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Site one: Underground Car Park

Site two: Art West

WEEK 3 ACTIVITY: SITE VISITING In week 3’s studio, we walked around the campus under our tutor’s lead, at first, several students including me lost our tutor, but we followed other studio team to do the site visit and finally find our tutor, but it still caused that we missed some sites. The structural and construction systems have been introduced, and materials and some construction details have been mentioned as well.

Arches element has been used a lot in the car park, the funnel shape of individual column make it capable for planting trees on the ground, the concrete panel may be pre-cast, but in situ concrete dominate.

Steel beams are used in this structure, the roof is made from steel and claded by zinc, and the frame is thin steel columns with glass panels in between. The steel truss is supported by a concrete strut.

Site three: Stairs on west end of Union House

This stair is built by steal, two main beams plug in the wall to support the main panel, at same time, there are some steel rope hold the end of the beam and pull it up, and the rope is joined by pin joint. Site four: Beaurepaire Center pool This building uses bricks, glasses as its main material, steel columns and beams have been use to support load, the pad footing(a slab of concrete) can been seen above the ground. In between each two bricks, iron mortar joint fills the gap. Glass and bricks are used in enclose system, which can reduce the damage of the building from oxidation. Site five: North Court Union House

Obviously this construct is a typical membrane system, the tie on the bottom and on the edge of the membrane can hold the structure stable. Site six: New architecture building

This building is structured by steel and concrete, and it has a concealed frame structural system. Glasses form a curve on the ground floor, which improve both cladding and asthetic. Because this building is still constructing, interim structure can been seen, it uses concrete slab and column to support the load.

area of ground.


mass material: stone + earth + clay + concrete Stone - hard Earth – compressive strength Clay – good thermal mass Concrete – durable All of them are strong in compression, but weak in tension.  Modular:  Clay Bricks  Mud Bricks (Adobe)  Concrete Block  Ashlar Stone  non-modular:  Concrete  Rammed Earth  Monolithic Stone. (Column &Beams)

Masonry Material: masonry refers to building with units of varies natural or manufactured products…usually with the use of mortar as a bonding agent.

Structural element

Panel: a deep vertical element designed to carry vertical or horizontal load. Footing and foundations.  Settlement: over time, buildings compress the earth beneath them and the building tend to sink a little into the earth.  Footing and foundation should be designed to ensure that this settlement occurs evenly and that the bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded. shallow & deep foundations  Shallow foundation: use for where soil condition is stable and the bearing capacity is adequate. Load soil  Deep foundations: contrary. Loads are transferred to bed rock. Types of shallow footing  Pad footing: (isolated footing) spread a point load over a wider

Stripe footing: Loads from a wall or a series of columns is spread in a

linear manner. 

Raft footing (raft slab): more stable. Join the individual stripes together as a single mat. Deep foundations:  End bearing piles: extend the foundations down to rock or soil that will provide support for the building.  Friction piles: rely on the resistance of the surrounding earth to support the structure. Retaining and foundation walls are used when sites are excavated to create basement or where changes in site levels need to be stabilized. The pressure load of the earth behind the wall needs to be considered to prevent the wall from overturning.


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 Slabs  Ashlar Blocks  Rubble Stone Earth: mud bricks (adobe) Clay:  Bricks  Honeycomb Concrete:  blocks  commons Bond: the pattern or arrangement of the units Course: a horizontal row of masonry units Joint: the way units are connected to each other. Mortar: mixture of cement or lime, sand and water used as a bonding agent.

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Center of mass Equilibrium Reaction forces: equal but opposite Free body diagram: objects or system in equilibrium can be represented in diagrammatic form.  Moment of forces: is the tendency to make an object or a point rotate. Mo = F*d Brick:

Masonry properties: the property of the unit (part) is to a degree applicable to the built element (whole). In other words, the unit together act as a monolithic whole. 

Masonry Construction:  Vertical:  wall  Columns/piers  Horizontal & curved:  Beams & lintels  Arches  Spanning/enclosing:  Vaults  domes Structural Concept:

Clay brick: are manufactured from clay or shale which is shaped and then hardened by a firing process. Main types: 1. Extruded and wire-cut (one& half billion/ year) 2. Machine molded (pressed) 3. Handmade (convicted-made) *clay is a natural material so there is a wide variation in the color of bricks. Uses: stretcher course, header course, brick-on-edge course, soldier course. Joints:10mm.  Vertical joints-perpend Horizontal- bed joints  Rakes

Ironed Weather struck Flush Property: 1. Hardness: medium high—can be scratched with a metallic object. 2. Fragile: medium—can be broken with trowel 3. Ductility: very low 4. Flexibility/plasticity: very low. 5. Porosity/permeability: medium low—becomes soaked only if placed in prolonged contact with water. 6. Density: medium—about 2-2.5 more dense than water 7. Conductivity: poor 8. Durability/life span: very long. 9. Sustainability/carbon footprint: tends to be locally produced (with some transport),the firing process (about 1200℃) adds to its footprint. 10. Cost: generally effective (but labor cost) Consideration: (non-water proof). Advantages: 1. they can be joint with water based mortar 2. Adequately ventilated –not deteriorate. Disadvantages: 1. 2.

Absorb moisture and expand— need expansion joint. Salt and lime from soil—

pathology & aesthetic problems, e.g. efflorescence. 

Concrete Blocks: (390 long, 90 wide, 190 high)

products from other process 10. Cost: raster rate 

Provenance: from cement, sand, gravel,water by mixing, molding, curing. Load bearing – walls Non-load bearing – separate, decorate. Property: 1. Hardness: medium high 2. Fragile: medium 3. Ductility: very low 4. Flexibility/plasticity: very low 5. Porosity/permeability: medium low—some concrete blocks are sealed to resuce the water absorption. 6. Density: medium—about 2-2.5 more dense than water 7. Conductivity: poor 8. Durability/life span: long 9. Sustainability/carbon footprint: include recycled and waste

Clay Bricks Vs Concrete Blocks Clay bricks: expand. Concrete blocks: shrink (cement hydrate; water loss) *Both of them need movement joint. Stone  Igneous: lava cools  Sedimentary: softer, less dense  Metamorphic: e.g. marble, slate  Monolithic  Ashlar  rubble  Property: 1. Hardness: igneous > Metamorphic > sedimentary 2. Fragile: largely geometry dependent (thickness to surface area ratio) 3. Ductility: very low 4. Flexibility/plasticity: rigid (very low) 5. Porosity/permeability: large range 6. Density: 2.5-3 7. Conductivity: poor 8. Durability/life span: extremely long 9. Sustainability/carbon footprint: transport 10. Cost: depends on labor & scarcity 11. Reusability/recyclability: very high.

WEEK 4 

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Floor & framing system

 Guage  Girder (main beams)  Joist (other beams) Steel system Timber system  Bearers (primary beams)  Joists (secondary beams) *the span of the bearers determines the spacing of the piers or stumps and spacing of the bearers equal the span of the joist. Concrete System Concrete  Cement + 2 fine aggregate (sand) + 4 coarse aggregate + 0.4-0.5 water = concrete  Cement + water –heat + bind with sand and rocks  Too much water – weak Water not enough – too stiff, unworkable  Fluid, shapeless (before)  Formwork  Insitu; pre cast  Props; bracing—support wet concrete.  Concrete generally reaches 75% of its compressive strength in approximately 7 days with testing for the required strength

occurring at 28 days. Sacrificial formwork: stay in place forever after cure. Reinforcement: ass steels in the form of mesh or bars to make the resulting material (reinforced concrete) strong in tension. Property: 1. Hardness: high 2. Fragile: low 3. Ductility: very low 4. Flexibility/plasticity: low. 5. Porosity/permeability: medium low 6. Density: medium high— > 2.5 7. Conductivity: poor 8. Durability/life span: very long. 9. Sustainability/carbon footprint: high embodied energy; non-renewable; long lasting. 10. Cost: effective 11. Reusability/ recyclability: medium low – partly re-use as aggregate. Consideration 1. Not completed water-proof – steel – oxidation -- both aesthetic & structure degradation . 2. Poor vibration during pouring – cannot get rid of

the air bubbles – compromise the structure performance. In situ concrete

Reference: [Faster curing admixture for in situ and precast concrete](n.d.).Retrieved April 8, 2014, from

Poured—unworkable (proper place; bubbles removed; desired finish apply) Widely used in footing, retaining walls and all bespoke (non-standard) structural element. Sometime spray into place using a pressure house (shotcrete): useful for landscape, swimming pools, basement walls between piers or overhead surfaces. Joints

Construction joint: use to divide the construction into smaller and more manageable sections of work.  Control joint: require to absorb the expansion and contractions that thermal variations cause and the long term tendency of concrete to shrink over time. The elongation/shrinkage is proportional to the temperature differential, the material coefficient and the dimensions of the place. *both of them are potential weal points and must ensure that be detailed appropriately, especially in terms of water and moisture control. 

PRE CAST concret

and to other parts of the structure are critical for the overall performance of the building. *both of them will greatly depend on aesthetic result  Reference: [precast-concrete-precast](n.d.).Retrieved April 8, 2014, from

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More standard; avoid quality issue. Can also be on site to be faster Forming part of the primary structure or self-supporting panel type element; rarely use in footing; commonly used in retaining walls, walls and columns. Joints:  Construction: the panel / elemental nature of pre-cast concrete mean that joints naturally occur when one precast element meet another.  Structural: the type and performance of the structural connections joining the precast elements to each other

Consideration: limited in size due to transport. On site change are very difficult to incorporate


Material: grey thin cardboard, white thick cardboard, balsa wood pieces.


The grey cardboard was used to make floor. We use white cardboard to make the primary structure, which include the footing and main load bearing walls.

This studio’s activity is to build a structure of Oval Pavilion, and our team’s mission is to build basement and the ground floor.

Then we use balsa wood to make interim structure.

The finished model of the basement, and we did not have enough time to complete the first floor.

Load bearing walls  Concrete load bearing walls can be achieved using either in situ or precast element  Masonry o Reinforced masonry load bearing walls can be constructed from core filled hollow concrete blocks or grout filled cavity masonry

This is another group in our studio and they were doing canopy, they used paper cardboard, but I think balsa wood would be better.


Short and long columns Relatively short, thick columns are subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling, long, thin columns are opposite. o Frames o Walls  Structural frames  Concrete: typically use a grid of columns with concrete beams connecting the columns together  Steel: typically use a grid of steel columns connected to girders and beams  Timber(post and beam): typically uses a grid of timber posts or poles connected to timber beams

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Solid masonry load bearing walls can be created with single or multiple skins of concrete masonry units or clay bricks o Cavity masonry walls are typically formed from two skins of masonry

Stud walls  Light gauge steel  Timber

o Grids o Columns Structure elements in Wall Systems Wood to timber o Provenance

Early wood: rapid growth at beginning of growing season: thin, large cells-lighter color  Late wood: slower growth, often limited by lack of water; thick small cells-darker color; give the growing ring  Growth: a ring per yr; climate may have more than a growth season per year; fire or disease may produce an extra ring o Structural nature of wood  Grain direction: determines the structure performance of wood  Strong parallel to grain & stiff parallel to grain; weak perpendicular to grain o Seasoning  Why-to adjust the moisture content so the timber is appropriate for the intended use; to provide increased dimensional stability  What-free moisture(voids in cells) and bound moisture(cell walls) are removed  How  air; cheap and slow; 6 months to 2 years per 50mm thickness  kiln; 20~40hrs to dry to 12%  solar kiln; less expensive o Types  Softwoods: radiate pine; cypress pine; hoop pine; douglas fir  Hardwoods: Victorian ash; brown box; spotted gum; jarrah; Tasmania oak Material: TIMBER o Hardness: medium-low, most timbers can be reasonably easily marked


Fragility: medium-low, geometry dependant, generally will not shatter or break o Ductility: low, some timbers in their green state can be manipulated into a range of shapes o Flexibility: high flexibility and medium plasticity o Permeability: high, varies depending on timber type o Conductivity: poor conductor of heat and electricity o Durability: vary o Recyclability: very high o Sustainability: very low embodied energy, fully renewable if correctly sourced o Cost: generally cost effective, labor dependant o Consideration: knots-weak point Engineered timber o Solid:  LVL-laminated veneer lumber  GLULAM-glue laminate timber  CLT-cross laminate timber o Sheet:  Plywood  MDF-medium density fiberboard  Chipboard & strandboard



Property:  Hardness: varied  Fragility: low, generally will not shatter or break  Ductility: high  Flexibility: medium-high flexibility and high plasticity  Permeability: generally impermeable, used for guttering, flashing  Density: high  Conductivity: high  Durability: vary  Recyclability: high  Sustainability: very high embodied energy, renewable if correctly sourced  Cost: generally cost effective, labor dependant  Consideration: react with other metals, galvanic series; oxidation and corrosion  Protection:  Avoid: crevices and flat horizontal surfaces  Seal: enamel or paint metal surfaces  Chemical: galvanized steel


Property  Magnetic  Very reactive  Good compressive strength Type & Use  Wrought iron-heat  Cast iron-melted Alloy  Steel: iron, carbon, Mn, Cl, B, Ta  Property

E-LEARNING Trusses: 

Types: o o o o o o o o

Flat truss Pratt truss Howe truss Belgian truss Warren truss Bowstring truss Raised-chord truss Scissor truss

Plates & grids

Material: 

metal o



History: metals have been sourced for thousands of years. They are linked to technological revolutions Sourcing: pure metals can be found in nature although it is much common to find them as part of minerals o

Type:   

Ferrous: iron Non-ferrous: all other metal Alloys




Very strong and resistant to fracture Transfer heat and electricity Various forms Long lasting

o o o Types and uses  Structural steel: framing-hot rolled steel, cold formed steel, reinforcing bars  Steel sheeting: cladding and roofing  Stainless steel alloys

Aluminium o Property  Very light  Non-magnetic, non-sparking  Easily formed o Use  Extruded section: window frame  Cast door handle, catches for window  Rolled: cladding panel Cupper o Property  Red, metallic luster( before oxidation), green( after)  Very malleable and ductile  Good conductor of heat and electricity o Use  Roofing material  Pipework  Electrical cabling Zinc o Bluish-white, lustrous o Use as a cladding material

o Lead o o o

Used for roofs, cornices, tank linings and flashing strips Lead can be toxic Bluish-white, lustrous, very soft, high malleable, ductile, relatively poor conduction of electricity, resistant to corrosion

Tin o o o

Need galvanized

Tin+copper: bronze Rare use today Silver-white metal, malleable, ductile, highly crystalline structure Titanium o Used in strong light-weight alloys, making an attractive and durable cladding material, expensive o Corrosion resistance, high strength-to-weight ratio Bronze o Bearings, clips, electrical connectors and springs o Corrosion resistance, hard Brass o Locks, gears, screws, valves o Malleable, low melting point, easy to cast o Not ferromagnetic

o o


Moisture details o Openings  Remove openings: sealants(silicone), gaskets(preformed shapes made from artificial rubbers), need to be updated  Keep water away from opening: grading roof, overlapping cladding and roof elements, sills and wall flashing  Neutralize the forces(gravity, surface tension and capillary action, momentum, air pressure differential) that move water through opening o Roofs: eaves, gutters are been use properly o Walls: impervious surface on wall, double skin wall or a rain screen system o Basement in wet area needs to be fully tanked o Slope and overlapping o Drips Heat details o Control conduction of heat:  Thermal insulation  Thermal breaks  Double glazing o Control radiation  Reflective surfaces  Shading systems  Control air leakage  Control thermal mass Material o Plastic

Paints Rubber


Construction details o Doors o Windows Materials-glass

ACTIVITY-WEEK 8+10 Task: complete a 1:1 scale drawing of Oval Pavilion My project: my part is the end of the canopy, which is CANOPY SECTIONFASCIA 01, which shows how the timber and beams structure the canopy.

characteristics not obtainable by any of the original components acting alone.

WEEK 9 E-LEARNING Construction detailing        

Cons det: movement joints Health and safety (CHING 9.10) Ageing gracefully Repairable surfaces & resistance to damage Cleanable surfaces Maintenance access Constructability Other considerations  Off the shelf items  Detailing to suit construction expertise

 Types: Composite materials come in many forms, but they can be grouped into four main types.    

Fibrous: e.g. products containing discontinuous or continuous fibres Laminar: e.g. sandwich panels Particulate: e.g. gravel and resins Hybrid: e.g. combination of two or more composite types.

Fiber reinforced cement (FRC)  MADE FROM –cellulose (or glass) fibers, Portland cement, sand and water.  COMMON FORMS –sheet & board products (commonly called FC sheet) and shaped products such as pipes, roof tiles etc.  COMMON USES –cladding for exterior or interior (wet area) walls, floor panels (under tiles)  BENEFITS –fiber cement building materials will not burn, are resistant to permanent water and termite damage, and resistant to rolling and wrapping. It is a reasonably inexpensive material.

Fiberglass  MADE FROM – a mixture of glass fibers and epoxy resins (glass fibers often used in a fabric or tape form)  COMMON FORMS –flat and profiled sheet products and formed/shaped products.  COMMON USES –transparent or translucent roof/wall cladding and for performed shaped products such as water tanks, baths, swimming pool etc.  BENEFITS –fiberglass materials are fire resistant, weatherproof, relatively light weight and strong. Aluminum sheet composite  MADE FROM – aluminum and plastic  COMMON FORMS –plastic core of phenolic resin )or a

Composite material 

Monolithic & composite  Monolithic material Single material Material combined so that components are indistinguishable E.g. metal alloy 

 1. 2. 3. 4.

Composites material: Two or more materials are combined in such a way that the individual materials remain easily distinguishable.

A composite is formed from a: Combination of materials which differ in composition or form. Remain bonded together Retain their identities and properties. Act together to provide important specific or synergistic

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honeycomb sheet) lined with two external skins of thin aluminum sheet. COMMON USES –as a feature cladding material in interior and exterior applications. BENEFITS –reduced amounts of aluminum are required and lighter weight, less expensive sheets can be produced, which are weather resistant, unbreakable and shock resistant. A variety of finished can be specified careful cutting, folding, bending and fixing.

Timber composite  MADE FROM --combination of solid timber, engineered timber (solid and steel), galvanized pressed steel  COMMON FORMS – timber top a bottom chords with galvanized steel or engineered board/plywood webs.  COMMON USES – beams (floor joists and roof rafters) and trusses.  BENEFITS – minimum amount of material is used for maximum efficiency, cost effective, easy to install, easy to accommodate services. Fiber reinforced polymers  MADE FROM – polymers (plastic) with timber, glass or carbon fibers.

COMMON FORMS –often associated with molded or pultrusion processed products. COMMON USES –decking (&external cladding), structural elements such as beams and columns for public pedestrian bridges using glass or carbon fibers, carbon fiber reinforced polymer rebar. BENEFITS –high-strength FRP materials with glass or carbon fiber reinforcement provide a strength-to-weight ratio greater than steel. FRP composite material are corrosion-resistant.


Lateral supports  Area of weakness  Resisting system

CONSTRUCTING WORKSHOP Our group’s target is to make a loadable beam by using two pieces of pine woods and two pieces of plywood. We decided to cut the pine wood into short pieces, and joined them in between the plywood, because the load would be place at middle point, we joined more pine wood in the middle.

A machine has been used to test our beam, it will push down by drive the wheel on top, and a ruler has also been used to measure the deformation of the beam.   

At first, our beam was on the scale of 201cm when the pushing force was zero. When the scale reach 265cm, the nails falls off When then scale reached 399cm, the force reached 40kg, the beam totally fell apart.

The above one is another group’s work, it loaded 460kg by deformating 460kg.



The plywood would not be strong unless it is been put vertically, this is the reason why the deformation of our work was so significant. Although it will reshape a lot, but it won’t be break, the nails and pine wood cannot reshape like that, so nails fell off and the pine wood and plywood separated at the end.


Key terms (all terms without references are from Dictionary of Moment The product of a quantity and its perpendicular distance from a reference point. Retaining wall (Building) a wall constructed to hold back earth, loose rock, etc. Also called: revetment (Collins English dictionary) Pad footing This carries point loads where the columns come down and is used a lot in portal frames. Piles can be placed on problem sites under the pad. This system allows



















( Strip footing This runs under load bearing walls which need supporting along their whole length. Strip footing would be used for example under pre-cast concrete panels. The











wide Slab on ground A concrete slab placed on grade, sometimes having insulation board or an impervious membrane beneath it. Substructure The foundation of a building that supports the superstructure. Joist





Parallel beams of lumber, concrete, or steel used to support floor and ceiling systems Steel decking Light-gauge, corrugated steel sheets used in constructing roofs or floors. Span The distance or interval between two points. Girder A large principal beam of steel, reinforced concrete, wood, or a combination of these, used to support other structural members at isolated points along its length Concrete plank A hollow-core or solid, flat beam used for floor or roof decking. Concrete planks are usually precast and prestressed. Spacing Distance between centre to centre. Stud A bolt having one end firmly anchored. Noggin The process of filling the space between timber framing members with bricks. Lintel

A horizontal supporting member, installed above an opening such as a window or a door, that serves to carry the weight of the wall above it. Seasoned timber Dried timber, becomes seasoned timber when less than 15% water is left in the tree Rafter One of a series of sloping parallel beams used to support a roof covering. Purlin One of several horizontal structural members that support roof loads and transfer them to roof beams.

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