COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES- I ENGLISH GRAMMAR (CONTINUED) 12. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH (PART 2) In this final lesson under Unit II, you will learn more characteristics of Direct and Indirect speech and how to change one form into the other. In the previous lesson, the fundamentals of identifying the various characteristics of Direct and Indirect Speech patterns and learning to change the forms were explained to you. In this lesson you will be exposed to more features pertaining to change of the speech forms. With the end of this unit, your exposure to basic Grammar will be complete. ___________________________________________________________________
12.0 Objectives By the end of these lessons you will: i. ii. iii. iv.
Identify Direct and Indirect Speech. Differentiate between Direct and Indirect Speech. Paraphrase what you read and hear correctly. Change speech from the direct form to the indirect form and vice versa applying rules pertaining to tenses, verb and pronoun forms and expressions of time and place.
12.1 Introduction In the previous lesson you had already been exposed to basic characteristics and structures of the speech forms, rules of punctuation and practice through exercises. You have understood the difference between the two forms and acquired the ability to change one form to the other. This lesson will explain how to change the form from one to the other more effectively by applying rules relating to a) tenses, b) verb and pronoun forms and c) expressions of time and place. Pay close attention to the more detailed features of changes in Direct and Indirect Speech forms discussed in this lesson. A complete familiarity of the rules and constant practice will give you the necessary awareness which can be put to use according to need in order to make communication more effective.
12.2 Changing Direct to Indirect Speech and Vice Versa
There are some rules we need to follow when we change direct speech to indirect speech. We generally need to be careful about the tense, verb forms, pronouns, expression of time and the expression of place when we change from one kind of speech to the other. 12.2.1 Tense Change When you normally report something someone has said you need to change the tense. The table given below explains how each tense changes when we change direct speech to indirect speech. Please pay close attention to the changes and understand them well. Once you understand them do try to practice changing indirect to direct speech too.
Direct Speech Simple Present
Indirect Speech Simple Past
She said, "It is cold."
She said that it was cold.
He said, “I am never late for office.”
He said that he was never late for office. Past Continuous
Present Continuous She said, "I'm teaching English in school.”
She said that she was teaching English in school.
He said, “I’m posted in Assam.” He said he was posted in Assam. Present Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Simple
She said, "I've been a member since She said that she had been a member 1999." since 1999. He said, “I have been waiting for over an He said that he had been waiting for over an hour. hour." Present Perfect Continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years."
She said that she had been teaching English for seven years.
“Living in a city makes life hectic.”
She said that living in a city made life hectic.
She said, "I met her yesterday."
She said that she had met her yesterday.
“They left them on the bed,” she said.
She said that they had left them on the bed. Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
She said, "I was dancing earlier."
She said that she had been dancing earlier.
“We were going through the file at that time.” Past Perfect
They said that they had been going through the file at that time. Past Perfect (NO CHANGE)
She said, "The lesson had already started She said that the lesson had already when he arrived." started when he arrived. Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous (NO CHANGE )
She said, "I'd already been teaching for She said that she'd already been five minutes when the student came teaching for five minutes when the rushing in." student came rushing in.
However, there are certain exceptions to these rules. These exceptions are as follows: 1. Even though the past continuous tense should change to the past perfect continuous when changing from direct to indirect speech, in common practice it usually remains unchanged. Examples
He said, "When I passed by, they were raking the leaves."
"When we were living in the neighbourhood, we often went jogging," she said.
Leela said, “My daughter moved to another city after her marriage.”
Indirect Speech (Changed Tense)
Indirect Speech (Unchanged Tensebut Acceptable) He said that when he He said that when passed by, they had he passed by, they been raking the were raking the leaves. leaves. (past perfect continuous tense) She said that when She said that when they were living in the they were living in neighbourhood, they the neighbourhood, had often gone they often went jogging. jogging. (past perfect tense) She said that her She said that her daughter had moved daughter moved to to another city after another city after her marriage. her marriage. (past perfect tense)
2. When something that is described still exists in the same state when the speech is reported, the tense used to describe it is not changed.
Indirect Speech (Unchanged Tense)
Example 1: Example 2: Example 3:
He said, “I miss the family-get-togethers.” The teacher said, "The sun rises in the east." The doctor said, “She is still unconscious.”
He said that he misses the family-gettogethers. The teacher said that the sun rises in the east. The doctor said that she is still unconscious.
3. Sometimes we can use past tenses. Let us look at some examples: a. “How old are you?” b. I asked how old you were. c. “Where are you going?” d. She asked where I was going.
Self-Check Questions Applying the rules of tense change, convert the speech forms in the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
He said that he loves parties. She said, “When I looked into the classroom I found the children were studying.” He said that he had already been attacked when the police arrived. She said, “I saw the movie.” He said, “The examination paper is easy.” She said that she was participating in the beauty contest.
12.2.2 Change in Verb Forms Specific verb forms also sometimes change. Look at the examples given below of the verbs that change. will would She said, "I will explain it in class tomorrow.” She said that she would explain it in class the next day. Can could She said, "I can pick you up on my way." She said that she could pick me up on her way. Must had to She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." She said that she had to have a computer to teach English online.
Shall should She said, "What shall we do today?" She asked what we should do today. May might She said, "May I open a new account?" She asked if she might open a new account. Note - There is no change to verbs such as could, would, should, might and ought to. For Example: “I might visit my sister,” he said. He said that he might visit his sister. “You should be ashamed of yourself.” He said that I should be ashamed of myself. “Would you please do me a favour?” She asked me if I would do her a favour.
Self-Check Questions Applying the rules of change in verb forms, change the speech forms in the following sentences. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
“Would you please sing the prayer song?” He asked if he might speak to the headmaster. He said, “I must complete the work before noon.” He said that he would book the tickets. Rita said, “I cannot manage to do the entire work alone.” He said that he might go home late.
12.2.3 Change in Reporting Verbs Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. We use these as the Reporting Verbs in indirect speech. In this section we will look at how we use the common reporting verbs in both kinds of speech. Reporting Questions We use asked to report questions:For example: I asked Lalita what time the lesson started.
When the question is introduced by an interrogative word (what, where, when, why, how, etc.), the same word is used in the indirect speech. When this occurs, we do not use the conjunction ‘that’ . For example: I said, “What is your name?” I asked him what his name was. In a direct speech sentence if the verb used is ‘say to’, ‘says to’ or ‘said to’ then the reporting verb will change to ‘tell’, ‘tells’ and ‘told’ respectively. Here the form of the reporting verb indicates a declaration of a statement. For example: He said to me, “I am writing a poem.” He told me that he was writing a poem. He says to me, “My son is brilliant.” He tells me that his son is brilliant. When direct speech is in question form and involves a choice, use the conjunctions whether or if. Additionally, when the question is introduced by a verb, the reporting verb is followed by ‘if or whether’ For example: Mala said to me, “Are you coming with me or not?” Mala asked me whether I was going with her or not. “Would you like to have something to eat?” He asked me if I would like to have something to eat. My friend said to me, “Are you going to a movie?” My friend asked if I was going to a movie. Note the following rules: a. In direct speech the verb is placed before the subject b. In indirect speech the verb is placed after the subject. c. In direct speech a question mark is placed at the end of the sentence. d. In indirect speech a full stop is placed at the end of the sentence. Requests and Commands In a sentence which implies an order or a request, the reporting verb becomes ordered or commanded or urged etc and an infinitive (to+ verb) is added. Other reporting verbs used in this context are advised, requested, begged, suggested, etc. We need to use the infinitive ‘to’ is used before the verb. For example: Rahul told us,” Eat more vegetables” Rahul urged us to eat more vegetables. Shama said to her friend, “Please wait here.”
Shama requested her friend to wait there. The teacher said to the boy, “Go out.” The teacher ordered the boy to get out. The girl said,” Let us go to the movies.” The girl suggested that they should go to the cinema. There are many other reporting verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked. Using them properly can make what we say much more interesting and informative. We will look at a simple sentence and see how we can change the reporting word and rewrite the sentence. (It is important to note here, however, that you must understand the usage of each of these reporting verbs so you can use the correct one in context) He asked me to come to the party. He invited me to the party. He begged me to come to the party. He ordered me to come to the party. He advised me to come to the party. He suggested I should come to the party.
Self-Check Questions Use the common reporting verbs to change the speech forms, in the following sentences. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
She told me that she was reading a book. He said to me, “Do come to the function.” She says to me, “The new school is excellent.” He asked her if she was feeling alright. The master said to the domestic help, “Do not open the door to strangers.” Rita requested her friend to help her.
12.2.4 Change in Pronouns Apart from tenses one of the other important changes that takes place when changing direct speech to reported or indirect speech is the pronoun. Pronouns may or may not change. This depends on the context of the speech. It is important for us to understand when they change and when they do not. 1. If the original speaker is the same as the one reporting the speech, the pronoun need not be changed. For example:
I said, "There's a fly in my soup." I said there was a fly in my soup. (Note: The original speaker is also the person reporting)
2. The pronouns need to be changed if the original speaker is different from the person reporting the speech. For example:
He said, “There’s a fly in my soup.” He said there was a fly in his soup. (Note: The original speaker is not the person reporting)
3. The pronouns need to be changed if the original speaker spoke to the person reporting the speech. For example:
He said, "Show me what is in your bag." He said to show him what was in my bag. (Note: The person reporting is the person spoken to in the original speech)
4. The pronouns need to be changed if the original speaker spoke to someone different to the person reporting the speech. For example:
He said to her to show him what was in her bag. (Note: The person reporting is neither the person spoken to in the original speech nor the original speaker)
Understanding how to change pronouns 1. Sometimes, the first person pronouns are changed to third person pronouns. For Example:
I “I go for maths tuitions.”
she She said that she goes for maths tuitions.
I he “I sent my mother flowers”, Akshay said that he had sent flowers said Akshay. to his mother. my “Those are my new books.”
her She said that they were her new books.
us them “Would you like to sing with He asked me if I would like to sing us?” with them.
2. Sometimes the context of the speech requires that the first person pronouns are left unchanged. For Example: Uma told me, “We will all go to the station to receive our parents.” Uma told me that we would all go to the station to receive our parents. The boss said to me, “The presentation should be ready by this evening.” The boss told me that the presentation should be ready by this evening. 3. At other times, the second person pronoun may change into first person. For Example: The policeman asked, “Where are you working?” The policeman asked where I was working. He said, “You can come to the show.” He said that I could go to the show. 4. We also see that at times the third person pronoun remains in third person. For Example: “She is a fool,” he said. He said that she was a fool. She said, “They are in a meeting.” She said that they were in a meeting. Here are some more examples of how pronouns are used in direct and indirect speech. • • •
“These flowers are for you, aunty”, said Nikki. Nikki said that those flowers were for her aunt. She said, “All of us are going home.”
She said that all of them were going home.
Self-Check Questions Change the Direct Speech forms in the following sentences using appropriate pronouns. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.
He said, “I am going for a movie.” I said, “The situation is getting tense.” Sita said, “I am worried about mother.” Radha told me, “We will surprise the family.” “These letters are for you, uncle,” said Tom. “These are my ideas.”
12.2.5 Expressions of Time Let us now study how the concept of time is presented in reported speech. The expression of time changes according to the time of reporting. It is important to understand this concept carefully because many errors are commonly made in this area. Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time change in indirect speech. Direct Speech now today yesterday the day before yesterday tomorrow the day after tomorrow next week/year, etc last week/year, etc A week/year ago in two days/weeks
Indirect Speech then, at that time that day the day before, the previous day two days before the next day, the following day, a day later in two days' time the following week/year, a week/year later the previous week/year, the week/year before, the preceding week/year a week/year before, the previous week/year, a week/year earlier two days/weeks from then
Acknowledgement: This Table on Expressions of Time was taken from www.grammarstation.com Let us look at some examples of what we learnt about the expression of time. "We climbed to the roof top yesterday," they said. They said that they had climbed the rooftop the day before.
"They're coming the day after tomorrow," he said. He said that they were coming in two days' time. "Mother started wearing dentures ten years ago," he said. He said that Mother had started wearing dentures ten years before. Jeena said, “I’m going to the cinema this evening with my husband.” Jeena said that she was going to the movie that evening with her husband. The doctor said, “Come see me next week with the report.” The doctor asked us to see him a week later with the report.
Self-Check Questions Change the Direct Speech forms in the following sentences applying the concept of time. 25. 26. 27. 28.
“I saw you at the park, the day before yesterday,” he said. She asked, “Will you help me today?” He said, “We plan to go abroad next year.” Anita said, “The dignitary confirmed the programme a week ago.”
In addition, if you report something that someone said in a place different from where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there). For example: Spoken in Place A
Reported in a Different Place
"How long have you worked here?"
She asked me how long I'd worked there.
She said, “It’s been quite some time since I saw you here.”
She said it had been quite some time since she saw me there.
"Wait here for me," she said.
She told me to wait for her there.
It is also important to note that the preposition ‘here’ is sometimes replaced by a phrase in indirect speech. For Example: “You can put the books here," she said. She said that he could put the books on the shelf.
Self-Check Questions 29. Change the speech in the following sentences and write them in the columns on the right hand side. Spoken in Place A
Reported in a Different Place
"How much time have you spent here?" They said, “We saw you here last year.” “You can leave the groceries here,” she said. "Come here and wait," she said.
12.3 Summing Up In this lesson you have • •
identified the various features of direct and indirect speech forms through definitions and examples. studied some examples where you needed to apply the rules for the following o correcting errors in direct speech form sentences. o rewriting direct speech sentences in indirect speech form. o highlighting indirect speech sentences in conversations. o rewriting conversations in indirect speech form.
12.4 Answers to Self-Check Questions 1. He said, “I love parties.” 2. She said that when she looked into the classroom she found the children were/had been studying. 3. He said, “I had already been attacked when the police arrived.” 4. She said that she had seen the movie. 5. He said the examination paper was easy. 6. She said, “I am participating in the beauty contest.” 7. She asked me if I would sing the prayer song. 8. He said to me, “May I speak to the headmaster?” 9. He said that he had to complete the work before noon. 10. He said, “I will book the tickets.” 11. Rita said that she could not manage to do the entire work alone. 12. He said, “I might go home late.” 12
13. She said to me, “I am reading a book.” 14. He invited me to the function. 15. She tells me that the new school is excellent. 16. He said to her, “Are you feeling alright?” 17. The master ordered the domestic help not to open the door to strangers. 18. Rita said to her friend, “Please help me.” 19. He said that he was going for a movie. 20. I said that the situation was getting tense. 21. Sita said that she was worried about her mother. 22. Radha told me that we would surprise the family. 23. Tom said that those letters were for his uncle. Or Tom told his uncle that those letters were for him. 24. He said that those were his ideas. 25. He said that he had seen me at the park two days before. 26. She asked me if I would help her that day. 27. He said that they planned to go abroad the following year/a year later. 28. Anita said that the dignitary confirmed the programme a week earlier/the previous week. 29. Spoken in Place A
Reported in a Different Place
"How much time have you spent here?"
He asked me how much time I had spent there.
They said, “We saw you here last year.”
They said that they had seen us there the previous year.
“You can leave the groceries here,” she said.
She said that I could leave the groceries in the kitchen/on the shelf/on the table. She told me to come there and wait.
"Come here and wait," she said.
12.5 References 1. I.Jayakaran. Everyone’s Guide to English Grammar. Chennai: 2M Publishing International, 1999. 2. Wren P.C & Martin H. English Grammar & Composition. New Delhi: S.Chand & Company, 2005 3. Cholij, Mark, and Geetha Nagaraj. English Basics a companion to grammar and writing. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of The University of Cambridge, 2004. 4. Hashemi, Louise and Thomas, Barbara. Grammar for First Certificate. Chennai: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 5. Gilani, Archana, and Kaul, Mridula & Suganthan Beena. The Grammar Tree India: Oxford University Press 2004 6. Fowler, W.S. and Coe, Norman. Test and Practice your English. Chennai: Orient Longman Private Ltd, 2003. 7. Stern George. Learners’ Grammar Dictionary. Singapore: Learners Publishing Pte Ltd, 2000.
8. Nagaraj, Dr. Geetha. Comprehend & Compose. New Delhi: Foundation Books, 2003. 9. www.grammarstation.com 10. www.learnenglish.de
12.6 Glossary • •
• • • •
Direct and Indirect Speech: gives information about what people say or think; for this one can use direct speech, or indirect reported speech. Direct Speech: sometimes called quoted speech; it relates to a speaker’s spoken words or words the speaker quotes from another speaker using the exact words of that speaker; quoted or direct speech, when used must be within quotation marks (’’...”) Indirect Speech: also known as reported speech; it relates to a person quoting or referring to what someone else has said in his own words; quotation marks are not used when using reported speech. Reporting Verbs: refers to verbs used in indirect speech; the verbs such as: said, told and asked, are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. Pronoun changes: When changing from direct to indirect speech and vice versa, the pronouns need to be changed from one person to another. Expressions of time: refers to the time of reporting speech. Expression of place refers to the expression used when we report something that someone else said in a place different from where we are reporting it.