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MA Thesis Dissertation

Music and Architecture - Is there any relationship between music composition and architectural design?

Written by Duan, Rui 200907424

Supervisor: Michael, Knight September 18th 2015


Declaration

The work contained in this project is my own and has not been submitted for any other qualification.

All sentences and passages quoted from published sources have been specifically acknowledged by referencing to author, work and page(s).

Signature: Duan, Rui Date: Sep, 18, 2015

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Acknowledgement During the process of finish the dissertation, I have received support from many people who help me in different ways. First and foremost, I wish to thanks my dissertation supervisor Michael Knight for his guidance, support and supervision throughout this thesis project. And I would also like to express my gratitude to Stephanie, Koerner for her provided the Professional English Writing and Dissertation Preparation. Finally, thanks to my course mates and family members for giving me many useful opinions and materials in this dissertation.

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Abstract As two different categories of arts, music and architecture represent the art in different way. Architecture is the art of design in space and music is the art of design in time. One belongs to the visual field and another one based on the aural field. But both as the important components of civilization, music and architecture keep the synaesthesia from several aspects in their relations. The broad aim of this paper is tend to address the relationship between musical component and architectural design. And the research method based on analysis case studies and reflection on five aspects, which is colour, texture, harmony, rhythm and proportion. These projects were picked to explore the relationship between music and architecture from different views, generally, it was divided into four items, which is experiments, architecture as instruments, nature as musicians and a new context for architectural design. And after the review and analysis of them, the reflection from five terms to discuss. Colour is an abstract conception of music, but is an obvious feature in architectural design. Rhythm elements used in music and architecture both, including regular or irregular. The expression of texture has big difference of music and architecture, one is through instrument, another one main use material as the textural language. The terms of harmony and proportion have similar characteristic in music and architecture, harmonious with the atmosphere and numerical proportion always used in the process of produce art work. After the reflection, Stretto House as a carrier to represent the connection of music and architecture. The final propose of this dissertation is that can provide a new sense for designers, musicians,, or other art lovers who interested in transfer musical work to architecture or put architectural elements into music. It hopefully people can get inspiration from them and produce more innovating art works.


Contents Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview and Background Knowledge ..............................................................................6 1.2 Aims and Objectives ........................................................................................................7 1.3 Research Questions .........................................................................................................8 1.4 Research Methodology ....................................................................................................8 Chapter 2 Literature review 2.1 Music experiment 2.1.1 Vitruvius program ..................................................................................................10 2.1.2 Graphic Music ........................................................................................................11 2.2 Architecture as Instrument - Freeway ............................................................................12 2.3 Nature as Musician 2.3.1 Scoring the Path ....................................................................................................13 2.3.2 Singing Ringing Tree ..............................................................................................15 2.3.3 Zither Rhythm Studio ............................................................................................15 2.4 A New Context for Architecture - Electronic Music ........................................................17 Chapter 3 Reflection 3.1 Colour 3.1.1 Music as related to Colour ....................................................................................20 3.1.2 Synaesthesia ..........................................................................................................21 3.1.3 Architecture as related to Colour ..........................................................................22 3.2 Texture 3.2.1 Musical Texture- Instruments ...............................................................................24


3.2.2 Architectural Texture- Materials ...........................................................................25 3.3 Harmony 3.3.1 Music with harmony in the environment .............................................................28 3.3.2 Architecture with harmony in the environment ...................................................28 3.4 Rhythm 3.4.1 Rhythm in Music ...................................................................................................32 3.4.2 Rhythm in Architecture .........................................................................................33 3.5 Proportion 3.5.1 Numbers in Music ..................................................................................................36 3.5.2 Numbers in Architecture ......................................................................................39 Chapter 4 Case study -Stretto House .....................................................................................41 Chapter 5 Conclusion 5.1 Summary ..........................................................................................................................43 5.2 Critical Thinking ...............................................................................................................43 5.3 Limitation .........................................................................................................................44 5.4 Recommendation ............................................................................................................45 Reference Printed Sources .....................................................................................................................46 Internet sources ....................................................................................................................50 List of figures ........................................................................................................................50


Chapter1 Introduction 1.1 Overview and Background Knowledge In the development of civilization, the close affinity between music and architecture has been passed down over thousand years (Winko, 2010). As architect Michael St Hill said, “In the sense of movement to a happy place at the end of a Hollywood blockbuster, has nothing to do with life or human history (Hill, 2013).” Application of this viewpoint, fundamentals to the disciplines of architecture and music, and blocking out the Wagnerian romanticism about humankind is the key to a useful exploration of the relationships of the two hybrid sciences and arts: Music and Architecture. Music exists in time and space; Architecture exists in space and time. Hill thought that the meaning of music does not only consist of harmonic chord by instruments, just like architecture not exist in two-dimensional work, such as a picture or photograph. Jencks describes the meaning of music is that it is in mind. He said: “Musicians are often taught the six basic moods, and modes, they can stress, sadness, joyfulness, fearfulness, tenderness, love and anger…” (Jencks, 2013). In the development of western music history, the last great fundamental advance was J. S. Bach, who identified the tuning of scale of music, and, the Well Tempered Clavier, which is a great innovation of instruments. Some abstract advances in terms of style and expression have been made up until Late Beethoven in the Late Quartets and 9th Symphony but since then, nothing has changed (Hill, 2013). And Michael St Hill also think this situation is similar with the history of architecture. He think that the last meaningful change has been with the Le Corbusier, Mies Van der Roheand Frank Lloyd Wright generation. The rest is essentially superficial and individual style which has little relevance beyond the particular practitioner. Architecture and music both as the important components are consist of culture, they are both highly technical endeavours: learning to play the violin or piano, writing a piece of music, improvising on a theme, or doing an architectural design work are far more complex than learning to drive a truck or fly an airplane(Hill, 2013). Art forms generally based on colour, proportion, rhythm, harmony and texture (Watson, 2003), those terms as cultural lineage to generate art works. Architecture and music as

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parallel arts which share these qualities from different points, and they are also have interaction from each other (Jenck, 2013). As one of the most famous philosopher Goethe said: “architecture was music become stone.” From this opinion, the reverse proposition could be “music is architecture in movement.” And there is a similar point of view from a philosopher (Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling), which is “Architecture is music in space, as it was a frozen music.” Although those words spread in the world long time and these two statements may be beautiful and true, however, on this theoretical level, they do not really form intimate structures of the two arts (Iannis, 2008), and the relationship between them is hardly to define.

1.2 Aims and Objectives As Elizabeth Martin said, Architecture represents the art of design in space, music is the art of design in time (Martin, 1994). Music has two aspects when it is in performance: watching and listening. Musicians have their own feeling when they see the music score, then, they can express it for audience by instruments. The musical score and melody has a kind of response to each other like drawing and space. The process of doing architectural design work has similarity with the creation of musical work. Composer use music score to show his or her own idea, but musicians express it by instruments from their own feeling. It is very close to architecture, when designers have an idea, then they drawing it on paper firstly, and someone else who work with construction will building it up according to the drawing. From this, music score is not only means melody, same as architecture not just be represented by drawing. People can get new options from two-dimensional sheet. Because the things marked on the musical sheet is limited, it just gives a possibility, like designer provide a drawing for construct buildings. The aim of this dissertation is to explore the relationship between musical elements and architectural design. It hopefully can provide a new thinking for designers and musicians, and art lovers. Besides, it also encourages designers can get inspiration from musical form and also produce a new sense for musicians who would like to create musical works from architectural design concept.

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1.3 Research Questions Based on the research aim, the main research question is: From which aspects, music and architecture can get connection? And how architects get inspiration from these connections? Subordinate questions: How music rhythm influence the spatial design in different context? Architecture can help music evolve from which parts? What is the limitation when music score system transfer to architectural space? Is there has any similarity when designer drawing by pen with musician perform by instruments?

1.4 Research Methodology Library study The first method used to address the relationship between music and architecture is library study about their development history. As the important component of culture, music and architecture both have the unique methods to show the civilization. Through the literature review, the researcher seeks to catch connections between music elements and architecture spatial design. From the library studies, it can be see that the design concept of architecture can easily get inspiration from music composition in specific parts, as mentioned in literature review section before, some design works use natural elements as musicians to create space with sound, and some design elements based on the musical rhythm feeling. Case study research The second stage of this written proposal research method is analysing the case studies. As one of the most important method used for research, analysing case study can help researchers easier to catch the specific points which they want to achieve. These case 8


studies are picked from different context and different period and each of them have their own unique qualities in the design elements, but the same point is that these case studies all have one or more than one aspect to relate to the musical or architectural inspiration. Through analysing case studies, the aim is to make the relationship between music and architecture become more knowable in real life. Furthermore, the features which come from case studies can be used in the art work by musicians or architects in the future. On-site observation The third research method of complete this dissertation is on-site observation. This method can make researcher get feeling directly from the atmosphere of buildings. It is recommended researcher visit some representative architecture work and observes which aspects the building use musical elements in design concept. Moreover, research also can listen some different types of music to record the feeling when it is performance, such as classical, jazz or opera. And consider that what kind of architectural form can match each kind of music. Finishing materials The final method used in this project is finishing materials. According to the structure of this dissertation, the main content was divided into five chapters, and each chapter has one specific point to research. Hence, after gather information and amass large quantities of materials, the researcher should arrange them based on the order of chapter, and it will be helpful for form the bibliography later. Besides, this method can keep the research material easily access, where they are logically paraphrased in main content.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review As the important compositions of culture, music and architecture focus on different field of arts. Music is the art design work in time, and architecture is a combination of aesthetics and technology. At the early stage, few of research works to explore the relationship between them, but nowadays, people pay more attention to the synthesis of arts, and many research works and projects were used in the exploration of the connection between music and architecture. This chapter is main forces on several sources have investigated them from different aspects. 2.1 Music Experiment Music and architecture has big difference when they translate their own concept, feeling, sense, or other things they want to show for people. It is hardly to define and achieve the translation from them at the beginning. Thus, two music experiments as a key to address the relationship between music and architecture. 2.1.1 Vitruvius Program The first music experiment is Vitruvius program, which is an educational organization stand for develop the teaching methods in architecture field. Those pictures showed below is a workshop about consider the spatial ideas of music and architecture. It use construction techniques of design musical instrument to explore the feeling of sound, noise, melody and acoustics (Martin, 1994). As the start point of the experiment, students were asked to read The Voice of the Wood: “only a heart in tune with the voice of the wood can draw a sound from the instrument� (Clement, 1988). Then, through a series of drawing and models, the Music Animation Machine was created.

Figure 1: Models were created by students -Music Animation Machine

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Personally speaking, this workshop is a good start of attempt to explore the relationship between music and architecture. It use some basic architectural methods like drawings and models to reflect the spatial feeling of sounds, noise, or instruments. But this experiment just shows the level of concept, do not have much more exploration of the translation of music to architecture. At the concept phase, the workshop is quite useful for students develop a sense of imagination and helpful for them to learn how to think spatially. In one word, the Vitruvius Program is a good start for using architectural method as a tool to relate to the other artistic field, but it needs more deep research. 2.1.2 Graphic Music The Graphic music belongs to the theory of minimal music. The main characteristics of minimal music is “simplicity, repetition, illusion/ perception, events, phase-shifting, complexity and sudden alterations of density� (Martin, 1994). As the communication with minimal music theory in vision, the picture is a piece of diagram graphically based on the procedures of minimal music, which composed by music drawing, musical notes, pattern of duration, rhythmic cells and chord members. In order to create framework with spatial quality from this Graphic music, the method was used to complete the structure is transfer those symbols to the spatial units directly (Martin, 1994).

Figure 2: Diagram of Graphic Music.

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This experiment is a direct way to get the architectural spatial units from translation of Graphic Music. The good aspect of this process is the quality of this kind of music theory, which has strong feeling of dynamic, so it is easily to create hierarchical space based on the various mode of Graphic Music. However, similar with the Vitruvius Program, the translation from Graphic Music to architectural units almost focus on the concept phase, and it gives inspiration for architects with dynamic sense. But when design process get into detail level or construction level, such as the arrangement of beam, wall, or floor plane, the Graphic Music might be became a limitation for them. 2.2 Architecture as Instrument–Freeway This work was designed about music and road. Music is defined as the art of design in time usually, but in this project, it tries to use a unique way to explore the idea of music and architecture by visual elements. The design concept is setting the Freeway itself as an orchestra, which use the ever-changing and continual shadows as the instrument to play the music. In this context, the surrounding environment as musicians, such as sun, light, shadows, and roadside trees (Zeug, 1994). Besides, the driving songs of high speed automobile and the movement of passengers also as the flowing melodies played by this instruments.

Figure 3: Freeway This project explores the relationship between music and architecture from visual elements. It is a special method attempt to combine two different categories of arts. However, someone think that this project more like a joke than a real proposal for a piece of sound art (McCartney, 2004), cause people are hardly to catch the connections with music and architectures, needless to say appreciate this project with musical sense or spatial feeling. 12 | P a g e


The Freeway just creates unintentional sound by shadows in vision and the noises of traffic make people feel unpleasant. But from the view of James Tenney, he brings a counterpoint, which is the sound of traffic, in many ways like the sound of the ocean surf, can become a musical composition that changes gradually in sonority when driving on the Freeway (Tenney, 2012). 2.3 Nature as Musicians When musicians and architects create art works, they always try to use fresh ideas and some new concepts in the design process. And lots of interesting ideas come from natural elements, because no one can produce art work without nature or a specific environment. There are three projects based on the natural factors, and each of them has their own method to explore how architectural work related to musical composition. 2.3.1 Scoring the Path This is a combination of musical notes and path design. The graphic symbols indicate that the enclosure of different kinds of path based on the height of people’s head and arms, and it also shows the height of pitch and the duration with musical score (Hanoch-Roe, 2007). From these diagrams, it can be see that people’s movement at a certain moments. The path-notes not only include the elements of musical notes, but also designed with the behaviors and manners of people. The good point is that putting musical elements in real architectural design work, not just stop on the concept phase. Furthermore, it also focus on the human activity and harmony with the surrounding environment. So, from the view of the author, it is a successful method used in the exploration of the relationship between music and architecture. However, from another aspects, although it is a combination of path design and musical elements, people are hardly to catch the link of them. When people get into these environment or walk through these paths, maybe no one can get image of their surrounding environment with the musical notes. In other words, the diagrams almost look like an analysis drawing after finish a project, not as an idea was provided at the beginning. Anyway, if the art work can be produced based on the behaviors or needs of people, it will easily become a good design work. 13 | P a g e


Figure 4: Path-Note symbols indicating enclosure (images courtesy of the author).

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2.3.2 Singing Ringing Tree The concept of “nature as musician” has been used in many different ways for architectural design works, and this project use wind as musicians, which was entitled as “Singing Ringing Tree”. This project is a large scale aerophone, which was consist of 350 pipes, and when wind blowing from the surrounding moor and to cause them to vibrate together, a kind of random tunes will

be composed

(Dowdy, 2005). This process seems like wind play music by use the pipes as Figure 5: Singing Ringing Tree (unrealized project).

instrument.

Tonkin Liu Ltd., Architects. Burnley, England. 2005.

The idea of this design work is very unique, which constructed by pipes and similar with many instruments, such as syrinx and panpipes. And the music produced by wind, so the characteristic of the rhythm and melody for the music produced is disorder and random. Anyway, the concept of this project is a innovative way, the construction as instrument and wind as musicians, but people are hardly catch the connection from architecture to music, because the music almost hears like wind sound, and it is hardly to produce music with general quality of musical work, such as rhythm, melody or harmony.

2.3.3 Zither Rhythm Studio The Zither Rhythm studio as another representative architecture combine the musical and natural element in design concept was founded in 1757, which is an imperial garden located in the inner city of Beijing, and the function of this architecture is provide a reading and relaxing place for Emperor Qianlong. The significant point of this building is that involving acoustic environment design. The main design element of this project is that putting beautiful natural sounds into the appreciable and perceptible feeling in this environment. As the pictures showed below, a roughly square pool is located in the front of the studio, with 15 | P a g e


the water sound produced as the background and supposed music (Zhang, 2011). The main feature of this project which is use natural elements to effect the architectural spatial design, thus, a people can get a wonderful feeling for breath of nature when they stay in the studio.

Figure 6: The Zither Rhythm Studio and the interior view. Emperor Qianlong was written a poem to describe his feeling in 1772: The studio faces the spring and the rocks, Borrowing their scenes and sounds. The inscription “zither rhythm� always makes visitors surprised, For there is no real musical instrument in existence. Once I recognize the charm in the zither music, There is no need to produce tones over strings anymore! The relationship between music and architecture in this design is main focus on the harmony with environment. In essence, when designer has a concept of architectural spatial design, they should consider about the surrounding environment on the site firstly. In other words, no one can produce a good design work without the connection with the surroundings. Maybe the concept of The Zither Rhythm Studio not related to the link between music and architecture, but it use water sound as soundscape for inside space, the result shows a harmony relationship between architecture itself and environment, music and architecture. 16 | P a g e


2.4 A New Context for Architecture –Electronic Music In the 1958 Brussels Expo, Philips Pavilion as a landmark stand on the front of world. Following with the world expo theme “science, civilization, and humanity” of host country, it

is impressed for every visitors

(Treib, 1996). The Philips Pavilion has a geometric unique shape like an aircraft, designed by one of the most famous architect: Le Corbusier, and composer Iannis wrote the “electronic poem” for the pavilion. From then on, a new context of musicElectronic music was born. Philips Pavilion can be called as the infancy of electronic music. Figure 7: Poeme electronique by Edgar Varese, performed inside the Philips Pavilion.

When visitors entered into the exhibition hall, it also as entered into the musical world at the same time. The recording of this architecture is: when people are walking in the building, on the one side, they can listen to music by more than four hundred speakers, on the other side, they can watch a series of images on the screen. Some of them are photos, some are oil paintings, and some are manuscripts. It was surprising that this pavilion has no intention to synchronize those images and sounds. As a result, in addition to coincidence, the most impression of people obtained is not harmonious between the visual and aural. In six months, nearly two thousands visitors got into Philips Pavilion everyday, and their reactions of music and images were variety: terror, anger, helpless, fear, interest, or enthusiasm. The Philips Pavilion was deeply imprinted in the memory of people through this new context of architecture- Electronic music.

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Figure 8: Xenakis’ sketch of possible “sound route” within the Philips Pavilion.

Figure 9: Philips Pavilion. As a German composer Stockhausen said, sitting in voice, surrounded by music, following with the movement of sound, and keep feeling of the speed and form of the sound, all of these can create a new brand of music experience (Zvonar, 2000). From this view, traveling with musical space can attempt to address the three dimensional spatial feeling. The electronic music is a new context for the exploration of relationship between music and architecture, and the main method used in this context is the computers and mathematical operations as the instruments, like the diagrams showed below.

Figure 10: Graphic representation of glissandi.

Figure 11: Plan of the “mathematical object” for the Philips Pavilion. 18 | P a g e


From this operations, the architectural design has strong geometry feeling. The Philips Pavilion not only has dynamic appearance based on the type of electronic music, but also display this kind of music at the inside space, so people can keep the same feeling when they transfer from outdoor surface of this building to the indoor space. This project is a new attempt for doing architectural design work from the musical concept and elements. It can be see that different field of arts can get inspiration from each other, and one category art help other arts evolved.

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3.1 Colour Colour in music refers to the mood or character, and colour can represent different emotional in our daily life. For example, red make people feel enthusiastic, hot; blue represent gloomy feeling and peace etc. Relating to music and architecture, people can get the same emotion through ear, eye, or physical activities in space.

Figure 12. ‘Di Tanti Palpiti’, second illustration from Colour-Music.

3.1.1 Music as related to Colour The sense of colour is different with feeling of music. It is belongs to the visual arts which can be see or touch, and the information and emotion are transferred by colour is more emphasizes authenticity than music. As an important integral part of human culture, music is extremely influential in society and individuals in various ways. First of all, music can be a background or render of atmosphere, and to show the psychological characters of people in various way. It makes life has the sense of reality and kindness, life has its own sound, colour and shape, and visual arts can reproduce the shape and colour of real life. It is a kind of continuous art, but as the reflection of real life, sound is a fragment art, when visual field and aural field can be coordinated, it can be produced the continuous, stereo and complete artistic effects for life, and give people a kind of stereo feeling, make them get an immersive feeling of arts. The eyes are “perceptual tool” of organ, and it is the behaviour of individual visual perception. As the behaviour guide, colour transfer cognition, emotion and feeling to people through eyes. Most of information is from the visual perception, so eyes can make people fully to appreciate the creation of arts. However, the ears like rational tool, and it is better

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suited to accept the materials which has been given in the shape or size, so auditory perception of objects are indirect, non-objective and unfixed.

Figure 13: Arthur Wallace Rimington, ‘Diagram to introduce time into colour effects.’

3.1.2 Synaesthesia With colour view get into music, perceptual music, understand music, read music, visual perspective can bring the unprecedented truth to people when they approach music with colour feeling. Looking for the colour, light and shade, shape and size or others of the visual perspective in music can help people to appreciate different elements of music, and start a new chapter in music development history with visual methods. With music becoming more and more important in culture and society, it does not only exist in ear, at the same time, people also can image a picture in brain according to their own association and taste. Thus, it will easier touch the feeling when they listening music. The appearance of visual arts can help people touch the music through their eyes, and experience the music with their hearts. From the sense of colour, people can find the source of music, and get the inspiration when they are creating music. Besides, people can also associate sense of colour from the melody of the music and the hearing arts. So we can aware that the unification existing in seeing and hearing, which forms the resonance of arts, and produces music in vision.

Figure 14. George Field, ‘Analogous Scale of Sounds and Colours,’

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The experience of audience’s life can be fully aroused by the dual sensory stimulation of voice and frames, because when seeing and hearing combine together, it will shows a screen space with depth, and reinforces the immersive feeling for them. The requirements of imaginal thinking are specific, sensible and characteristic, and all the content should be expressed in combination of audio-visual. In terms of music, at the process of appreciation of music works, the player brings the musical rhythm to people and the melody is flow although it is invisible. The music score sheets just show the notes to people, and musical notes are static. In order to understand the meaning of music, people should relate the stillness of notes and the flowing melody together, and use our own association and imagination to create a picture or a story for music in brain.

Figure 15. ‘English National Air’, Plate7.

The produce of visual arts is to help people get into the palace of music, changing music from invisible to visible. The frame of music can use eyes to touch, and the soul of music can be experienced with hearts. In the contemporary society, how to make the concept of colour play an efficient role in music, and make music easier infiltrate into our life is a new chapter need people pay more attention to.

3.1.3 Architecture as related to Colour In Minah’s opinion, colour has three roles in architecture, which are colour tectonics, dynamics and imagery. Colour tectonics used for clarify and define the shape in threedimensional. Colour dynamics use figure and diagram to present the visual hierarchies, and also acting as interactions based on contextual juxtaposition. Colour imagery can convey cultural context, emotional response and symbolism through the perceptual architectural experiences (Minah, 2006).

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The architecture design works are more focus on their image and personality in contemporary society, and colour with its own abundant expression become an indispensable element in urban design. It is not only satisfying the demands to the function of buildings, but also as the carrier of aesthetic spirit for clients, fostering their taste for beauty and ability of appreciating architecture. The same colour in different architectural environment can bring different feeling to people. The neat and orderly colour design can make people enjoy the space to their satisfaction, furthermore, it also can bring a unique quality for cities. In contrast, the chaotic colour on building can make colour pollution in their surrounding environment, and also cause visual fatigue for people. We know that the first impression of one city is the different kind of style of building which stand on the roadsides, reflecting the level of civilization of cities. People always say that architecture is the outerwear of cities and building façade is the outerwear of architecture. Architecture façade not only provide protective effect for the interior structure, but also has the artistic, decorative effect for the outer surface. Thus, innovating in the colour use for architecture is one of the most important content to beautify city. Choosing the colour use for façade not just means the colour itself, at the same time, people should also consider about the surrounding environment, the reflection from natural or artificial light irradiation and the surface materials. After the comprehensive consideration, an ideal colour effect can be achieved finally. The method of choose use colour in architecture must through the architects, planners, and lighting experts are working in close collaboration with clients , and base on the particular situation of function, material, location and environment. The design of colour is critical point for the whole building. It is not only defined by subjective factors of architect’s thinking, but it is also as the dynamic process of parameters and variables, cause they can make colour become the combination of technical and aesthetic. Besides, the function of colour use is mainly stand link between the quality feeling of elevation and aesthetic trend of people. Except giving emotion and characteristic for space, colour also can show renewed spirit for architecture.

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3.2 Texture The expression of texture has big difference between music and architecture. As two broad categories of arts, music use various instruments to show the textural feeling, and architectural texture appears in different kinds of materials. With textural view into the relationship between music and architecture, the difference exist in essence. This part is main focus on compare music and architecture in texture and seek to catch links between them. 3.2.1 Musical Texture- Instruments In music, the texture refers to layers of sounds, and rhythm produced by different kinds of instruments, just like piano, guitar, bass and drums can produce different layers of melody. Composers use musical score sheet to show his or her ideas, and then, musicians use different instruments to express their own feeling when they read and understand the musical score. Each instrument gives different kinds of characteristic to audience based on the quality of texture, and people can get different emotion when their ear listen to the music and heart touch the texture. In the board of music studies of University of New South Wales, musical texture results from three sources, which is the layers of sound, the function of each layer of sound and the role of instruments. To analysis the texture of music, people need to define the role of layers. And most of instruments have melodic role, others play harmonic role or rhythmic role in the layers of music. Based on the role of layers, the main types of texture in a piece of music are described as four classes: monophonic, heterophonic, polyphonic, and homophonic (Galettis, 2009). All the types are related to various musical styles as well.

Figure 16: Visual representations of monophonic, homophonic, polyphonic and heterophonic textures. 24


Demir provides a general opinion about the musical texture, which is the texture show changes just as individuals and use different instruments as the showcase for musical characters differentiate. Many adjectives used for describe the specific properties for musical texture, such as “thick” or “light”, “rough” or “smooth”, “hard” or “soft”. These adjectives are used as the reflections of the perception of the individual, and also as the sense of emotion and outlook to life (Demir, 2012). And some thoughts from others is that music can elicit changes in texture. According to Cellek’s theory, he thought that characteristic external structure properties with their objective effects generate the texture in all visual objects (Cellek, 2012). In other words of his thought, the “texture” means that the surface effects and their expression of the properties for the inner structure of nature. Texture forms the layer of surface and the difference of its create specific appearances. Transferring this theory into musical texture, the melody as appearance of music and composers can obtain new creation opportunities by utilizing the features of texture of instruments. Gencel states that the aim of musical texture is provide a comforting power for human lives in every period, it is the essence of utilizing texture as a crucial place in mental health of individuals (Gencel, 2006). 3.2.2 Architectural Texture- Materials Different with musical texture, the expression of architectural texture always use building materials as the main method. As the process of produce artistic work, the embodiment of art with architectural design is using materials to form the design composition according to use different methods to combine the basic elements, such as dot, line, plane and mass. Thus, the expression of architectural material can giving people with intuitive feeling in visual effect, and the performance of the material aesthetic is the aesthetic perception of building itself. At present, under the impetus of the technology and science, more and more new architectural materials are applied in the engineering unceasingly, and it not only add many new elements for architectural arts, but also put the aesthetic concept into architecture design work for the practical construction vividly. Generally speaking, the first impression of architecture is come from the colour, surface, appearance and the whole textural feeling. In particularly, the main perception of architecture is the visual effect which designed by the combination of different materials,

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then, through touch the materials and movement in the space, people can get the sense of spatial aesthetic feeling directly. The same architectural material has different effects in the view of different people. For example, from the perceptive of stone material, architecture designers and constructors have different understanding with the texture. Designers always use it from the perceptive of aesthetics, and constructors use its purpose based on the constructive function. But generally, constructors use materials should keep accordance with design proposal, therefore, making full use of the properties of material to create aesthetic feeling in architectural design can produce remarkable architectural effects. In architectural design, through using different quality of materials to do the design work as a combination of several kinds of art, many buildings can be formed in style diversity. The personality of architectural materials is mainly refers to the quality of texture in the architectural concept of aesthetics, which is the aesthetic perception of textural expression. For example, material texture can show the perception of cold or warm, dark or light, harmony or contrast and so on. At the process of doing architectural design work, there will be a general direction in architect’s mind, and the theme of all the design are follow this direction. The selection of building materials are also determined by architectural themes, according to the different character of material, use appropriate methods for combination and ornament, the architectural design work can be finished finally. At this process, designers can use different materials to create different atmosphere of space according to the specific situation, and through show the texture of material to people, it makes the designer’s abstract ideas become a specific visual facts beyond the physical essence and get communication with everyone. Therefore, if a piece of art work want to achieve admire of people, it must have its unique form of expression, which is based on the material texture as carrier. In the existing building materials, although there have lots of new materials been used in construction project in order to provide more possibilities for develop architectural arts, the main structure is still use traditional building materials, such as concrete, steel, glass, brick, wood, etc. With the deepening of social civilization, how to innovate the art work by using the traditional material is a main direction of construction development. And making full use of characteristics of building materials, with the high technology or new methods to combine different kinds of materials together in harmony, which is a great significance for 26


improving the architectural features in the future. In this specific situation, A Japanese architect Kengo Kuma is very good at use material to show their unique quality in architectural design. For example, the Bamboo sticks used to construct the pavilions as pictures showed below.

Figure 17: Bamboo Pavilion

It is a kind of fragile, light and nature material, and always be used as decoration. But Kuma use bamboo to provide a pavilion space, which is a self-supporting freestanding structure and a number of recessed LED light fitting in this space (Gregory, 2014). This pavilion just use less material and given a new inspiration for architectural concept, which covers strong rhythm and rhyme feeling when people get into it. The sense of good use texture in architectural design, just like the quote from Kuma: ‘The more the volume of the material is reduced, the more the human body becomes sensitive and tries to concentrate on the limited, thin, small and slight material in order to smell out or catch “something” from it (Kuma, 2010).’

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3.3 Harmony Harmony defined as the balance relationship of sound or sound composition and balance of parts together (both musical and architectural). It is not only means the balance relationship between each parts of music or each parts of architecture, but also focus on their surrounding environment. 3.3.1 Music with harmony in the environment The sense of harmony in music to match their surrounding environment is hardly to be described and make people understand. So in this part, I just pick up some piece of music with their surroundings as an atmosphere to make readers get feeling of that. For example, in a Gothic cathedral, which kind of music does not change keys and the notes are long can make people feel harmonious in the space.

Figure 18 : Gothic Cathedral

Figure 19: Music Hall

The space of this music hall is bigger and there are lot reverberation. In this space, it requires audience keep quiet during the show time. 3.3.2 Architecture with harmony in the environment The aesthetic perception of architecture is based on its harmonious relationship with the surrounding environment. Architecture is not isolated, but a part of urban space. Therefore, 28


whether it is proper or not, has an effective affect to the surrounding environment. So it is necessary to have a completed and reasonable urban layout. The completion of a significant architecture often brings a series of changes to the entire block, even to wider range of urban space. The architecture of a city holds its proper culture and connotation. It is about the vicissitudes of the city as well. People`s perception and experience to the feature of a city is mostly covered by the feeling among it`s architecture. So architecture is an important carrier to embody urban characteristics. And it recounts the distinctive personality of a city. If architecture pay more attention to seek individuality deliberately and neglect relations with the surrounding environment, every building is completely independent. They may lose their features when they performance themselves excessively. Thus, from this general background, how to keep the harmonious relationship with the environment is an important issue for people. Three personal views will be introduced as follow. Firstly, we should pay attention to the conception of the environment. It is necessary to fully consider the local natural environment when architects or composers produce art works, including factors of climate, environment and resources. And then we could adapt, use and respect the distinctive natural factors as much as possible to create an aesthetic environment with the combination of nature and manual operation. Secondly is the conception of the environment culture. The history and the culture is valuable wealth of a city. It is the city's "soul". Design of the architectural work should be rooted in the local culture endless, inheriting historical context and creating a new culture to keep the harmonious relationship for music and architecture. And thirdly, which is the conception of space. Doing architectural design work should in accordance with local regional characteristics of the building, make the city regains its own characteristics. People could rediscover their sense of identity as well. Design is not really a broad concept. In fact, it is a deep thinking on the specific environment, and it is a method to keep the harmony for human activities with nature. At the same time, it is an architectural thinking rooted in the fertile soil of the region and the culture. Therefore, the design is not just for one piece of music, one building, one country, or a city, it is for a historic district, a particular construction environment. As we increasing think deeply, it can 29


be feel that the design for art work is particularly true and realistic, because every design project has its specific location and environment. The process of produce musical art work or architectural art work is the method of keeping the sense of harmony with its surroundings. With the development of society, people gradually focus more on the construction-related environment than the building itself, which is an important feature in the field of contemporary architecture. Constructs is inseparable from their environment, the environment is dependent on the condition for constructs. Architecture should maintain harmonious relations with the surrounding environment. A Dutch architect, Jo Coenen, said that architecture is not just as individual, such as many component for constitute to the nature, architecture just belong to one of them (Jo Coenen, 2005). Architectural design in the essence is the design of environment, namely the creation of the environment for an adaptable space of working and living for humans, which could stimulate new mind as well. Therefore, the architectural creation not only meets the usage function, but also adapt to the surrounding environment, which reflect a certain cultural characteristics. It is a particularly important factor to maintain the overall and harmonious environment for urban space. Harmonious relationship among the buildings includes two meanings: coordination of space and coordination of time. It is necessary that the shape and style of architecture harmonize with the surrounding adjacent existing buildings. And it is important to show the characteristics of the architecture itself. Harsh conditions to the architect are both a challenge and an opportunity. While the architecture is designed without any restriction, this work is lack of the based condition – environment. So it could not become as an attraction. Harmonious group of buildings is not only just means the same as or similar to. The meaning of harmony in the beautiful architectural works is a combination of coordination, but also a combination of contrast. We should not blindly hold the negative view to that architecture which has strange shapes, strong characters, even a huge structural contrast with the environment. This kind of architecture is probably a special case in specific situation to the overall beauty of the environment under a certain conditions.

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With the architectural harmony in environment, one of the responsibilities for a contemporary architect is that design work should start from analyzing the environment, research it, know it, respect it and utilize it, and to meet architectural features, shape the image of the building, create architectural environment in harmony and fusion them together.

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3.4 Rhythm Although some differences exist in the relationship between music and architecture from many aspects, majority of rhythmical elements are common in the characteristic of aesthetic. At the process of deal with architectural form, architects always need to consider about how to use repeat elements in spatial design with rhythmical feeling. The rhythm often refers to the repetition of architectural composition changes regularly, make the changes have the sense of cadence, which can give the perception of aesthetic for people. 3.4.1 Rhythm in music The rhythm in music is defined as patterns of sounds in relation to a beat and the repetition of elements. Rhythm is a significant feature of musical work, and it combines with pitch to produce melodies. The composer creates rhythm in a piece of music through the patterns of long and short sounds and the beat within the bars (Galettis, 2009). From the view of Peter, he come up with an idea about components rhythms. He thought that the musical rhythm are determined by sounds or formation of sound and their components (Petersen, 2013). Sound and sound formations are defined by more than one component generally, cause the duration can be from beginnings to beginnings, or beginnings to the ends of sounds, melodies or other constitute components. And another point of Peter’s theory is that rhythm has weight. If the duration changes, or if different rhythm happen at one certain point, it will cause the rhythmic weight changes. The rhythm can be isolated at the process of analysis in one piece of music , however, in the reality, many kinds of rhythm interpenetrate by each other and happen simultaneously in one musical work (Petersen, 2013). As a result, it constitute the specific rhythm of a monophonic or a polyphonic composition. And how to distribute the weight of rhythm within the temporal continuum is the main subject needs composers to consider and calculate. The effect of rhythm has many ways in a piece of music. For example, it can provide the sense of momentum, identify the musical genre, and highlight a particular instrument. As a ‘rhythm-scientists’ in late nineteenth century, Henri Lefebvre thought that the form of musical rhythm is not a straight line but a wave. The similar distinction is that rhythm depends on the relationship between ‘linear’ and ‘cyclical’ time. He said:

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‘displays a victory of the rhythmical over the linear, integrating it without destroying it. Cyclical repetition and linear repetition meet and collide. Thus, in music the metronome supplies a linear tempo; but the linked series of intervals by octaves possesses a cyclical and rhythmical character. Likewise in daily life: the many rhythms and cycles of natural origin, which are transformed by social life, interfere with the linear processes and sequences of gestures and acts’ (Lefebvre, 2004). 3.4.2 Rhythm in Architecture Rhythm in architecture also refers to the repetition elements for concept or specific design. The rhythmic elements can be used both in whole building or just details. An obvious example is wooden shutter, which is not only as treatment for shading with the rhythm feeling, but it also can satisfy the requirements of lighting, and use shadow to create rhythmic feeling in space. There have some different method used to explore the architectural form with rhythmical composition. First one is the repetition of architecture module, such as doors, windows, or column. The second is the repetition of size or scale, such as the distance between column or the span of beam. Keeping the shape of architectural units but change their distance still can provide the feature of rhythm in spatial design, or keeping the same span but change the size or shape of units also can reserve the rhythmical feeling. And another rhythmical form is just keep the similarity of elements, for example, in a series of rhythm system of design, it can combine the gradient increasing and decreasing, make its shape from small to big, or big to small gradually, and the more effective situation is that put one important element in the center, make the element has regular changes from the middle, just like increasing the elements from center to outer circle, and combine with the secondary elements. This is a process of artistic changes from clam to peak, or from climax to relax. In the architectural design, the concept and method commonly used including the rhythm of continuous, gradient, crisscross, ups and downs. The following shall be introduced respectively. The technique used in rhythm of continuous in the architectural composition is that organization and arrangement of one or several components of continuous, such as colonnade design. The features of the gradient rhythm is that often use certain part of components to increase or decrease regularly. For example, through high or low of the mass, 33


warm or cold of the colour, thickness or weight of the material texture, architect can increase or decrease the design element regularly in order to create the harmonious sense of rhythm in design work. People will get perception of rhyme and harmony around the changes. The technique used in undulating rhythm although though doing some part of changes regularly to form the sense of rhythm, it is different with rhythm of gradient. The process of doing design work for concept in rhythm of ups and downs is more emphasis on one factor changes, and make its combination or details at random and vividly. Another kind of rhythmic system is alternating rhythm, which is in the architectural composition, using all kinds of modeling factors, such as the size of body, the solid or void space, the density of details, to create a rich sense of rhythm through a series methods in deal with crisscross and interspersed with each other. Architectural design with rhythm feeling is a kind of variably perceived art. It needs to be experienced from the speed of movement. The case study of Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe as a good viewpoint to explore the relationship between music and architecture in term of rhythm. This property exploited by architect Peter Eisenman, as an art work of memorial and an abstract urban pattern, the pictures showed below is a monumental field of separated cubes from his mind in Berlin (Jenck, 2013).

Figure 20 : Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin, 1998-2005.

Its rhythmic feeling indicate the totally contrast between sunlight and darkness. From the explanation for this architectural design work, Eisenman said that doing this work with a mood of fear when he experienced the lost in the a cornfield without any information of direction or scale. The endless, undulating grounding of large concrete blocks express the 34


sense of panic very naturally, and it makes people feel isolated through its agoraphobic abstraction (Young, 2008). Due to the design with undulating and alternating rhythmic element, it causes view suddenly appear and disappear randomly when people through the memorial, just like the meaning of silence after shriek or trumpet blast. It has a close connection with musical rhythm, which as the remorseless declining notes of a piece of funeral dirge (Young, 1994).

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3.5 Proportion In the mid-century, music belongs to sciences program. In the opinion of philosopher St Augustine, music and architecture are sister arts, both based on number, which ranks as the source of all aesthetic perfection. This theory brings the inspiration for people to understand and recognize the relationship between music and architecture from a rational perspective. Architecture is often referred to as the space between the walls. The music brought the relationship with the distance between the notes is the embodiment of actual music space on vision, and also is correspondence between visual and auditory performance. This chapter is main lead the concept of mathematics into proportion, because the science of mathematics has an important property is that nearly the essence in things through variation. Besides, it is also related to discuss about how the music and architecture art work were created with human proportions. 3.5.1 Numbers in Music As the art of time, music is including a complex mathematical system in depth. In the development of music history, the first person who revealed that music and mathematics has proportional relationship is a Greek philosopher Pythagoras. He defines the relationship based on the qualities of sound and the length of strings of musical instruments (Imaah, 2004). As a result of define the response relationship between music notes and proportion of numbers, recording the music score in short-term fluctuation is become a possibility according to the variation of this proportion. Besides, music produced by continuity and the repetition of notes, and the time interval between notes use the proportion of numbers to record and restore. In another words, it means that create music work is translate the time interval from musical notations to click track which is visible, at the same time, the distance between click track and the relationship of musical beat can also express the time interval. Thus, mathematics and the proportion of numbers as an important and essential element to generate the musical notations. Actually, when composer create music work, they always use the mathematic methods and proportion of numbers, whether they do so consciously or not. For example, at the start of musical notations, it usually has a score code, such as 4/4, 4/3. The denominator indicates

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the note per beat and the numerator indicates the number of beats per measure. From this point, it looks like the measuring scale in architectural drawing. Depending on this relationship, we can say that transfer flowing musical melody to frozen music score sheet is standing on the correspondence and transformative quality about the proportion of music and architecture. The meaning of music score sheet is visual expression of frozen music, in another words, the visual expression is a kind of reflection on the twodimensional sheet for musical space. From another view about performance, the essence of playing music is the process of transfer frozen music to flowing melody. Through define the relationship between music notes, musicians transfer frozen music to flowing time according to their judgment of the mathematical proportion unconsciously. Following these principles, some results can be achieved: 1. Musical notes can be transferred as proportion of numbers, and this proportion can be restore as score. It is a response relationship between them. 2. Producing music work depends on the proportion between gap of notes, and the gap also can be a showcase of the proportion of numbers. 3. According on the proportion of numbers, recording flowing musical melody on two dimensional sheet become a possibility, 4. Musical score sheet is a frozen work of time, and it covers the meaning of proportion of numbers. The music score sheet, which is melody and rhythm were recorded in two dimensional space, therefore music score sheet as a basic express type of recording frozen music. From those points, when musicians play music by instruments, they read and understand music work from vision firstly, then, they use their own feeling to change it becomes flowing melody based on a specific proportion of music notes. This process defined as the music score sheet has visual meaning. The meaning of music in vision, is music notes frozen on two dimensional space, is flowing time restore on space as distance on vision. Due to the proportion of time and gap between space has a response and transfer relationship, the solid base of produce music work be formed, which is the meaning of music score can express melody and rhythm, and is the essence of music score has visual meaning in space. Hence, it is similar whit the theory of 37


philosopher Pythagoras: music is number, number is music, and there has the same proportion relationship. According to the proportion of numbers in music, Doctor Wang Yun has a research to explore the correspondence between musical space and architectural space in vision. In his theory, performance of music by two way: the first one is define the relative position of music notes in musical score sheet, and the second one is define the distance between those music notes. In one word, expression of music is ups and downs of the distance between notes. The picture showed below is one of the research about transformation from music score to visual space by Wang Yun. It is from a piece of opera “Wozzeck,� which was created by a Viennese composer: Alban Maria Johannes Berg, and it is mainly use slowly

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Figure 21: The music score of opera Wozzeck and the Transformation from music notes to space.


rhythm, bring a kind of peaceful sense to people in visual space (Wang, 2011). From the view of Doctor Wang Yun, the space between music notes and architectural space has response relationship. For example, the closer distances between music notes make people feel stronger stress in spatiality. On the contrary, the further distance between the notes, the more relax feeling from the music, and the wider visual space people can get. The music brought the relationship with the distance between the notes is the embodiment of actual music space in vision, and also is correspondence between visual and auditory performance (Wang, 2011).

Figure 22: The Transformation from music notes to space. 3.5.2 Numbers in Architecture Transfer Wang Yun’s thinking to architecture, the expression of architecture depends on the positional relationship of plane wall and wall to define and performance space in large extent. Following this kind of theory, Wang Yun thought that the gap between musical notes and the distance between walls have response to each other. The distance between notes not at random, it depends on the space feeling of composer, and it is also the embodiment of the spatial concept. The same principle in architecture design, the position of walls in building not set up at random, and it is the embodiment for spatial feeling from designer (Wang, 2011). Actually, it is not necessary to prove the proportion of numbers used in architecture spatial design, because then architects doing design work, they need to consider about numbers 39


from the beginning to the end. Such as the height of building, the depth of space. Seemingly, a series of mathematical proportion comprise the whole system of architectural space. Obviously, at the contemporary design work, architects doing design work based on the proportion of numbers. However, in ancient time, some folk village were built without architects, designers, even the construction drawing. But those architecture still has proportional relationship. Figure 23: Modular Red and Blue based on human proportions. Red= average height Blue=with lifted arm

Some ancient architecture were built up according to the scale of human body. In North Africa, at a small village, the average thickness of the wall is about 450mm. It not just depends on the structure, but also determined by the length of the builder’s arm. Besides,

the depth of space relied on the pacing of builders, and the frame size of windows and doors determined by the width of the palm and the fingers length of human. It can be consider that use scale of body as architecture scale, which is a traditional way of the construction process, but the essence of architecture is put the proportion of body and relationship of scale into space. Due to the existence of harmonic bodies’ proportion, those ancient buildings still have grace charm without concept design or detail design work by architects. Thus, at the process of construction, when people use their own pacing to define the depth of space; when people use length of arm to measure the thickness of walls; when people use the scale of their fingers and hands to define the frame size of windows; and when people define the height of buildings by their own height...In one word, when people use the scale of themselves to define the position and scale of space where they are living, it is the transformation of harmonic data and balance of proportion into the architectural spatial design. .

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Chapter 4 Case study-Stretto House Stretto House designed by Steven Holl is another typical example in architectural history, which illustrates a underlying connection between architecture and music. The house is located in Dallas, Texas, and the site is nearby the pounds and people can hear the beautiful sounds from waterfalls. The inspiration of this design is 'Bela Bartok', the music for strings, percussion and celeste (Arnardottr, 2006). The formation language of the house is that generated from the natural geography of the site and has analogies with the formation of the music.

Figure 24 : Stretto House and the elevation drawing. The proportion of the house is based on the natural geography. The designer use the site as the key point, the proportion of the building which echoes the surrounding environment is analogic compared with the music. It shows a respect to the original site from the way he handle the inside and outside space as well as the choose of materials. For instance, the designer focuses on the concept of water, the building falls gradually which echoes the surrounding topography. From the perception of rhythm, the house absorbs the repeating character from the music. In general, four principal parts of the house repeat and gradually extend to the waterside. 41


The height of the buildings responses to the site and be lower and lower. In addition, the composition of the elevation is similar with the heavy and light notes of melody. The higher parts on the middle acts as the important high notes and the joined lower parts are curve and gentle. Besides, the elevation also looks like a few bars of a piece of music.

Figure 25: Drawing by Steven Holl and Detail drawing. The building also represents a sense of harmony like a music movement. From the aspects of texture, the designer used the heavy materials, bricks and terrazzo as well as the light material, cast glass and created space full of contrast and unity. When he designed the inside space, he used the curves on the ceiling and skylight in order to creates a dynamic space. The heavy brick and jumping light creates the contrast between light and dark, static and dynamic. The light produce effects on space controlled by time is similar to the relation between music in air controlled by time. From the aspects of architectural language, the designer make uses of two different elements, straight and curve lines to create a contrastive and balanced space. In the main buildings, the plans are regular rectangles but the sections have the curved ceilings. The most obvious feature of this project is the ceiling. Cause it comes from a piece of strings music, the curved shape has a sense of rhythm and make the whole building with hierarchical mass. It is a successful case that combine the musical element and architectural design methods. At the same time, result in Steven Holl come up with the idea from the surrounding environment, this project also keep the harmonious relationship in the atmosphere.

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Chapter 5 Conclusion 5.1 Summary In summary, the aim of this paper was to cast light on the exploration of the relationship between music and architecture. Through review several experiments and projects which seek to combine musical elements and architectural factors, the main reflection for the relationship from five aspects: colour, rhythm, texture, harmony and proportion. With colour view get into music, it is an abstract conception. Because colour belongs to the visual field but music as the art for aural field. The link is that colour can refers to the mood or emotion in music, and it is quite different with colour used in architectural field. It is a obvious design element in architecture, generally for facade or surface of material. Rhythm is use repeat element both in music and architecture. It is a similarity of them. The expression of texture also has big difference between music and architecture, one is through instrument, and another one is use material as the language to describe the quality of architectural texture. The terms of harmony and proportion have very closely relationship between music and architecture. When music and architecture are harmonious with the surrounding environment and based on the local culture, a good art work can be produced naturally. The proportion of music and architecture are both related to numbers, but it defined by musical component is the gap between musical notes, and architecture use the distance between walls to defined the proportion. The proportion of them can be transformed from each other, cause it has response relationship and the numerical proportion is matched with human body.

5.2 Critical Thinking Music and architecture are both play the important role in civilisation, and as two different categories of arts, they are also effected by each other based on the differences and similarities. A complete music always through the process of state, strengthen, develop and to the end, it is quite similar with architectural design process: concept phase, development, detail design and construction. And from the view about transformation for music and architecture, it is a combination of visual arts and aural arts. Music notes not only as the 43


symbol of record music, but it also show the spatial feeling on visual perception. On the musical score sheet, the notes express its feeling of sound, and through playing the fluctuating notes movement, the music space are formed. In particular, the musical space are formed by successively in the time elapsed between the notes. So the space between music notes not only means the continuation of the time, but also is the expression of musical spatial on vision. The musical notes are formed in different way, but the similarity is that they express the rhythm and rhyme of all levels in bodies’ activity. A good music work can be formed due to it fits to the changes of body rhythm and resonated with people’s activities. The same meaning for architectural space, if the exterior space has resonance and responding relationship with the internal rhythm of human, people can be touched by architectural space. Thus, creating the art works which can move people in spirit level is the essence of composed score and architecture design.

5.3 Limitation This dissertation has several gaps at the research process. First of all, it has not enough background information. Because music and architecture both have specific qualities in the different period. The aim of this written project is seek to catch the connection between music and architecture, and it needs more information about the development of music and architecture history. It can compare them at the start and helpful for study the cases and explore the relationship of them easier later. And the second limitation of this dissertation is the research about music. There is not enough research about different kinds of music, and most of discussion and reflection about the case study from the view of architectural project. And another gaps exist in the methodology, the method were used in this research is limited, almost just through the library study and literature review. It could have some other methods for the research, such as interview for people who interested in transfer musical element to architectural design, or use architectural tool to create musical work. It might be more useful for explore their relations directly, and the researcher also can try to do some experiments from the connection with the inspiration of music and architecture.

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5.4 Recommendation This research based on the exploration of relationship between music and architecture from several projects study and reflect the relations from five terms: colour, texture, harmony, rhythm, and proportion. At the further research, it needs to identify them more detailed, and also can provide more information from other aspects. As a architecture student, the view of this dissertation more focus on the project about architectural field, and the further research can explore the relationship between music and architecture focus on the musical view. How architectural project helps musical work evolve? Maybe the further research work can talk a little bit more about some questions like this. And another direction for future research can attempt to get more information from architects, designers, musicians, and composers directly, and compare the difference of their perceptions about music and architecture. It hopefully can produce a new sense of the connection between this two categories of arts. And the most important point of further work still is encourage artists can create art work from different field of arts, it will help our life more colourful and rich.

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Internet sources

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List of Figures Figure 1: Models were created by students-Music Animation Machine. ..............................10 Source: Martin, Elizabeth, 1994. Architecture as a Translation of Music: ( Pamphlet Architecture 16). Princeton Architectural Press. pp 10-13.

Figure 2: Diagram of Graphic Music. ......................................................................................11 Source: Martin, Elizabeth, 1994. Architecture as a Translation of Music: ( Pamphlet Architecture 16). Princeton Architectural Press. pp 21.

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Figure 3: Freeway. ...............................................................................................................12 Source: Martin, Elizabeth, 1994. Architecture as a Translation of Music: ( Pamphlet Architecture 16). Princeton Architectural Press. pp 52-53.

Figure 4: Path-Note symbols indicating enclosure. .............................................................14 Source: Muecke, Mikesch, 2007. Essay on the intersection of music and architecture. Culicidae Architectural press. pp 117.

Figure 5: Singing ringing tree. ..............................................................................................15 Source: C. Dowdy, Wallpaper magazine, “Sound Investment: ‘Singing Sculpture for a British Moor’”, 2005: 156.

Figure 6: The Zither Rhythm studio and the interior view. .................................................16 Sources: Photograph by Yue Xiake. http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog 4a8f7403100ahbq.html 2008721

Figure 7: Poeme electronique music. .................................................................................17 Source: Bandur, Marku. 2001. Aesthetics of total serialism: contemporary research from music to architecture. Basel; Boston; Berlin; Birkhauser. pp 68.

Figure 8: Sound route within the Philips Pavilion. ...............................................................18 Source: Bandur, Marku. 2001. Aesthetics of total serialism: contemporary research from music to architecture. Basel; Boston; Berlin; Birkhauser. pp 69.

Figure 9: Philips Pavilion. ......................................................................................................18 Source: Bandur, Marku. 2001. Aesthetics of total serialism: contemporary research from music to architecture. Basel; Boston; Berlin; Birkhauser. pp 66-67. 51


Figure 10: Graphic representation of glissandi. .....................................................................18 Source: Xenakis, Iannis, 2008. Music and architecture: architectural project, texts, and realizations/ by IannisXenakis; translated, complied and presented by Sharon Kanach. Hillsdale, New York, Pendragon Press. pp 99.

Figure 11: Plan of the “mathematical object” for the Philips pavilion. ..................................18 Source: Xenakis, Iannis, 2008. Music and architecture: architectural project, texts, and realizations/ by IannisXenakis; translated, complied and presented by Sharon Kanach. Hillsdale, New York, Pendragon Press. pp 95.

Figure 12: Di Tanti Palpiti. .....................................................................................................20 Source: second illustration from Colour-Music. D.D. Jameson, Colour-Music, Smith, Elder, & Co., London, 1844. Courtesy of P. William and Vera Ruth Filby Rare Book Room, Arthur Freidheim Library, Peabody Institute of The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Figure 13: Arthur Wallace Rimington. ...................................................................................21 Source: ‘Diagram to introduce time into colour effects.’ Colour-Music: The Art of Mobile Colour. New York, Frederick Stokes Company, 1911, p.41

Figure 14: Analogous scale of sounds and colours. ...............................................................21 Source: Example XXIII. Chromatics; or, An Essay on the Analogy and Harmony of Colours, David Bogue, London, 1845, p.79

Figure 15: English National Air. .............................................................................................22

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Source: The Music of Colour, Peabody Library, Baltimore, 1894. Courtesy of P. William and Vera Ruth Filby Rare Book Room, Arthur Freidheim Library, Peabody Institute of The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Figure 16: Visual representations of monophonic, homophonic, polyphonic and heterophonic texture. ..........................................................................................................24 Source: Galettis, Helene. 2009. Musical concepts: music 1 aural skills preliminary and HSC course. Board of studies NSW 1999, Music 1 stage 6 Preliminary and HSC Courses, Sydney, NSW.

Figure 17: Bamboo pavilion. ..................................................................................................27 Source: Gregory, Rob. 2014. Sensing Spaces: Architecture Reimagined, exh.cat. Royal Academy of Arts, London. pp 8-10.

Figure 18: Gothic Cathedral. ..................................................................................................28 Source :http://fuckyeahgothiccathedrals.tumblr.com/post/9262456947/st-marys-cathedralsydney-1868-1961

Figure 19: Music Hall. ............................................................................................................28 Source:http://www.musicincincinnati.com/site/commentary_2010/The_Tragedy_of_Music_ Hall.html

Figure 20: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin...............................................34 Source: Photo by author.

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Figure 21: The music score of opera Wozzeck . .....................................................................38 Source: Wang, Yun, 2011. 10. Architecture and Music. Beijing: China electric power press. p2.

Figure 22: the transformation from music notes to space. ...................................................39 Source: Wang, Yun, 2011. 10. Architecture and Music. Beijing: China electric power press. pp: 11-14.

Figure 23: Modular red and blue based on human proportions. ...........................................40 Source: Xenakis, Iannis, 2008. Music and architecture: architectural project, texts, and realizations/ by IannisXenakis; translated, complied and presented by Sharon Kanach. Hillsdale, New York, Pendragon Press. pp 44.

Figure 24: Stretto House and the elevation drawing. ............................................................41 Sources: Holl, Steven. 2006. Questions of perception: phenomenology of architecture. San Francisco, CA: William Stout. pp 86.

Figure 25: Drawing by Steven Holl and Detail drawing. ........................................................42 Source: Martin, Elizabeth, 1994. Architecture as a Translation of Music: ( Pamphlet Architecture 16). Princeton Architectural Press. pp 57-59.

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Music and architecture  

research project

Music and architecture  

research project

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