Page 1

4-LVsiy rUrq ls /kkxk fuekZ.k (YARN M ANUFACTURE FROM STAPLE FIBERS) cqukbZ (Weaving) rFkk Qank cqukbZ (Knitting) }kjk fufeZr oL=ksa ds fy;s /kkxs dk Á;ksx vkjfEHkd inkFkZ ds :Ik esa fd;k tkrk gSA /kkxksa dk Á;ksx ifj/kku dh flykbZ] iSfdax (Packaging) vkfn ds fy, Hkh gksrk gSA bl ikB esa ge lh[ksaxs fd js”ks ls /kkxs dk fuekZ.k dSls fd;k tkrk gSA vkxs ds nks ikBksa esa vki /kkxksa ls oL= cukus dh çfØ;kvksa dh tkudkjh çkIr dj ik,¡xsA

4-0

mís”;

(Objectives)

bl ikB dk v/;;u djus ds Ik”pkr~ vki bl ;ksX; gks tk,¡xs fd& • ;g le> ldsa fd ,d /kkxk (Yarn) D;k gksrk gS\ • /kkxksa dk LVsiy js”kksa ls dSls fuekZ.k fd;k tkrk gS\ • /kkxs ds xq.k ds fu/kkZj.k esa ,saBu (Twist) dk D;k ;ksxnku gS\ • ,d /kkxs esa ,saBu dh fn”kk dks igpku ldsaxsA • fQykesUV js”ks ls /kkxk fuekZ.k dh çfØ;k le> ik,¡xsA

4-1

çLrkouk

(Introduction)

/kkxk js”kksa dks ,d lkFk ,saBu nsdj cuk;k tkrk gSA ,d /kkxk (Yarn) fQykesaV js”kksa ;k LVsiy js”kksa dh (Textile Fibers) ,saBu (Twist) }kjk fufeZr gksrk gSA rhu Áeq[k Ák— frd js”kksa esa ls dikl vkSj Åu NksVs ¼lkekU;r;k 1 ls 10 lsaVh- yEcs½ gksrs gSa tcfd js”ke ,d fQykesaV js”kk (Filament) gS tks yxHkx 1 fdyksehVj yEck gksrk gSA ekuo fufeZr js+”kksa dk mRiknu lkekU;r% fQykesaV rUrq ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gS ijUrq mudk mi;ksx LVsiy (Staple) ds :Ik esa Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA blds fy, yEcs fQykesaV rUrq dks NksVs LVsiy js”kksa (Staple Fiber) ds :Ik esa dkV fy;k tkrk gSA bu js”kksa dh ,d cM+h ek=k dks Ák—frd js”kksa ds lkFk lafefJr (Blend) fd;k tkrk gSA rRi”pkr~ bl lafeJ.k dks oL= fuekZ.k gsrq /kkxksa esa :ikarfjr fd;k tkrk gSA js”kk ;k muds lafeJ.k dks igys ,d /kqukbZ ;a= (Carding Machine) }kjk ,d tky esa ifjofrZr djus ds Ik”pkr~ mUgsa /kkxs esa :ikarfjr fd;k tkrk gSA bu dks Lyhoj (Slivers) ds :Ik esa ,df=r fd;k tkrk gS ftuesa js”kksa ds chp esa NksVs js”ks lV dj vkil esa ca/k tkrs gSaA rRi”pkr~ budh Mªkf¶Vax (Drafting) rFkk ,saBu (Twist) djds /kkxs (Yarns) dk fuekZ.k fd;k tkrk gSA dqN fQykesUV rUrq dks lekukUrj :Ik esa j[k dj vkSj lq/kkjus gsrq mUgsa dkV dj Hkh /kkxs dk fuekZ.k fd;k tk ldrk gSA fp= 4-1 esa ,dy /kkxs ds çdkj çnf”kZr gSa ftlesa vucVs dbZ rUrq ds /kkxs] ,saBu ;qDr /kkxs rFkk NksVs js”kksa }kjk fufeZr /kkxs fn[kk,¡ x, gSaA

1


fp= 44-1 /kkxksa ds dqN Ádkj Ádkj

bl ikB esa ge LVsiy js”kksa rFkk fQykesUV rUrq ls /kkxk fuekZ.k dk o.kZu djsaxsA LVsiy }kjk jfpr /kkxksa dks ^Liu /kkxk* (Spun Yarns) dgrs gSaA ;g /kkxs lkekU;r% ;k rks lwrh vFkok Åuh ;k olZVsM (Worsted) i)fr ij fufeZr gksrs gSaA bl ikB esa ge lwr fuekZ.k dh lwrh i)fr ds ckjs esa o.kZu djsaxsA Liu /kkxs fQykesUV /kkxs dh vis{kk vf/kd vkjkenk;d gksrs gSaA

4-2

,sfrgkfld i`"BHkwfe

(Historical Background)

dikl js”kksa dk mi;ksx ekuo tkfr }kjk 5000 o’kksZa ls vf/kd le; ls fd;k tkrk jgk gSA ;kaf=d (Mechanical) drkbZ ls cgqr igys lwrh /kkxksa dk fuekZ.k gkFk ls fd;k tkrk FkkA dikl dh drkbZ dh {kerk dk Án”kZu js”kksa ds ,d NksVs xqPNs dks ysdj mUgsa viuh gFksfy;ksa ds chp j[kdj ,d fn”kk esa csydj fd;k tk ldrk gS] tc ;g ,d eksVs lwrh /kkxs esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA pq¡fd ,d diM+s dh cukoV (Texture) ,oa fn[kkoV (Appearance) cgqr dqN Á;ksx esa yk, x, /kkxs }kjk ÁHkkfor gksrh gS] vr% /kkxs ds v/;;u dk cgqr egRo gSA

fp= 44-2 Hkkjrh; pj[ks ij dk;Z djrh ,d efgyk

orZeku dky esa Hkh yksx eksVs /kkxksa dh drkbZ ds fy, viuh vaxqfy;ksa }kjk ,d rdyh dk Á;ksx djrs gSas ftlds “kh’kZ ij ,d NksVk lk vadq”k gksrk gS rFkk uhps ,d pfØdk (Disc) yxh gksrh gSA blh fl)kar us Hkkjrh; drkbZ pØ gsrq~ ^pj[kk* ¼fp= 4-2½ ds vk/kkj dk fuekZ.k fd;kA 500&1000 bZ- ds dky esa dHkh vfLrRo esa vk;k ;g pj[kk vkt Hkh dikl ls lwr dkrus ds fy, Á;ksx esa yk;k tkrk gSA ^vEcj pj[kk* blh pj[ks dk ,d fodflr ;af=d :Ik gS ftldk Á;ksx gkFk }kjk drs lwrh /kkxs ls [kknh oL= ds fuekZ.k gsrq cgqr cM+s iSekus ij fd;k tkrk gSA

drkbZ ds fy, Á;ksx esa yk, tkus okys ;a= ogh dk;Zokgh djkrs gSa tks v¡xqfy;ksa vkSj gLr fLiuj (Hand Spinner) ;k fLiUMy (Spindle) djrs gSaA vkt dh e”khusa vis{kkd`r cgqr mPp xfr ij dk;Z djrh gaSaA vkt /kkxk fuekZ.k dh ÁfØ;k (Process) dks vusdksa fØ;kvksa (Operation) esa foHkDr dj fn;k x;k gSA ftudk o.kZu vkxs fd;k tk,xkA

2


Lo;a Lo;a tk¡p Á”u

(Self check Questions)

1- ,d LVsiy js”kk (Staple Fiber) rFkk ,d LVsiy js”kk }kjk fufeZr /kkxs esa D;k varj gS\ 2- gkFk ls /kkxs dh drkbZ dSls dh tkrh gS\

4-3

dikl js”kksa ls /kkxs dk fuekZ.k (Yarn Manufacture from Cotton Fibers)

;kaf=d drkbZ eq[;r% dikl] Åu vkSj vU; js”kksa ds lkFk muds feJ.k tSls ikWfy,LVj ds fy, dh tkrh gSA ÁkÑfrd js”kksa esa /kwy vkSj vU; xanxh gksrh gS ftUgsa igys gVkuk vko”;d gksrk gSA fu/kkZfjr eksVkbZ okys /kkxs dks ÁkIr djus ls igys LVsiy js”kksa (Staple Fibers) dks lafeJr djuk] [kksyuk] lQkbZ] MªkbaZx (Drawing) bR;kfn fofHké ÁfØ;kvksa ls gksdj xqtjuk iM+rk gSA drkbZ dh iw.kZ fØ;k ds nkSjku dikl js”kksa dks fuEufyf[kr pj.kksa ls gks dj xqtjuk iM+rk gSA 4 -3 -1

[kksyuk

(Opening)

dkj[kkus esa dikl 180 fdyksxzke Hkkj okyh cM+h&cM+h xBfj;ksa esa igq¡prk gSA bu xBfj;ksa ds js”kksa dks [kksy dj fefJr djds lkQ fd;k tkrk gSA js”kksa dh xq.kkRed lekurk ÁkIr djrs ds fy, feJ.k djuk vko”;d gSA js”kksa ds xqPNksa dks gVkus rFkk <hyk djus ,oa mUgsa lqy>kus ds fy, mudks [kksyuk vko”;d gSA lQkbZ dh vko”;drk /kwy] ifŸk;ksa] Hkwlh] chtksa ds fNyds ,oa cps [kqps chtksa] dwM+k djdV dks nwj gVkus ds fy, gksrh gSA ;g leLr dk;Z uhps fn, x, ;a=ksa dh ,d Ükaa`[kyk }kjk ^Cyks :e* (Blow Room) esa lEié fd, tkrs gSaA i) gkWij csy czdj (Hopper bale breaker) ii) gkWij csy vksiuj (Hopper bale opener) iii) gkWij QhMj (Hopper feeder) iv) vusdksa Ádkj ds chVj (Beaters) & dBksj ,oa dksey (Hard and Soft)

Á;ksx esa yk, tkus okys chVj dh la[;k ,oa Ádkj bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd dikl dks fdruh ÁfØ;k dh vko”;drk gSA CysfUMax QhMj (Blending Feeder) ¼fp= 4-3½ ,d dk¡Vsnkj ^,sÁu* (Apron) gksrk gS tks dikl dks rc rd mBkrk jgrk gS tc rd fd csyu (Roll) }kjk lEiw.kZ dikl dh fiVkbZ (Knocked off) dk dk;Z lekIr ugha gks tkrk gSA pjfuax (Churning) dikl dks feyk (Mix) nsrk gSA

3


fp= 44-3 CysfUMax QhMj ¼lanHkZ 1 ls fy;k x;k½

4-3-2

fifdax

(Picking)

js”kksa dk ;g ifjQqYy ¼jks;sankj½ lewg vc Ldpj (Scutcher) ¼fp= 4-4½ esa igq¡prk gSA ;gk¡ js”kksa dks <hyk (Loosening) fd;k tkrk gS o lQkbZ dk dk;Z pyrk jgrk gS rFkk vc ;g ,d vfofPNé “osr pknj ftls ^^ySi^^ (Lap) dgrs gSa esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gS tks :bZ dh ,d nch gqbZ irZ ds leku gksrh gSA

fp= 44-4 fidj (Picker) ;k Ldpj (Scutcher) ¼lanHkZ 1 ls fy;k x;k½

4-3-3

dkfMaZx

(Carding)

:bZ dh irksZa (Laps) dks ^Cyks :e* ls /kqukbZ ;a= ;k dkfMZax e”khu (Carding Machine) ¼fp= 4-5½ esa yk;k tkrk gS tgk¡ “ks’k cph xanxh dks fudky fn;k tkrk gS rFkk :bZ dss js”kksa dks vyx&vyx [kksy fn;k tkrk gSA bl e”khu esa :bZ dh irZ vFkkZr ^ySi* dks nks ,sls jksyj ds chp ls gks dj xqtkjk tkrk gS tks fo”ks"k :Ik ls eqM+s gq;s rkjksa ls <ds gksrs gSaA ;g js”kksa dks lh/kk rFkk dqN lhek rd lekukUrj (Parallel) dj nsrs gaSA :bZ dh lQkbZ rFkk mlds js”kksa dks vyx&vyx [kksyus ds bl ÁfØ;k dks /kqukbZ ;k dkfMZxa (Carding) dgrs gSaA ;g js”ks /kqukbZ jksyj ls ,d irys rFkk ,d leku tky ds :Ik esa ckgj fudyrs gSa ftUgsa ,d gh ids vkdkj ds ;a= (Device) esa ys tk;k tkrk gS tgk¡ ;g yxHkx 3@4 bap O;kl (Diameter) okys jLlh ds :Ik esa gks tkrs gaSA bls Lyhoj (Sliver) dgrs gSA ;g Lyhoj (Sliver) cM+s&cM+s /kkrqik=ksa (Cans) esa ,df=r fd, tkrs gaSA /kqus js”ks ds bl Lyhoj (Sliver) dk Á;ksx eksVs rFkk e/;e ^dkmUV* (Count) okys /kkxksa ds fuekZ.k ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

fp= 44-5 /kqukbZ ;a= ¼lanHkZ 1 ls fy;k½

4


4-3-4 dkWfEcax

(Combing)

tc js”kksa ls mÙke (Fine) ;k ^vfr mÙke* (Super Fine) /kkxs (Yarn) dk fuekZ.k djuk gksrk gS rc ^js”kksa ds Lyhoj (Sliver) dks dkWEcj (Comber) ds jkLrs fudky tkrk gSA dkWfEcax ,d oSdfYid ÁfØ;k gSA dkWEcj dk dk;Z eghu nkarksa okys ^dkWEc* (Combs) }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA bl Ádkj js”kksa dks iwjh rjg lekukUrj ,oa lh/kk dj fn;k tkrk gSA NksVs js”kksa dks vyx dj fn;k tkrk gSA bu ^dkWEc* }kjk fufeZr js”kksa ds lewg dks ^dkWEc Lyhoj^ dgrs gSaA bUgsa fQj /kkrqik=ksa (Cans) esa ,df=r dj fy;k tkrk gSA lokZf/kd yEcs js”kksa }kjk fufeZr Lyhoj }kjk vis{kkd`r vf/kd fpdus ,oa vf/kd ^Qkbu* vkSj ^lqijQ+kbu* xq.koŸkk okys /kkxksa dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA dkWfEcax ,d [kphZyh ÁfØ;k gS tks dh ewY; dks cgqr c<+k nsrh gS rFkk vf/kd eghu] et+cwr] fpdus dkWEc js”kksa ls vis{kkd`r mŸke dksfV ds oL=ksa dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA

4-3-5 MªkbZax

(Drawing)

MªkbZax çfØ;k (Drawing Operation) ds varxZr ,d gh le; ij vusd Lyhoj dks MªkbZax jksyj (Drawing Rollers) esa ls fudkyk tkrk gSA MªkbZax ;a= (Drawing Frame) esa jksyj ds pkj leqPp; (Set) gksrs gSa ftuesa ls ÁR;sd dh xfr vius igys okys jksyj dh vis{kk vf/kd gksrh gS ¼fp= 4-6½A xfr esa ÁkIr ;g varj Lyhoj dh yEckbZ esa o`f) dk dkj.k curk gS vkSj blls ,d u, :Ik esa js”kk f[kap tkrk gS ftlesa dksbZ ^,asBu* (Twist) ugha gksrh gSA ;g Lyhoj dks ,d lk (Even) cukrk gS rFkk js”ks iw.kZr% lekukUrj ,oa lh/ks gks tkrs gSaA

fp= 44-6 MªkbZax bdkbZ ¼lanHkZ 1 ls fy;k x;k½

4-3-6 jksfoax

(Roving) 5


MªkbZax ds vusd pj.kksa ls xqt+jus ds Ik”pkr~ Lyhoj dks ^Lycj* (Slubber) esa yk;k tkrk gSA ogk¡ bls mfpr vkdkj nsus ds ckn ,saBu (Twist) ns djds fQjfd;ksa ij Hkjk tkrk gSA rRi”pkr~ bu fQjfd;ksa (Bobbins) dks ^e/;orhZ* (Intermediate) ;a=ksa esa yxk;k tkrk gS tgk¡ iqu% MªkbZax rFkk ,saBu dh fØ;k gksrh gSA Q+kbu vkSj lqij Q+kbu lwrh diM+ksa ds fy, lwr jksfoax Ýse (Roving Frame) ls izokfgr ds ckn ^tSd Ýse* (Jack Frame) rd igq¡prk gSA ek/;fed ;a= (Intermediate Frame) rFkk ^tSd Ýse ,d tSls gksrs gSa ijUrq ÁR;sd e”khu vis{kkd`r vf/kd eghu /kkxk mRié djrh gSA pkj ;a=ksa vFkkZr~ ^Lyfcax Ýse* ek/;fed ;a=] jksfoax Ýse ¼fp= 4-7½ rFkk ^tSd Ýse dks ,d lkFk feykdj ^¶ykbZ Ýse* (Fly Frame) dgrs gSaA bl Ádkj jksfoax (Roving) /kkxs dh vafre drkbZ ls lacaf/kr ^¶ykbZ Ýse* esa lEikfnr dh tkus okys vusdksa çfØ;kvksa esa vafre gSA jksfoax ls igys rd js”kk dsoy ,saBu ;qDr gksrk gS rFkk bldh et+cwrh (Tensile Strength) de gksrh gS vr% ;g gYdk lk f[kapko ikus ij gh VwV tkrk gSA

fp= 44-7 jksfoax Ýse ¼lanHkZ 1 ls fy;k x;k½

4-3-7 drkbZ

(Spinning)

vc /kkxs dks fjax drkbZ Ýse (Ring Spinning Frame) ¼fp= 4-8½ ij yk;k tkrk gSA tgk¡ ;g jksyjksa (Rollers) ds dbZ lsV (Set) ls gksdj xqt+jrk gS ftuesa ls ÁR;sd ckn okys jksyj dh xfr igys okys ls vf/kd gksrh gSA var esa ,saBu (Twist) ,oa yisVus dh fØ;k,¡ Hkh dh tkrh gSaA ;gk¡ ij /kkxk ,d ^VªSosyj* ls gksrs gq, ,d fLiUMy (Spindle) rd tkrk gS tks ifjØe.k djrk gS rFkk ,d fQjdh (Bobbin) ij fyiVrs gq, /kkxs dks ,d fuf”pr ,saBu (Twist) nsrk gSA vr% fjax drkbZ ;a= ,d gh ckj esa MªkbZax (Drawing Out), ,saBu Mkyus (Inserting Twist) rFkk yisVus (Winding) dh fØ;k djds /kkxs ds fuekZ.k dks iw.kZ dj nsrk gS ¼fp= 4-8½A

fp= 44-8 fjax drkbZ Ýse ¼lanHkZ 1 ls fy;k x;k½

6


vc /kkxksa ls Hkjh ckWfcu fjax Ýse ls fudky yh tkrh gS vkSj fQj vU; fØ;k,¡ tSls fojatu (Bleaching) ds fy, /kkxs dh yfPN;k¡ cuk yh tkrh gS ;k cqukbZ ds fy, bls Liwy (Spool) ij yisV fy;k tkrk gSA bUgsa bPNkuqlkj yscy (Label) yxk dj fpfUgr dj fn;k tkrk gSA /kkxk cukus dh lHkh ÁfØ;kvksa dk lkjka”k lkj.kh 4-1 esa fn;k x;k gSA lkj.kh 44-1 drkbZ&ÁfØ;kvksa dk lkjka”k

Øekad

ÁfØ;k ÁfØ;k (Process)

1

[kksyuk

lfEeJ.k dks <hyk djuk rFkk js”kksa dks ifjQqYy djuk

2

fifdax

<hyk djuk] lQkbZ djuk rFkk ySi (Lap) esa ifjofrZr djuk

3

dkfMZax

lh/kk djuk ,oa dkMZ Lyhoj (Card Sliver) dk fuekZ.k

4

dksfEcax

lh/kk djuk ,oa NksVs js”kksa dks vyx dj dksEc Lyhoj dk fuekZ.k

5

MªkbZax

lafeJ.k dks lekukUrj djuk ,oa ^js”kksa ds xqPNksa* (Strands) ds eki dks NksVk djuk

6

jksfoax

,d irys uki dk lewg ftlesa FkksM+k ,saBu nsuk

7

drkbZ

,saBu (Twist) rFkk /kkxs dk vafre :ikarj.k

Lo;a Lo;a takp Á”u

4-4

mÌs”; (Purpose)

(Self check Questions)

3-

MªkbZax (Drawing) dh ÁfØ;k dh O;k[;k djsa\

4-

lwrh /kkxs ds fuekZ.k ds fdl pj.k esa ,saBu fØ;k ÁkjEHk dh tkrh gS\

nks fofHk™k fofHk™k js”kksa ds feJ.k }kjk /kkxk fuekZ.k

rUrq vFkok cqus gq, /kkxs dk fuekZ.k dsoy ,d gh izdkj ds js”ks }kjk lhfer ugha gSA lwrh js”kksa dk ikWyh,sLVj ,oa ÅWuh js”kkas ds lkFk lfEeJ.k cgqr izpfyr gSaA ikWyh,sLVj ds vU; js”kksa ds lkFk Hkh fofHké vuqikrksa esa fefJr fd;k tkrk gSA ikWyh,sLVj ,oa lwrh js”kkas ds CySaM ds c<+rs mi;ksx ds eq[; dkj.k gS] budh vklku ns[kHkky] /kksus ,oa iguus ds vuqdwy xq.k tks ikWyh,sLVj ?kVd }kjk izkIr gksrs gSaA buds vfrfjDr bl izdkj ds js”ks fVdkÅ] etcwr] flyoV jfgr ,oa yphys gksrs gSaA dkyhuksa ds fy,] Åuh ,oa ,sØsfyd js”kksa dk lfEeJ.k vR;f/kd izpfyr gSA ekuo fufeZr js”kkas dh izfØ;k;s fdlh Hkh izdkj dh drkbZ dh e”khuksa esa dh tk ldrh gS] ftuds ckjs esa igys Åij crk;k x;k FkkA ekuo fufeZr rUrq js”kksa dh yEckbZ ds vuqlkj] iz;ksx gksus okyh e”khu r; dh tkrh gSA ;fn bldh yEckbZ] lwrh js”ks dh yEckbZ ds vuq:i gksrh gS] rks drkbZ] lwrh /kkxk cukus okyh e”khu ij dh tkrh gSA ;fn bldh yEckbZ vkSj 7


vf/kd gS ,oa Åuh js”ks ds vuq:i gS rks bldh drkbZ Åuh vFkok olZVsM e”khu ij dh tkrh gSA izkÑfrd js”kksa ls fHké ikWfy,LVj ¼,oa ukW;yku½ js”kkas ds lrg fpduh ,oa fcuk fdlh flyoV ds gksrh gS vkSj bu js”kksa ls “kq) :i ls vFkok lwrh ¼vFkok Åuh vFkok foLdkl jsvkWu½ js”kksa ds lkFk /kkxs cukus dh izfØ;k vf/kd dfBu gksrh gSA fcuk flyoVksa ds js”ks ,d nwljs ds Åij ls fQly tkrs gSa vkSj ljyrk ls mudh dkfMZax ,oa Mªkf¶Vax ugha dh tk ldrh gSA fØfEiax vPNk js”kk izzkIr djus esa vkSj mUgsa cka/k dj j[kus esa lgk;rk djrh gSA vkSlr fØEi~ vko`fÙk 0-5 ls 6-5 fØEi~l@ls0 eh0 gksrh gSA fØEi~M js”kksa dks caMyksa esa ck¡/kdj vkxs Hkstk tkrk gSA CySafMax ds Åij crk;s x;s fdlh Hkh Qkbcj izkslsflax pj.k ls fd;k tk ldrk gSA vkjfEHkd pj.k ds le;] izR;sd js”ks dk mi;qDr Hkkj uki dj lwrh js”kksa ds chp yxkdj CySafMax QhMj essa ¼fp= 4-2½ ;fU=dh feDlj rd dh vkxs dh izfØ;k ds fy, yxkrs gSA CySafMax dh izfØ;k dks drs gq, /kkxs ds fuekZ.k ds nwljs pj.kksa esa Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gS vFkok drkbZ dh voLFkk esa Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, lanHkZ 1 ,oa 2 dks Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ;g ckr /;ku nsus ;ksX; gS fd izkÑfrd js”kksa ls fHké ikyh,LVj js”ksa lkQ gksrs gSa vkSj mu ij lQkbZ dh izfØ;k dk iz;ksx ugha djuk iM+rk gS lkFk gh ;s lHkh ,d gh yEckbZ ds gkrs gSa vkSj blfy, bu ij dkasfEcax izfØ;k Hkh ugha djuh iMrh gSA

Lo;a tk¡p iz”u

4-5

5-

ikyh,sLVj dks CySafMax ds fy, D;ksa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS \

6-

CySafMax ds dkSu ls pj.k esa fd;k tk ldrk gS \

,asBu ,oa drkbZ fd;s x;s /kkxksa ij bldk izHkko

,saBu rUrq js”kksa dks vkil esa tksM+dj /kkxs es ifjofrZr djrh gSA ;g /kkxs ds xq.kksa ,oa ;ksX;rk ds fy, ,d egRoiw.kZ ;ksX;rk fuHkkrh gSA lHkh rUrq /kkxksa dks eksM+dj ,saBk;k tkrk gSA ftlls og js”kksa dks ,d lkFk cka/k ldsaA js”kkas dks ,dlkFk fV~oLV djds /kkxk cukus esa js”kksa dks fdlh Hkh nks fn”kkvksa esa fV~oLV fd;k tk ldrk gS] tSlk fd fp= 4-9 esa fn[kk;k x;k gS vkSj ftUgsa “S”fV~oLV vFkok “Z”fV~oLV dgk tkrk gSA fQj Hkh dqN diM+ksa dks cukus esa fofHké /kkxksa dks feyk dj fo”ks"k izdkj ds izHkko dks izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gS] ftlls js”kksa dks ,d gh vFkok foijhr fn”kkvksa esa fV~oLV fd;k tk ldrk gSA fV~oLV dk mYys[k yEckbZ dh izfr bap ds vuqlkj vFkok eksM+ izfr eh0 ds vuqlkj fd;k tkrk gSA dbZ ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa /kkxs ds fV~oLV dh fn”kk dk diM+s ds vfUre :i ij dqN izHkko iM+rk gS] ijUrq js”ks dh >qdko dh fn”kk dqN cqukb;ksa dks izHkkfor djrh gSA /kkxs ij nh tkus okyh ,asBu dh ek=k js”kksa dh yEckbZ] /kkxs ds vkdkj vkSj bfPNr vfUre mRikn ds vuqlkj fHké fHké gksrh gSA ,d lhek rd ,asBu /kkxs dh etcwrh c<+rh gS tc 8


fd vR;f/kd ,asBu ds iz;ksx ls detksj /kkxk cu ldrk gSA ,slk blfy, gksrk gS D;ksafd vkjfEHkd fV~oLV js”kksa dks vkil esa tksM+rk gS ftlls etcwrh c<+rh gSA fQj Hkh fV~oLV ds Å¡ps Lrj esa] js”kksa dk dlko] /kkxk cukus dh izfØ;k esa vf/kd gks tkrk gS ftlls bldh etcwrh ?kVus yxrh gSA fV~oLV ds c<+us ls /kkxs ds jks,a] ewY; ,oa fyf¶Vax ij Hkh izHkko iM+rk gSA de fV~oLV okys /kkxs esa vf/kd jks,a gksrs gSa] eqyk;e ,oa vf/kd vkjkenk;d gksrk gSA mÙke /kkxs esa [kqjnqjs /kkxs ls vf/kd fV~oLV dh vko”;drk iMrh gSA lkFk gh fufVax ;kuZ esa cqus gq;s ;kuZ dh vis{kk de fV~oLV gksrs gSA vPNh xq.koÙk ds /kkxksa esa fV~oLV dks iwjs /kkxs esa le:irk ls foHkkftr fd;k tkrk gS vkSj vf/kd ek=k esa Hkh gksrk gSA

xfrfof/k

(Activity)

1- fofHké fn[kkoV ,oa uehZ okys 10 oL= ysasA oL= ls rkus ,oa ckus ds /kkxksa dks ,d ,d dj vyx djsa rFkk mUgsa leery lrg ij vyx&vyx j[kdj fujh{k.k djsaA vki D;k ns[krs gSa \ bu rkus o ckus okys /kkxksa dh ,saBu dks lekIr djsa (Untwist)A vkidk D;k ijh{k.k gS \ 2- uhps fn, x, pkSdksj [k.Mksa esa dikl&js”ks ls /kkxk cukrs le; dh fØ;kvksa ds Øe dks Ánf”kZr djrs gq, Hkjsa &

4-6

nÙk dk;Z

4.6.1

(Assignments)

d{kk dk;Z

(Class assignments)

i) dikl dk /kkxk dSls fufeZr fd;k tkrk gS\ ÁR;sd çfØ;k ds mÌs”; dh la{ksi esa O;k[;k

djsaA ii) fQykesUV rUrq ls /kkxksa ds fuekZ.k dh çfØ;k dh O;k[;k djsaA 4.6.2

x`g dk;Z

(Home assignments)

i) ,saBu dks c<+kus ij D;ksa igys /kkxs dh et+cwrh c<+rh gS vkSj ,d vf/kdre Lrj ij

igq¡pus ds Ik”pkr~ ,saBu esa o`f) ds lkFk /kkxs dh et+cwrh ?kVus yxrh gS Li"V djsa \

9


4-7

Lkkjka Lkkjka”k

(Summing Up)

bl ikB esa LVsiy js”ks rFkk fQykesUV rUrq dks /kkxs esa :ikarfjr djus dk o.kZu fd;k x;k gS rFkk drkbZ ÁfØ;k dk lfoLrkj o.kZu fd;k gSA ikB esa /kkxs ds xq.k dks fuf”pr djus esa ,saBu ds egŸo ij Hkh fopkj fd;k x;k gSA ikB ds vUr esa Ñf=e /kkxksa dh lhekvksa ij Hkh ppkZ dh xbZA

4-8

Lo;a Lo;a tkap Á”uksa ds laHkkfor mÙkj (Possible Answers to Self check Questions)

1- ,d LVsiy js”kk (Staple Fiber) NksVk] iryk js”kk gS tcfd ,d /kkxk ,d lkFk ,saBs x;s (Twisted) NksVs js”kksa dk ,d yEch yM+ (Strand) gksrk gSA 2- nksuksa gFksfy;ksa ds chp esa js”kksa ds lewg dks j[k dj ,d fn”kk esa csy djds gkFk }kjk dkrk tk ldrk gSA 3- MªkbZax esa /kkxs ds Lyhoj (Slivers) dks ,d lkFk ,d gh le; MªkbZax jksyj esa ls fudkyk tkrk gSA blesa jksyj ds pkj lsV (Set) gksrs gSa ftuesa ls ÁR;sd ^lsV* dh xfr vius ls igys okys ^lsV* dh vis{kk vf/kd gksrh gSA xfr esa ifjorZu gh Lyhoj dh yEckbZ esa o`f) dk dkj.k curk gS ,oa bls ,d u, Lyhoj ds :Ik esa cuk fy;k tkrk gS ftlesa ,saBu ugha gksrh gSA ;g çfØ;k Lyhoj dks cjkcj O;kl okyk cukrh gS rFkk js”ks iw.kZr% lekukUrj ,oa lh/ks gks tkrs gSaA 4- ,saBu (Twist) dh fØ;k /kkxk fuekZ.k ds nkSjku iwuh cukus] jksfoax (Roving) ,oa drkbZ (Spinning) ds pj.kksa esa dh tkrh gSA 5- ikWfy,LVj dks vU; js”kksa ds lkFk lafeJ.k fd;k tkrk gS D;ksafd mldk j[k&j[kko vklku gksrk gS rFkk blesa okW”k~ ,s.M os;j dh fo”ks"krk gksrh gSA blds vykok ;g oL= dks fVdkÅiu] lkeF;Z] flyoV&Áfrjks/kdrk ,oa ÁR;kLFk iquÁZkfIr (Elastic Recovery) ds xq.k Ánku djrk gSA

6- lafeJ.k dk dk;Z /kkxk fuekZ.k ds nkSjku fdlh Hkh pj.k esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA 7- ,saBu NksVs js”kksa dks /kkxs ds fy, ,d lkFk ck¡/k dj j[krk gSA ,saBu /kkxs dks et+cwrh rFkk ,dlekurk (Uniformity) Ánku djrk gSA 8-

/kkxs esa ,saBu nks Ádkj dh gksrh gS % ‘S” ,saBu ,oa ‘Z” ,saBuA

9- ,saBu dks Áfr bdkbZ yEckbZ esa fn, x, ?kqeko dh la[;k }kjk ekik tkrk gSA bl yEckbZ dks ehVj vFkok bap esa ÁLrqr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bl Ádkj ,saBu dks ?kqeko (Turns) Áfr ehVj (Tpm) ;k ,saBu (Twist) Áfr bap (Tpi) }kjk O;Dr djrs gSaA 10- ,saBu /kkxs dh et+cwrh] ped] vkjkenk;drk rFkk /kkxs ds ewY; dks ÁHkkfor djrk gSA

10


4-9

vH;klkFkZ Á”u

(Terminal Question)

1. dikl js”ks ds /kkxs esa :ikarj.k ÁfØ;k dk lfoLrkj o.kZu djsaA 2. ifj/kku fufeZr djus okys oL=ksa esa dikl ds lkFk ikWfy,LVj D;ksa lafefJr fd;k tkrk

gS\

4-10 lanHkZ ,oa v/;;u ;ksX; iqLrdsa (References and Suggested Further Reading) 1. Corbman, B.P. (1983), Textile: fiber to fabric, 6th Ed. Mc. Graw-Hill Book Company, Singapore. 2. Joseph, M.L. (1996), Introductory Textile Science, Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc, California. 3. Wynne, A.(1997), Textiles. Macmillan Education Ltd. London. 4. Gulrajani, M.L.(Ed).1993. Chemical Processing of silk. Textile Department, IIT Delhi. 5. Usenko, V. (1979). Processing of man made fibers, Mir Publishers, Moscow

4-11 'kCnkoyh

(Glossary)

1. oL= (Fabric)

js”kksa ,oa /kkxksa dk vUrZxzFku ftldk {ks=Qy mldh eksVkbZ dh rqyuk esa cgqr vf/kd gksrk gS rFkk blesa mi;ksxh ;kaf=d etcwrh Ánku djus gsrq Ik;kZIr l?kurk gksrh gSA

2. js”kk (Fiber)

ds”k leku ln`”k oL= inkFkZ ftls lkekU;r% yphykiu] ckjhdh (Fineness) ,oa eksVkbZ dh rqyuk esa yEckbZ ds mPp vuqikr }kjk igpkuk tkrk gSA

3. fQykesUV js”kk (Filament)

vlhfer yEckbZ dk ,d js”kkA

4. vfofPNé fQykesUV /kkxk (Continuous filament yarn)

,d vFkok vf/kd ,sls js”kksa }kjk jfpr /kkxk (Yarn) ftuesa js”kksa dh yEckbZ /kkxs dh dqy yEckbZ ds cjkcj gksA

5. /kkxk (Thread)

lkekU;r% nks ;k nks ls vf/kd /kkxksa dk c¡Vk gqvk /kkxkA

6. Rkdqvk (Spindle)

,d lwr ds :Ik esa cuk, tk jgs js”kksa dks vko”;d ,saBu Ánku djus gsrq drkbZ esa Á;qDr ,d yEch iryh NM+A ;g gLr;qfDr (Hand Device) vFkok ,d pj[ks dk fgLlk (Part) gks ldrs gSa

11

UNIT2-LESSON4  

• /kkxs ds xq.k ds fu/kkZj.k esa ,saBu (Twist) dk D;k ;ksxnku gS\ • ,d /kkxs esa ,saBu dh fn”kk dks igpku ldsaxsA • /kkxksa dk LVsiy js”kksa...

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