Issuu on Google+


neurotransmitters


neurotransmitters how the brain talks to the body

joshua unick

• st. louis • stay- at- home publisher •

2013


CAUTION! Professionals and amateurs are hereby warned that “Neurotransmitters” and not being fully protected under the Copyright Laws of the United States of America, the British Empire, including the Dominion of Canada, and all other counties of the Copyright Laws is subject to royalty. All rights, including professional, amateur, motion picture, recitation, lecturing, public reading, radio broadcasting, and the rights of translation into foreign languages are strictly reserved. Particular emphasis is laid on the question of readings, permission for which must be secured from the author’s agent, Joshua Daniel, 111 Park Avenue, New York City. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in connection with a review written for inclusion in magazine or newspaper or radio broadcast.

Copyright ©, 2012, by At-Home-Publishing. All rights reserved. Printed in the usa First Edition


This book is dedicated to the scientists who names things with big words. Why do they think it’s necessary?


table of

CONTENTS Neurons

9

About

15

Process

17


AXON

CELL BODY

9

neurons

DENDRITES


ABOUT:

NEURONS

DENDRITES AND THE CELL BODY Dendrites are tree looking shapes that extend from the cell body. They collect informations from other neurons via neurotransmitters. The cell body of the neuron processes the information that is collected and sends out information through the axon.

neurons

10


MYELIN SHEATH

AXON

11

neurons


AXON AND THE MYELIN SHEATH The axon passes the information received from dendrites and delivers it to the axon terminal. The axon is surrounded by the Myelin Sheath, which lets in chemicals that cause electronic pulses to give momentum that opens gates in the axon to release information to other neurons.

neurons

12


AXON TERMINAL

AXON

TERMINAL BUT TON

13

neurons


AXON TERMINAL AND TERMINAL BUTTON The axon terminal is where all the information is sent to other neurons. Chemicals are released from the terminal buttons which are received by dendrites of other neurons. This area is where we are going to focus on neurotransmitters.

neurons

14


ABOUT:

N EU ROTR AN SMIT TE R S

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are made within the cell and transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell. Neurotransmitters are the messenger boys of the body. If you fell and scraped your knee, the brain tells your body how to react with neurotransmitters. They come in all different types and sizes. Their outside layer is called a vesicle and it contains chemicals that have different effects on the body, and can make you feel different emotions.

15

about


CHEMICAL

NEUROTRANSMIT TER

VESICLE

about

16


PROCESS OF :

N EU ROTR AN SMIT TE R S

1.

ACTION POTENTIAL

The process begins with a wave of electrochemical excitation called an action potential traveling along axon, until it reaches axon terminal. Electrochemical enters the axon through the myelin sheaths and it creates an electric current that creates the action potential.

17

process


MYELIN SHEATH

AXON

ACTION POTENTIAL

process

18


2.

CALCIUM IONS

These proteins cause the release of neurotransmitters. They dock themselves against the wall of the axon where they can release chemicals into the cleft. Calcium ions flow through the presynaptic membrane, rapidly increasing the calcium concentration. The calcium ions activates proteins that attach to vesicles that contain a neurotransmitter chemical.

19

process


CALCIUM ION

PRESYNAPTIC MEMBRANE

AXON

process

20


3.

DOCKED VESICLES

These proteins cause the release of neurotransmitters. They dock themselves against the wall of the axon where they can release chemicals into the cleft. Some of “docked� vesicles to fuse with the membrane of the pre-synaptic cell, thereby opening the vesicles and dumping their neurotransmitter contents into the synaptic cleft, the narrow space between the membranes of the pre- and postsynaptic cells.

23 21

process process


DOCKED VESICLE

NEUROTRANSMIT TER

CHEMICAL

process process

24 22


4.

RECIEVING OF CHEMICALS

The chemicals floats within the cleft. Some of it escapes, but some of it binds to the chemical receptor located on end of dendrites. The information from the chemicals are sent to the neuron and the process begins again.

C

23

process


DENDRITE

CHEMICAL

CHEMICAL RECEPTOR

process

24



Science of Neurotransmitters