Page 1

RUK SHANAAF RI N-THE SI S201 6


I NT HEMEMORYOF ARCHI T ECTCHARL ESCORREA

2

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

3


CONT ENT S 6:I nt r oduc t i on 7:Bi ogr aphy 8:Ri t ual i s t i cpat hway -I nt r oduc t i on -Ex ampl es -Conc l us i onandi nf er enc es 24: T r ans f er sandT r ans f or mat i ons -I nt r oduc t i on -Ex ampl es -Conc l us i onandi nf er enc es 36:Cl i mat er es pons i v ear c hi t ec t ur e -I nt r oduc t i on -Ex ampl es -Conc l us i onandi nf er enc es 48:Cour t y ar dsandT er r ac egar dens -I nt r oduc t i on -Ex ampl es -Conc l us i onandi nf er enc es 58:Ar tandAr c hi t ec t ur e -I nt r oduc t i on -Ex ampl es -Conc l us i onandi nf er enc es 72:Mat er i al sandCol our s 76:Phot oEs s ay -Li ghtands hade -St eppedpat t er n -Ar c hi t ec t ur al el ement s 84:Conc l us i on 86:Bi bl i ogr aphy

4

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

5


I NT RODUCT I ON CHARLESCORREA( 19302015) Char l esCor r eawasagi antofmoder nar chi t ect ur enat i onal l y ,of cour se,butal so i nt er nat i onal l y .He had won al mostev er y maj ornat i onaland i nt er nat i onalar chi t ect ur alawar d( aswel last hePadmaVi bhushan) ,codesi gnedt he bi ggestnew ci t yev erpl anned( NaviMumbai ) ,chai r edt heNat i onalCommi ssi onon Ur bani sat i oni nt he1980s ,desi gnedv er ydi f f er enti coni cbui l di ngsl i k eNat i onal Cr af t s Museum ( NewDel hi )orKanchenj unga( Mumbai ) ,andi nv ent edhi sown‘ l anguage’ of ar chi t ect ur e. Thi s ,outofappar ent l yi ncommensur abl ei nspi r at i ons: LeCor busi er ’ s monument al andabst r actmoder ni sm,Buc kmi nst erFul l er ’ st echni cal i magi nat i on,and t henur t ur i ngsoci abi l i t yoft heI ndi ansmal l t owncour t y ar dandv er anda,aswel l ast he emot i onalchar geoft r adi t i onalsyst ems . Cor r eahadi nt er est si not herfiel dsal sol i k east r onomy ,sci ence pol i t i cs ,ar t set c. ,andhei ncor por at edhi sv astknowl edgeont hesesubj ect si nt o ar chi t ect ur e. Thebi gpi ct ur ecamenat ur al l yt oCor r ea.Butmor er emar kabl ewast he acut er ecogni t i onoft hesmal l estofpr obl ems . Hewascor ncer endaboutt hesoci al aspect s ofdesi gn.Hi s desi gn br i ngs peopl et oget her . Cor r ea coul d mak et he empt i nessofspaceassumet hedefini t enessofbui l tmass .I nhi smostmemor abl e bui l di ngsi ti st hewel l f or medv oi dt hathescul pt ed,whi l et hebui l tmassesappear edt o gat herar oundt hem ascount er poi nt . Cor r ea’ sar chi t ect ur ewasanar chi t ect ur eoft i me,asmuchasi twas ofspace. Ther evi sual i sat i oni nv ol v edgoi ngbac kt ot he( somet i mesov er si mpl i fied) t r adi t i onal v er nacul arar chi t ect ur eoft hecount r y . I tt husmai nst r eamedhabi t sofdesi gn t hatar eatt hehear toft r ul ysust ai nabl eappr oachest oar chi t ect ur ef orI ndi a:t he di saggr egat edbui l tmasses ,cour t y ar ds ,nat ur all i ght i ngandv ent i l at i on. Whatdi st i ngui shedhi sappr oachf r om t hatoft heseequal l y di st i ngui shedcol l eagueswast hecr eat i v et ensi onoft hepar adox. Hi swor kr ev eal st he v al ueofhol di ngont oavi si ont hatpul l si nopposi t ebutequal l ywor t hwhi l edi r ect i ons . Thati sal essont hati si ncr easi ngl yr el ev antt oday ,whenar chi t ect ur easat oandf r o conv er sat i on i si ncr easi ngl y bei ng r epl aced by ar chi t ect ur e as l i nearout put :of sof t war e,t echnol ogy ,ort heeconomy . “Cer t ai nl yar chi t ect ur ei sconcer nedwi t hmuchmor et hanj us t i t e phys i calat t r i but es .I ti sa manyl ayer ed t hi ng.Beneat h and beyond t he s t r at aoff unct i onands t r uct ur e,mat er i al sandt ex t ue,l i et hedeepes tandmos t compul s i vel ayer sofal l ” Char l esCor r ea

I nt hi sbookwewi l lbedi scussi ngaboutsomeoft hecor epr i nci pl esofCor r ea’ s ar chi t ect ur eandhi sphi l osophi eswhi chf oundi t swayi nhi sdesi gnt hr oughouthi s car eer .These pr i nci pl eshav e mor phed ov ert i me and pl ace t o sui tt he changi ng demands .

6

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

BI OGRAPHY EDUCATI ON 1939–1946St . Xavi er ’ sHi ghSchool ,Bombay 1946–1948St . Xavi er ’ sCol l ege,Uni v er si t yofBombay 1949–1953Uni v er si t yofMi chi gan( B. Ar ch) 1953–1955Massachuset t sI nst i t ut eofT echnol ogy( M. Ar ch) PROFESSI ONALAFFI LI ATI ONS 1964–2015Fel l ow,I ndi anI nst i t ut eofAr chi t ect s 1974–t 2015Counci lofAr chi t ect ur e,I ndi a PROFESSI ONALEXPERI ENCE 1958–t odat eI npr i v at epr act i cei nBombay 1964–1965Pr epar edal t er nat eMast erPl an( wi t hPr avi naMeht a&Shi r i shPat el )pr oposi ng ci t y ofNewBombay 1969–1971I nvi t edbyt heGov er nmentofPer uandt heUNt odesi gnPREVI l ow–costhousi ngpr oj ecti nLi ma 1971–1974Chi efAr chi t ectt oCI DCO ( Gov er nmentofMahar asht r a)f ordev el opmentof NewBombay 1975–1989Boar dofDi r ect or s ,CI DCO ( NewBombay) 1975–1978Consul t i ngAr chi t ect ,Gov er nmentofKar nat aka 1975–1983Chai r man,Housi ngUr banRenewal&Ecol ogyBoar d,Bombay Met r opol i t anRegi onalDev el opmentAut hor i t y( BMRDA) 1975–1994Ex ecut i v eCommi t t ee,BMRDA 1985–1988Chai r man,Nat i onalCommi ssi ononUr bani sat i on,Gov er nmentofI ndi a 1985–1986Chai r man,Commi t t eef orT ext i l eMi l l si nBombay ,Gov er nmentofMahar asht r a 1996–1998Pr esi dent ,Wor l dSoci et yofEKI STI CS,At hens ,Gr eece 1999–t odat eConsul t i ngAr chi t ect ,Gov er nmentofGoa AWARDS 1972 – Pr esent edt hePadmaShr i ,byt hepr esi dentofI ndi a. 1974– Feat ur edi nTI ME magazi necov erst or yonNew Leader shi p( 150per sonf r om ar oundt hewor l d) . 1980 – Honor ar yDoct or at e,Uni v er si t yofMi chi gan,USA. 1984 – Pr esent edt heRI BARoy alGol dMedalbyHRHPr i nceChar l esatHampt oncour t , 1984 – Si rRober tMat t hewPr i z e,I nt er nat i onaluni onofar chi t ect s( UI A) . 1986 – Chi cagoAr chi t ect ur eAwar d,Amer i cani nst i t ut eofar chi t ect ur e,USA. 1987 – I I AGol dMedal ,I ndi anI nst i t ut eofAr chi t ect s . 1990 – UI AGol dMedalbyt heI nt er nat i onalUni onofAr chi t ect s . 1991 – Mast erAr chi t ectAwar d,JKi ndust r i es ,I ndi a. 1994 – Pr esent ed t he Pr aemi um I mper i al ef orAr chi t ect ur e by H. I . H Pr i nce Masahi t o Hi t achi ,T oky o,J apan. 1997 –1stPr i z e,I nt er nat i onalCompet i t i on f ort he Museum ofI sl ami c Ar t s ,Doha, Gov er nmentofQat ar . 1998 –Pr esent edt heAgaKhanAwar df orAr chi t ect ur ebyH. R. H.Ki ngCar l osofSpai n, Al hambr a,Spai n.

7


RI T UAL I S T I C PAT HWAY

8

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

9


RI T UAL I S T I C PAT HWAY I nmanycul t ur es ,t heexper i enceofmovi ngt owar dst hesacr ed cor ehasgener at edapar al l elconcept :t her i t ual i st i cpat hway . I ti saphenomenont hat hasexi st edt hr oughouthi st or y ,f r om t he“ Pr adakshi na”i nt heHi ndut empl e,t ot he ci r cul arpat hwaywhi chwi ndsar oundt heBuddhi stSt upas ,t ot heHaji nMeccawher e t housandsofpi l i gr i msk eepci r cl i ngar oundt hecent r alKabba. Youseei tal soi nt he cat hedr al sofEur ope,whenonf eastdays ,t hef ai t hf ul wi ndt hei rwaydownt ot henav e andouti nt ot hepl azaandt hencomebac ki nsi de. I nf act ,t hi sopen-t oskypr ocessi onal mov ementi soft heut most r el i gi ousandsymbol i csi gni ficance.I ti sf oundt hr oughoutt hewar mr egi onsoft he ear t h,f r om t he sun t empl esofMexi co ( whi ch consi st sofpyr ami ds ,and -mor e i mpor t ant l y-ofsacr ament alopenspacest heydefine) ,t ot het empl esofBal i(wi t h t hei rr i t ual i st i cpat hwaysupt hehi l l si de,t hr oughkni f eedgeddoor ways) . Thus ,al lt her el i gi ouscer emoni esi nAsi ahav eal ways emphasi z edt hi smov ementt hr oughopent oskyspaces-andt hequasi-must i cal sensat i onst heygener at ewi t hi nus . I nabui l t-f or mi nawar m cl i mat e,bet weent hecl osedboxof t hebui l di ngandt heopent oskyspacet her el i esawhol econt i nuum ofz oneswi t h v ar yi ng defini t i ons ,and degr ees ofpr ot ect i on.One st eps outoft he box t o find onesel f . . .i nav er anda,f r om whi chonemov esi nt ot hecour t y ar d,andt henundera t r ee,andbey ondt hatt oat er r ace,andt henper hapsbac ki nt oar oom andoutont oa bal cony . . . andsof or t h. Theboundar yl i nesbet weent hesev ar i ousz onesar enotf or mal andshar pel ydemar cat ed,buteasyandamor phous . Subt l emodul at i onsofl i ght ,i nt he qual i t yofambi entai r ,r egi st ereacht r ansi t i ononoursenses .

Pr adaks hi na-t heci r cumbul at i on pat hwayar oundt heHi ndu t empl es

Peopl eper f or mi ngHaj j i n Mecca,S audi Ar abi a.T hey movear oundt heKabbai na ci r cul arpat h.

PROMEANDEARCHI TECTURALE-LECORBUSI ER Ev enCor busi er ’ s“ pr omenadear chi t ect ur al e:wasonl ya sani t i z edv er si onofwhatwasamuchmor epr i mor di alandsacr edur gewi t hi nus . Wi t houthavi ngsuchi nst i nct s-hewoul dhav enev erbeenabl et ocr eat eRonchamps . ” Ar chi t ect ur ei sexper i encedasoner oamsabouti ni tandwal ks t hr oughi t … Sot r uei st hi st hatar chi t ect ur al wor kscanbedi vi dedi nt odeadandl i vi ng onesdependi ngonwhet hert hel aw of‘ r oami ngt hr ough’hasnotbeenobser v edor whet heront hecont r ar yi thasbeenbr i l l i ant l yobey ed. "( LeCor busi er ,1942) Char l esCor r eahas empl oy ed t hi s pr i mor di alpat hway i n many of hi s bui l di ngs r angi ng f r om r esi dent i al , museums , r esear ch bui l di ngset c. ,Hehasmani pul at edt he t r adi t i onal“ pat hway”i ndi f f er entwayst o ev ok edi f f er entemot i onsi nt heuser ,t o cr eat e a new exper i ences , t o f aci l i t at emov ementt hr ought hebui l di ng, t oev ok easenseofmyst er yandt hen sur pr i se,t ocr eat eacasual nessi nt he Vi l l aS avoye-pr omenadear chi t ect ur al e bui l di nget c. , 10

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

T empl esofBal i -t her i t ual i s t i c pat hwayi nt hef or m ofs t ai r s l eadi ngt ot het empl e.

S chemat i cs ect i ont hr ougha t r adi t i onal cour t yar dhous ei nt heChet t i nadr egi onofS out hI ndi as hows t hemovementoft heus ert hr oughcover ed-s emi openandopens pacest hr ought heus eofver andahs , cour t yar ds,backyar dset c. ,

11


T HEI NT ERPRET AT I ONOFT HERI T UAL I S T I C PAT HWAYSI NMUS EUMS :

S ABARMAT IAS HRAM ,AHMEDABAD-1963

Geor gyKr epes ,Cor r ea’ spr of essori nMI Ti nt he1950s ,woul ddi scusst henot i onof “ museum f at i gue” : t hosesensat i ons ,t hatmuseum goer sexper i enceast heyt r udget hr ought heLouvr eor t hePr ado. Hewoul dt henemphasi z et heneedf orcont r apunct al ar eawt her et heey e-andt hemi nd-coul d r estandabsor bwhatwasj ustexper i enced.

Thev ar i ousf unct i onsar egr oupedi nacasualmeander i ngpat t er n,i na t ypol ogyanal ogoust ot hevi l l agessocent r alt oGandhi j i ’ st hi nki ng;t ocr eat eapat hwayal ongwhi cht he vi si t orpr ogr essest owar dst hecent r al i t yoft hewat ercour t . ,wher ehehopedvi si t or smi ghtr estt hei rey es andcont empl at ewhatt heyhadseen. Ther ei snor i gi dsymmet r y t o t he l ay out whi ch encour ages vi si t or st o meandert hr oughi naway t hat r emi nded cr i t i cs of Gandhi ’ sr omant i ci dealof t heI ndi anvi l l age.

Mus eum f at i gue-t hes ens at i on ex per i encedbymus eum goer s whent heyar eover l oadedwi t h i nf or mat i onwal l af t erot her . L ouvr e,Par i s

Cor r eaov er camet hi spr obl em i nal l hi smuseum desi gns ,bycr eat i ngapat hwaymovi ng t hr oughopen,semi openandcl osedspcaes . HANDL OOM PAVI L I ON.DEL HI-1958

Cont i nuous pat hway

Hous epl ani nBanni vi l l age

Thepl anoft hemus eum hasal s obeenc ompar edt ov i l l age hous esi nBannir egi on.I ns t eadofas i ngl ev ol ume,t hehous es c ons i s toffi v ehut seac hwi t hadi f f er ent f unc t i on,whi c hs ur r ound t omak eac our t y ar d. Thei nhabi t ant swal kbac kandf or t hac r os s t heout s i des pac et ous et hedi f f er entr ooms . I nt er pr et at i onoft hevi l l ageconcept Pl an

Encl os ed uni t s

Cent r al l ands cape

Cour t yar d

S emi encl os ed uni t

S chemat i cs ect i ont hr ought hemus eum

EXI T

Theencl oseduni t soft hemuseum ar ecount er poi nt edbyar easofvi sualr estwher et hevi si t orcan medi t at e-i nv ar yi ngcondi t i ons ,f r om cl osedboxt oopent osky ,wi t heasyandsubt l echangesf r om one t ot henext .

S t ai r st o l evel one

T hepavi l i onwasmadeupwi t hmudwal l s .T he r oof swer emadewi t hmudorcover edwi t h handl oom cl ot ht obr i ngi nampl el i ghti nt ot he gal l er y.

ENT RY

Fi f t eensquar eseach7m x7m,pi v otar oundani nt er i orgar dent ocr eat ea“ maz el i k e”si mpl emul t i-l ev el boxt hr oughwhi chvi si t or smov ei naneasyandcont i nuousflow. Duet oDel hi ’ smi l dwi nt ert hespacesar e openandsepar at edbypar t i t i onsatv ar i ousl ev el s . Thecont i nuouspat hwayi s mani pul at ed t o br i ng i n l ev el di f f er ences wi t hi nt he pavi l i on.Thi s cr eat i onofl ev el di f f er encesmak et he spacesv er yi nt er est i ng. L ands cape

Ear t hfi l l 30’

12

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

As chemat i cs ect i onoft heHandl oom pavi l i on,Del hi s howi ngt hevar i ous fl oorl evel s .

13


KAS T URBAGANDHIS AMADHI ,POONA-1965

Mus eum S amadhi Ent r y

Thi smemor i al consi st s of a gent l y descendi ngpat hwayal ong ashi f t i ngaxi s ,opent osky , deďŹ ned by a ser i es of par al l el br i c k wal l s , cul mi nat i ng i n t he Samadhii t sel f . Atsev er al poi nt sal ongt hepat ht her e ar er amps up t ol ev el s f r om whi ch t he sur r oundi ng l andscape i s vi ewed.

Pl an-Des cendi ngpat hway-s hi f t i ngax i s-opent os ky

BHARATBHAVAN,BHOPAL-1981

Theopent oskypat hwayi sst r uct ur edar oundt hr eecour t y ar ds-f r om whi ch oneent er st hev ar i ousf aci l i t i es . Thi sf eel i ngofopenspacei sanessent i al par toft heexper i enceofvi si t i ng Bhar atBhav an.Pr ogr essi ngt hr ought het er r acedgar densandcour t y ar ds ,onecomesacr oosexhi bi t i on spaces ,wor kshopsanddancet heat r es ,i naneasyandcasualmanner ,maki ngt hem accessi bl et ot he ci t i z ensofBhopal .

Ever yeveni ngwhol ef ami l i es ,oncycl esands coot er s ,comet os t r ol l ar oundi nt het er r acegar dens-and per hapss t ayont owat chapl ayorhearaconcer t .

T hecour t yar dsgi vi ngacces st ot hevar i ousact i vi t i es

Cour t y ar ds and t er r ace gar dens ar e pl aced on t he sl ope oft he hi l l . , Hence, t he pat hway al so l eadst ot het er r acegar dens . They f or m apar toft heexhi bi t i onar eas and al so a par toft he r i t ual i st i c pat hway .

T er r ace gar dens Cour t yar ds Pat hway S t ai r sl eadi ngt ot heT er r acegar densabove

14

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

15


J AWAHARKAL AKENDRA-1992

Acul t ur alcent r ei nRaj ast han. Theconcepti sbasedont heNav agr ahaandt hepl anoft heci t yofJ ai pur .

T hecont i nuouspat hway

2

3

COURT YARD

Whatgi vesor i ent at i onands t abi l i t yt ot hewhol e ex per i ence,ar et hegl i mps esyougetoft hatvoi datt he cent r e.I tt el l syouwher eyouar e.Andi tener gi z est he whol ecompl ex .

1

Acont i nuouspat hwayr unst hr ought he bui l di ng connect i ng al lt he spaces wi t hi n, t hespacesflow asannar r at i v e andchangest he moodsoft heuseras t hey pr ogr ess f r om one z one t o anot her .

4

T hepl ans howi ngt hecont i nuouspat hway

MOVEMENTOFT HEUS ERT HROUGHDI F F ERENTS PACES :

Themuseumsopenoutt oopent osky 1. Theent r ancei st hr oughasemi cov er dpavi l i on 2. spaceswhi chi nt ur nl eadust ot hecent r al wi t hl andscapeonei t hersi des cour t y ar d

16

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Al lt hepat hwaysdi r ect sust owar dsonef ocalpoi nt-t hecent r alcour t y ar d.

3. Thear tgal l er i esandwor kshopsopenoutt oopent o skyspacesanal ogoust oast r eetwhi chl eadsust ot he cent r alcour t y ar d

4. Thepat hwayal ongt hel i br ar y . Asemi cov er edpat hwaywi t h awat er body .

17


NAT I ONALCRAF T SMUS EUM, DEL HI-1990

The Cr af t s Museum, casual and accept i ngoft hear t i san’ sv er nacul ar ,i s or gani sed ar ound a cent r alpat hway , goi ngf r om vi l l aget ot empl et opal ace,a met aphorf ort heI ndi anst r eet .

T empl ecour t T HECONT I NUOUSS PI NE

Wal ki ngal ongt hespi ne,onecat chesgl i mpsesoft hepr i nci palexj i bi t st hatl i eonei t hersi deoft hevi l l age cour t ,t empl ecour tandDur barcour t .Onecanvi si tonl yapar t i cul arexhi bi t ,oral t er nat i v el y ,pr ogr ess t hr oughal lt hev ar i oussect i onsi nacont i nuoussequence. Ther i t ual i st i cpat hwayhasbeenmodi fiedi nt ov ar i oust ypes .Opencour t y ar ds ,semi openv er andahs , cl osedexhi bi t i onspaces . Thepat hwayal sot ak esy out hr ought hedi f f er entl ev el soft hebui l di ng.Sunk en exhi bi i onar eas ,t er r aceexhi bi t s ,amphi t heat r e.

Cour t yar d-s emi -opens paces-ex hi bi t s

Themuseum compl esi sflexi bl e-af f abl e,accomodat i v e,i nf or malandact i v e.

Ex i tvi at heamphi t heat r e,f orf ol k dancesconnect i ngt her ooft ot he gr ound Cl os edex hi bi t i on s paces

S unkenaudi ovi s ual s pace

S emi open ver andahs

Demons t r at i on s paces Vi l l age cour t

Cl os ed mus eum T er r ace ex hi bi t s

S unken ex hi bi t s

Pat hway

S ect i ons howi ngr el at i ons hi pofcent r al s pi neandcour t yar dst ot heex hi bi t i ons paces

18

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

19


ARCHI T ECT UREASS CUL PT URE-ARCHI T ECT UREASBEAUT Y-BEAUT YAST HERAPY CHAMPAL I MAUDCENT REF ORT HEUNKNOWN,L I S BON-2011

Champal i maudcent r ei nLi sbon,oneoft hel astwor ksofCor r ea-empl oy ed t hepr i nci pl eofRi t ual i st i cpat hwayi namoder nwayt oev ok eanel ementofsur pr i se. Al lt hef aci l i t i esoft hesi t ehav ebeenar r angedt ocr eat ea125m l ongpat hwayl eadi ngdi agonal l yacr oss t hesi t e,t owar dst heopenseas .

Ent r y

T her i t ual i s t i cpat hway

T womonol i t hs Wat er body At l ant i cocean

Wat er body At l ant i cocean

Pr omenade

Col umn S l ope 1: 20

S chemat i cs ect i onoft hepat hway T HEJ OURNEYBEGI NS . . . . . .

" Youknow i t ' st her eandasyouwal k t owar dsi tyou' r er eal l yonl ys eei ngt hes ky. Oncet hehor i z onl i nedi s appear si tgi ves youagr eats ens eofuneas e.Youknow you' r egoi ngt owar dss omet hi ng. ” Char l esCor r ea

Thi spat hwayi sr ampedup( atagent l esl opeof1: 20)–soasy ouascend,y ouseeonl yskyaheadof y ou. 21


CONCL US I ON: PROBLEM OF MUSEUM FATI GUE SOLUTI ON I nspi r at i on

RELI GI OUS ARCHI TECTURE

RI TUALI STI CPATHWAY ( Mov ementt hr oughopenspaces) I nt er eset i ng

Mov ementt hr oughdi f f er ent Mov ementt hr ough l e v e l s open/ semi opem/ cl osedspaces T er r acegar dens ,Amphi t heat r e) ( Cour t y ar ds , v er andahs , cor r i dor s ( et c. , )

I nf or malmov ement ( St r eetl i k epat t er n)

LEADSTO T hepat hr i s esatagent l es l opet hatobs cur est he oceanvi ew unt i l t heend,

Att heendof t her ampar e t wos t one monol i t hs , s t r ai ghtf r om t he quar r ywhi ch f r ameavi ew t o apool ofwat er andt heAt l ant i c beyond.

I nt hecent eroft hi swat erbody,j us t bel ow t hes ur f aceoft hewat er ,i san oval s hapedobj ect —madeof s t ai nl es ss t eel ands l i ght l yconvex ,s o t hati tr efl ect st hebl ues kyand pas s i ngcl oudsabove.

AFOCALPOI NT

CENT RAL I S ED

Hel psi nor i ent at i on

DECENT RAL I S ED

Leadst hevi ewer

ATT HEEND

Cr eat esanel ementofsur pr i se/ cul mi nat i on

I NF ERENCE: Ev ent hough,movi ngt hr oughar i t ual i st i cpat hwaymak est hej our neymor ei nt er est i ngandexi t i ng. i thas dr awbac ksofi t sown. Mov ementt hr oughopenskyspacesbecomesdi f ficul tdur i ngext r emeweat hercondi t i ons ,bei tsummer orr ai n. Whent hemov ementi st hr oughdi f f er entl ev el s ,i ti si mpossi bl et opr ovi deaccesst hr oughr amps ev er ywher e. Hencet heci r cul at i onbecomesv er ydi f ficul tf ort hephysi cal l ychal l enged. Whenonl yapar toft hebui l di ngi saccessi bl ef orphysi cal l ychal l enged,t heyar eunabl et ogett he compl et eexper i enceoft her i t ual i st i cpat hway . Whent her ear et oomanypat hwaysl eadi ngt ot hesamedest i nat i oni tbecomesconf usi ngt ot heuser . Dur i ngi nf or malci r cul at i onpat t er ns ,t heusert endst omi ssoutoncer t ai nel ement soft hebui l di ng.

22

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

23


T RANS F ERS& T RANS F ORMAT I ONS

24

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

25


J AWAHARKALAKENDRA-1992 Thi sbui l di ngi sat r ansf or mat i onoft heNav agr ahaconceptandananal ogue t ot heci t yofJ ai pur ,wher et hebui l di ngi ssi t uat ed.

T RANS F ERSANDT RANS F ORMAT I ONS “Ar chi t ect ur ebas edont hes uper fi ci al t r ans f erofi mages f r om anot hercul t ur e oranot herage cannots ur vi ve;ar chi t ect ur e mus tbe gener at edf r om t het r ans f or mat i onoft hos ei mages ,t hati sbyex pr es s i nganew t hemyt hi cbel i ef st hatunder l yt hem. ” -Char l esCor r ea Thedesi gnsofChar l esCor r eaal wayshav east r ongi nner beaut y ,Hi spr oj ect shav eagoodt her et i cal gr oundi ngandhegener al l yusesani mage oft hepastandr ei nv ent sorr ei nt er pr et si ti t osui tt heneedoft heday .

Theor i gi nalpl an oft heNav agr aha

Duet ot he pr esenceofahi l li n t henor t hwest ,

Oneoft hesquar eswer e mov ed

Thecent r alt wosquar es wer ecombi nedt of or mt he pal acegr ounds-t hepl anof t heci t yofJ ai pur

GENES I SOFT HECI T YOFJ AI PUR

T hef ourf undament al f or cest hat s hapeourenvi r onment Char l esCor r ea

Ther ear emanyf act or saccor di ngt oCor r eat hatgener at et hi ski ngoft r ansf or mat i on. Oneoft hem,ofcour sei scul t ur e-whi chi sl i k eagr eatr eser v oi r ,cal m andcont i nuous , changi ngonl ygr adual l y . Thesecondi saspi r at i on,whi chi sdynami candv ol at i l e.I tcanbev er ydi f f er entf r om cul t ur e,t houghofcour set heyi nt er actcont i nuoul sy .Someaspi r at i onsar eepl emer al , ot her smaybecomeani nt egr al par tofcul t ur e. Al l oft hear t sar epr of oundl yaf f ect edby shi f t sal ongt heaxi st hatr unsbet weent heset wof or ces-cul t ur eandaspi r at i ons . Thet hi r df or ce-cl i mat eex er t samor epr i mar yf or ceonar chi t ect ur et hant heot her ar t s .Thi si sf undament aland unchangi ng f or ce.An ar chi t ectshoul d mast ert he pr act i caki mpl i cat i onsofcl i mat e( sunangl e,wi nddi r ect i ons ,et c. , ) Thef our t hf or cei st echnol ogy .Noot herar t sf eel si t si nfluenceasdi r ect l yasdoes ar chi t ect ur e-f ori ti st heonl yonet hatcomesi nt obei ngatt hepoi ntofr esol ut i onof t hesef ourf or ces .Musi cali nst r ument schange,butonl ygr adual l y .I nar chi t ect ur eon t heot herhand,t hepr ev ai l i ngt echnol ogychangesev er yf ewdecades .Andeacht i me t hi shappens ,t hepoi ntofr esol ut i onmov est oanewpoi nt . Asar chi t ectwehav et woopt i ons-f orwhenwehav et osubst i t ut est onewi t hst eelor woodconcr et e-wear ef acedwi t hachal l enge:wecanei t heruset echnol ogyt o super fici al l yt r ansf ert heol di mages( hencet hef ak eGot hi car chesandi sl ami cdomes) orwecant r anf ert hem,r ei nv ent i ngt hear chi t ect ur alexpr essi onoft hemyt hi cv al ues t heyr epr esent . Bot h opt i ons wor k,butt her ei s a di f f er ence.The pr ocess oft r ansf eri sf aci l e. T r ansf or mat i on,chal l engesandr enewst hesoci et y .

26

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

GENES I SOFJ AWAHARKAL AKENDRA CORREA’ SS KET CH

Oneoft hesquar eswer epi v ot ed t opr ovi deaccessot ot hebui l di ng -r ecal l i ngt heor i gi nalgest ur eof J aiSi ngh.

I nt heNav agr aha,eachpl anetsymbol i sesaqual i t yandt hey al sohav eacol ourassoci at edwi t ht hem.Thepr ogr ammef or t heAr t scent r ei sdi saggr egat edi nt oni nesepar at egr oupi ngs . eachcor r espondi ngt ot hemyt hsofapar t i cul arpl anet . Fori nst ance: t hepl anetGur u( J upi t er )whi chsymbol i sesl ear i ng housest hel i br ar y .Thepl anetChandr a( Moon)whi chdenot es pl easur e/r omancehousest hecaf et ar i a.

T r ans f or mat i onoft heconcepti n t hebui l di ng

Ev ent hemat er i al susedi nt hebui l di ngr ecal lt he mat er i al susedi nJ ant arMant arandot herbui l di ngs onRaj ast han. Hence Cor r ea,has t r ansf or med somet hi ng v er y pr i mor di al , v er yt r adi t i onalanddeepr oot edi nour soci et y ,i nt oacont empor ar ybui l di ngaccomodat i ng al lt hef unct i onsnecessar y .

27


VI DHANBHAVAN,BHOPAL-1996 Thenew St at eassembl yf ort heGov er nmentofMadhy aPr adeshi sunder const r uct i oni nt hecapi t al ci t yofBhopal . Manyf act or sdet er mi nedi t sf or m: i t ssi t eont hecr estofahi l l ; t he ol dMusl i m monument snear by;aswel lofcour se;t hef amousBuddhi stSt upaatSanchij ust50kmsf r om t hesi t e.

Thepl anconsi st sofaser i esofspaces wi t hi n spaces di vi ded i nt o a pat t er n of ni necompar t ment s . The speci al i sed f unct i ons such as t he Vi dhan Sabha,Combi ned hal l ,Vi dhaan Par i shad and t he l i br ar y occupy t he ext r emef ouruni t s .

Al ongt woper pendi cul araxi s ,wi t hi nt he st r uct ur e -ar et he cour t y ar ds ,access cor r i dor s and admi ni st r at i v e of ďŹ ces , const i t ut i ngapl usshapei npl an.

The f or m howev er , i s ci r cul aras Cor r ea desi gned t he st r uct ur et o moul di t sel f accor di ng t o t he access r oads t hat sur r ound t he si t e such t hat i t woul d appeart hesamef r om anyend.

Cor r eahascr eat edopent oskycour t y ar ds byscoopi ngoutv oi dsf r om t heot her wi se appar ent l ybul kycyl i ndr i calmass

Wi t hi nt hest r uct ur et oo,Cor r eachoset obr eakt he gr i di nor dert oaccomodat et hef unct i onswhi ch demandedl ar gerar ea.

Pl anofVi dhan S abha,Bhopal

TheSt upaatSanchii sal soanot heri nspi r at i onf ort hebui l di ng. Thedome,t her amps ,t heent r ancear ch f oundt hei rpr esencei nt hebui di ng.Ont hewayt ot hegal l er i es ,peopl epr ogr essal ongr ampswi ndi ng ar oundt heSabhasl i k et her i t ual ci r cumbul at or ypat hwayar oundt heSanchi St upa. Pr ogr essi onal l owst he user st oexper i encet hepr i nci palspacesanddi mensi onsoft hi scompl ex.

Ci r cul at i oni sal waysal ongt heedgeof t hecor r i dor s ,sot hatl i ghtandf r eshai r ar eassur ed.

28

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

29


BRI TI SHCOUNCI L,DELHI1992 Thenewbui l di ngf ort heBr i t i s hc ounc i l i nDel hi hous esanumberofdi v er s e f uns t i ons . Thes eel ement sar ear r angedi nas er i esofl ay er s ,r ec al l i ngt hehi s t or i ci nt er f ac est hat hav eex i s t edbet weenI ndi aandBr i t ai nov ert hel as ts ev er al c ent ur i es . Fr om t he ent r anc e gat e,one mov es down t he mai n ax i s whi c h ex t ends r i ghtupt ot he r ear gar den wal l .The t hr ee nodalpoi nt sal ongt heax i sar e s t r uc t ur ed ar ound t he ax i s mundi eac hr ec al l i ngoneoft he pr i nc i palbel i ef s y s t ems t hat ex i s t edi nI ndi a.

Char baghMus l i m

Bi nduHi ndui s m

Renai s s anceEur opean

Att hec ent r eoft heax i smundi ,l oc at edi nt hemai nc our t y ar di st heChar bagh whi c ht hemy t hi cPer s i ani mageoft heGar denofPar adi s et hatt heMus l i ms br oughtt oI ndi a.

DI UN SM I AX

Thebui l di ngi smanyl ay er s-a pal i mps es tl i k eI ndi aher s el f

Capi t ol c om pl ex ,Rome

Att heendoft heax i smundi i st hes y mbol ofHi ndi s m,as pi r al s y mbol i ngt heBi ndut he s our c eofal l ener gy-t heener gyc ent r eoft hec os mos

30

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Thet hi r dnodal poi ntal ongt hi sax i si s anEur opeani c on,i nl ai di nmar bl eand gr ani t eus edt or epr es entt heAgeof r eas on,i nc l udi ngt hemy t hi cv al uesof s c i enc eandpr ogr es s .

Shi v a,f r om whos ehai rs pr angt heGamgar i v ers c ul pt ur ebySt ephenCoxi spr es entatt hef arendof t hes i t e

31


SURYAKUND,DELHI-1986

I SMAI LICENTRE,TORONTO -2010

Af ur t herdev el opmentoft heus eoft hes quar emandal apl anwi t ht he i deaoft hewal l c anbes eeni nt heSur y aKund. I nt hec ent r eay ant r as y mbol i s es et heax i smundi ar oundwhi c hs i tt hemai ns peak er swhi l et heobs er v er sgat heront hec as c adi ngs t epsont hef our s i desi namoder nr ei nc ar nat i onoft hec l as s i ck und( r es er v oi rorc i s t er n) .

I ndes i gni ngt heI s mai l iCent r eT or ont o,Char l esCor r ea’ sv i s i onwas t oc r eat eabui l di ngt hatr es pondst ot het r adi t i onsofI s l ami car c hi t ec t ur ei nac ont empor ar yway us i ngmoder nmat er i al s .

S ect i on

Ax nomet r i c

At hi nkt anks es s i oni npr ogr es s

Thet r adi t i onal k unds ,gener al l yl oc at ednex tt ot empl es ,ar er ec t angul ar wat erpondswher et hef ai t hf ulc omef orr i t ualpur i fi c at i onbef or eent er i ngt het empl et owor s hi p. The s i desoft hes ek undsc ons i s tofgeomet r i cpat t er nsofs t eps ,s ur r oundi ng t hi sbodyof wat er . . Thef or m oft hes ek undsi sder i v edf r om t hev as t upur us hmanc l al as ,t hos eanc i entVedi c di agr amswhi c hc onc ei v edofAr c hi t ec t ur easaModel oft heCos mos . Li k emanyot heras pec t sof I ndi a,t hes edi agr amsar ebot hanc i entandc ont empor ar y ,pr agmat i candmet aphy s i c al ,Spec i fi c andt i mel es s .

Muqar nas-honeycombvaul t eds t r uct ur esi nI s l ami c ar chi t ect ur e

Appr oac hi ngt hepr ay erhal lt hr ough t he ant er oom, one s ees t he “ Muqar nas , ” a fi nel y c r af t ed c or bel l ed c ei l i ng whos e s k y l i ght pr ov i desas ubt l et r ans i t i onf r om t he out s i de t ot he s er ene pr ay erhal l i ns i de.

Det ai l oft hemuqar nasi nt heant er oom The c ei l i ng al s o hasa s k y l i ghtatt he c ent r e.

T r ans f or mat i onoft heMuqar nas

J al l i sf or m av i t alpar toft r adi t i onal I s l ami c ar c hi t ec t ur e,howev erChar l es Cor r eahasr ei nv ent edt hr et r adi t i onal j al l i us i ng moder n mat er i al s and t ec hnol ogy .Her e,t hej al l ipat t er nshav e been c utouti n a met als c r een.They hav ebeenus edonl yf oraes t het i c s ,t he s us t ai nabl e as pec t has not been t ac k l ed. Kund-s t epwel l s 32

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

T r ans f or mat i onoft hej al l i pat t er ns

33


Adi s t i ngui s hi ngf eat ur eoft hebui l di ngi st hegl as sr oofoft hepr ay er hal l ,whi c hr ec al l st hec or bel l i ngi nmanyoft het r adi t i onaldomesi nt heMus l i m wor l d. Thegl as s dome, whi c h r epr es ent ed a di f fi c ul tt ec hni c al c hal l enge, i s made of t wo l ay er s of hi ghper f or manc egl as s ,andf r i t t edt odefl ec tt heheatoft hes un.Ac l ears l i v erofgl as sf ac i ng eas tt owar dMec c awi l l r undownt het r ans l uc entr oof .

CONCLUSI ON: Theot hert r ans f or mat i onsofCor r eaar easf ol l ows

ThePadmanabhapur am pal acei nKer al a,hasanamazi ngsect i on. Thepyr ami dalpr ofil eoft hepl i nt h echoest hesl opeoft her oof . I thasbeenusedi nt heBayi sl andr esor t si nAndamansi ncei tk eepst he pl aceawayf r om t hesunandr ai nsandatt hesamet i medi r ect st hevi ewoft heobser v ert owar dst he sur r oundi ngl andscape.

I nt er i or soft hecr ys t al l i nedome

T r ans f or mat i onoft het r adi t i onal dome t oangul ardr ys t al l i nes t r uct ur e

I nt hemandal as ,whi chi st hebasef ort empl epl anni ngt hecent r eofhecent r ei sNot hi ng. I ti st hat not hi ngwhi chi sev er yt hi ng-Br ahman. Thesci ent i fici nt er pr et at i onoft hi si st heBl ac kHol e. Hencemost ofCor r ea’ spr oj ect shadanempt ycent r e-t hecour t y ar ds .

I nt heBannivi l l agei nRaj ast han,houseswer eci r cul arhut sgr oupedar oundacent r alcour t y ar d. Each huthadasepar at ef unct i onandt hi sal l owedt heusert omov ef r om onehutt oanot heranomadi cwayof l i vi ng. Thesamepat t er nhasbeenf ol l owedi nt heGandhiashr am -t hi spav edwayf orf ut ur eaddi t i ons andal sof aci l i t at edmov ement . I nt heSenhouse,t hesamepr i nci pl ewasused. Thedi f f er entf unct i ons wer ear r angedar oundaper gol acov er edcour t y ar d.

Rei nt er pr et at i onoft het r adi t i onal I s l ami cdome 34

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Thet empl et ownsofSout hI ndi aar enotj ustacol l ect i onofgopur amsbutapr ocessi onalpat hway-a pi l i gr i magel eadi ngt ot het empl e. Ther i t ual i st i cpat hwayhasbeenf ol l owedi nI ndi apavi l i on,J apan. 35


CL I MAT ERES PONS I VE ARCHI T ECT URE

36

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

37


CL I MAT ERES PONS I VEARCHI T ECT URE Cor r eawasoneoft heear l i estar chi t ect st ocent r est agecl i mat e concer nsi n ar chi t ect ur e.Long bef or e ener gyand sust ai nabi l i t ybecame t r endi ng i ssuesi ndesi gn,heemphasi sedt hei deat hatbui l di ngsmustr espondt ocl i mat i c condi t i ons ,sav eener gy ,andt ak eadv ant ageoft hebr i ghtopensky . Thatr evi sual i sat i oni nv ol v edgoi ngbac kt ot he( somet i mes ov er si mpl i fied)t r adi t i onalv er nacul arar chi t ect ur eoft hecount r y .I tt husmai nst r eamed habi t sofdesi gnt hatar eatt hehear toft r ul ysust ai nabl eappr oachest oar chi t ect ur ef or I ndi a:t hedi saggr egat edbui l tmasses ,cour t y ar ds ,nat ur all i ght i ngandv ent i l at i on. Thr oughhi s1980Pi dgeonDi gi t al l ect ur e,hemadet hedi ct um ` f or m f ol l owscl i mat e’popul ar . T ohi m,ar chi t ect ur ei nI ndi awasessent i al l ymaki ngapl ace i nt hesun,aphr asehel at ert weak ed,f ol l owi ngsuggest i ons ,t omaki ngapl acei nt he shade.

HawaMahal ,J ai pur -humi di f yi ngand cool i ngt hedr y des er twi ndsof Raj as t han

“WhatI ’ vel ear ned,l i vi ng her ei nI ndi a,i st hatt hemos twonder f ult r adi t i onal s ol ut i onsex i s twhi chex empl i f yal lt heconcer nsoft heenvi r onment al i s tt oday. Wedon’ thavet oi nventt hes et hi ngsagai n” Char l esCor r ea,i nani nt er vi ew wi t hBBC. Cl i mat emak esaf undament aldi f f er encet oourneedf or-and per cept i onofbui l tf or m. Formor et hanhal facent ur y ,Cor r eahasbeenpur sui ngt he i deat hatbui l di ngsshoul dusepassi v emeanst opr ot ectpeopl eagai nstt heel ement s –notmechani calai rcondi t i oni ngandheat i ng,butbr eez es ,shade,or i ent at i on,t he abi l i t yofmasonr yt oabsor bheat ,andwhathecal l s" usi ngahousei nanomadi cway" , whi ch means i nhabi t i ng di f f er entpar t s atdi f f er entt i mes ofday .He ci t es as an i nspi r at i ont heGambl eHouse,anar t sandcr af t smast er pi ecei nLosAngel es ,whi ch haspor cheson t he sout h si de f orsunbat hi ng and on t he nor t h si de f orout door sl eepi ng. T ak ef orexampl et heRedFor tatAgr a:i nt heear l ymor ni ngoft he summermont hs ,a v el v etshami ana ( canopy)i s st r et ched ov ert he t op oft he cour t y ar ds-t hust r appi ngt hecol dov er ni ghtai ri nt hel owerl ev el ofr ooms ,wher et he Mughalemper orspenthi sday .Byev eni ngt heshami nanawasr emov edandt he emper orandhi scour tameoutont ot hegar densandpavi l i onsatt het er r acel ev el . I n t hecol d( butsunny)wi nt er ,t i snomadi cpat t er nwasr ev er sed: t het er r acegar denbei ng useddur i ngt heday ,andt hel owerl ev el sofr oomsatni ght . I n shor t , deal i ng wi t h cl i mat e necessi t i es an i nv ent i v eness about l i vi ng pat t er ns , about l i f est yl es . I ndeed,at r ul ynew ar chi t ect ur eand pl anni ng i s ,i nt he finalanal ysi s , concer ned wi t h t he concept ual i zat i on of al t er nat e l i f est yl es .Thi swast hedr i vi ngf or ce behi ndWr i ght ’ sPr ai r i ehouses .I ti s al so t he r eal i ssue - and t he oppur t uni t y!-oft hepr esentener gy cr i si s ,bot hi n Asi a as wel las i n Eur ope.

38

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Wi ndcat cherhous e i nI r an-cl i mat i cal l y s ens t i ves t r uct ur es Hous easamachi ne f orl i vi ng Pavi l i ons onl awn

S hami ana t ot r apai r

Room

Roomsus eddur i ng s ummerdayt i me

S unk Room cour t yar d

S mal l wi ndowson t heout s i deoft he f or twal l

Room APr ai r i ehous ebyF . L . Wr i ght-cl i mat e s ens i t i vear chi t ect ur e

Moat Deal i ngwi t hcl i mat ei nt he RedF or ti nAgr a.

39


TUBEHOUSE-1961 Mos toft heear l ywor k sofCor r eadealwi t ht hec l i mat e. Thi spr oj ec t won t he fi r s tpr i z ei n an al lI ndi ac ompet i t i on f orl owc os thous i ng.Though t he pr ogr amme s pec i fi edwal k upapar t ment s ,t hes er owhous espr ov i dedt hes amedens i t y-andl ar gerl i v i ng s pac eperf ami l y . ac huni ti ss hapeds ot hatt hehotai rr i s esandes c paesf r om t het op,s et t i gupa c onv ec t i onc ur r entofnat ur al v ent i l at i on. I ns i det heuni t st her ear eal mos tnodoor s ; pr i v ac ybei ng c r eat esbyt hev ar i ousl ev el st hems el c v es ,ands ec ur i t ybyt heper gol agr i dov ert hei nt er nal c our t y ar d. Her e,acur r entofnat ur alv ent i l at i oni sgener at edbyt hev er y shape oft he uni t .Hotai rr i ses and escapes f r om t he t op dr awi ngi nf r eshcoolai rt or epl acei t . Whyhotai rr i s es ? S ECT I ON Oneway s l ab

Hot ai ri sl ess dense when compar ed t o cool ai r ,hence i tr i ses f ast er t hancoolai r .

PL AN T hes ect i oni si ns uchaway t hati tchannel st hefl ow ofai r

T hehotai res capest hr oughavent ont op-s et t i ngupaconvect i onof nat ur al vent i l at i on

Gr i l l Wr i t i ng

T heai rget sheat edandt he war m ai rr i s es

Res t i ng L of t w. c

Pat i o

Eat i ng

Cooki ng

L i vi ng

Cool ai ri s dr awni nt o t hebui l di ng

PAREKHHOUSE-1968 ThePar ek hhous ec ons i s t eoft wodi f f er ents ec t i ons-t hes ummers ec t i on s ndt hewi nt ers ec t i on.

S ECT I ONOFT HET UBEHOUS E

Bedr oom

Bedr oom Di ni ng

Gar den

T hes ummers ect i on

T er r ace

T er r ace

L i vi ng Bedr oom Gar den

Apr ot ot ype hous e

40

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

The wes t er ns i de i s t he s ummer s ec t i on wi t h a py r ami dal i nt er i ors ec t i on t o be us ed dur i ng hot s ummer af t er noons whi c h dr aws outt he hot ai r f r om t he bui di ng.

Adj oi ni ng t he s ummer s ec t i on i st he wi nt er s ec t i onwi t hani nv er t ed py r ami di nt er i ors ec t i on t owi t ht er r ac esopent o s k y .Thi s br i ngs l i ght and v ent i l at i on t ot he bui l di ng.

T hewi nt ers ect i on

41


KANCHANJ UNGAAPARTMENTS-1983 I nBombayabui l di nghast obe or i ent eseas t wes tt oc at c ht hepr ev ai l i ngs eabr eez es ,andt o openupt hebes tv i ewst ot hec i t y :t heAr abi ans eaonone s i deandt hehar bouront heot her . Butt hes eunf or t unat el yar e al s ot hedi r ec t i onsofhots unandt heheav ymons oonr ai ns .

Vi ew

Rai n

Rai n

S un

S un Wi nd

Theol dbungal owss ol v edt hes e pr obl emsbywr appi ngapr ot ec t i v el ay erofv er andahsar ound Wi nd t hemai nl i v i ngs pac es ,t huspr ov i di ngt heoc c upant swi t ht wo l i nesofdef enc eagai ns tt heel ement s .

Vi ew

Br eez e

T ypi cal bungal ow pl anwi t h ver andahss ur r oundi ngi t

Modi fi cat i ont he t r adi t i onal ver andahsoft he bungal ow hous es t of or m doubl ehei ghtt er r ace gar denswhi chs er vet hes ame f unct i onofi ns ul at i onandal l owi ng br eez et ofl ow t hr ough.

A

C

B

D

I ndoorai rfl ow pat t er ni nuni t sofdi f f er entt ypes f aci l i t at edbyt hedoubl ehei ghtt er r aces

42

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

T hedoubl ehei ght t er r acesatt hecor ner s actl i keapr ot ect i ve ver andah


SABARMATIASHRAM -1963

KALAACADEMY,GOA-1983

Ai rgap

The l ar ge per gol a cov er ed f oy er mak et he bui l di ng i nt oal ar ge br eez eway , connect i ng t he Champalt ot heMandoviRi v er .

Thet i l edr oof s ,suppor t edonbr i c kpi er s ,6m oncent r e,ar e l ay er edf orheatcont r ol . Woodenboar di ngfix edt ot hebot t om oft hej oi st s( whi chr unpar al l elt ot hedl opeoft her oof ) ,i s cov er edwi t hwat er pr oofingandt henfini shedwi t hsi l v er whi t e t or eflectbac ki nci dentheat .Al ong t he t op oft he j oi st s , l i ght wei ghtbat t enssuppor tt i l er oof s-t huscr eat i ngbet ween t he t wo l ay er soft he sanwi ch an ai rgap ( whi ch pr ovi des i nsul at i onf r om sol arr adi at i on) .

T i l es Bat t ens Boar di ng J oi s t Channel

Ext ensi v euseofgr eener yonsi t e al ongwi t hi t sl ocat i onnextt ot he r i v er mak es t he Academy cl i mat i cal l y comf or t abl e. Si nce mostoft hebui l di ngi ssemi open i nt hef or m ofpavi l i onsi tbr i ngsi na l otofnat ur all i ght . f Si nc emos toft hebui l di ngi s s emi openi nt hef or m ofpav i l i ons i tbr i ngsi nal otofnat ur all i ght . d

Pl anofKal aAcademy

CL I MAT I C RES PONS I VENES S OFKAL AACADEMY

Thi si sanot herexampl eofhowCor r ea’ sar chi t ect ur al desi gnmer gest oget heri ndoorandout doorspaces . Thi smodul arcompl exi sspr eadhor i z ont al l yf ol l owi ngt hedi r ect i onoft heflowi ngchanneloft heMandovi Ri v er . I twasbui l tonl yupt oahei ghtt hatdoesnotobst r uctt hehor i z on.

S ect i ons howi ngt her mal i ns ul at i on andopenabl el ouvr es

1m

L ouvr esi nt hemus eum

ECI LOFFI CECOMPLEX,HYDERABAD-1968

Cour t-s haded bybui l di ngs Br eez e

Bl ank Of fi ce eas t wal l

Wat er r efl ect i ng s ur f ace

Br eez e

Of fi ce Wes t

S ect i ont hr ought heof fi cecompl ex

Ener gyconsi ousbui l di ngt hatusespassi v esol arener gyandel i mi nat est heneedf or ai r condi t i oni ng i nt he bui l di ng.Thi scal lf orener gyconser v at i on wasmade i n 1965 j ustwhen such exper i ment swer ebei ngconduct edi nt heU. S. Aandwhi chi nt heener gycr i si sof1970’ sgai nedcr eedence asaser i ousal t er nat i v et omor econv ent i onal appr oachest obui l di ngt echnol ogyandenvi r onmentar ound. Ther oom consi st soft hr eeel ement s:asol i dsur f ace,ar eflect i ngsur f aceconsi st i ng ofat hi nmembr aneofwat er ,andasl at edper gol a.Thest agger edof ficespacesdr aw ai rf r om t heeast t hr ought hecent r al cour t y ar dandspi ne. Theeasti sseal edof fandshadei spr ovi dedt hr oughasubst ant i al ov er hangont hewestandsout h. T hel ar geper gol acover edf oyerchannel st hebr eez e

44

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

45


CABLENAGARTOWNSHI P-1967( Unbui l t )

CONCLUSI ON: CLI MATERESPONSI VEARCHI TECTURE

( pr i nci pl e-convect i on)

Thi c kr oof sar esl ow t oheatup, butoncet heydo,t heycont i nue t or adi at e heatbac ki nt ot he houseal lt hr ought heni ght .

A bet t erwayi st omi ni mi set he By r ai si ng t hi s membr ane, amount of i nci dent sunl i ght t he r oof can act as a f al l i ngont her oofsur f ace-bya shel t er edt er r ace. l i ghtpor ous membane,l i k ea per gol a.

Modi fi cat i ons

St agger edfloor pl at es

( t oi nduceai rfl ow)

GAMBLEHOUSE

BUNGALOW

WI NDTOWERS

( nomadi cwayofl i f e)

( pr i nci pl e-ver andahs ) Modi fi cat i ons

St agger edfloor ehei ght Pyr ami dal Doubl pl at es t er r ace sect i ons ( t oi nduceai rfl ow) gar dens

Fur t her mor et hepr ofil eoft he i nt er nal v ol umes can be adj ust ed so as t o gener at e conv ect i oncur r ent s .

Summer sect i on

Conv ect i on

BAYI SLANDRESORT,PORTBLAI R-1982

Wi nt er sect i on

T er r aces

OTHERFEATURES: Per gol as-mi ni mi set hei nci dentamountofsunl i ght . Roof swi t hl ar geov er hangs-t opr ot ectf r om t hesunwi t houthavi ngt opr ovi dewal l s . Louv er edwi ndows-r egul at eai rflow. Skyl i ght s-t obr i ngi nnat ur all i ght . Useofl ocal l yav ai l abl emat er i al s . Bl ankwal l-ont heeastandwestsi de.

I NFERENCES: OneofChar l esCor r ea’ st echni queofhandl i nghotsummer sofI ndi a,i sbyusi ngt hepr i nci pl eof conv ect i on.Howev er ,f ort hi spr i nci pl et obef ul l yef f ect i v ei tr equi r est heel i mi nat i onofdoor si nt he i nt er i or soft hehouse. Thi spr osesser i ouspr i v acyi ssues . Cor r eawasal waysi ncl i nedt owar dscl i mat esensi t i v ebui l di ngs . Hedesi gnedpassi v el ycool edbui l di ngs wi t houtai r condi t i oni ngf aci l i t i es .Howev ermostofsuchbui l di ngshadt obeai r condi t i onedatal at er st agef oraddedcomf or tbutt hebui l di ngsdi dnothav et hef aci l i t i es( duct s)t ohouset heseser vi ces . Cor r eahasusedl ar geopeni ngst ofloodt hei nt er i or soft hebui l di ngwi t hnat ur all i ght .Howev er ,i n cer t ai n bui l di ngsl i k et he Ci dade de Goa t he l ar ge openi ngsbr i ng wat eri nt ot he bui l di ng dur i ng monsoons . Thest eppedpyr ami d,cov er edbyapi t chedr oof ,i saconfigur at i onwi t hconsi der abl eadv ant ages:I tdoes notneedanyencl osi ngwal l st ok eepoutt hesunandt her ai n,butal l owst hepr ev ai l i ngbr eez est oflow t hr oughanddi r ect i ngonesvi ewt owar dst hesea. Dayl i ghtdescendst hr ought hesj yl i ght . 46

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Cer t ai nf eat ur esl i k ej al l ihav ebeenusedonl yf oraest het i cs-t heyhav en’ tbeent ac kl edcl i mat i cal l y .

47


COURT ARDS& T ERRACEGARDENS

48

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

49


COURT YARDSANDT ERRACEGARDENS : " T her e' snot hi ngl i keempt i nes s. . .i t ' snotwhatyous ee; i t ' swhatyoudon' ts ee. " -Char l esCor r ea Bei ngopent ot heskyi sacent r alobsessi onofCor r ea’ sdesi gns . Oneofhi smostbel ov edar chi t ect ur alt r opesi st hecour t y ar dhouse:“ Hav ey ouev er seen one y ou di d notl i k e?”he wr ot ei n an essay .“ Regar dl essofhow i t ’ smade ( whet hermud,br i c k,gl assorst eel ) ,i ti sal wayswonder f ul l ysat i sf yi ng. Att hecent r ei s empt yspace — and f r om abov e,dayl i ghtcascadi ng down.I ti st he axi smundi , connect i ngt heear t hbel ow t ot heskyabov e.Somet hi ngpr i mor di ali sawok endeep wi t hi nus…” Thr oughouthumanhi st or y ,t heskyhascar r i edapr of oundandscar ed meani ng. Mani nt ui t i v el yper cei v edi tast heabodeoft heSuper nat ur al . Hencet ocl i mb apat ht ot het opoft hehi l l ,wher et heGodsdwel l , i sapar adi gm ofsuchmyt hi cpower t hat i t hasbeencent r al t ot hebel i ef sof al most ev er ysoci et y , si ncet hebegi ni ngof t i me. Andt hi ssenseoft heskyext endst ot hear chi t ect oni cv ocabul ar yaswel l ;aswi t ness t hewal l sar oundRaj ast hanpal acesandMoghulf or t s ,cr ownedwi t hpat t er nst hat i nt er l oc kbui l t f or m wi t hskyandt hewonder f ul l yev ocat i v echat t r i sal ongt her oof scape, capt ur i ngf r agment soft hei nfini t eheav ensabov e. I nI ndi a,t heskyhaspr of oundl yaf f ect edourr el at i onshi pt obui l t f or m, andt oopenspace. Fori nawar m cl i mat e,t hebestpl acet obei nt hel at eev eni ngsand i nt heear l ymor ni ngs ,i sout door s ,undert heopensky .Hencet ousi nAsi a,t hesymbol ofEducat i onhasnev erbeent heLi t t l eRedSchool houseofNor t hAmer i ca,butt he gur usi t t i ngundert het r ee. T r ueEnl i ght enmentcannotbeachi ev edwi t hi nt hecl osed boxofar oomoneneedsmustbeout door s ,undert heopensky . Theseopent oskyspaceshav ev er ypr act i cal i mpl i cat i onsaswel l . T ot hepoori nt hei rcr ampeddwel l i ngs ,t her ooft er r aceandt hecour t y ar dr epr esentan addi t i onalr oom,usedi nmanydi f f er entwaysdur i ngt hecour seofaday:f orcooki ng, f ort al ki ngt of r i ends ,f orsl eepi ngatni ght ,andsof or t h. Andf ort her i ch,att heot herendoft hei ncomespect r um,t hel awn i saspr eci ousast hebungal ow i t sel f .Thusi nt r adi t i onalvi l l agesandt ownsal lov er I ndi a,suchopent oskyspacesar eanessent i alel ementi nt hel i v esoft hepeopl e. Ar oundacent r alcour t y ar d. Cor r eacoul dmak et heempt i nessofspaceassumet hedefini t eness ofbui l tmass .I n hi smostmemor abl e bui l di ngsi ti st he wel l f or med v oi dt hathe scul pt ed,whi l et hebui l tmassesappear edt ogat herar oundt hem ascount er poi nt . Thecour t y ar dsi nBhar atBhav anar eanext r emeexampl e:t her ei s noot herpr esence,si ncet hebui l di ngi sent i r el ypushedunder f oot . Thef r amedv oi d– anempt yspace,notabi gdomi neer i ngmass–i squi t el i t er al l yt hemai nar chi t ect ur al el ementi nmanyofhi sbui l di ngs .Scal edj ustoutoft her eachoft hehumanbody ,but notbey ond i t s ambi t ,t he wel l f or med v oi dr epl ay ed t he exhi l ar at i ng pr omi se of monument alnat ur alspacesbuti nt hehear toft heci t y .I ni nvi t i ngoccupat i on,i tal so i nvi t est hevi ewert opar t i ci pat ei nar chi t ect ur e. Thet er r acegar densar eanot herf or m ofsemi openspaceswhi ch dr awsi n coolai ri nt ot he bui l di ng.Cor r ea hasused t er r ace gar densi n hi gh r i se bui l di ngsandcommer ci alcompl ex es ,wher epeopl edonothav eanycont actwi t ht he gr ound.

50

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

T hei deaofenl i ght menti n I ndi ai snott hes t uf f yr ed box , butt heBuddhaundera Bodhi t r ee-opent os ky

Cour t yar ds-abl es s i ngf ort he poor ,var i edact i vi t i escant ake pl acei nt hecour t yar d t hr oughoutt heday.

J amaMas j i di nDel hi ,whi ch i sr eal l yj us tal ar geopen cour t yar dwi t henough bui l t f or m ar oundt he per i pher yt omakeonef eel onei swi t hi napi eceof ar chi t ect ur e.

51


COURTYARDSI NI NSTI TUTI ONBUI LDI NGSRATI O OFBUI L TTO UNBUI L T:

J awaharKal aKendr a-J ai pur

Bhar atbhavan,Bhopal

S abar mat i as hr am,Del hi

Ther el at i onshi poft hebui l tt ot heopeni ssomet hi ngChar l esCor r eahasal ways pai dat t ent i ont o.Onei snev erawayf r om henat ur ei nCor r ea’ sbui l di ng.Hedi r ect sourvi ewt owar dst he cent r al cour t y ar d. Cor r ea’ sbui l di ngsar et hosewhi chbr eat hewher et heext er i or sflowseeml essl yi nt ot he i nt er i or s . Cor r east r uct ur est hepat hwaysar oundt heseopent oskycour t y ar ds .

Vi dhanS abha,Bhopal

52

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Nat i onal cr af t smus eum,Del hi

Champaul i maudcent r ef ort heunknown,L i s bon * Dr awi ngscour t es y:Char l escor r eaas s oci at es

53


COURTYARDSI NHOUSI NG PROJ ECTS: I NCREMENT ALHOUSI NG ATBELAPURHOUSI NG -1986 Thi spr oj ectl ocat edonsi xhect ar esofl andabout2km f r om t heci t ycent r eofNewBombay , at t empt st odemonst r at ehow hi ghdensi t i esofabout500per sonsperhect ar e,i ncl udi ngopenspaces , school s ,et c. ,canbeachi ev edwi t hi nt hecont extofal owr i set ypol ogy .

1

2

3

TI ERRACEGARDENS: I nhi ghr i s ebui l di ngs ,t her ewasapr obl em peopl ehadl es sc ont ac twi t ht hegr ound. Al l ofCor r ea’ sdes i gnswer ec ent er edar oundopent os k ys pac esl i v i ngi nc l os er el at i ons hi pwi t ht he gr ound.Howev er ,hes ol v edt hepr obl em byaddi ngt er r ac egar densi nhi ghr i s ebui l di ng.They ac t edasaf ac adet r eat ment ,v ar y i ngi ns i z esandf unc t i ons .

Thesi t epl ani sgener at edbyahi er ar chyof communi t yspaces ,st ar t i ngwi t hashar ed cour t y ar d 8mx8m ar ound whi ch sev en housesar egr ouped.Eachoft hesehouses i s on i t s own pi ece ofl and,so t hatt he f ami l i es can hav e a cr uci aladv ant age of opent oskyspacest oaugmentt hecov er ed ar eas . Fur t her mor e,t heydonotshar epar t y wal l swi t ht hei rnei ghbour s-whi chmak es t hesehousest r ul yi ncr ement al ,si nceeach f ami l y can ext end t hei r house i ndependent l y .

T er r ac e gar dens i n MRF bui di ng, Chennai . They pr ov i dear el i eft ot hef ac ade. Thi sbui l di ngal s ohous esa r oof gar den. A s i mi l i ar c onc epti sf ol l owedi nt heLI C bui l di ngi nMaur i t i us .

T hr eecl us t er sofs evenhous eseachgr ouped ar oundacommoncour t yar ds .

I nt hebui l di ngf ort heper manentmi s s i onof I ndi at oUKt het er r ac egar deni sc ov er edbya per gol aandt hef ac adei sal s opar t l yc ov er ed t oof f erpr ot ec t i ondur i ngc hi l l ywi nt er s .

T er r ac e gar den i n Champal i maud c ent r ef ort heunk nownov er l ook i ngt he s ea. COURT YARDASACOMMNI T YS PACE-Anex t ens i onoft hehous ehol daci vi t i es

54

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

55


CONCLUSI ON: MET APHYSI CALCONCEPT OFEMPTYCENTRE T r ansl at edt o ar chi t ect ur e

COURTYARDS

I nt er es t i ng

Bui l di ng

Cour t yar datKor amangal ahous e

Openi ngi nt he bui l di ng

St agger i ngt he c our t y ar di nt o s mal l erones

Apat hwayi s s t r uc t ur edar oundt he c our t y ar ds

ADVANT AGES

Vi ewsar egener at ed t owar dst hec our t y ar d f r om al l par t soft he bui l di ng

Thec our t y ar dpr ov i des l i ghtandv ent i l at i ont o t hebui l di ng

Thec our t y ar dac tasa c ommuni t ys pac e

I nc r ement al i t y Fut ur eex pans i on TREATMENTOFTHECOURTYARDS: Asakund-st eppedf or mat i on-pr ovi di ngseat i ngf ort hepeopl e Landscapi ng-basedont heconcept Wat erbody Per gol asf orpar t i alshadef r om t hesun Amoder ncour t yar d-Champal i maudcent r e

56

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

57


ART& ARCHI T ECT URE

58

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

59


ART& ARCHI T ECT URE “ Pai nt i ngi sanar twhi c hy ouc anwat c h, Ar c hi t ec t ur ei sanar tt hr oughwhi c hy ouc anpas s ” . -DanRi c e

Ther ear et woki ndsofbeaut yi nar chi t ect ur e, ani nnerandanout erbeaut y . I nnerbeaut ycancomef r om somet hi ngasi nt angi bl easani dea, f r om t heor gani sat i onbehi ndt hepl anandt hesect i on,f r om t hei nher enthar monyof t he whol e.I nnerbeaut yt endst o be hi dden f r om t he uni ni t i at ed.I ti snoteasi l y per cei v edexceptbyt hosewhocanunder st andt hr eedi mensi onalr el at i onshi ps . Out erbeaut yont heot herhandi ssuper fici alandhast odowi t h decor at i onandwi t ht het act i l equal i t i esoft hesur f ace.I tencompassesexact l yt hose vi sualqual i t i eswhi chcanendearabui l di ngt ot heor di nar yper son. Ther el at i onshi pofar chi t ect ur et ot heot herar t si sacr uci alone. I nsomeofhi spr oj ect s ,Char l esCor r eahasusedar ti nt hef or m ofmur al s ,scul pt ur es et c. , notj ustt opr ovi der ef er encest ol ocal t r adi t i onsandev ent s ,butr eal l yt obr i ngbac k i nt obal ancet hespat i alt ensi onsgener at edbyt hebui l t f or m. Heusesel ement sf r om t heki t of par t sdev el opedt oget herear l i er wi t habst r actcol ourandr eal i st i ci mages ,set t i ngupadi al ect i cbet weenbui l t f or m and vi suali mager y–acompl exi nt er act i onwhi chcanaddsl ay er sofmet aphor i caland met aphysi caldi mensi onst o ar chi t ect ur e and t hen wi t h hi smul t i di mensi onaland mul t i sensor yi magi nat i on,empl oyi ng a uni que pl ay off or m,l i ghtcol our ,vi r t ual i mager y ,hecr eat esanet her ealexper i ence. I tal sor ev eal shi snat ur al wi tandhi ghspi r i t edsenseofhumour ,as wel lasamor eunexpect edf asci nat i onwi t hdecor at i onasameansofext endi ngand deepeni ngachoseni mager y .I ti sdi f f er entt ot hei l l usi onsempl oy edi nt heBar oque sense. Br i anBr aceT ayl or ,anar chi t ect ur al i st or i anandcr i t i chassuggest ed per cept i v el yt hatCor r ea’ suseofpai nther eder i v esf r om t hecl assi cr el at i onshi pof f r escot ot hebui l tf or m,goi ngbac kt oFl or enceorAj ant a. “ Thewal l sf or mi ngopenandcl osedspaces ,hav ebeenusedasasuppor t ,asa ser i esofvi r t ualscr eens ,f ort wodi mensi onalpi ct or i alst at ement swhi chcount er poi nt and bal ance t he r eal i t yoft he act ualt hr eedi mensi onalsequence cr eat ed byt he ar chi t ect ur ei t sel f ” .

Ar tandar chi t ect ur eT r adi t i onal hut si nBanni r egi on,Kut ch.

F r es coi nF l or ence,I t al y T hebui l di ngel ement s act sasacanvas .

Bar oquei l l usi onpai nt i ngsar ecar r i edoutonflat orbar r elv aul tcei l i ngs ,of t en compl et i ng t he exi st i ng ar chi t ect ur e,wher et he per spect i v e wasconcent r at edonacent r alf ocalpoi nt .The of t en myt hol ogi cal subj ect s , use pai nt ed cl ouds t osi mul at eanopensky ,t oaccent uat e v er t i cal i t y al r eady hi ghl i ght ed by pi l ast er s , col umnsandcapi t al s .

Bar oque-i l l us i onpai nt i ngs

60

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Aj ant acaves ,t hecavesar e us edasavi r t ual s ki nf ort wo di mens i onal pi ct or i al s t at ement s .

61


CI DADEDEGOA-1982 I ndegi nousar chi t ect ur eofGoat hathas dev el oped or gani cal l y wi t h t i me. Cor r ea’ s own pr oj ect si nGoar eflect st hi scont ext .butt heyal so addr essani ssuewhi chofcr uci ali mpor t ance;t he r el at i onshi pofar chi t ect ur et ot he -ot hervi sual ar t s pai nt i ng,scul pt ur eandl andscape. Thehot el Ci dadeDeGoa,hadt ohav ea cer t ai nl ev elofnost al gi a because i twasa t our i st hot elandt hi swasdonebyhavi ngal ay erofvi r t ual i mager ywhi chwoul dconsi stofpai nt i ngsandwoul d r ev ok et heci t yofGoa.Sowhent hebui l di ngi sbui l t andi nt hepr ocessofbui l di ngi twer eal i set hatt her e ar e moment s wher et he ar chi t ect ur e has t o be cor r ect ed,i tcoul dbedonewi t har t .

ARCHI T ECT URE

+

Chi r i co

Goans t r eet-Amet aphor

Onepassesbeneat ht heent r ancear ch anddescendsdownt hel ongdr i v eway i nt oal ushgr eenv al l ey ,t oar r i v e. . .i na pl aza,sur r oundedbyk eysymbol sand si gns whi ch connot e:CI TY.Some of t hesei magesar et hear t i f act sofast age set ,ot her sar et r ompe de l ’ oei loft he ci nemapost erar t i st .

VI RT UAL I MAGERY

Acour t yar di nt hemai nl obby-t hemanatt hewi ndow payshomaget oDeChi r i co

S ur r eal i s t i cpai nt i ngofGi or gi oDe Chi r i co-s t ages et

The met aphoroft he ci t y cul mi nat es i nt he Al f ama,one oft he many r est aur ant si nt he hot el .I ti sani ndoorci t ywi t hi nanout doorone, wi t hdi ner sseat edatv ar i ousl ev el s ,i ndi f f er ent houses , and at t er r ace caf es ar ound a mi ni at ur edpl aza.

ART

=

A kal i edoscopi c sequence of vi sual exper i ences , “ hi st or i c , myt hi cal ,ci nemat ogr aphi c” Whati sr eal ?Theobj ect ?Ort he i mage? Or t he i mage of t he i mage?. Awak eni ng subconsci ousr esponsesi nt he memor y . . . t he bi t t er s weet saudadeofnost al gi a. . .

Amus i cal eveni ngatt heAl f ama-r es t aur ant-vi ewer s ar es eat edatdi f f er entl evel s-i nbal coni esenj oyi ng t hes how. Wal ki ngdownt hepedes t r i ans t r eet

Thesef acadesar el ay er s ,onepasses t hr ough. . . a hi ghl y f r agment es kal ei doscopi c ser i es of vi sual sensat i onsandar chi t ect ur alspaces .

T heci t yvi r t ual :Pai nt eds ol di er s guar dapai nt eddoor

62

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

63


KALAACADEMY,GOA-1983

T heboundar ybet weeni l l us i onandr eal i t ybl ur s . . . . . .

64

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA


KALAACADEMY,GOA-1983 Kal aAcademyi nGoai sanot herbr i l l i antexampl e ofi l l usi onandmet aphor . Ther ear ewal l swhi chhav ebeengi v en dept h&l i f et hr oughr eal i st i cper spect i v es ofar cadedst r eet s ,of pr oj ect i ngbal coni es ,ofst ai r cases ,ofwi ndows ,ofdoor ways– t hewal l st hemsel v esf or mi ngahugecanv as ,wher et hevi si t or f eel sasi fpar tofanel abor at eset ,awal kt hr ought i mei nt oanol d wor l dst r eet . REAL

VI RT UAL

I LLUSI ON

The1000seataudi t or i um hast o f unct i on undera wi de r ange of condi t i ons , .Thesev ar i at i onsar e br oughtaboutby mani pul at i ng ar eas of absor bent mat er i al s al ong t he wal l sand cei l i ngsof t he audi t or i ums , They ar e i nvi si bl ef r om out si de because t heyar epl acedout si dei nabox whi chi sacoust i cal l yt r anspar ent butvi sual l yopaque. Ont hewal l s andcei l i ngsoft hei nnerboxi s pai nt ed i l l usi on i fan ol d Goan t heat r e,wi t ht ypi cal l ocal s ,dr awn by t he r enowned Goan ar t i st Mi r anda.

Att hel owerr i ghthand,L eCor bus i erandMi es Van derRohe come ar ound t he cor ner ,t o make t he wor l d -and Goa, al as !-nevert he s ameagai n.

Her e,t heboundar ybet weenr eal i t y&i l l usi onbl ur si nahappywayt ot r anspor tt hevi si t ort oadi f f er ent exper i ence,onecr eat edbyt hecombi nedcol l abor at i v egeni us’ ofCor r ea& ar t i stMar i oMi r anda. Thecomposi t i onsoft hebui l di ngcombi newi t ht hei l l usi onsont hewal lt ot het r anspor tonet oadi f f er ent wor l d.

Theyar el essi l l usi oni st i cbecauset heyar efir stofal l ,i nbl ac kand whi t e,andhav eal i nearqual i t yl i k edr awi ngs . Theacademi ct echni que ofhat chi ngandcr osshat chi ngshadow r ecal l sDavi dHoc kney’ sset s . But ,howev erMi r andohasusedt het echni quewi t hi r ony . Thepeopl ei n t hebox es ,mor eov er ,ar ecar i cat ur esofr ealpeopl e.I tmaybeput t i ng t ooser i ousani nt er pr et at i onont hewor k,butMi r andaandCor r ea seem t obesayi ng“ Thi si swhatt heat r eusedt obel i k eandher ear e peopl eoft odaywhowoul dl i k ei tt or emai nasi tal wayshasbeen.But t hi ngsar en’ tact ual l yl i k et hi s ,andwedontwantt hosepeopl ei nhe box est ober eal ” . Thepur poseofcar i cat ur e,af t eral l ,i st or i di cul e.

66

BEF ORE

AF T ER

The ot her wi se bor i ng, pl ai n monot onous wal lwi t hj usta hi ntof col our . Thest ai r sser v eonl yasamean ofv er t i calci r cul at i onandnot hi ngel se. Peopl edonotpayanyat t ent i ont ot hi s wal landt heyj ustpassby .

Byusi ng t he wal lasa canv asand pai nt i ng vi r t ual i mager y ,t he wal l achi ev es a t hi r d di mensi on. Passer bysar e made t o st op,pause andhav eal ook. I tr i di cul est hevi ewer anddecei v eshi m.I taddspl ayf ul ness t ot heat mospher e,ov er al lmaki ngi t mor ei nt er est i ngandi nt r i gui ng.

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Real andi l l us i onar y el ement s

Mar i a’ sGoanpeopl e

Mar i oMi r anda’ spai nt i ng S ect i ont hr ought heaudi t or i um Cour t es y: Char l es Cor r ea as s oci at es

67


J AWAHARKALAKENDRA-1992

I UCAA,PUNE-1992

SYMBOLI CI MAGERY:

I ti sacont empor ar ybui l di ngwhi chexpr esseshowt oday’ ssci enceconcept ual i z est heuni v er se. Thi sconcepthasbeenexpr essedbyt hedi f f er entel ement susedi nt hebui l di ng.Symbol i ci magesoft he v ar i ousadv ancement si nsci encehav ebeendepi ct edi nt hef or m ofl andscapes ,floor i ngpat t er nset c. ,I ti s adi r ectr epr esent at i on( wi t houtanyabst r act i on) . Thebui l di nghasbeenusedasabl ac kboar dt ot eacht he v ar i ousconcept sofuni v er se.

Char l esCor r eahasusedAr tasa medi um t oexpr esshi sconceptofNav agr ahai nt heJ awahar Kal aKendr ai nJ ai pur . Thi senabl escommonmant ounder st and t heconceptoft hebui l di ngi ndet ai l . Eachoft hesquar eencompassesamur alorapai nt i ngt odepi ct t hequal i t i esoft hepl anet . Char l esCor r eahasempl oy edl ocal ar t i st st odot hepai nt i ngs ,t husenabl i ngt hem t oear na l i v el i hood. Thi sal sohel psi nbr i ngi ngt ol i ghtt r adi t i onal Raj ast haniar t sandcr af t s . I ncor por at i ng ar ti nt o ar chi t ect ur e mak es t he bui l di ng mor e i nt er est i ng and i nf or mat i v e. I t hel ps t he common man t o under st andt heconceptoft hebui l di ngandgi v esi nsi ghtt ot he i nnerar chi t ect ur albeaut yoft hebui l di ng. Vi sualar t susedi nt hebui l di ngal soenhancet heexper i ent i al qual i t yoft hecent r e.

T heent r ancear tf eat ur i ngt he s ymbol ofNavagr aha-depi ct i ng t heconceptoft hebui l di ng.

T hecour t yar d oft hes chol ar ’ sr oom i sa r epr es ent at i onofS epr ens ki ’ st r i angl e, one of t he key i mages of F r act alt heor y r epr es ent i ng how macr o pat t er ns ar e r epeat edi dent i cal l yandendl es s l y.

Wal lpai nt i ngsoft heLor dKr i shnaof t heHi ndupant heon, mot i f f s ,mur al s andsymbol sr emi ni scentoft her ul i ng ci vi l i sat i onsoft hepastf eat ur eon cor r i dorwal l sandcour t y ar df acades gi vi ngasenseofmeani ngt ot he pl ace.

F ocaul t ’ spendul um i nt hef acul t yof fi ces . Cal i br at ed mar ki ngsatbas eofF ocaul t ’ s pendul um :whi t e mar bl e,i nl ai di nbl ack andgr eygr ani t e.

Kr i s hnai nKet u

Ont her eds ands t onewal l sof eachpl anet ,i sdepi ct edt he s ymbol oft hepl aneti nl ai di n whi t emar bl eandbl ack Cudappahs t one.

On t he dome, i n t he Mangal pl anet Raj as t hant r adi t i onalar t i s t shave depi ct ed a gi antcos mogr aph,depi ct i ng t he ent i r e mani f es twor l d.Ever yt r ee,ever yfi s h-ever y ani mal-ever ymount ai nt her ebymel di ng t r adi t i onal andcont empor ar y.

68

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

Bl ackonbl ackonbl ack-vi s ual s t r uct ur eof t heout ers pacewi t ht hel ogoof I UCAA

69


BRI TI SHCOUNCI L,DELHI-1992

CONCLUSI ON:

I nt heBr i t i shcouci li nDel hi ,t hef acadei sador nedbyagi gant i cmur albyHodwar dHodgki nswhi chi s l i k et heshadowofaBany ant r ee. Ashadowi nwhi chanumberofdi f f er entmi ndset scont i nuet ol i v e t oget her-i nI ndi a. Thet ensi ont hatexi st sbet weent heor gani cf or m oft hemur alcont ai nedwi t hi nar at hersev er ebui di ngaust er ewi t hi t swonder f ulpi nksandst one. I t sawonder f ulbal ance.

ARCHI TECTURALBEAUTY Out erbeaut y

I nnerbeaut y ( Concept s , i deaset c. , )

( Decor at i ons , Or nament at i onset c. , )

Bar oqueper i odi l l usi on pai nt i ngs/Fr escoes

( I NS PI RAT I ON)

VI RTUALART

T or ecr eat e ev ent s

Goant heat r e

Wi t houtCor r ea,Hodgki nwoul dhavehadt ot oppl eoveri nt os cul t ur et ogett heus eoft hi r d di mens i on.Wi t houtHodgki n,Cor r ea’ sbui l di ngwoul dhavel ookedl i keanes pal i erf orwhi ch s omeonehadf or got t ent het r ees .T hebui l di ngdoesnotpr opupt hear t .Nordoest hear ti fil t r at e t hebui l di ng.T het woar eoneandi ndi vi s i bl e.

T heor i gi nal mur al byHodwar d Hodgki ns ,i n Cor r ea’ shous e.

70

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

SYMBOLI CI MAGERY

T ot r anspor tust oa di f f er entwor l d

T ocr eat e i l l usi on

S t r eet s capesi n hot el

S t ai r cas e pai nt i ng

Repr esent at i onof aconcept

Navagr aha

Decor at i nghut si nr ur alI ndi a wi t hsymbol sandpat er ns

T oconv eysomet hi ngmor e ambi t i ous

Hodwar dHodgki n mur al

I NFERENCE: Ev ent hough,i nc or por at i ngar ti nt oar c hi t ec t ur emak est hebui l di ngmor ei nt er es t i ngand i nf or mat i v e,i thast hef ol l owi ngdr awbac k s : I nus i ngv i r t ual i mager y-i ft hepai nt i ngi snotasr eal i s t i cast her eal i t y-t hei l l us i onf ai l s . I ti sj us t apai nt i ngonawal l wi t hnomeani ng-I tbec omesak i d’ spl ay . I nt heus eofs y mbol i ci mager y-I ti sj us tamer es uper fi c i al t r ans f erofi magesont oabui l di ngt o c onv eyameani ng. Whenwehav eapower f ul medi um ofar c hi t ec t ur et oc onv eyameani ng-i t bec omesunnec es s ar yf oranot hermedi um l i k ear tt obei nc or por at ed-bec aus ei tc an ov er s hadowt hebui di ng. Abs t r ac tar ti nbui l di ngsi sac c ept abl e,nott hemer eov er l ayofi mages . Ac hi ev i ngt heper f ec tbal anc ebet weenar tandar c hi t ec t ur ei st hek ey . 71


MAT ERI AL S& COL OURS

72

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

73


MATERI ALSANDCOLOURS “ Yousayt oabr i c k. Whatdoy ouwantbr i c k?andt hebr i c ksayst oy ou,” Il i k eanar ch” . andy ousayt obr i c k, ‘ Look,Iwantonet oo,butar chesar eexpensi v eandi canuseaconcr et el i nt el . ’ andt heny ousay: ‘ Whatdo y out hi nkoft hat ,br i c k?’ Br i c ksays: ‘ Il i k eanar ch”-Loui sIKahn Char l esCor r ea,usedst r ongconcept sf orhi sbui l di ngsandt heywer eal ways deepr oot edi nt ot hecul t ur e,hi st or yandt r adi t i onoft hatpl ace,andsower ehi sbui l di ngmat er i al s .He al waysusedl ocal l yav ai l abl emat er i al sandcr af t smanshi pwhi chpayshomaget ot hecul t ur eoft hatpl ace whet heri tmaybei nBhopalori nLi sbon.Henev erusedal i enmat er i al s-Gl assbui l di ngsi nI ndi awer ea compl et e“ NO” .I nhi sear l ywor ks ,heusedmat er i al si nt hei runador nedst at e,Ast i mewentonhebegan wor ki ngwi t hcol ourandt ext ur e.I nhi sfinalwor ks , heusest echnol ogyandmoder nmat er i al st or epr esent hi sf undament alpr i nci pl es .

Whi t es t ucco

Woodenr af t er s

Cl ayt i l es

VEREM VI L L AS-HOL I DAYHOMES

CI DADEDEGOAPORT UGUES E ARCHI T ECT URE

RedAgr as ands t one

Bamboomat t i ng

Pl as t er edbr i ckwal l s

BEL APURHOUS I NG -I NCREMENT AL I T Y

Bl ackCuddapaht o Whi t emar bl e r epr es entt hes hadow BRI T I S HCOUNCI L ,DEL HI

Ex pos edconcr et e VI S VES VARAYA CENT RE, bengal ur u BANGAL ORE

J NI DB-r ock s t r ewn l ands capeof Hyder abad S t onefl oor s Br i ckwal l s RCC Beams T i l edr oof s S ABARMAT IAS HRAM ,AHMEDABAD-T O REPRES ENTGANDHI ’ SPRI NCI PL ESOFS I MPL I CI T Y

Bl ui s hconcr et e Kadappahs t one Bl ackgr ani t e I UCAA,PUNE-AMODELI NT ERPRET AT I ONOFT HECOS MOS

Bas al t

S t ones t epsi nt he cent r al kund

Gr ani t es t eps

At r i but et o Buckmi ni s t er f ul l er Concr et es hel l -l i ght

Br i ckwal l s

Veget at i on

BHARATBHAVAN-CONCEPTT ERRACEGARDENS

Gr ani t e-l ocal quar r y

Buckydome

RedAgr as ands t one

J NCENT RE-AL I NKBET WEENPAS T& F UT URE

Dhol purbei ges t one

Whi t emar bl e

Mi cas l at e

Bl ackgr ani t e

J AWAHARKAL AKENDRA,J AI PUR-RECAL L I NG T HEI NS T RUMENT SATJ ANT ARMANT AR

Gr ani t ebl ocks att hebot t omn l evel smer ge wi t ht hemet al s ki nont op. L at er i t egr i tfi ni s h KAL AACADEMYGOANF ORT S

Bamboopavi l i ons

Coi rmat s

KOVAL AM RES ORT-VERNACUL AR ARCHI T ECT URE

Reddi s hbr owngr ani t e Met al panel l eds ki n PERMANENTMI S S I ONOFI NDI AT O UNBRI DGEBET WEENI NDI AT O US

Cr ys t al l i negl as s dome

L i mes t onecl addi ng

Ex pos edconcr et e

Gr ani t epaver s

S t eel s cr een

I S MAI L ICENT RE,T ORONT O -I S L AMI C ARCHI T ECT UREI NACONT EMPORARYWAY

T hebal coni es ar epai nt edi n br i ghtandvi vi d col our s cont r as t i ngt he f acadeoft he bui l di ng Reds ans t one

S pacef r ame

Refl ect i vegl as s

J EEVANBHARAT I-API VOTBET WEENT HECOL ONNADESOF CONNAUGHTPL ACEANDT HENEW GENERAT I ONOFHI GHRI S ES

74

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

S hearwal l

Col our sus ed

KANCHENJ UNGAAPART MENT S

Bl ui s hconcr et e

S t ai nl es ss t eel

Gl as sands t eel

L i ozl i mes t one

Gr ani t ecobbl esl ocal t r adi t i on

CHAMPAUI MAUDCENT REF ORT HEUNKNOWN,L I S BON,PORT UGAL

75


APHOT OGRAPHI CJ OURNEY T HROUGHT HEWORKSOFCORREA

76

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

77


L I GHT& S HADE

78

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

79


T HES T EPPAT T ERN

Dur i ngt hepeakofhi scar eer ,Char l esCor r ea usedt he“ st eppat t er n”i ndi f f er entways . I twasor i gi nal l y der i v edf r om t hegopur amsoft het empl es . Heusedi ti nhi scour t yr dsi nt hef or m ofakund Asent r ancear ches ,di r ect l ydepi ct i ngt heent r yt ot he t empl es . Hewoul dnotpr ovi der ai l i ngf ort hest ai r sandl eav et he pat t er nexposed. Hegener al l yhi ghl i ght si tbypai nt i ngi ti nacont r astcol our . I nsomepr oj ect s ,hehasmer el ydr awnoutt hest epf or m on t hewal l s . Thecor ner soft hebui l di ngorev ent hef acadesofcer t ai n bui l di ngsbeart hi spat t er n. 80

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

81


ARCHI T ECT URALEL EMENT S P E R G O L A S

C O L U M N S

T H E W A L L S O L I V D O S I D A S N D 82

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

83


CONCL US I ON

84

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

85


BI BL I OGRAPHY BOOKREFERENCES: -Apl acei nt heshadebyChar l esCor r ea -Char l esCor r esbyKennet hFr ampt on -Housi ngandur bani sat i onbyChar l esCor r es -Char l esCor r ea-HasanUdi nKhan -Jour nalofI ndi anI nst i t ut eofAr chi t ect s( J ul yAugust2015) I NTERNETREFERENCES: -www. char l escor r ea. net -ht t p: / / t hewi r e. i n/ 2015/ 06/ 18/ char l escor r eaanar chi t ect of t i meandspace4156/ -www. ar chnet . or g/ publ i cat i ons/ 7070 -ht t p: / / www. t heguar di an. com/ ar t anddesi gn/ 2015/ j un/ 19/ char l escor r ea -ht t p: / / www. dai l y o. i n/ ar t s/ char l escor r eai smai l i cent r e ht t p: / / www. ar chdai l y . com/ 140623/ champal i maudcent r ef or t heunknownchar l escor r e aassoci at es -www. ccf goa. com ht t ps: / / www. y out ube. com/ wat ch?v=uzK86VPXUs8( Vol umez er o-documet r y onChar l esCor r ea. -ht t ps: / / www. quor a. com/ What i sspeci al about ar chi t ect Char l esCor r easdesi gns ht t p: / / www. t heguar di an. com/ ar t anddesi gn/ ar chi t ect ur edesi gnbl og/ 2013/ may/ 15/ char l e scor r eai ndi agr eat est ar chi t ect exhi bi t i on ht t p: / / www. sundayguar di an. com/ ar t beat / bui l di ngi nt hev er nacul ar char l escor r eaandt hei deaof i ndi a -ht t ps: / / www. ar chi t ect ur e. com/ Expl or e/ Ar chi t ect s/ Char l esCor r ea. aspx -ht t p: / / www. ear chi t ect . co. uk/ exhi bi t i ons/ r i baexhi bi t i on -ht t p: / / www. ar chdai l y . com/ t ag/ char l escor r ea -ht t p: / / www. ar chi t ect sj our nal . co. uk/ DRAWI NGSCOURTESY: -Char l esCor r eaAssoci at es -Char l esCor r eaf oundat i on ARCHI VES: -Char l esCor r eaar chi v es

86

PRI NCI PLESOFCHARLESCORREA

88

Priciples of Charles Correa  

Charles Correa was a giant of modern architecture nationally, of course but also internationally. Correa's architecture was an architecture...

Priciples of Charles Correa  

Charles Correa was a giant of modern architecture nationally, of course but also internationally. Correa's architecture was an architecture...

Advertisement