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RUNWAY 3,303 pages Skinny or too skinny?

THEN AND NOW A history of Vogue’s covers

In-depth analysis of Vogue’s social responsibility. Headlines Advertisements Articles

And much more!

Your Favorite Models are Inside. And so are their measurements!

Interview with Seattle Models Guild Representative!



what is too skinny? When we wake up in the morning, most of us probably quickly walk past the mirror before our shower in hopes to avoid seeing those extra 10 pounds you want to lose but never can. But what if things were the other way around and it was the 10 pounds you always wanted to gain but couldn’t. The reasons why you can’t gain weight can be things like your metabolism or other health related consequences, but what if it was your work prohibiting you from this? What if you knew that you would lose your job after eating that burger and fries or milkshake? This is what it is like for thousands of models in today’s cutthroat industry. In this issue I will critically analyze Vogue’s coverage of the issue regarding their responsibility, from their advertisements, articles and editorials to their fashion spreads and headlines. However before diving in it is important to have a definition of what is too skinny to ensure the highest level of scholarly analysis.

But when does it go too far?

GUIDELINES According to the Center for Disease and Control; a person’s Body Mass Index (BMI) is a tool to identify possible weight problems.

What does “too skinny” look like? Sign of bone structure in: Arms, thighs, ribs, back and chest. Sallow complex with sunken cheeks and eyes. Lack of lean muscle BMI less than 17.5=Likely anorexia -Vogue,,

The average U.S. Woman These are the measurements of the average American woman: Height: 63.8 inches Weight: 164.7 BMI: 29.0




n an effort to get more information about the current state of the issue, I spoke with a representative named Tammy from Seattle Models Guild. In your opinion, what is the status of the debate over the use of “ultraskinny” models? Do you feel people still care about the issue?

Well honestly I think that it still is an issue because there are women out there struggling with eating disorders because of modeling, but I think that a lot of people blow it out of proportion. They just know what the media tells them and so a lot of people think it’s a lot bigger of an issue than it is. Does your agency have a policy or philosophy on what is too skinny?

No we don’t have a particular policy, obviously we want models who are healthy but we don’t have a defined policy

I enjoyed my talk with Tammy however I had

Does your agency balance its use of skinny and curvy models? Or do you primarily select one over the other? As a modeling agency it’s our job to have a wide range of models available for our clients. Sometimes they want someone who is athletic and built, or they might want tall and skinny editorial style model, it’s all up to the client. When you select models, do you use their BMI? No we don’t typically take into account their BMI Is there a particular reason why? No not really, we think everyone is different and we don’t want to just stick a number on them.

When she said that every client wants something trouble with a few things she told me. She said that different, it made me think of Vogue and after looking at the models in their magazine, it is clear what the media blows the issue out of proportion, I had trouble with this because when you’re dealing with kind of client they are. peoples’ health and it’s an issue that affects women They only want skinny models and do not pick all over the world, I think it is a very big issue. more athletic or plus-size models from these agenI think the reason why she felt this way is because cies, because they want to keep reminding the readshe sees models all the time and can’t step back and er of what Vogue is about. critically analyze the situation.

Vogue: Skinny or Too Skinny? In-depth look at their social responsibility


The headlines of articles in Vogue do not hint at accepting all body fter flipping through types, only the skinny ones. I find 3,300 pages of Vogue and analyz- this to be troubling because it ing whether Vogue has been reshows Vogue’s disregard for responsible in dealing with the issue sponsible reporting by showing of models being “too thin.” I was only one side of things. Vogue is still hungry for more, so I decided appealing to only one type of perto look at a similar magazine to son here and sending a message see how they dealt with the issue by continually using these words. and how the two compare. By featuring only skinny models and using words that refer to beRedbook is a publication that deals with a lot of the same topics ing thin they are showing their true colors. They are also alienas Vogue; women’s health, marating any thoughts of being anyriage, family, and fashion. The readership profiles are relatively thing but skinny. The use of the same, Vogue coming in with a “thinonyms” in their headlines shows this, they use subtle hints slightly higher average age of 37 to remind their reader that skinny and Redbook with 32. is better. {This information was found on Skinny Genes (APR 2009) both sites Media Kit section)

I find this to be a good contrast between the two because you see Redbook saying all sizes are welcomed, where as Vogue just focuses on the thinness aspect and ignores larger sizes. My reasoning for why this is, is that if Vogue were to come out and all of the sudden start embracing everyone from size 2 to 12, they would most likely have to stop doing business with a lot of the designers they feature, offer a wider variety of clothing suggestions based upon available sizing and start featuring models of all sizes. This conclusion lends itself to be said that if Vogue wanted to ever be considered fully socially responsible, they would have to make some drastic changes.

For this piece, I will focus solely on Skinny Dipping (May what is inside the magazine, this 2001) consists of looking at; headlines, Lean & Mean (Feb 2007) advertisements, and articles.


In looking at Vogue and In Vogue the headlines have been Redbook and comparing relatively responsible in that they their headlines I discovdon’t put down overweight peo- ered the two were fairly ple, in fact there is barely mention opposite. Redbook emof overweight people at all. This is brace all sizes of bodies, big or small. precisely the problem though, they don’t talk about average One headline in particusized people at all, it’s as if they lar that stood out to me don't exist. This seems like was “You Can Feel FemiVogue’s vision on overweight peo- nine & Beautiful at size 2 ple, they would prefer if they did- or size 12.” n't exist.

Mara Rooney, Vogue Nov. 2011

Closer Look:

What is Vogue selling?


fter a long analysis of Vogue’s advertise-

Rooney Mara’s back bones. Vogue Nov 2011

ments over the past two years starting from May 2012 to May 2011, I have some interesting observations. In 9 out of 12 Vogues’ table of contents were preceded by 40 pages of ads. The September 2011 issue was a whopping 68 pages of ads. To draw an interesting comparison, in all 12 Redbook issues the table of contents was never more than 4 pages into the magazine. What this says to me is that the primary focus of the magazine is to sell advertisements. This shows a lack of character and desire for money. Clearly the advertisers have influence over Vogue because they continually use models with lack of lean muscle and visible bones. After looking at over 1,000 pages of ads I feel qualified in saying that the goal of Vogue is to remind you that skinny people wear their clothes, as the visual signifiers of being underweight and anorexic are present on almost all of the models featured in the ads. Again, Vogue is ignoring the presence of healthy body types.


fter looking at the advertisements in Vogue

and how socially irresponsible they were, I decided to look at Redbook to see if it was a trend across the

Notice the varying degree body types present in this Dove ad. There is a range of different sized; stomachs, hips, and thighs and visible muscle mass. Body types such as these are not featured in Vogue.


board. Redbook features ads from companies like Jenny Craig and Dove, known for their new ad campaign

n my opinion the cause of this is that Vogue

which features women of all sizes, shapes and colors. wants to keep its image that thin is better, because

That’s what the advertisements are saying Visible back bones

Hype O ve r Health Visible rib bones

Runway model in April 2008 French Vogue When I spoke with Meagan Salt from Vogue about how thin the models in Vogue are, she quickly reminded me that Vogue doesn’t cast the models for it’s ads, and that the are committed to their new statement. To me this was an excuse, to hide the fact that they still choose to feature those ads. I was pleased to hear however that she felt that the media doesn't make a big enough issue out of the topic. Maybe she should tell that to the editor. Their frequent use of models with a lack of lean muscle mass is not responsible. It heavily challenges their claim to “refuse to work with anorexic models” as their new statement says. I believe it is more for the publicity coverage than anything else. It begs the question “why now?”

Vogue obviously doesn’t care about the issue or they would’ve already done something. In April 2010’s shape Iisue, Anna Wintour writes in her letter from the editor;

“In February there was a spirited panel discussion about the issues involved in making sure the models on the runways are healthy and representative of a range of body types. “ -Anna Wintour 2010 shape issue

Vogue released a statement on May 3, 2012 regarding the ongoing battle of anorexic models. In this statement, Vogue and its 19 international editors said that “good health is beautiful” and they want to make sure those in their pages were well cared for and educated in how to take care of themselves. Also in the statement were the following guidelines: 

 

Not knowingly work with models under 16 or that appear to have an eating disorder. Check ID’s at photo shoots Encourage healthy backstage working conditions Encourage designers to consider the consequences of unrealistically small sample sizes, thus limiting the women who can wear the clothes.

Model Karlie Kloss in a shockingly thin photo. Vogue Italia



dvertising is to fashion, as a tie is to a he most likely reason as to why these suit, they just go together. One of the most skin and bones models continually grace the fascinating pieces of Vogue to me is there ad- pages of Vogue is plain and simple; vertisements. The designers featured in Vogue are some of the world’s finest clothing manufacturers; Gucci, Louis Vuitton, Yves Saint Laurent, Ellie Saab, Ralph Lauren, Giorgo “Vogue increased it’s January-to-October ad Armani and the list goes on. pages more than 9% to 2,125..”


The models for these ads are picked by the designer, so if they’re too skinny then it’s not Vogue’s fault, right?



he designers are not the ones who publish the magazine, it is the editor’s job to do this, namely Anna Wintour. It is irresponsible for someone to be outspoken about the need for healthier models, yet continually casts the opposite in her magazine. It must be benefitting her in some way, maybe it’s her 2 million dollar salary. (New York Mag)

“Its September issue killed again with 584 ad pages.”


-Advertising Age magazine

ince its creation in 1892 Vogue has built an image revolving around fashion. Advertising is a major money maker and vital to Vogue. Vogue could not all the sudden abandon this image and stop featuring high end European designers who intentionally limit the sizing of their clothes for a reason. If they did they would lose a significant income from their advertisers.

Shape issue


ontinuing with the April 2010 Shape issue, Anna Wintour did discuss a lot of good things regarding the issue and was very socially responsible in discussing the items. However nothing was done, no action was taken until 2 years later. She wrote about encouraging designers to change the runway ideal size of 0 to something healthier, but nothing was done. When analyzing this letter I felt that there was truly an effort to educate the reader on what was being done to fight this issue.

This letter seemed like a technique to save face and look responsible all the while casting models that were underweight. The main reason why I believe this to be true is that in this same issue are a lot of contradictions. There are a number of models who do not reflect the ideals of the Shape issue which according to Anna Wintour is


Rihanna, Vogue April 2010 shape issue

evoted to transformations and is filled with inspiring stories about giving up smoking, getting over an eating disorder, changing one’s body through exercise, and having a facelift.

– Vogue Shape Issue 2010

Editor of Vogue, Anna Wintour

However at the end , it was wishful thinking from two years ago. In it there was no action plan, nothing the reader could do, nothing Vogue could do except “encourage” designers to send smaller sizes. If Vogue truly cared about models’ health they would have offered more solutions to the issue, starting with themselves. Vogue’s shape issues serve one purpose; to be their annual “semiresponsible” issue. As if they keep it in their back pocket for when people accuse them of promoting the thinness ideal . Not that they do that...

Articles Vogue doesn’t have control over what models are cast for what ads, or what size of clothing is sent to them, but they do have control over the articles and their content. The articles in Vogue sometimes seem to split right down the middle when it comes to responsibility. Some are responsible and report on the issue of too thin modeling and what is too thin. They also talk about embracing who you are and will interview plus-size models and show that you don’t have to be skinny to be beautiful and fashionable. One article from April 2007 interviews plus-size model Ashley Graham about her shopping habits. Another article is from April 2010 and features plus-size model Kate Dillon in the same light. These examples show responsibility by showing Vogue isn’t blind to the fact that there are plus-size models who are attractive and stylish and also that they are willing to feature them. They are hypocritical though because they feature exactly what is considered too thin. In the September 1999 they interview the director of UCLA Center for Human Nutrition and he says “too thin” is a lack of lean muscle mass, which is all over the pages of every Vogue.

To defy the industry standard of borderline anorexic models and feature interviews with plus-size models is nothing short of socially responsible. Plussize model Lara Stone was interviewed by Vogue and talked about what it’s like being a plus-size model.

“When you’re a model, nobody calls you fat. What they say is curvy, but you know they mean fat.” -Lara Stone After reading a quote like this, I’m not surprised that Vogue doesn’t regularly feature plus size models. In fact, looking at the Vogue’s available to me I found that plus-size models are only interviewed in the annual Shape issue and in one other issue that year. Vogue’s responsibility is diminishing, if they want to “embrace all body shapes and sizes” as written in Anna’s letter in the 2007 Shape issue, then maybe they should start featuring them more.

Lara Stone, Vogue Turkey. April 2012

What Do They Say?

Karl Lagerfeld Apart from looking at the past year of Vogue I alKarl Lagerfeld’s connection to Vogue is a lot deeper so ventured out to find as many past Shape issues as I could find. The 2007 issue had an inter- than most know. Karl has been designing for high fashion brands since he started esting article titled “Walking a Thin Line” which was about with Fendi in 1965. This means the dangers of the modeling that his clothes, ads and influindustry and the history of ence have been spreading how this issue came about. through Vogue for over 40 Although this is an example years. He currently is head deof responsible reporting on signer at Chanel, which is althe issue of too thin models most always featured within and raises awareness about the first 5 to 10 pages in every the issue. Vogue. In a ProQuest database search of Vogue from 1989 to Throughout that issue there 2012, his name appeared in the are 5 different articles talking magazine 217 times. That is not about famed Chanel designcounting the amount of times er Karl Lagerfeld. Vogue his clothing has been featured must’ve forgotten what Karl’s views on plus-size models in the magazine. are. By featuring Karl in their Karl Lagerfeld at the end of one of his fashion shows Vogue obviously disregarded magazine so often Vogue their previous article about clearly shows it’s alliance to the dangers of thin modeling by promoting Karl certain designers and supports their beliefs. Lagerfeld. Vogue is promoting thin models by promoting designers who think that way, because that’s how Vogue clearly thinks based upon their con“These are fat mummies sitting stant featuring of Karl Lagerfeld.

with their bags of crisps in front of the television, saying


that thin models are ugly.”

Age: 79

–Karl Lagerfeld in FOCUS magazine

Past work: Fendi, Chloe, Jean Patou, H&M, Hogan

Occupation: Creative director Chanel

Known for: Promoting skinny models, a white high collared shirt and leather gloves.



ocusing back on the content of Vogue’s articles; Skinny Genes was an article that caught my eye. Upon reading the first three lines I was surprised to find the words

“French women don’t get fat. They have je ne sais quoi”. Implying that French women are skinny, and that skinny people are distinctively attractive. This again shows Vogue’s true feelings about skinny people and why they continually promote them. To simply brand all French women as skinny excludes and segregates the reader. The other reason why I don’t understand this was published is because it is false; according to the Telegraph UK 15.1% of French women are clinically obese. This quote is racist and discriminatory towards “fat” people, Vogue features quotes like these because they align with their beliefs.

Fashion Spreads Vogue regularly does fashion spreads, where the current trends are laid out on the page for the reader to look at and find information about. I looked at Redbook’s spreads and there was one difference between the two. In Vogue all of the clothes are on the page as is, except there is always one model wearing an outfit as well. Whereas with Redbook it was just the clothes and no model.

What this said to me was that in Redbook the focus is solely on the clothes and nothing else, because there is nothing else on the page. With Vogue it told me that although they’re focused on the clothes, they want to remind you who they are meant for and who they want wearing them.

I find myself leaning towards the side of socially irresponsible because of certain things like the quote in the upper left, the constant reminders of skinniness, and the lack of articles on plus-size models and accepting other body types.

When analyzing Vogue’s article content I couldn't help but feel they have been socially irresponsible. Despite the handful of exceptions in their shape issue’s and others, the majority of their articles promoted skinniness and talked about it as if it were the only body type. Their constant reminders of skinniness plague every issue. However the few exceptions do not outweigh the rest of their content, not even close. Above: A fashion spread in Redbook with no models. Left: A fashion spread in Vogue showing models wearing the look.

“Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels” –Kate Moss

You’re Favorite Models

-Women’s Wear Daily

And Their Measurements After searching numerous modeling agency and celebrity information websites, and of course Vogue, I was able to put together a table of models that are featured regularly in Vogue. The first nine models on the list were named Vogue’s favorite in 2011, the top spot belonging to Arizona Muse is absent because I was unable to find reliable measurements. BMI

Weight Status

Below 18.5






30.0 and above



Dress size (US) 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 6 4 2 3.6 14

Raquel Zimmermann Karlie Kloss Anja Rubik Lara Stone Joan Smalls Natasha Poly Sasha Pivovarova Liu Wen Karmen Pedaru Kate Moss Sienna Miller Daria Werbowy Heidi Klum Doutzen Kroes Natalia Vodianova Gisele Bundchen Average Average U.S. Woman

“It’s better to be skinny than fat” -Natalia Vodianova -UK Vogue panel




Vogue appearances

5’10” 6’0” 5’10” 5’10” 5’10.5” 5’10” 5’8.5” 5’10.5” 5’10” 5’6” 5’6” 5’11” 5’9.25” 5’10” 5’9” 5’11” 5’4” 5’3”

128 140 121 140 110 130 102 110 117 105 116 108 120 120 115 118 119.79 164

18.4 19.0 17.4 20.1 15.6 18.7 18.0 15.6 16.8 16.9 17.8 15.1 17.7 17.2 17.0 16.5 17.5 29.0

75 66 15 45 32 12 49 10 4 176 91 64 3 38 102 34 51 --

Not only does Vogue feature ultra-thin models very frequently, they feature the two who have made outrageous quotes about thinness. These quotes can influence young women and cause them to live unhealthily and have eating disorders.

If Vogue endorses these models then they are endorsing their messages as well, which are incredibly irresponsible and promote unhealthy life styles. This magazine is iconic to some people, Vogue is clearly disregarding the effects these words have on people.

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Beyond The Numbers

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22785949787995794595297564672525962576925765124553768956437215425679865341625545789825956314922785949787995794595297564672525 962576925765221042326497

Only 3 models in the top 10 have healthy BMI’s. One of which is only .2 above underweight.

This shows Vogue promoting that those who are super-skinny are their “favorites” and they don’t prefer models who aren’t stick thin.

These 3 models make up only 15% of Vogue appearances among this group.

Clearly Vogue does not want to feature these heavier models as they make up such a small percentage of appearances in the top 10.

The 2nd lowest weight belongs to Kate Moss at 105lbs; coincidentally she has the highest number of Vogue appearances at 176.

The lowest number of appearances is Heidi Klum, interestingly enough she has the 2nd highest weight at 136.5lbs.

The average weight of Vogue models is 44 pounds less than that of the average woman, and the BMI of Vogue models 17.5, a full point underweight, and 11.5 points away from the average woman’s BMI.

Looking at the data, you can see that :

This data shows that heavier models are a major minority in Vogue where as those with lower weights appear more. According to the authors of Media Ethics Phillip Patterson and Lee Wilkins there are three sources of responsibility: Assigned: Employer-Employee Contracted: Each party agrees to assume responsibility and fulfill it. Self-Imposed: Individual moral responsibilities. Vogue has been responsible in the first two situations but has blatantly disregarded the third. Their frequent use of ultra-thin models shows that they have no regard for the message it sends and the effects it has on the viewer. It projects a message of thin is the only way to be beautiful because that is all they show as beautiful.

Vogue clearly doesn’t like showing models who are at healthier weights because they consider them less appealing than those with lower weights, as the data indicates. The numbers clearly show that skinner models are featured more and heavier ones featured less.

This shows that Vogue completely disregards showing what is realistic and healthy for women. These numbers lead me to believe that Vogue does not actually care about showing what is normal, but rather what is unhealthy and “looks better.” They rarely show healthy women in their magazine and therefore can’t project the image that they are accepting of all body types. They can only show the message in which they are sending by only having one body type in their magazine. The comparison between the average U.S. woman and the average Vogue model shows that there is no regard to what is realistic for women to aspire to. They are showing women who potentially lead unhealthy lifestyles and have unrealistic figures. According to the UK National Health Center, the BMI measurement for anorexia nervosa is 17.5; this would mean that the average Vogue model could be anorexic, as well as 9 others on this chart. This shows that Vogue has no problem publicly saying they prefer models who are considered anorexic, which is by far one of the most irresponsible things they could do.

Vogue is not responsible in the models they cast as dictated by these numbers.

Vogue Covers: The History


Vogue 1892

wanted to see if Vogue had been irresponsible in the past or not. I looked at the past covers from 1960 to present day with four criteria: 


Clothing Shown

Visual signs of “too skinny”

Amount of body shown


This tells me that Vogue doesn’t want the reader thinking about their body image when reading their magazine; they want to put the body image of everyone else in front of the reader. The exception to this conclusion is Vogue’s annual Shape issue in which they have headlines about sizes 0-20, or what to wear if your tall, short, thin, curvy, athletic or pregnant as well as different diet tips. Although the Shape issue is a step in the right direction, I cannot ignore the fact that it is once a year. I conclude that Vogue has been irresponsible in covering the topic of too thin models and also in not showing a wider variety of body types on their cover.

Clothing: C

lothing is undoubtedly a central part to Vogue as it is a fashion -oriented magazine. In the early decades of the 60’s through the 80’s there are a lot more responsible covers in regards to clothing. It was more focused on headwear and the various accessories such as rings, bracelets and necklaces. This conveyed a slightly more wholesome image focusing on aspects that could be worn by a woman no matter her size or weight. As we transitioned into the 90’s to present day there is a lot more provocative clothing that could not be appropriately worn by a lot of body types other than those featured in Vogue.

The headlines of Vogue have all been relatively the same since the 1960’s, they all talk about the new fall and summer looks as well as designer collections make up and hair tips, as well as how to find your style.

I find this to be socially irresponsible because it dictates who can wear their clothes and ultimately who should be reading their magazines. They do not appeal to larger body types and potentially exclude them from being a part of Vogue.

One thing that did not make the cover of any of the Vogue covers except for their annual Shape issues was the topic of weight loss or body image. Never once was the topic of different shapes or sizes discussed, or the dangers or experiences of models.

Vogue 1965


Vogue Covers: The History Visual signs:


ollowing the trend of Vogue’s being socially responsible in Vogue the earlier 1892decades and losing that responsibility in the 1990’s, we see a definite change in the type of people on the covers of Vogue. In the 60’s through 80’s we didn’t see any chest, back or collarbones or other visible signs of being unhealthily skinny. In the 1990’s through today we see a few more signs of potential anorexia with some bone structures being visible. However there are a lot of models on the covers who have little to no lean muscle mass. As was reported by Vogue this is a major sign of being “too skinny.” The first thing on the cover is someone who is lacking muscle and showing off a lot of skin. That sends a strong message as to what the magazine is about. It shows who Vogue thinks is important enough to put on their cover. In an interview with Barbara Walters, Anna Wintour said “to be in Vogue has to mean something, it’s an endorsement, a validation.” Vogue is openly endorsing and validating ultra-thin models by putting them on the covers year after year. For the millions of women out there who aspire to be in Vogue, this says that they must be ultra-thin to achieve their dreams.

Amount of body: As the years progressed and we entered the 1990’s Vogue began to lose their responsibility. We see a lot more full body shots and waist up shots, as well as more skin with the use of sheer clothing and cleavage. To me this suggests that it is no longer about the person’s face but more so about the body. It projects a heavily body oriented focus. The social irresponsibility of Vogue in relation to the content of their covers is huge. Even if someone sees the cover at a newsstand or grocery store, and is nothing but skinny models in provocative clothing and poses, it will send a message as what is normal and desirable.

Linda Evangelista Vogue June 1990

This message being sent is unrealistic because as I pointed out in my index of models’ measurements, most models are much skinnier than the average person.

Vogue is more concerned with making sure you know what the ideal body is. They put it on the cover and showing you the entire body and sometimes leaving little to the imagination.

“To be in Vogue has to mean something, it’s an endorsement,

Print circulation: 11.4 million

a validation.” -Anna Wintour

Online audience: 1.2 million (

VOGUE Nothing is Too Thin

Final Thoughts


In this issue I have presented a vast amount of information on Vogue about its social responsibility regarding the issue of too skinny models. I have discussed a number of aspects such as the headlines, advertisements and articles in Vogue, the designers they feature and how they relate to Vogue’s constant use of models who are unhealthily skinny, the measurements of those models, and also an analysis of Vogue’s covers over the past 52 years. With all of these pieces as my evidence, I feel that it is warranted to claim that

Vo g u e h a s o v e r a l l b e e n s o c i a l l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e . They feature models who fulfill visible and empirical signs of being underweight and potentially anorexic They increase advertising to make more money

They disregard other body types except in their shape issues

They challenge their own content and feature’s models who are unrealistically thin and unhealthy. They do not regularly feature plus-size models They do not report on the issue of underweight modeling very often They constantly feature and praise designers and models who perpetuate the ideal of being thin The average measurements of commonly featured models are considered underweight according to the Center for Disease and Control

When you walk away from this magazine, I hope that you understand why I have deemed Vogue as socially irresponsible. That being said I hope you remember the small glimpses of responsibility shown by Vogue, but know that they pale in comparison to their irresponsibility.

451 Final Vogue  
451 Final Vogue  

final project