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1. Cove Brook Greenway - The brook runs from Farnborough airport boundary and joins with the River Blackwater at Hawley. It's important for both aquatic and terrestrial species and a green corridor. 2. Southwood Woodland - Diverse habitats such as deciduous woodland, wet woodland and remnant heathland. An interesting range of insects and birds can be found, many of them locally notable. 3. Eelmoor Marsh Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) - A matrix of wet heath, mire and acid grassland. There are notable heathland bird species such as woodlark and Dartford warbler and a diverse range of dragon and damselflies. 4. Rowhill Local Nature Reserve - On the border between Rushmoor and Waverley in Surrey. It is mainly mixed deciduous woodland and working coppice and also the source of the River Blackwater. Other habitats include heathland, meadows and ponds. 5. Queen Elizabeth Park - An urban park with a range of different tree species including many stands of beech. It's important locally for breeding birds and foraging bats can also be seen. The pond supports frogs and palmate newts. 6. Blackwater Valley - The river valley runs along the north/south eastern boundary of Rushmoor. It is a very important green corridor and has a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. A diverse range of insects are present in the wet woodland and the river itself, while bats use the corridor for feeding and roosting. 7. Basingstoke Canal Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) - A very important green corridor passing through the centre of Rushmoor. The aquatic community in the canal is unique in the UK due to the interesting water chemistry through its length. 8. Brickfields Country Park - A former brickworks, it now supports a large pond and woodland/grassland habitats. A good place to find a variety of bird and insect species in the urban environment.

• A fragile habitat restored over 20 years by specialist contractors and volunteers within the security area of Farnborough Airfield • Eelmoor Marsh is owned by QinetiQ and managed in partnership with Marwell Wildlife • Invasive trees have been removed, water levels restored, dormant seed banks stimulated and neglected habitats diversified • Highland cattle and Przewalski's horses were introduced to 'graze the marsh' to allow rare plants to flourish • Eelmoor Marsh is now an exceptional and precious ecosystem, a rich complex of wet, humid and dry heath, species rich grassland and woodland communities.

• It is a haven for: • Six species of insectivorous plants and 11 species of orchid • Thirty-two rare grassland species and a variety of bees, wasps and ants. • One-third of Britains dragonfly and damselfly species and half of its butterfly species • Four out of seven native species of amphibian and four out of six native species of reptile • Breeding nightjar, woodlark and Dartford warbler • Wintering birds such as lapwing, snipe and jack snipe.

Climate change What can we expect? • Extreme weather events • Droughts and localised flooding • Warmer summers and milder winters

How climate change will affect our wildlife • • • • •

Changes in species' life cycles and composition Tree stress and loss Droughts - more fires and lack of prey for mammals More plant pests and diseases Flooding limits food for birds and bats and may harm burrows and nests

Invasive species Invasive (alien) species are those living in an area where they are not normally found, having been introduced by man. They can be detrimental to native species. The three invasive species of most concern in Rushmoor are: • The American Signal Crayfish (spreads 'crayfish plague' and damages canal banks) • The floating water plant cressula helmsii can completely cover a water surface, displacing native plants, decreasing biodiversity, water quality and flow • Rhododendron - a common 'invasive' species in our woodland. It grows vigorously and out-competes native species

Changes in gardening practices In order to maintain a tidy garden, residents can do things which are harmful to wildlife. The worst practices to avoid are: • • • • • • •

Using slug pellets and toxic chemicals Over manicured gardens - leave an area untouched Planting non-native plants - choose native 'wildlife friendly plants' Putting up fences - a hedgerow provides cover and a 'corridor' for animals Filling in ponds - ponds are essential for amphibians and provide water for birds Cutting down wall climbers - they provide links between gardens for pollinators Using peat from threatened habitats - use peat-free or your own compost

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Small projects • • • •

Put up bird or bat boxes Put up some bird feeders Provide water during dry spells Plant nectar-rich plants to help bees and butterflies (such as lavender, ice plant, hebe and honeysuckle) • Make a pile of logs in a shady part of the garden for beetle larvae and solitary bees

Larger projects • Create a pond (Rushmoor is very short of ponds!) • Plant a hedgerow boundary (Hawthorn, blackthorn, dog/field rose and holly make a good combination) • Create a spring or summer wildflower meadow using seed or wildflower turf

Plant a tree and some shrubs Good native trees to plant • • • • • • •

Birch (Betula pendula) Bird Cherry (Prunus padus) Crab Apple (Matus sylvestris) Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) Pussy Willow (Salix caprea) Holly (/Lex aquifolium) Mountain Ash (Sorbus aucuparia) If you have a large garden then

also consider lime, ash or beech

Some of the best shrubs for wildlife • • • • • • • •

Guelder rose (Viburnum opulus) Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) Honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) Ivy (Hedera helix) Hazel (Corylus avellana) Broom (Cytisus scoparius) Buddleia (Buddleia davidii) Dog rose (Rosa canina)

Wildlife in Rushmoor