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Portfolio collected works by Rik van Ginkel, MSc

GUTE ORTE - SCHLECHTE ORTE CARINA HARTMANN


Portfolio

collected works by R.T. van Ginkel

01-10-2016


Profile My name is Rik van Ginkel, a graduate architect from the Netherlands, having recently relocated to Sydney, Australia. I began my career in architecture at the University of Technology Eindhoven in 2010, during which – in my second year - I completed the minor ‘Archineering’ at the University of Technology Delft. After completing the Bachelor of Architecture, Urbanism and Building Technology, I decided to put my previously acquired knowledge to the test by becoming an intern at the Netherlands’ renowned architecture firm, Diederendirrix. Through this internship I obtained more practical experience and, as a consequence, a more profound understanding of architecture necessary to start my Master of Architecture, Building and Planning in Eindhoven. During the first semester I took part in an exchange program with the University of Sydney, acknowledging the importance of international collaboration. In Sydney, I began unfolding my plans to becoming an international architect, submerging myself in the culture, lifestyle and architecture of Australia. After returning to the Netherlands, I continued to pursue inter-university experience by attending the Summer Academy at the University of Technology Dortmund. In July 2016 I successfully completed my graduation project by designing an architecture school for the Academy of Architecture Mendrisio, thus receiving the title of Master of Science in Architecture.

Alongside my architectural studies, I also worked as a student assistant (tutor) for the first year projects of the architecture faculty at the University of Technology Eindhoven. In addition to this, I was nominated for best project in 2015 and received a honourable mention in a rendering competition judged by A2 Studio. This portfolio contains a selection of my personal work from the various universities at which I have studied during my years as an architecture student. This includes courses such as ‘Digital Design’ at the University of Sydney, the product of the ‘Spring Academy’ at the Technical University of Dortmund, and an essay concerning ‘Designing with Context’ written at the University of Technology Eindhoven. The projects within this portfolio show the learning curve that I have gone through from the last project of the Bachelor of Architecture, up until the graduation project, ‘Modelling the Process’, which completed my Master of Architecture, Building and Planning. Placed in chronological order, these projects and courses will give the reader an extensive view of my design skills and how I perceive architecture. Thank you for taking the time to review my portfolio. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss how my education, work experience, and skills would qualify me to be a member of your architecture firm.


01 Curriculum Vitae Education, Experience and Skills // I - II

02 Character

Multi-generation home, Den Bosch, Netherlands // 01 - 10

03 Midnight Rendering

Residential Apartments, Rotterdam, Netherlands // 11 - 14

04 Parametric Shelter

Design for a Bus Stop, Australia // 15 - 18

05 Loft Living

Redesign of Apartments and Hotel, Eindhoven, Netherlands // 19 - 32

06 Grid House

Residential Home, Eindhoven, Netherlands // 33 - 46

07 Spring Academy Dortmund

Redesign of the Facade, Dortmund, Germany // 47 - 52

08 Modelling the Process

Architecture School, Mendrisio, Switzerland // 53 - 74

09 Research in Making

Interpreting a Photograph through Modelling // 75 - 80

10 Collage

Collage through Existing Images and Image Treatment // 81 - 86

11 Designing with Context

Essay on the Approach of Designing in a Context // 87 - 94

12 Photography

Personal Collection of Photographs // 95 - 118


CV Character

Midnight Rendering

Bsc, TU/Eindhoven

Msc, Sydney University

Parametric Shelter

Loft Living

Grid House

Msc, Sydney University

Msc, TU/Eindhoven

Msc, TU/Eindhoven

Spring Academy Dortmund

Modelling the Process

Research in Making

Msc, TU/Dortmund

Msc, TU/Eindhoven

Msc, TU/Eindhoven

GUTE ORTE - SCHLECHTE ORTE CARINA HARTMANN

Collage

Designing with Context

Photography

Msc, TU/Eindhoven

Msc, TU/Eindhoven

Msc, TU/Eindhoven


C V


01.

Curriculum Vitae

Education, Experience and Skills


Rik van Ginkel Rik Thomas van Ginkel (MSc) Master of Architecture 02 April 1992 Den Bosch, Netherlands

E: Vanginkel.rt@gmail.com Unit 1, 42 Nelson Street, Rozelle, 2039 NSW, Sydney, Australia T: 0474 724 879

A:

Education Bachelor of Architecture, Urbanism and Building Technology

2010 - 2013

University of Technology Eindhoven, Netherlands

Minor Archineering, Faculty of Architecture

Aug 2012 - Sep 2013

University of Technology Delft, Netherlands // Bachelor

Master of Architecture, Building and Planning

2014 - 2016

University of Technology Eindhoven, Netherlands

Exchange, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Planning

Feb 2014 - Jul 2014

University of Sydney, Australia // Master

Exchange, Spring Academy Dortmund

March 2015

University of Technology Dortmund, Germany // Master

Experience / / Field Graduate Architect / / Team2 Architects

Jan 2017 - Current

Design- and drafting work on multiple projects, Sydney // Full-time

Student Assistant / / University of Technology Eindhoven

2015 - 2016

Student Assistant / / University of Technology Eindhoven

2015 - 2016

Student assistant for the first year Bachelor projects, Eindhoven // Part-time

Student assistant for the Bachelor course Engineering Design, Eindhoven // Part-time

Junior Architect / / Diederendirrix Architects

Aug 2014 - Sep 2014

Intern / / Diederendirrix Architects

Aug 2013 - Jan 2014

Design- and drafting work on multiple projects, Eindhoven // Summer job

Architectural intern working on varying project typologies, Eindhoven // Full-time

/ / Awards and Nominations AnArchi Masterproject of the Year Nomination, 2015

AnArchi Rendering Competition Honourable Mention, 2014

‘Loft living’ www.anarchi.cc

‘Midnight rendering’ www.anarchi.cc

I


Curriculum Vitae / / Non Field Recovery Employee / / Ikea

2014 - 2015

Reachtruck Driver / / Jumbo Supermarkets

2011 - 2014

Support for Logistics and Planning / / Jumbo Supermarkets

2011- 2012

Order Picker / / Jumbo Supermarkets

2009 - 2011

Shelf Stacker / / Jumbo Supermarkets

2008 - 2009

Ikea, Eindhoven // Part-time

Jumbo Distribution Center, Veghel // Part-time

Jumbo Headoffice, Veghel // Summer job

Jumbo Distribution Center, Veghel // Part-time

Jumbo Supermarket, Veghel // Part-time

Interviews and Exhibitions Valentin Bearth

Oct 2015

Daan Koch

Oct 2015

Giacomo Ortalli & Gaelle Verrier

Nov 2015

Raoul Vleugels

Jan 2016

Owners of Bearth and Deplazes Architects, Switzerland

Architect at DSAR Architects, Switzerland

Owners of Ortalli and Verrier Architects, Switzerland

Owner of Werkstatt, Netherlands

Exhibition at Dutch Design Week 2015 (Research in Making) A Collective Work of Students, Eindhoven

Oct 2015

Languages and Skills Dutch

Modelling

Image Treatment

Autocad, Expert Sketchup, Expert Revit, Expert Rhinoceros, Basic Grasshopper, Basic Modelmaking, Expert

Photoshop, Expert Indesign, Advanced Illustrator, Advanced Artlantis, Intermediate Maxwell, Basic Vray, Basic

Native Speaker

English Fluent // IELTS 7.5

German Basic

II


02. Character Eindhoven University of Technology, 3rd Year Bachelor project Multi-generation home, Den Bosch, Netherlands


3


Fig 01. Render courtyard

Character 4


‘Living with Character’ is part of the multidisciplinary project marking the end of the Bachelor of Architecture, Urbanism and Building Technology at the University of Technology Eindhoven. Multidisciplinary meaning that all the different aspects of the built environment such as urbanism, construction, building physics, real estate and architecture were included in the design. Students from each of these five separate segments of architecture worked together in a design team to find a solution to a complex and integral design brief. The assignment was to design an urban plan in which new buildings needed to work together with an existing structure protected by the monument-preservation act. The new designs included a hotel and a multi-generation home, whereas the existing building was redesigned to a multi-functional complex containing a restaurant and workspace for starting entrepreneurs. After the urban plan was designed and the basic volumes of the buildings were set, every student had to work individually on one of the buildings. The design shown in this chapter is the result of this particular individual project. The ground floor of the design has a public character, containing several ateliers available for artists to use as a workshop and to simultaneously display their work. These ateliers can only be accessed from inside of the building, therefore placing the public route within the design itself. This public route is situated between the ateliers and the courtyard, which can also be used to display larger art-pieces. Through two large doors on the south side of the building, the restaurant of the adjacent building can be reached, thus making the courtyard the center of the design. This particular plan also shows two semi-private entrances on the north side, allowing the inhabitants of the apartments of the floors above to enter the building. These one-bedroom apartments show several variations, accommodating either a balcony or a loggia. These variations create a playful character in the facade, showing different depths and materials. The facade of the walkway orientated towards the courtyard shows a similar frivolity, created by the same principles and design rules.

5


Top Fig. 02 Second floor Bottom Fig. 03 Ground floor

Character 6


Left Page Top Fig. 04 Exterior facade Bottom Fig. 05 Section aa Right Page Fig. 06 Exterior render 7


Character 8


9


Left Page Fig. 07 Exterior render Right Page Top Fig. 08 Courtyard facade Bottom Fig. 09 Section bb

Character 10


03.

Midnight Rendering

University of Sydney, 1st Year Master course Residential apartments, Rotterdam, Netherlands //

Honourable Mention


13


lights are used to place the focus on the building itself, but also by choosing a nightsky the contrast between foreground and background becomes more predominant. This concept has also been applied to the adjacent buildings: they are part of the background to ensure maximum focus on the center of the image.

The ‘Midnight Rendering’ is the product of a design course at the University of Sydney. The main goal of this course was to introduce students to rendering and post-render processing of images. Initially, a model was build by using Rhinoceros in combination with Grasshopper. These rather unconventional programs were used, so students would get more familiar with different types of software programs, and also to create a basic structure to render. After the model was finished, a particular scene was chosen, highlighting the most important aspects of the structure. This not only discussed the angle and placement of the camera, but also the set-up of the light projection. This final scene was rendered using Maxwell, creating a raw image of the chosen design. Lastly, to complete the assignment, Photoshop was used to add elements such as materials, people, vegetation, elements (such as benches) and a colour scheme.

Additionally, other concepts have been used to guide the viewer to the most important aspects of the image: the gradient of the picture, which runs from a colder blue tone at the top of the image to a warmer orange tone at the bottom. Therefore the center of the picture becomes a more neutral tone being more pleasant for the eye to observe. Secondly, the edges of the image are slightly darkened, to put more focus on the lights inside the building. Lastly, a pattern made up of squares has been placed over the image to make the viewer unconsciously aware of the sharp-edged character of the building.

One of the most powerful aspects of this building are the balconies. They have different depths and widths, and appear to be placed in a dynamic or even spontaneous order. To highlight this specific aspect, the camera has been placed at ground level looking up to the highest point of the building, showing the different variations. Continuing on this concept, lights were placed at ground level pointing up, to project light on the ceilings of the balconies above. Not only these specific

Fig. 10 Exterior render

Midnight Rendering 14


04.

Parametric Shelter

University of Sydney, 1st Year Master course Design for a bus stop, Australia


The ‘Parametric Shelter’ is, similar to the Midnight Rendering, the result of the course ‘Digital Design’ from the University of Sydney. This assignment continued on acquiring digital design skills, with the main focus on parametric design. The students were asked to design a bus stop, where the finished product has to illustrate a profound understanding of Grasshopper. Therefore, the design had to consist of at least twelve separate parameters, each changing individual elements of the structure. Additionally, a combination of these parameters had to be able to be altered simultaneously. This particular assignment forced the student to think about which elements of a design could affect the aesthetics of a design. The product of the assignment can be seen on the bottom of this page, illustrating a small selection of the possible outcomes of the parametric design. This particular selection shows the variety of structures that can be created by the combination of parameters. These parameters include: the width, the height, the overhang, the angle of the overhang, rotation of the outer column around the z-axis, the scale of the outer columns, rotation of the middle column around the z-axis, the scale of the middle column, the number of columns, the number of beams, the number of beam segments, the rotation of the beam segments around the x-axis, the width of the beam segments, the thickness of the beam segments and the thickness of the columns. A number of these elements change the bus stop on a larger scale, creating dissimilar structures. These structures can be altered to a specific environment or urban context. Elements that could influence the outcome of this product are the built environment, orientation towards the sun, the climate and the frequency of users. The changes made to the beam segments however, only change the aesthetics of the design and are thus on a secondary level. The final requirement of the design brief was to create a setting in which the bus stop was to be placed. I chose to create a paradoxical situation by placing the structure in an environment in which a bus stop is made redundant.

17


Parametric Shelter 18


05.

Loft Living

University of Technology Eindhoven, 1st Year Master project Redesign of apartments and hotel, Eindhoven, Netherlands //

Nominated for best project


21


Fig. 11 Exterior render

Loft Living 22


Top Fig. 12 North facade Bottom Fig. 13 Ground floor 23


One of the most important changes confronting modern day architecture is the reutilization of buildings. The purpose or function for which a building is used often varies in accordance to changing needs. This allows for innovative architectural techniques and designs to be developed and used to reflect this changing requirement. Old buildings for instance, can have unique character not often seen in modern architecture where money, time and functionality are often paramount to the integrity of the building. Additionally, the contemporary requirements such as comfort, climate design, space and lighting must also be accommodated and addressed within the architectural parameters. Indeed to redesign is a difficult task when inter-gradation of new techniques with existing structures is necessary in order to retain the intrinsic character of the building. A building that exemplified this design is the Summa College in Eindhoven. Dutch architect Dirk Roosenburg designed this building in such a way that it is open to change, flexible to new ideas and adaptable to new modern functions. The clear structure of the columns provides the architect with a certain amount of freedom to apply new divisions of space without altering the original construction. The same principle has been applied to the exterior, where a repetition of similar elements is not without character. Rather it makes the prospect of design more powerful, even impervious to change. The new design respects the strong, existing structure, both embracing and acknowledging the character of building by only altering the elements that necessitate change. Roosenburg made a very clear distinction between the two main structures: An arc and a rectangular form. This division merits architectural respect whereby the two structures are given two different functions - a hotel in the arc and a market hall with loft-living in the rectangle. The new design does not only respect the initial character and integrity of the building itself but brings it back to life, integrating it into the landscape of the surrounding environment but at the same time making it a recognizable feature. This building now exhibits innovative architectural characteristics across all of its various facades as well as being a multi-functional center, which is accessible for everyone.

Loft Living 24


Top Fig. 14 South facade Bottom Fig. 15 Second floor 25


Fig. 16 Detailed section

Loft Living 26


Top Fig. 17 Fourth floor Bottom Fig. 18 Third floor 27


Left Fig. 19 Detailed facade north Right Fig. 20 Detailed facade south

Loft Living 28


29


Fig. 21 Interior render

Loft Living 30


Left Fig. 22 Render of interior Right Fig. 23 Floor plans of loft 31


Left Fig. 24 Render of interior Right Fig. 25 Floor plans of loft Loft Living

32


06.

Grid House

University of Technology Eindhoven, 1st Year Master project Residential home, Eindhoven, Netherlands


35


Reference grid

The ‘Grid House’ was part of the design studio ‘Art of the Plan’. This particular studio’s main focus was to design using the floor plan as the most important element of the design. The setting of the design is in the city center of Eindhoven, influenced by the adjacent modern architecture. Typical for a city, the building consists of a combination of public and private spaces. The Grid House, specifically, was designed to accommodate two separate families, each with its own composition. The two families are related to each other through an architecture firm, situated in the same building. Although these three functions are in theory separate buildings but together they form one unique building block within the urban context. One of the main design concepts is using a grid as a base for the floor plan. Not only the plot has been divided into nine identical blocks, there is a grid visible within these respective blocks. On the left side of this page it has been made visible how these nine blocks have been divided. Although the architecture firm only consists of one vertically orientated structure (fig. 35), the two dwellings have been embroided around this structure, showing no clear division.

New grid

Composition grid

Within the grid there is a set hierarchy: The left side is used for transportation such as staircases and routing through the building, whereas the right side is used to create a room with several sizes possible due to the division of the grid. Another design concept used is: ‘a city within a city’. The building functions as a miniature city within the urban context. Similar to a city, the ground floor is public and disconnected from the floors above. To empower this phenomenon, a clear distinction has been made between the ground and upper floors by designing a horizontal plateau. The same concept has been applied to the shape and materials of the design. The nine grid blocks all form their own unique tower within the aforementioned miniature city. There is a clear distinction between the grids due to the height differences but similarly because of the materials used in the design: Concrete, aluminium plating and weathered steel. The two concepts come together within the design of the facade: Each material and thus each tower has its own specific measurements. These measurements work together with the grid used to divide the interior spaces. Left Fig. 26 Birdsview Right Fig. 27 Composition of grid

Grid House 36


37


Left Fig. 28 Ground floor Right Fig. 29 Second floor

Grid House 38


Top Fig. 30 Fourth floor Bottom Fig. 31 Third floor 39


Top Fig. 32 Sixth floor Bottom Fig. 33 Fifth floor

Grid House 40


41


Left Fig. 34 Exterior render Right Fig. 35 Routing

Grid House 42


Top Fig. 36 West facade Bottom Fig. 37 South facade 43


Top Fig. 38 Section aa’ Bottom Fig. 39 Section bb’

Grid House 44


45


Fig. 40 Section ch’

Grid House 46


GUTE ORTE - SCHLECHTE ORTE CARINA HARTMANN


07.

Spring Academy Dortmund

University of Technology Dortmund, Exchange Redesign of the facade, Dortmund, Germany


ATLAS FRĂœHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

The city of Dortmund has a rich history, which is reflected upon by the plethora of architectural elements visible within the ensemble of facades. During the Second World War, most of the city’s structure was bombed and only a few buildings remain as part of the current build environment. These historical buildings are embedded in a mixture of modern and post-war architecture, specifically designed for consumers. The architecture, if present, seems to be hiding behind the countless exterior advertisements only empowering its functionality for the consumer. Additionally, these separate structures become even more individualistic, when analyzing the building block as one whole entity. Every building wants to be different from its adjacent structures, taking no consideration of what the effect is on the urban facade. During the Spring Academy of Dortmund, students from many international architecture schools such as Dortmund, Dusseldorf, Turin and Eindhoven came together to solve this particular problem. The assignment was to analyze the facades of the main shopping street of Dortmund, to understand what the negative and positive aspects are, and to design a new urban facade. Although every single structure was analyzed separately, the ultimate goal was to create an authoritarian facade. This meant that a particular building need not only correspond to the adjacent buildings, but also to the entire building block and ultimately the street. Each building was modified accordingly, striving to this particular goal. Changes made to the existing structure included a reformed window division - in which the plinth and upper floors were seen as two separate elements -, adding additional floors, dividing a larger structure up into multiple smaller structures, or creating more depth in the facade. A certain degree of changes were made to each building, resulting in a more coherent urban facade. Some of the original features remained as they together form the balance between old and new architecture.

49


ATLAS ÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

Group 3 FRUHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER H

SECTION Grou p 11 0 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

SECTION Grou p 11 0 SECTION Grou p 11 0 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG - DER HELLWEG

SECTION Grou p 11 0 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

SECTION Grou p 11 0 SECTION Grou p 11 0 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG - DER HELLWEG

Group 3 FRUHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER H

Top Fig. 41 Existing situation Middle Fig. 42 Drawing of existing situation Bottom Fig. 43 Drawing of new situation

Spring Academy Dortmund 50


F

ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

FR F

ATLAS ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE--DER DERHELLWEG HELLWEG

F

ATLAS ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

FR

CURRENT SITUATION SCALE 1:200

CURRENT SITUATION SCALE 1:200

CURRENT SITUATIO SCALE 1:200

CURRENT SITUATIO SCALE 1:200

ELLWEG

CONCE

SCALE 1: Facades

Facades

Group 1 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

Group 1 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

GSEducationalVersion

GSEducationalVersion

CONCE

SCALE 1: Facades

Facades

ELLWEG

Group 1 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

Group 1 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

GSEducationalVersion

GSEducationalVersion

GSEducationalVersion

GSEducationalVersion

GSEducationalVersion

GSEducationalVersion

51


ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG ATLAS FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

ON

ON

EPT

:200 Facade-Analysis

Facade-Analysis

Group 6 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

Group 6 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

EPT

:200

Facade-Analysis

Facade-Analysis

Group 6 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

Group 6 FRÜHJAHRSAKADEMIE - DER HELLWEG

Top Fig. 44 Existing situation Middle Fig. 45 Drawing of existing situation Bottom Fig. 46 Drawing of new situation

Spring Academy Dortmund 52


08.

Modelling the Process

University of Technology Eindhoven, 2nd Year Master project // thesis Architecture school, Mendrisio, Switzerland


55


‘Modelling the Process’ is the result of the graduation studio ‘Masterly Apprenticeship’. This atelier focused on Swiss architecture and included an extensive research on the design methods of Peter Zumthor, together with a design for an architecture school. This school is an extension to the existing campus of the Academy of Architecture Mendrisio, Switzerland. By using the model making techniques of Peter Zumthor as a design method, and his design studio at the AAM as a reference, the following building was designed. Additionally, the choice to use models, as apposed to renderings, allowed me to acquire a new skill set that required countless hours to master but nevertheless a rewarding task. The design stands paramount at the entrance of the campus guiding the students coming from the train station towards the existing buildings on campus. This central route over the campus is placed between the new design and the Theatre of Architecture designed by Mario Botta. As a result of the height difference of the site, this distinctive walkway takes the shape of a staircase, going past the different floors of the building (fig. 48). The student walking up the staircase will experience the various levels of the design with their respective functions (workshop, classrooms, atelier and exhibition space). This connection has been made possible by placing the walkway directly alongside the façade, giving the visitor an impression of the interior. The column structure of the façade (fig. 49) creates a frame through which the diverse spaces can be seen. The students of Peter Zumthor at the AAM used models during the design process as a design tool. These models were placed throughout the courtyard and galleries of Turconi (previous building), forming a permanent exhibition. This particular set up of the design studio of Peter Zumthor forms a principal concept in the design. The concept of a permanent exhibition is integrated into the design by placing two central staircases in the building along which the models made by the students can be placed. These spaces can be used by the students to display their work, whilst it simultaneously creates a place where the critiques can be held. The two staircases connecting the four different levels run over the full length of the building, forming not only a vertical but also a horizontal connection (fig. 50). These staircases start and finish at opposite sides of the floor plan, and cross each other at ground floor. The permanent exhibition created by this sequence connects the multiple levels with each other, creating a space where the relation with models is omnipresent. Fig. 47 Model showing the design in its context

Modelling the process 56


Fig. 48 Context of design 57


Top Fig. 49 Facade showing the design in its context Bottom Fig. 50 Section showing the design in its context

Modelling the process 58


Left Page Fig. 51 Interior model ground floor Right Page Top Fig. 52 First floor Bottom Fig. 53 Ground floor 59


01

03

02

00

09

05

10 08 04

+ 400

+ 200 07 06

Modelling the process 60

+0


04 01

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06 00

- 9350

05 07

02

07

01 04

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08 09 03 - 7150

05

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61


Left Page Top Fig. 54 First lower floor Bottom Fig. 55 Basement Right Page Fig. 56 Interior model first lower floor

Modelling the process 62


Left Page Fig. 57 Interior model first lower floor Right Page Top Fig. 58 Facade southwest Bottom Fig. 59 Section aa’ 63


Modelling the process 64


65


Left Page Top Fig. 60 North facade Bottom Fig. 61 Section bb’ Right Page Fig. 62 Interior model first lower floor

Modelling the process 66


67


Fig. 63 Interior model first floor

Modelling the process 68


+ 9700

Recessed window 150 mm recessed from outer wall Grey anodised aluminium window frame with bottom and top panel, Reynaers cs-77 Placed in front of construction Reinforcement profile on either left or right side

Facade build-up

+ 4350

110 mm recessed from outer wall 30 mm limestone cladding 55 mm air cavity 140 mm insulation 100 mm in-stu concrete wall 25 mm plaster 140 mm recessed from inner column

+0

Recessed window 150 mm recessed from outer wall Grey anodised aluminium window frame with bottom panel, Reynaers cs-77 Placed in front of construction Reinforcement profile on either left or right side

- 4350

Basement wall build-up 400 mm in-stu concrete wall 140 mm insulation

Column build-up 30 mm limestone cladding 55 mm air cavity 140 mm insulation 375 mm in-stu concrete column 25 mm plaster

Fig. 64 Detailed facade 69


Roof build-up

+ 9100

100 mm soil Filter layer 30 mm gravel 20 mm enkadrain 140 mm insulation 50-150 mm concrete to produce fall 100 mm in-stu concrete waffle slab 500 mm in-stu concrete waffle beam

+ 4350

Floor build-up 150 mm system floor with warm-water underfloor heating with integrated electricity ducts with integrated ventilation 50 mm sound insulation 100 mm in-stu concrete waffle slab 500 mm in-stu concrete waffle beam +0

Void build-up 500 mm in-stu concrete waffle beam

- 4350

Basement floor build-up 150 mm system floor with warm-water underfloor heating with integrated electricity ducts 50 mm sound insulation 400 mm in-stu concrete slab 140 mm insulation

- 7150

Fig. 65 Detailed section

Modelling the process 70


3

2

1

1. Recessed window

2. Roof connection build-up

3. Roof build-up

150 mm recessed from outer wall Grey anodised aluminium window frame with bottom and top panel, Reynaers cs-77 with reinforced profile Hidden screwed sill, placed behind stone cladding Placed in front of construction

30 mm limestone cladding Body anker for stone cladding 55 mm air cavity 140 mm insulation Vapour barrier 375 mm in-stu concrete Vapour barrier 140 mm insulation 55 mm air cavity Body anker for stone cladding 30 mm limestone cladding

100 mm soil Filter layer 30 mm gravel 20 mm enkadrain 140 mm insulation Vapour barrier 50-150 mm concrete to produce fall 100 mm in-stu concrete waffle slab 500 mm in-stu concrete waffle beam

Fig. 66 Vertical roof detail 71


1

4

5

6

4. Floor build-up

5. Beam build-up

6. Facade build-up

150 mm system floor with warm-water underfloor heating with integrated electricity ducts with integrated ventilation 50 mm sound insulation 100 mm in-stu concrete waffle slab 500 mm in-stu concrete waffle beam

30 mm limestone cladding Body anker for stone cladding 55 mm air cavity 140 mm insulation Vapour barrier 375 mm in-stu concrete beam

110 mm recessed from outer wall 30 mm limestone cladding Body anker for stone cladding 55 mm air cavity 140 mm insulation Vapour barrier 100 mm in-stu concrete wall 25 mm plaster 140 mm recessed from inner column

Fig. 67 Vertical window detail

Modelling the process 72


1

2

3

1. Recessed window

2. Floor build-up

3. Basement wall build-up

150 mm recessed from outer wall Grey anodised aluminium window frame with bottom and top panel, Reynaers cs-77 with reinforced profile Hidden screwed sill, placed behind stone cladding Placed in front of construction

150 mm system floor with warm-water underfloor heating with integrated electricity ducts with integrated ventilation 50 mm sound insulation 100 mm in-stu concrete waffle slab 500 mm in-stu concrete waffle beam

140 mm insulation Vapour barrier 400 mm in-stu concrete wall

Fig. 68 Vertical window detail 73


1

2

3

1. Recessed window

2. Facade build-up

3. Column build-up

150 mm recessed from outer wall Grey anodised aluminium window frame with bottom (and top panel), Reynaers cs-77 with reinforced profile

110 mm recessed from outer wall 30 mm limestone cladding Body anker for stone cladding 55 mm air cavity 140 mm insulation Vapour barrier 100 mm in-stu concrete wall 25 mm plaster 140 mm wooden ventilation vent

30 mm limestone cladding Body anker for stone cladding 55 mm air cavity 140 mm insulation Vapour barrier 375 mm in-stu concrete column 25 mm plaster

Fig. 69 Horizontal window detail

Modelling the process 74


09.

Research in Making

University of Technology Eindhoven, 2nd Year Master course Interpreting a photograh through modelling


The photographs on the following pages are part of the assignment, ‘Research in Making’ of the atelier ‘Masterly Apprenticeship’. For this assignment, each student of the graduation studio had to choose a photograph presenting an interior space designed by a renowned Swiss architect. The chosen photograph was an interior image of the Thermal Baths in Vals designed by Peter Zumthor. The objective of this assignment was to recreate that particular scene in a model in order for a photograph of the model to be as similar to the original photograph as possible. During the process of making the model the students were asked to explore the properties of the materials and construction of the represented buildings. Finally, the models and photographs were presented at the Dutch Design Week; an exhibition in Eindhoven celebrating the modern form of art and technology. What struck me most about this particular photograph was the composition of the geometry. The three ‘blocks’ - placed at uneven distances from each other - provide the observer with three parallel vertical lines. The placement of these blocks are of utmost importance due to the fact that they do not obstruct the view but they show more of the building, almost seducing you to go and see what is behind the next corner. Additionally the lighting of this particular scene adds to the complexity of the space. The block situated at the back of the photograph shows two different planes: one covered with light and the other basked in shadow. This particular light source also creates a reflection on the water, which forms the fourth vertical line in this photograph. The various, uneven, horizontal layers of stone used in Peter Zumthor’s design might be thought to inspire a certain uneasiness within the visitor. In fact it does the opposite - the alignment of layers in relation to each other gives the visitor a sense of comfort. The sequence is not random, but has obviously been carefully considered; each layer playing its part within a larger whole. Coming together at the corners, they do not mark the end of an entity, but instead implies that there is more. Together with the playfulness of light and shadow, the pattern engages our sense of curiosity.

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Fig. nterior model ground floor

Fig. 70 Exhibition at Dutch Design Week

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10.

Collage

University of Technology Eindhoven, 2nd Year Master course Collage through existing images and image treatment


Left Fig. 71 Collage Right Fig. 72 Original image 83


The interior photograph of Kunsthaus Bregenz by Peter Zumthor was used as a basis to see whether adding new elements to this scene, would either improve or destroy its serenity. This design course was related to the graduation studio ‘Masterly Apprenticeship’, to become familiar with Swiss architecture. The original space shows three separate elements: the glass roof gaining its scale from a clear rectangular division, the closed concrete walls with two different depths and the floor with a slight mirroring effect. Before adding these new elements, the most important aspects of the building were analyzed. The Kunsthaus is used as a museum in which the interior has no physical connection to the exterior space. Therefore this particular scene is missing a certain context concerning the ‘possible’ built environment and height level. Additionally the floor plan of this museum consists of a clear rectangular shape leaving the visitor no opportunity to wander. The new additions bring certain changes to these particular elements. The clean rectangular shape has been broken up into two separate rooms, connected to each other in the far corners and thus creating a pathway seducing the visitor to move through the building. The added windows on the right and back wall give the design a certain placement in its environment and reveal more about the exterior shell.

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This scene continues on the previous assignment, but rather it focuses on the exterior of Kunsthaus Bregenz by Peter Zumthor. Similar to the interior scene, several elements have been added to facade of the building to not only improve or possibly even devalue the facade, but also to understand what makes the facade unique. As previously discussed, the floor plan of the museum has a clear rectangular shape, which continues in a three dimensional manner in the facade. The horizontal and vertical divisions of the glass panels show no hierarchy, therefore letting the secondary facade - illustrating the staircases - play a more dominant role. The cafe placed in front of the Kunsthaus however, seems to be more dominant in its division of the facade. This is due to the contrasting materials and colours visible in the facade. The first change made to the scene is the vertical wooden beams attached to the faรงade, giving the building a more vertical orientation. Secondly, the cafe is brought back to a simple volume, depriving the facade of any depth and thus putting the focus on the museum. The last change is a closed brick element on the top left corner of the structure. This particular element draws the focus to the secondary facade, displaying the staircases.

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Left Fig. 73 Original image Right Fig. 74 Collage

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11.

Designing with Context

University of Technology Eindhoven, 1st Year Master course Essay on the approach of designing in a context


separation rather than a structural measure. By doing so, the restrictions of this specific barrier – thickness or height - are only met by the material’s own limits. Following up on the previous assessment, the ‘free design of the façade’ and the ‘use of glass’ are put alongside each other, explaining how both architects use glass as the main material to increase the connection between the interior and the context. The fourth comparison introduces the horizontal line as an essential means to integrate the building into its context. The last assessment – concerning the ‘roof garden’ and the ‘relationship between inside and outside space’ – describes how inside and outside space are no longer two separate elements, but are in fact affixed. In conclusion, when looked at separately the five point of architecture by Le Corbusier appear to differ from the five principles of organic architecture by Frank Lloyd Wright. However, after putting them alongside each other, the similarities are indisputable. They are so similar in fact, that - when designing with nature - these two approaches cannot be looked at separately, but become one single approach with five design-rules on how to design with nature.

How do the five points of architecture stated by Le Corbusier coincide with the five principles of organic architecture defined by Frank Lloyd Wright? When an architect designs a new building, he has to take certain constraints into account, which are beyond his own control. These constraints have been set out by previous architects or by nature, giving the building a context. However, there is a significant difference between these two forms of context: A non-natural context is defined by dimensions, mass and materials while a natural context is more difficult to define. This essay discusses the two differing approaches regarding context– by Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright – together with their individual rules on how to design with nature. More importantly, it examines if there are any similarities and if so, how these two design-concepts coincide. The ‘five points of architecture’ stated by Le Corbusier are put alongside the ‘five principles of organic architecture’ defined by Frank Lloyd Wright and subsequently compared to reveal both their differences and similarities. The first comparison connects the use of ‘pilotis’ with the ‘principle of continuity’ describing the importance of openness created by using columns as the main support. Derived from that principle, the ‘free design of the floor plan’ and the ‘nature of materials’ are discussed, pleading for using a wall as a

One of the biggest challenges - with which many good architects struggle - is designing in a context. Commonly, this context consists of a range of buildings, which can differ from one another in function, form and style. The individuality of modern architecture allows

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the process of design as a natural process, and the products of this process needs to be in harmony with nature2. As a concept he compared a building to a flower: “A flower is in dialogue with the rest of its surroundings, but still remains an independent entity”3. To implement these two philosophies into his design Le Corbusier introduced the five points of architecture in his book ‘Vers Un Libre’ and his journal ‘L’esprit Nouveau’. These points are: pilotis, free design of the floor plan, free design of façade, horizontal windows and roof gardens. Le Corbusier designed Villa Savoye as an illustration of the five different methods and not only implemented them separately, but integrated them as a whole; each one supporting and reinforcing the remaining points.

us to apply different approaches concerning the placement of a new design in a context. Recognized architects like Rem Koolhaas are known for their designs that clash with the existing context. Conversely there are other architects whose approaches are to design a building that resembles or relates to the surrounding buildings. However, this leads us to question: what happens when there is no context; no surrounding buildings; nothing but nature itself? Some would say that it is easier to design without these constrictions, but one could also ask: is it not completely the opposite? The limitlessness of nature and the absence of boundaries make it difficult - nearly impossible - to define the context where the design should be placed in. Fortunately, there are architects like Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright whom dare to confront this difficult task in order to educate fellow and succeeding architects of the many possibilities relating to the design process.

Like Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright saw the importance of including nature in the design process. Instead of designing a house that is placed on a site, Wright claimed that it should be placed within the site; architecture and nature working together as one design. Different to Le Corbusier, Wright took his inspiration from the nature of materials and their behavior. He therefore criticized the way past architects designed their ‘modernistic’ houses. He argued that these houses were “merely a complex box that had to be cut up by all kinds of holes made in it to let in light and air”4. Frank Lloyd Wright designed his buildings and determined his rules by looking at nature, realizing that a tree symbolizes the

Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright tried to find a means by which to blur the boundaries between buildings and their environments. Le Corbusier believed that “a building - whether that is a palace or a house - is designed from the inside out”1. The inside, or interior, is constructed by the combination of the floor plan and the facades. This enclosure of space does not only provide a living space, but also determines what is considered as the context or outside space. Secondly, Le Corbusier saw 1. 2.

Le Corbusier. (2008). Toward an architecture. London, MA: Frances Lincoln Publishers Ltd. p. 216 Menin, S., Samuel, F. (2003). Nature and space: Aalto and Le Corbusier. London, MA: Routledge. p. 63 3. Menin, S., Samuel, F. (2003) p. 65 4. Wright, F. L. (1970). The natural house. London, MA: New American Library. p. 14

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placing the columns in a mathematical order, supporting walls and facades are no longer needed, therefor improving the flexibility of the building. An open floor plan and flexible facades make it possible to increase the connection with its context because of the absence of restrictions. Frank Lloyd Wright also believed in the power of columns and opening the building up to its surroundings. His principle of continuity explains that columns and beams are not two separate elements but work together as one physical body: “ceilings and walls (post and beam) made one and reinforcing each other by making them continue into one another”7. This continuity allows the architect to discard the restrictions caused by separated elements, thereby creating more flexibility in the floor plan as well as the facades. Wright used this in his design for Falling Water, showing that when horizontal and vertical elements work together, the same effect can be created without columns. Although their design-rules are different, they both aim for flexibility in their floor plan and facades. Le Corbusier does so by using columns to open up the building whilst Wright uses the combination of support and supported to improve the plasticity.

way architects should approach a building. “Walls, ceilings and floors are not separate elements but can be seen as component parts of each other, their surfaces flowing into each other”5. His philosophy is supported by the five principles of organic architecture, which he describes in his book ‘The Natural House’. These principles are: the interior space concept, the usage of glass, the principle of continuity, the horizontal line and the nature of materials. To illustrate and comprehend this organic approach to designing with nature, Falling Water is used as an example: One of his most famous buildings and a leading example of nature and architecture working together. Although these points and principles do not seem like they have much in common, they coincide on multiple levels. To show the similarities between these rules, the five points of Le Corbusier are linked with the five principles of Frank Lloyd Wright and discussed in this essay. The first comparison is between ‘pilotis’ by Le Corbusier and the ‘principle of continuity’ by Wright. The pilotis, or supports, is the first rule that Le Corbusier implemented into his Villa Savoye. “The concrete columns are placed at specific, equal intervals, with no thought for the interior arrangement of the building”6. He elevated the ground floor to a height of three, four or six meters, removing it from its site. By doing so, the building plot is empty, leaving the site untouched. Furthermore, by 6.

The second point of architecture by Le Corbusier that is compared in this essay is a result of the first point discussed above; the free design of the floor plan. By placing columns you achieve a certain amount of

5. Wright, F. L. (1970). p. 39 Conrads, U. (1970). Programs and manifestoes on 20th-century architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 99 7. Wright, F. L. (1970). p. 48

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but only its own limits, giving the architect the opportunity to display the purity of the material.

freedom that cannot be met when using supporting walls. “The interior walls may be placed wherever required, each floor being entirely independent of the rest. There are no longer any supporting walls but only membranes of any thickness required” 8. This is clearly visible in Villa Savoye where all the walls are used as an enclosure of the room itself rather than supporting the floor above. The ‘membranes’ used can therefore be in any shape or thickness that the architect requires in order to open the floor plan up to its surroundings. Frank Lloyd Wright uses a different approach, which does have a similar effect concerning the materials used. With his principle the nature of materials he pleads for architects to rethink how they use a specific material. “The nature of materials gets at the common center of every material in relation to the work it is required to do” 9. When using a certain material, one first has to understand what the materials properties are concerning mass, proportions and aesthetics. Only then can a material look like it is in balance with nature. Part of the success of Falling Water comes from the materials, which Wright used. He understood that none of the stones were identical and did not change this but chose to display it proudly. While Wright focuses more on the material, and lets its nature decide how it should be used, Le Corbusier creates freedom of materials by creating an open floor plan. There are no restrictions to the materials thickness, proportions or mass

The following assessment discusses the similarities between the free design of the façade by Le Corbusier and the use of glass by Wright. This third point of architecture is also derived from the first point of using columns as the main support. These columns are not placed at the edge of the floor’s plane but the floor extends from the supporting construction like a balcony. “The façade loses its supportive quality and the windows may be extended to any length at will, without any direct relationship to the interior division”10. Because the façade does not have any requirements concerning the construction it can be designed freely, giving it the possibility to improve the relationship with the context. By looking at Villa Savoye we see that Le Corbusier finds this connection by placing windows across the entire façade, providing the inhabitant with a view to all sides. Frank Lloyd Wright also stresses the importance of using glass as a material for the façade. “You may see that walls are vanishing. Walls themselves because of glass will become windows, and windows as we used to know them as holes in walls will be seen no more”11. A wall made out of any other material forms a barrier to the nature outside, but glass links the inside to the outside; it lets light enter the building, and at the same time allows the user to see

8. Conrads, U. (1970). p. 100 9. Wright, F. L. (1970). p. 52-53 10. Conrads, U. (1970). p. 100 11. Wright, F. L. (1970). p. 47

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identify themselves with the ground, do most to make the buildings belong to the ground”13. But unlike Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye, Wright placed his buildings directly on the ground, without having a basement or being elevated from its site. Because of the slanted site of Falling Water, Wright uses his main terrace as a gesture to insinuate that the ground floor is indeed used as a foundation. Even though Falling Water has a quite significant vertical element in the middle, the other elements render it as a horizontal building. Evidently, they both recognize the horizontal line as a method to relate the building to its natural surroundings.

the beauty of the context. When looking at Falling Water, one sees that by using glass as a material for the facades the functions behind it relate to the nature in front of it, or even intertwine. Both architects search for a visual connection with the buildings’ surroundings, and find the answer by using glass as a material for their facades. The following comparison proceeds with the choice of using glass, but more importantly the way it is used in Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye. Le Corbusier’s fourth point of architecture calls for the use of a horizontal window. He designed his windows, not to cover the façade from floor to floor, but from support to support. “The window extends from support to support and thus becomes a horizontal window. Stilted vertical windows consequently disappear, as do unpleasant mullions”12. Because of the horizontal placement of the window, the room is equally lit, but this is not the only outcome: A horizontal window is immediately associated with the horizon and plays a part in it, blending a building into its natural surroundings. Not only the windows, but also the entire shape of Villa Savoye is mainly horizontal, bringing it closer to the earth and its site. This, however, contradicts his first point of placing the building on columns, lifting it from the ground. Frank Lloyd Wright agreed with Le Corbusier, understanding that the horizontal line is what connects the building to the ground. “The planes parallel to the earth in buildings

The final comparison discusses the relationship between the inside and the outside space of a building. Both architects agree that the exterior walls enclose the interior space, separating it from the context. Le Corbusier found a solution that is different from the points mentioned above, to break through the barrier and improve their relation. With his fifth point of architecture, he introduces a roof garden to his design. “The roof gardens will display highly luxuriant vegetation. This way the roof garden will become the most favoured place in the building”14. Le Corbusier saw the roof garden as an outside space that is still part of the interior, or an interior space that is on the outside of the building. Villa Savoye proofs that both are possible: The roof garden extends from the outside into the interior and

12. Conrads, U. (1970). p. 100 13. Wright, F. L. (1970). p. 16 14. Conrads, U. (1970). p. 99

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from the inside out is important, but also how the building blends into the site. Both architects agree that horizontal elements are what associate the design with nature. Finally, as we have seen, exterior and interior space cannot be seen as separate elements anymore, rather they work together to bring nature inside the design. When looking at the two examples provided, the dissimilarities are unquestionably clear. Evidently, Frank Lloyd Wright’s Falling Water blends into its surroundings whilst Villa Savoye forms a contrast with its context. However, this does not mean that one is better than the other. Both architects followed their own rules and showed that even with those rules, the possibilities are endless. Although their designs differ from one another and at first glance seem to be unique and incomparable, the conclusion drawn is that the rules behind these designs are incredibly similar. So similar in fact, that when combined, these five points and five principles become the five rules on how to design with nature.

while it is placed on the inside of the building, it is still outside. Frank Lloyd Wrights’ fifth principle does not only improve this relation, but it emphasizes that the two are no longer separate. “We have no longer an outside and an inside, and the inside may and does go outside15. In his Falling Water he designed the terraces in a way that they are an extension of the inside space, and not only an outside space on its own. Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright both include an outside space in their design that can be used as an interior space. It brings the nature inside their designs, bringing the users closer to their surroundings. This essay examined if and how the five points of architecture stated by Le Corbusier coincide with the five principles of organic architecture by Frank Lloyd Wright when discussing designing with nature. The five design-rules are put alongside each other and the evidence shows that these two different approaches are indeed similar to one another. They both aim for a certain amount of flexibility by using columns, therefor opening up the floor plan. This freedom in the floor plan allows the architect to use a material how it is supposed to be used rather than how it needs to be used. Another essential point is the visual connection with the buildings’ surroundings. Both Le Corbusier and Wright choose glass as their main material to achieve this connection. Not only a visual connection 15.

Wright, F. L. (1970). p. 44

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12.

Photography

University of Technology Eindhoven, Personal Work Personal collection of photographs


Footnote 97


This chapter contains a collection of personal photographs, taken by the author. These images were taken over the course of six years, and contain multiple architectural masterpieces located around the world. Each photograph is unique and shows a particular aspect of the building that makes it distinctive to its architecture. Additionally, together they form an accurate representation of which qualities I look for in architecture and my personal work. These qualities contain elements such as symmetry, composition, geometry, combination of materials, connection of materials, repetition and depth of the facade.

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Portfolio RTvanGinkel  
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