistered use of dinotefuran, which showed effcacy on peaches and other stone fruit. NJAES is part of a $5.7 million multi-state research and extension project, “Biology, Ecology, and Management of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Orchard Crops, Small Fruit, Grapes, Vegetables, and Ornamentals,� led by USDA in Kearneysville, WV. New Jersey investigators include Rutgers scientists George Hamilton, Dean Polk, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, and Dan Ward. NJAES will receive $250,000 per year, for three years, to study better management and monitoring methods as well as potential biological control agents for peach, apple, blueberry, and grape crops. This research will combine new controls into existing integrated pest management (IPM) programs, with the goal of controlling grower production costs and minimizing pesticide use.

High tunnels are passive-energy, polyethylene-covered hoop houses, which are effective tools for extending the production season for numerous specialty crops. In addition, they improve yield and quality, reduce fertilizer leaching, costly pesticide and fungicide inputs, and provide quick payback on a modest capital investment when properly constructed and managed. NJAES provides annual training for growers on best practices for managing the crop-growing environment of high tunnels. In 2011, Wesley Kline, agricultural and resource management agent, Cumberland County, led a high tunnel trial for early maturing tomatoes grafted onto disease resistant root stock in an initiative funded by NJAES. This method helps smaller urban fringe farmers to produce successful early tomato crops even without suffcient land to practice three- to four-year crop rotations that favor the growth of varieties of tomatoes without disease resistance. Richard Van Vranken, agricultural and resource management agent, Atlantic County, and colleagues commenced work on a pilot project to evaluate and demonstrate to New Jersey farmers the potential impacts of both single- and multi-bay, commercial-size high tunnels on nutrient, pest, and irrigation management, as well as effective crop and cover crop rotations. The pilot is funded under a three-year Conservation Innovation Grant awarded by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NJAES is proud of its strong relationships wit federal, state, local, and

institutional partners as wel as te shared commitment to agriculure in te

Garden State trough first-class research tat is relevant and transformative. 1

Robert M. Goodman, Executive Director of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station

commeRciAl AgRicultuRe enhAncing AgRitouRism

educAting women fARmeRs

To New Jersey farmers, agritourism is an opportunity for extending the growing season, gaining additional income, and, at the same time, enhancing community relations. Creating a venue for the general public to visit farms also offers the chance to promote awareness of farming issues and the importance of preserving agriculture in New Jersey. NJAES research has shown that one out of every fve New Jersey farms is engaged in agritourism, with annual revenues of $57.5 million. In recognition of agritourism as a new, consumer-centric business model for many farmers that is a departure from the traditional production-wholesale marketing paradigm, Rutgers Cooperative Extension (RCE) faculty formed a working group to coordinate agritourism programming. The team has organized regional farmer workshops for 2012 to help farmers develop marketing and public communication plans, evaluate farm safety, prepare business plans, assess insurance needs, and understand current state regulations. RCE faculty are developing educational resources for extension educators in the northeast to assist farmers with marketing strategies and ways to incorporate social media to engage the public. Funded by the Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program, this project also provides guidance on risk management, including proper enterprise budgeting, reduction of on-farm safety hazards, and liability protections.

Two Rutgers-led projects—one local, the other international—share the common mission of recognizing and developing the managerial and technical capacities of women farmers. In February, the nationally acclaimed farm program, Annie’s Project, was launched in New Jersey by specialist in farm management Robin Brumfeld; agricultural and resource management agents Jenny Carleo; Nicholas Polanin; Stephen Komar; and Robert Mickel; and specialist in fnancial resource management Barbara O’Neill. The New Jersey program was modifed to provide Turkish women farmers with a similar curriculum but adapted to Turkish conditions. In partnership with Mick Minard, communications strategy consultant, Burhan Ozkan of Akdeniz University, and Bedrullah Ercin of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, in Antalya, Turkey, the global program, titled “Women Farmers Project,” was launched in October to provide Turkish women farmers with training on the basic skills and best practices to sustain proftable agricultural businesses. Annie’s Project in New Jersey has received funding to develop a statewide program to reach 100 women farmers in 2012 through innovative technology and traditional classroom teaching. More funding is being sought to develop “Reporting Impact with New Media Project,” a new initiative using impact metrics and new media to report on and publicize the projects’ ability to achieve their missions.

NJAES provides sustainable, research-driven suport to smal and mid-sized

farms, specialy, etnic, and nursery crops, and local production and marketing, which al add to te uniqe mix tat is commercial agriculure in New Jersey. 3

Tree Fruit Research Study at Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center.

enviRonment And nAtuRAl ResouRces iR-4 pesticide ReseARch suppoRt

AeRosols And AiR quAlitY ReseARch

Cranberries and blueberries, among the state’s fnest crops, are produced on only 10,600 acres but realize a total value of utilized production to New Jersey at over $94 million. These crops are vulnerable to pests like cranberry rootworm, cranberry tipworm, aphids, blueberry maggot, and leafhoppers, which destroy production and devastate growers’ bottom line. There is little to no investment by agri-chemical companies to develop products for low-acreage specialty crops, due to the small market and cost-prohibitive regulatory requirements. The USDA established the IR-4 Project, which is headquartered at NJAES, to function as a national support program that develops the data required by the US EPA to allow registration of modern pesticides on specialty crops. NJAES scientists like Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, extension specialist in entomology, and the late Sridhar Polavarapu have played a critical role in conducting research to manage pests that attack blueberries and cranberries. Working on critical research supported by the IR-4 Project, Rodriguez-Saona, Polavarapu, and other entomologists at Rutgers have evaluated or assisted in the registration of 26 reduced-risk products for cranberries and blueberries. The IR-4 Project also supports the development of alternative strategies to pesticides such as mating disruption to manage oriental beetle in blueberries. These research efforts, led by Rutgers, help growers in New Jersey and around the world.

Teams of faculty have been supporting wide-ranging research at NJAES that will contribute to our growing understanding of air pollution and the development of effective control strategies for New Jersey and the region. Donna Fennell’s group is characterizing populations of airborne bacteria and fungi in the urban, suburban, rural, and coastal environments of New Jersey. In addition to identifying microbes found in air, the research is also intended to discover whether aerial microbes actively degrade important airborne organic pollutants. The lab of Gedi Mainelis is analyzing exposure of young children to indoor bioaerosols using robotic tools to assess exposure. The ultimate goal of this research is to improve our ability to better understand environmental exposures and the potential links to the development of asthma. Barbara Turpin’s group is developing chemical mechanisms that explain the formation of particulate air pollution through cloud processing of gaseous pollutants. This research is helping to provide more robust linkages between pollution sources and ambient air quality and will ultimately lead to improved air quality management plans to protect residents in the state and the region. In conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission, Lisa Rodenburg and colleagues have been measuring toxic chemicals in the air to estimate how much are deposited into the Delaware River and their impact on water quality.

As our state’s land-grant university, Rutgers is firmly commited to its

agriculural roots and to te urgency of protecting our natural resources and promoting te healh and wel-being of all New Jersey residents. 5

Richard L. McCormick, University President

enviRonment And nAtuRAl ResouRces building RAin bARRels And gARdens

Responding to stoRms And floods

When it rains in New Jersey—onto rooftops, lawns, paved streets, and sidewalks, it pours—down storm drains, taking nutrients and chemical contaminants into our local waterways. The Rutgers Cooperative Extension (RCE) Water Resources Program has two initiatives to keep rainwater on site where it can percolate into the groundwater or be reused to irrigate gardens. Using 55-gallon plastic containers for placement under a downspout to harvest water from a building’s rooftop, the rain barrel program offers workshops for homeowners, trainers, and youth across the state. Participants learn about the importance of managing rainwater while “building” their own rain barrel. Since 2009, the program has distributed over 1,290 rain barrels, which have the potential to collect almost two million gallons of rainwater per year. The Water Resources Program also constructs rain gardens, attractive landscapes that serve as natural flters and drains to prevent stormwater runoff. More than 125 demonstration rain gardens have been installed across New Jersey as a collaborative project between the Water Resources Program, RCE county offces, local stakeholders, and volunteers. Demonstration rain gardens are located in publicly visible locations and are often sites of workshops used to train homeowners, landscape professionals, and gardeners on how to manage backyard stormwater and help promote water quality.

Episodes of record rainfall and snowfall, devastating foods, and damaging winds in 2011 wrought havoc throughout New Jersey. These events were closely monitored by the Offce of the New Jersey State Climatologist’s (ONJSC) automated New Jersey Weather and Climate Network and volunteer New Jersey Community Collaborative, Rain, Hail, and Snow Network. The ONJSC provided the latest developments and timely advice to federal, state, and private entities before, during, and after storms. This included conferring with emergency management, agriculture, transportation, water resource, and environment offcials. In addition, over 300 media interviews kept the public informed of the threat and consequences of these historic events. In August, Hurricane Irene was particularly damaging to New Jersey agriculture. In the midst of the growing season, many orchards and felds were under water. The Food and Drug Administration considers crops that have been through a food as adulterated and cannot be sold for human or animal consumption. To guide growers on what crops could be harvested and how to handle them, NJAES developed materials on when to harvest, how to disinfect crops, and how to prepare land for the next growing season. This vital, time-sensitive information was dispersed to growers and New Jersey residents through newspaper interviews, newsletters, and constantly updated information on the NJAES website and vegetable blog.

EcoWals®, which produces wals of plant materials promoting water and air

qality, is one of 70 companies to receive assistance at te Rutgers EcoComplex, a

high-tech business incubator for start-up companies, including “green” businesses. 7

EcoWall™ Display at Rutgers EcoComplex.

fisheRies And AquAcultuRe fisheRies leAdeRship ReoRgAnized

impRoving fisheRies mAnAgement

The NJAES fsheries and aquaculture portfolio has been reorganized in an effort to enhance delivery of programs and services in response to the emerging needs of these critical industries. The Haskin Shellfsh Research Laboratory is led by Dave Bushek, shellfsh biologist and Rutgers professor of marine science. He succeeded Eric Powell, who provided the laboratory with expert leadership for the last 16 years. Greg DeBrosse, long-term facilities manager at the Cape Shore Laboratory, was appointed director of the facility and is responsible for managing shellfsh broodstock, seed production, and general culture operations at the laboratory as well as at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC). Mike De Luca, senior associate director of the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences (IMCS), was appointed director of the AIC, a high-tech center for the growth and culture of fnfsh and shellfsh, as well as training and outreach on species of commercial importance to New Jersey. A new Fisheries Cooperative Center was established to advance collaborative research in commercial and recreational fshing and is led by Eleanor Bochenek, a fsheries biologist. These new directors will help diversify the research, education, and extension portfolio for aquaculture and fsheries development in New Jersey. All four facilities remain under the oversight of Rich Lutz, who was named director of IMCS in February.

The management of New Jersey’s fsheries is a challenging task, made more diffcult by our limited understanding of their biology. In collaboration with New Jersey anglers and commercial fshermen, Rutgers has launched a study to investigate the reproductive biology of black sea bass. This highly sought-after species has a unique lifestyle. They are protogynous hermaphrodites; that is, most black sea bass begin life as females and some later become males. As a result, larger black sea bass that can legally be kept by anglers are predominately male. What effect does this selective removal of males have on the population? To answer this question as well as to gain insight into the ratio of female to male fsh, Rutgers professor Olaf Jensen, a specialist in fsheries science and aquatic ecology, and his team of scientists, students, and fshermen are tagging black sea bass off the New Jersey coast. To date, the team of more than 50 volunteer fshermen and a dozen students has tagged nearly 1,000 fsh. More than 100 of these tagged fsh have been recaptured by fshermen, whose reports help the researchers understand when sex change occurs, a critical step to improving stock assessment of this important species. This sea bass initiative is funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the grant mainly supports the fshermen on whose boats much of the research takes place. To learn more, visit

The New Jersey Department of Agriculure suports NJAES, which promotes

agriculural diversity and viability trough its services to farmers and research on agriculural commodities such as fruits and vegetables, fisheries, eqine, and turf. 9

Douglas H. Fisher, New Jersey Secretary of Agriculture

fisheRies And AquAcultuRe developing oYsteR genetics

seA gRAnt funding foR AquAcultuRe

Rutgers’ renowned shellfsh genetics and breeding program is based at the Haskin Shellfsh Research Laboratory in Port Norris, NJ. The program began in the 1960’s when Dr. Harold Haskin, for whom the laboratory is named, started selecting oysters resistant to MSX, a lethal oyster disease. The program has evolved to include sophisticated biotechnical approaches to genetic improvement under the direction of Ximing Guo, expert in the genetics and reproduction of marine molluscs. Guo and colleagues created the frst tetraploid oysters—possessing four sets of chromosomes—that have led to several patents, the establishment of a New Jersey-based company, and worldwide commercialization. When mated with diploids, tetraploid oysters produce 100% triploids, which are ideal for aquaculture because of their sterility, fast growth, and the outstanding quality of their summer meat. By combining tetraploidy with disease resistance, it is now possible to produce superior triploids that not only grow fast but also resist diseases. These disease-resistant triploids have met strong demand this year because of recent MSX outbreaks. Rutgers is also a key partner in the international oyster genome project. Earlier this year, Guo received a “Chaire d’Excellence” award from University of Caen, where he leads a team of scientists from the U.S., France, and China engaged in studying oysters’ adaptation to their environment.

To help strengthen and promote sustainable shellfsh aquaculture in New Jersey, Rutgers Cooperative Extension welcomed Lisa Calvo as a new aquaculture agent. The position, jointly affliated with NJAES and the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium, concentrates on oyster aquaculture in the Delaware Bay. Specifc projects focus on various aspects of rack and bag, and cage culture, including comparisons of yield for diploid and triploid disease-resistant oyster strains. An important aspect of the work is collaborating with traditional oystermen to assess the potential of oyster cage culture on the lower bay planting grounds. Once the heart of traditional fshery, the 32,000-plus acres of planting grounds were largely abandoned due to the emergence of disease. New hatchery breeding strategies that enable the production of triploid disease-resistant oysters may provide the edge to reinvigorate production in these areas. Calvo also coordinates Project PORTS (Promoting Oyster Restoration Through Schools)—a unique, school-based outreach program developed by Haskin Shellfsh Research Laboratory scientists as a means to build oyster habitat and promote sustainable stewardship. Project PORTS has engaged more than 5,000 students in this oyster restoration program, creating a two-acre oyster reef seeded with 20 million oysters. The position held by Calvo is partially supported through a grant from NOAA and National Sea Grant.

NJAES educational programs on sustainable fisheries management are suported

by strong links to family fishing enterprises like tose in Viking Vilage, Barnegat Light, New Jersey, and commercial and recreational fishermen across te state. 11

Clam Trail Art at Viking Village is Used to Support RCE Public Education About Local Fisheries.

food, nutRition, And heAlth suppoRting endocRine heAlth

pRomoting nutRition And heAlth

Rutgers scientists are engaged in groundbreaking endocrine research using animal models that could lead to new knowledge and improve human health. Wendie Cohick has shown that offspring of mothers who consumed alcohol while pregnant exhibited early disruption to normal mammary gland development, suggesting that a woman whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy may be more susceptible to cancer-causing agents, even if she herself never consumed alcohol. Mehmet Uzumcu investigates the link between female reproductive disorders, like precocious puberty and infertility, and exposure to environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemicals during fetal and neonatal ovary development. Carol Bagnell’s research focuses on how bioactive factors in milk, communicated from mother to offspring through nursing, infuence gene expression in neonatal tissues, including those of the reproductive tract. Focusing on understanding how stress promotes endocrine diseases like anxiety, depression, drug abuse, diabetes, and cancer, Dipak Sarkar is evaluating the feasibility of cell and gene therapy to prevent stress-related problems and cancers in normal and alcoholic patients. Research by Sue Shapses examines how hormones regulate bone during dieting and has recently shown that, while there is higher bone density in the obese, bone quality is reduced, supporting new fndings of higher than expected fracture risk in the obese.

The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health (NJIFNH) is the interdisciplinary hub of Rutgers and NJAES in the areas food science, nutritional science, and health. The primary focus of the institute is childhood obesity and its related adult diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, with a view toward nutritional preemption. NJIFNH is moving forward on the design of its new facility with the selection of the international architectural frm Ballinger, which is engaging with faculty, staff, and students in the design of an iconic building that fosters intellectual collisions and enables the agile learner. As an academic center of excellence, the institute has already stepped into its strategic coordinating role by co-sponsoring key symposia such as “Nutrition in Childhood: Early Infuences and Lifetime Impact,” an international symposium focused on “In vitro Gastrointestinal Systems for Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Research,” and a statewide forum titled “Health Summit to Fight Childhood Obesity.” Nutritional sciences professors Carol Byrd-Bredbenner and John Worobey, the institute’s frst Research Fellows, are leading a multi-million dollar, fve-year USDA-AFRI research effort focusing on home environments and lifestyle practices to prevent childhood obesity. Their work is an example of interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, and integrated research, education, and extension central to the mission of the NJIFNH.

Core state funding is crucial, but NJAES relies increasingly on non-state funding sources like contracts, competitive grants, and royaly returns to suport its

research and to deliver qality programs to address critical issues in New Jersey. 13

Bradley I. Hillman, Director of Cooperative Research

food, nutRition, And heAlth “gRow heAlthY” wellness pRogRAm

cReAting heAlthY school meAls

Getting children to eat their vegetables has gotten a boost through Grow Healthy, a schoolwide wellness program in New Jersey that is funded by a Team Nutrition Grow Healthy grant from the USDA. Rutgers Family and Community Health Sciences (FCHS) educators are conducting a unique and comprehensive nutrition education program in nine New Jersey schools. School teachers, staff and administration, children, families, school foodservice workers, and volunteers work together to make school a healthier place. Each school has planted a garden to enhance learning about fruits, vegetables, and agriculture. Healthy eating, school gardens, and increased physical activity are proven tools that improve health as well as promote academic performance and cognitive development. One project to emerge from Grow Healthy is the implementation of Farm to School practices to promote fruit and vegetable intake in schools and also support local New Jersey farming. FCHS partnered with the New Jersey Department of Agriculture, the New Jersey Farm to School Network, and the New Jersey School Nutrition Association to conduct a survey of all NJ schools to assess their interest and ability to implement Farm to School practices. Of the 222 schools that responded, almost half indicated an interest but did not know how to get started. Ongoing collaboration and data generated by the survey will help New Jersey grow this important Farm to School effort.

The Rutgers Food Innovation Center (FIC) has been commissioned by the New Jersey Department of Agriculture (NJDA) to research, develop, and determine commercialization opportunities for healthy school menu items made with Jersey Fresh produce. Funded by a USDA Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program, the intent of this project is to develop single-serving items that meet the requirements of the National School Lunch Program. More than 800,000 pounds of fresh, locally grown fruits and vegetables are distributed to New Jersey schools annually. Since much of the school year does not coincide with the growing season, the processing of this fresh produce into appealing menu items enables schools to serve healthy lunch and breakfast items made with local produce throughout the school year. To date, the FIC and collaborators in the Rutgers Department of Family and Community Health Sciences and the NJDA have researched the parameters within which the menu items must conform, such as cost, preparation, nutritional profles, and taste. Eight product concepts have been developed, including whole grain blueberry muffns, primavera pasta sauce, and Asian chicken stir-fry. The project is considered of signifcant impact as it creates an innovative new sales venue for farmers as well as provides children with delicious new healthy menu choices in schools—a winning initiative for both farmers and students.

RCE outreach activities reflect te value of early intervention in te fight against childhood and adolescent obesity, and focus on nutrition and healhy lifestyle

choices in te very young wit te goal of developing beneficial, lifelong habits. 15

School Gardening Demonstration Project.

home, lAwn, And gARden gReening the tuRfgRAss industRY

feRtilizeR lAw spARKs tRAining

Rutgers’ turfgrass program is among the premier research, teaching, and outreach programs in turfgrass science globally. Its Center for Turfgrass Science was formed 20 years ago to generate new knowledge and to provide training and education to support the $40 billion turfgrass industry. Today, the center’s 24 scientists focus on germplasm improvement and turfgrass management. The turfgrass breeding program, established by C. Reed Funk and currently led by Bill Meyer and Stacy Bonos, has earned a reputation as the largest and most productive turf breeding program in the world. With hundreds of cool-season turfgrass varieties released since 1967, more than half of all premium turfgrass seed sold in the U.S. have been developed at Rutgers. Rutgers varieties have been used to provide natural playing surfaces at some of the most respected sports venues in the world, including Yankee Stadium and Augusta National Golf Course, the home of the Masters. In October, one of the center’s top scientists, Bingru Huang, was named the Ralph Geiger Endowed Chair in Turfgrass Science in recognition of her groundbreaking research on the mechanisms of stress tolerance in cultivated grasses. Huang has identifed some of the critical metabolic pathways regulating turfgrass tolerance to heat and drought, which could lead to the development and management of turfgrass with improved stress tolerance.

The New Jersey fertilizer law, enacted in January 2011, was conceived to minimize the potential environmental impact from improper use and over application of fertilizer on turf, which negatively affects water quality. Research indicates that properly managed turf areas have important environmental benefts, such as improving water quality. Under the law, NJAES is charged with developing outreach and training programs to further educate residents about the proper use of fertilizers on turf. Outreach information was developed to help homeowners interpret the New Jersey fertilizer law. The Rutgers Soil Testing Lab provides information on how to test soil as well as interpretations and recommendations for homeowners regarding soil test results, calculations of fertilizer quantities, and calibration of fertilizer spreaders. Additionally, NJAES, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, is developing online certifcation training for professional fertilizer applicators, required by the law to be certifed in 2012. Extension and outreach presentations have been conducted to inform the public about the issue of water quality and fertilizer use on turf. NJAES has published a summary of best management practices regarding the use of fertilizer on lawns and other turfs and existing fact sheets are being revised to provide New Jersey residents with up-to-date research that is designed to protect water quality.

Vital partners in te delivery of sustainable educational programs and outreach, New Jersey counties provide critical infrastructure suport and funding to

NJAES to develop practical, effective, research-based solutions to benefit te state. 17

Larry S. Katz, Director of Cooperative Extension

home, lAwn, And gARden gRowing communitY gARdens

sustAining uRbAn enviRonments

Spurred by national attention from First Lady Michele Obama, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, and the Let’s Move and Sustainable New Jersey initiatives, residents of New Jersey are adding a new dimension to the “garden” in the Garden State. NJAES is a vital part of these efforts, leading the frst annual community gardens conference in March. Headed by Peter Nitzsche, agriculture and resource management agent, Morris County, Rutgers Cooperative Extension (RCE) faculty and Master Gardeners teamed up with the Morris County Park Commission to host the event. A capacity crowd of 150 active community gardeners and organizers attended. Laura Lawson, community gardening expert and chair of the Rutgers Department of Landscape Architecture, was the keynote speaker. Lawson, assisted by county agents, is currently researching community gardens in New Jersey; to date 170 active gardens have been identifed. Community gardens in urban areas such as Newark, Trenton, and Camden provide fresh local foods to urban residents. NJAES-supported efforts in urban gardening are delivered by county master gardeners and agricultural agents. This year, Atlantic County Master Gardeners built 30 raised garden beds, creating the Hope Community Garden for residents in Ward 2 in Atlantic City, and RCE of Morris County agents conducted pest walks at four community gardens, identifying vegetable pests and offering management solutions.

New Jersey, the most densely populated and urbanized state in the U.S., is projected to be the frst state to be built-out by 2050. According to the U.S. census, it is statistically a “city,” with merging urban, suburban, and rural landscapes. As such, New Jersey is a unique laboratory for Rutgers, the state’s land-grant university, to provide critical research and continuing education for professionals who are transforming the urban landscape. The Rutgers Center for Urban Environmental Sustainability (CUES) has emerged as a critical voice in the debate about building sustainable cities and ensuring a sustainable future for our state. Its 2011 Green Solutions for Urban New Jersey conference, held in Jersey City and Newark, attracted over 200 environmental professionals from across the state. CUES is helping local municipalities and non-governmental organizations by providing design expertise needed for redevelopment of public spaces, such as the Voorhees Environmental Park in Camden County and the Van Buskirk Island Park, which contains the historically designated Hackensack Water Works buildings in Bergen County. CUES is also working with the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation to support the restoration and environmental protection efforts of the state’s NGO community and was instrumental in crafting a compromise to allow Raritan Estuary oyster restoration research efforts to continue at Naval Weapons Station Earle in Monmouth County.

Since 1984, Rutgers Master Gardener volunteers have helped NJAES to deliver environmentaly sound horticulure information and training to New Jersey

residents, providing nearly 2 milion hours of service in teir local communities. 19

Tending the Plot of the “Youth and Family Gardeners Program” at the New Brunswick Community Farmers Market.

Youth And communitY development 4-h food And fitness AmbAssAdoRs

building communitY At 4-h cAmp

Peer teaching has been determined as the ideal model for reaching young children about nutrition and the importance of physical activity. Since its introduction in 2005, the Get Moving–Get Healthy New Jersey 4-H program has been an effective curriculum for training teenagers as Food and Fitness Ambassadors. The teenagers are taught valuable life skills and instructed in teaching skills while using hands-on, research-based activities to promote healthy eating and foster lifelong habits that encourage physical activity. Active in 13 of New Jersey’s 21 counties, the 4-H Food and Fitness Ambassadors provide nutrition educational programming for after-school programs, summer camps, county fairs, family fun events, and health fairs. As the teens increase their leadership skills, they learn frsthand the importance of sharing information that will enable youth and their families to take steps to improve health by making changes in their daily lives. These youth activities are a complement to institutional programs developed by Rutgers Cooperative Extension to curb the obesity epidemic. The Ambassadors program is one component of the collaborative effort between the Rutgers departments of 4-H Youth Development and Family and Community Health Sciences, which was recognized with the 2011 Partnership Award for Innovative Program Model by the USDA’s National Institute for Food and Agriculture.

The Lindley G. Cook 4-H Youth Center for Outdoor Education in Branchville, NJ, offers a residential camp located on 108 acres in the heart of Stokes State Forest, nestled in the shadow of the Appalachian Trail. The camp provides a weeklong experiential program for 4–12 graders, while promoting 4-H and its learn-by-doing curriculum. Testimony to the effectiveness of the camp’s mission within its created community is the return rate of campers. Over 50 percent of campers in 2011 indicated they were coming back for another summer. All 16 of the young adults accepted into the Volunteer Counselor program had previously been campers and had completed sessions in the Counselor-in-Training program provided by the camp. Even more impressive is the fact that 14 staff members had previously been campers at Lindley G. Cook. This speaks to the strong relationship campers develop with the program that drives them to return year after year. The camp offers valuable tools to participants that keep pace with their growth and maturity—from teaching responsibility, individuality, and social skills for young campers, to learning about kindness, respect, and leadership for teens, to being a caring role model and fostering these skills in others for college-age counselors. Lindley G. Cook also offers a Science, Engineering, and Technology Camp, an intense week of classes in a variety of creative science courses enhanced by special guest presentations.

The Yout Education and Employment Success Center, which reconnects urban

yout to educational oportunities, hosted te White House Council for Community Solutions, including Jon Bon Jovi, during a national yout listening tour. 21

Bon Jovi Visits NJAES YE2S Center in Newark, New Jersey.

Youth And communitY development Robotics impRoves “stem� educAtion

pRogRAms teAch science liteRAcY

The New Jersey 4-H Robotics program encourages young people to develop an early interest in science, engineering, and technology. 4-H Robotics is delivered through 4-H clubs, camps, school enrichment, and after-school programs throughout the state. This project is one way that 4-H programs contribute to improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in New Jersey and combines non-formal education with hands-on inquiry-based learning in a youth development context. 4-H Robotics is a unique opportunity to engage volunteers and corporate employees who can offer science expertise, workforce application, and mentoring to 4-H’ers in local communities. Adult and teen volunteers advise youth members as they learn to build and program robots using LEGO Mindstorms NXT kits. Club members can also get involved with local, regional, and national robotics competitions like FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology). While the 4-H robotics program has been steadily growing since 2007, a grant from National 4-H Council and Lockheed Martin has enabled new robotics programs to be established or expanded throughout the state. Club members will attend the frst annual statewide 4-H robotics experience, a collaborative event between the Rutgers Department of 4-H Youth Development and the Rutgers School of Engineering, scheduled to take place on Rutgers Day 2012.

Rutgers Department of 4-H Youth Development faculty have collaborated with scientists from across the university to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) literacy and awareness of science careers among New Jersey youth. Launched in 2009, Rutgerscience Saturdays feature interactive activities, demonstrations, and take-home resources for middle school youth and is intended to increase their awareness of STEM career opportunities and encourage their pursuit of science careers. In the 2011 events, 100% of participants reported positive interactions with scientists and a better understanding of what it means to be a scientist. Similarly, the annual Climate and Environmental Change Teen Summit provides high school students the opportunity to learn about climate change science through interaction with Rutgers scientists. The youth develop community service projects to demonstrate their knowledge of climate change and their creativity in addressing sustainability issues. In the 2011 summit, students reported knowledge gains related to climate change science, better understanding of how scientists are addressing climate change through research, and the importance of sharing accurate information about climate change to their peers. Fostered in the supportive youth development mentorship model of 4-H programs, these activities engage students in exciting and cutting-edge science occurring at Rutgers.

Suported by tousands of dedicated volunteers, more tan 33,000 yout spent

te last year participating in Rutgers 4-H leadership, citizenship, and life skils programs tat touch te lives of New Jersey residents in al 21 counties. 23

4-H Robotics Program Activity.

economic development developing nAtuRAl plAnt pRoducts

“AgRicultuRe in the middle” initiAtive

Rutgers’ New Use Agriculture and Natural Plant Products (NUANPP) program is focused on developing strong public-private sector partnership here in New Jersey and sub-Saharan Africa. It has worked to develop new crops, evaluate ethnic greens and herbs, and breed plants for improved nutrition and taste. Since 2000, Professor Jim Simon and research colleagues have developed programs in over fve African countries that have assisted thousands of farmers, traders, dealers, processors, and buyers, and generated over $20 million dollars for small-scale growers and communities using natural plant products as the economic vehicle of change. The NUANPP program develops chemical and natural products screening of the best genetic materials, sustainable production and processing systems, and studies the impact of indigenous plants on health and nutrition. NUANPP’s activities have resulted in improved income generation, new microenterprises across the value chain, greater economic independence, and the strengthening of African women’s associations. Lessons learned in this international development program have been brought back to New Jersey with the introduction of African, Indian, and Asian ethnic greens and herbs that are in demand here in New Jersey and the East Coast, potentially creating lucrative markets for New Jersey growers while providing immigrant and native consumers with quality, fresh produce and products.

Growing national attention is emerging on the “agriculture in the middle” (AIM) sector, defned as mid-scale farms with gross sales of $250,000 to $1 million. New Jersey’s AIM sector accounts for 5% of all farms, 32% of total cropland, and 25% of gross agricultural sales. This sector is vitally important in terms of the sustainability of the agricultural supply chain and infrastructure in New Jersey, yet it is most at risk. AIM farms often lack the size to compete in economies of scale-driven commodity markets, and the resources needed to effectively diversify into higher-margin activities. From 1987-2007, New Jersey saw a dramatic decline in the percentage of AIM farms, from 10.3% to 4.9%. Continued losses may threaten the infrastructure needed to support the thousands of small farms that now make up the majority of agricultural operations in the state. Several NJAES programs assist this sector, such as agritourism, high tunnel and specialty crops research, integrated pest management, plant breeding, the Food Innovation Center, and food safety training. The research team of Margaret Brennan-Tonetta, Brian Schilling, Jack Rabin, Richard VanVranken, Lucas Marxen, and Kevin Sullivan are seeking to better understand the fnancial structure, fscal stability, characteristics, role, and threats to “agriculture in the middle” in New Jersey. New NJAES programming specifcally targeted to AIM farms will be developed as a result of this research.

From te value-added, business incubation services of te Food Innovation Center and te EcoComplex to its state-of-te-art resources in bioenergy and aqaculure, NJAES is a strong economic engine tat drives te New Jersey economy. 25

Margaret Brennan-Tonetta, Associate Director for Economic Development

suppoRting njAes honoRing phillip AlAmpi

pRomoting cRAnbeRRY ReseARch

A new fund was established this year at NJAES to honor the legacy of Phillip Alampi, New Jersey’s Secretary of Agriculture from 1956 to 1982—the longest-serving cabinet member in the state’s history—and his dedicated service to New Jersey farmers. As secretary, Alampi helped to pass the landmark Farmland Assessment Act of 1963 and the Farmland Retention Bond Issue of 1981. The establishment of the Phillip Alampi Cooperative Extension Fund made it possible for graduate student Kelly Mae Steimle to walk in the footsteps of one of New Jersey’s most renowned agriculturalists through a hands-on feld project this summer. A major barrier to expanding locally-produced organic livestock in the region is the shortage of competitively produced organic feeds and forages. Steimle was able to develop local information on organic forages available from New Jersey forage producers, helping some conventional farmers to transition select acres to serve this growing market and gain economic opportunity by diversifying. A loyal son of Rutgers, Alampi graduated from the College of Agriculture in 1934 and the Graduate School of Education in 1945. His son James Alampi founded the Phillip Alampi Memorial Cooperative Extension Fund to encourage others to join him in supporting NJAES’ efforts to address emerging and important issues in agriculture.

The William S. Haines, Sr. Endowed Cranberry Research Fund was established in 2011 to support long-term cranberry research at the Rutgers Philip E. Marucci Center for Blueberry and Cranberry Research and Extension, home to six research scientists and two integrated pest management specialists. The cranberry, one of only three native fruits produced commercially in North America, has been cultivated in New Jersey since the mid-1800s. By 1889, the experiment station, at the behest of the American Cranberry Growers Association (ACGA), initiated a research program to help solve production problems. The strong partnership of ACGA, NJAES, Ocean Spray, USDA, and New Jersey cranberry growers continues today. Haines, a third generation cranberry farmer, was a leader in the cranberry industry from the inception of the Ocean Spray Cooperative and spurred the development of innovative growing practices such as the water harvest. He was the frst of his family to dedicate his life solely to the cultivation of this crop, and the Haines family farm near Chatsworth grew under his leadership to one of the largest and most productive in the world. A man of vision and integrity, Haines is an icon in the cranberry industry and is deeply dedicated to the advancement of agriculture in the state. This important research fund that bears his name was generously established by his children, Bill and Holly, and the Pine Island Cranberry Company.

Private suport of NJAES has te power to advance te frontiers of research

at our farms, institutes, laboratories, and centers around te state and to address critical issues and develop solutions tat benefit te residents of New Jersey. 27

Kelly L. Watts, Director of Development

seRving new jeRseY And beYond N ew J er sey

boARd of mAnAgeRs

A g r i c u lt u r A l

The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Board of Managers, appointed by the Rutgers Board of Governors, is an advisory group to the executive dean of agriculture and natural resources and executive director of NJAES. The board consists of a representative from each county nominated by the County Board of Agriculture or Board of Chosen Freeholders, and a six-member statewide advisory committee. The president of Rutgers, the executive director of NJAES, and the state secretary of agriculture serve as ex offcio members.

experimeNt s tAt i o N

Atlantic County ..................................................August Wuillermin Bergen County............................................................. Guy Nicolosi Burlington County ............................................... Raymond Hlubik Camden County..................................................................... Vacant Cape May County........................................................ Warren Stiles Cumberland County ................................................ Maurice Sheets Essex County ..........................................................Frank Yesalavich Gloucester County ............................................................ Amy Link Hudson County...................................................................... Vacant Hunterdon County ................. Meredith Compton, Vice President Mercer County....................................... Louis Makrancy, President Middlesex County ..................................................Robert VonThun Monmouth County........................................................... Pat Butch Morris County .....................Carol Davis, Corresponding Secretary Ocean County .............................................................Ron Vreeland Passaic County ......................................................Rocky Hazelman Salem County ......................................................................... Vacant Somerset County...........................................................Chan Leung Sussex County ................................................. Carladean Kostelnik Union County ........................................................ Richard Montag Warren County .............................................................. Tracy Smith 29

jeRseY Roots, globAl ReAch

stAtewide AdvisoRY committee Biotechnology ................................. Linda Rhodes Community Resources ................Lisanne Finston Environment..............................Gene Huntington Food Science..................................Pearl Giordano Marine Science ........................ Stephen Carnahan Public Policy................................................ Vacant

countY extension offices Atlantic County ................................ 609-625-0056 Bergen County...................................201-336-6781 Burlington County ........................... 609-265-5050 Camden County................................ 856-216-7130 Cape May County.............................. 609-465-5115 Cumberland County......................... 856-451-2800 Essex County .................................... 973-353-1338 Gloucester County ........................... 856-307-6450 Hudson County................................ 201-369-3432 Hunterdon County .......................... 908-788-1339 Mercer County.................................. 609-989-6833 Middlesex County ............................ 732-398-5262 Monmouth County.......................... 732-431-7260 Morris County .................................. 973-285-8307 Ocean County ...................................732-349-1152 Passaic County ................................. 973-305-5742 Salem County ................................... 856-769-0090 Somerset County.............................. 908-526-6295 Sussex County .................................. 973-948-3040 Union County .................................. 908-654-9854 Warren County ................................. 908-475-6505

off-cAmpus stAtions

centeRs And institutes

Cliford E. and Melda C. Sn der Research and Extension Farm Rutgers Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Pittstown

Center for Advanced Food Technolog

Haskin Shellfsh Research Laborator , Bivalve Lindle G. Cook 4-H Youth Center for Outdoor Education, Branchville Philip E. Marucci Center for Blueberr and Cranberr Research and Extension, Chatsworth Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfeld Rutgers EcoComplex - Rutgers Environmental Research and Extension Center, Bordentown Rutgers Food Innovation Center, Bridgeton Rutgers Fruit and Ornamental Research Extension Center, Cream Ridge Rutgers Plant Science Research and Extension Farm, Adelphia

Center for Controlled-Environment Agriculture Center for Deep-Sea Ecolog and Biotechnolog Center for Turfgrass Science Center for Urban Restoration Ecolog Center for Vector Biolog Equine Science Center Food Polic Institute IR-4 Project: Center for Minor Crop Pest Management Rutgers Energ Institute Wildlife Damage Control Center

Rutgers Universit Marine Field Station, Tuckerton








The savings above are achieved when post-consumer rec cled fber is used in place of virgin fber. This project, based on a production run of 5,000 pieces, used 3,500 lbs of paper, which has a post-consumer rec cled percentage of 10%. 30

AcKnowledgments: This publication was designed and produced by the Rutgers Offce of the Executive Dean of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Offce of Communications; Michael Green, director. Photo credits: Front Cover: (from left to right) (photo 1) iStockphoto, (photos 2) Nick Romanenko, (photo 3) Susan E. Becker (photo 4) Jack Rabin, (photo 5) iStockphoto, and (silhouette photo) iStockphoto; Table of Contents: iStockphoto; Page ii: (top photos 1-4) Nick Romanenko, (photo 5) iStockphoto, (silhouette photo) iStockphoto; Page 1: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Jerry Casciano; Page 2: Jack Rabin; Page 3: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Jack Rabin; Page 4: Nick Romanenko; Page 5: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Nick Romanenko; Page 6: iStockphoto; Page 7: (top corner) Mike Johnson, (bottom photo) Mike Coraggio; Page 8: iStockphoto; Page 9: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Lynne Richmond; Page 10: Orion Weldon; Page 11: (bottom photo) Jack Rabin; Page 12: Nick Romanenko; Page 13: (bottom photo) Jerry Casciano; Page 14: Jerry Casciano; Page 15: iStockphoto; Page 16: iStockphoto; Page 17: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Jerry Casciano; Page 18: Jack Rabin; Page 19: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Angela Blardony; Page 20: April Maly; Page 21: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Erik Lee; Page 22: Jim Tavares; Page 23: (top corner) iStockphoto, (robot) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Lisa Rothenburger; Page 24: Ryan Harris; Page 25: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Jerry Casciano; Page 26: Jack Rabin; Page 27: (top corner) iStockphoto, (bottom photo) Jerry Casciano; Page 28: Matt Rainey/Rutgers University Foundation; Page 29: iStockphoto; Page 30: (top corner) Jack Rabin, (bottom photo) iStockphoto; Back Cover: (silhouette photo) iStockphoto; (from left to right) (photo 1) Jim Tavares, (photos 2 and 3) Jack Rabin.

Cooperating Agencies:

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and County Boards of Chosen Freeholders. Rutgers Cooperative Extension, a unit of the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, is an equal opportunity program provider and employer.

2011 Rutgers NJAES Annual Report  
2011 Rutgers NJAES Annual Report