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ghl« - 10 bghUŸfS¡fhd K‹Diu Ï¥Ãçéš k‰bwhU ãiyæš m¿Kf¥gL¤J»nwh©. mjhtJ bghUë‹ tiugl© tiujèš khÂç¡fhf, e©ik¢ R‰¿¥ ghª¡»nwh©. kWgoÍ©, éÂfŸ x‹nwjh‹, mjhtJ tiuglkhdJ, mik¥Ã‹ mo¥gil tot¤ijÍ© mj‹ fd¥gçkhz¤ijÍ© mJngh‹nw nfhz¦fŸ k‰W© tisÎfŸ, f‰gidæYŸs k‰W© Ë th¦»a rkmsÎ¥ gFÂfŸ, gu¥ò r©g¨jkhd bjhlªòfŸ, Ús©, mfy©, k‰W© MH© M»a mid¤J msÎfë‹ FW¡nfÍŸs bghUŸ k‰W© mj‹ m¦f¦fë‹ Fz¤ij¥ ÃuÂgè¡f nt§L©. Ï¥ghl© cUth¡»a bghUŸfS¡F RU¡fkhd K‹Diu më¡»wJ. bghUŸfSl‹ Ïiz¨j éisÎfis mL¤j ghl© f‰Ã¡F©. ÃwF Ï¥Ãçé‹ filÁ¥ghl© bghUŸfë‹ njh‰w¤Â‹ tiugl¤ij étç¡F©. 10.0 F¿¡nfhŸfŸ Ï¥ghl¤ij m¿¨jË c¦fshš ÏaYtJ bghUë‹ tiugl© tiujè‹ EQ¡f© Ïa‰if tiugl© tiujèš cŸsij él äfΩ K¡»akhdJ v‹gij m¿thŒ. bghUë‹ mo¥gilahd vëa totæaš mik¥ig m¿¨jË bghUŸfis¥ ghª¤J, ftå¤J¥ ÃwF tiuf. bt›ntW _y¥bghUŸfisÍ© bghUS¡fhf¥ ga‹gL¤j¥g£l m›tif _y¥bghUŸfë‹ ju¦fisÍ© m¿thŒ. vëa bkè¨J Ú§l (K¥gçkhzKŸs) bghUshd fd rJu¤ij tiuf. 10.1 K‹Diu tiuglbk‹gJ xU bghUë‹ gÂéDila v§z¤Â‹ brŒKiwæ‹ xU rh£ÁahF©. ènahdhªnlh lhé‹Á vD© òytª F¿¥Ã£lJ nghš, ``bjçtj‰F¥ gh®¥gJ - ghª¥gj‰F¤ bjçtJ``. Áw¥ghf¥ gil¡f¥g£l tiugl¤Â‹ ÏU¡F© gil¡F© bghUë‹ kÂ¥ghdJ äif¥g£ljhf tH¦f ÏU¡F©nghJ ghl¤Â‹ mik¥ò k‰W© étu§fis¡ ftå¡f Muha ÏaYtJ äfΫ K¡»a«. ÏJ ÃwF tiugl« tiua khÂçah¡f¥gL»wJ. Ï¥nghJ Ú¦fŸ m¿¨JŸsgo, mo¥gil totik¤jè‹ m©r¦fns tiugl© tiutš ÂwikahF©. Xª fiyPid, bghUŸ ÏU¥gš fh§gj‹¿ tot¤Â‹ Mu©g© k‰W© tsU© Kiw vJbtå, Ï›tiugl© <LgL¤J©. ÏJ, Ïa‰if tiuglkhd ÏiyfŸ, jhtu¦fŸ, gH¦fŸ ngh‹witfisél, Ïj‹ mik¥ò k‰W© étu¦fëš bghUis¢ rçahf tiutj‰F, r‰W mÂf K¡»akhdJ. bghUŸfshtd kåj‹ cUth¡»ait. nkY© Ïjid K‹å£L v¥nghJ ga‹gL¤Jtj‰F¢ braiy¡ bfhŸtjhF©. bghUë‹ braš mj‹ mik¥ÃDŸ cŸneh¡if¤ jU©, Ïjdhš rçahf tiugl« tiua cjλwJ. 10.2 xU bghUë‹ mik¥ò e©ik¢ R‰¿ÍŸs bgU©ghyhd bghUŸfŸ, Ïa‰ifæšjhnd mik¡f¥gL© tisÎfshš ãu©ÃæU¥gJ nghyšyhkš, mo¥gil totæaš cUt¦fS¡F ãfuhd mik¥Ãš ÏU¡»wJ. xU bghUis¡ fhQ©nghJ, mo¥gil cUt¦fshfΩ mik¥òfshfΩ ÏJ éG¨JŸsij Ka‰Á¤J¥ 1


ghª¡fΩ. vGJgyiffis eh‰fhèfŸ, bg£ofŸ, Ftis, j£L, vGJnfhš, és¡F¥ bgh¤jh‹ ngh‹w c©ik¢ R‰¿ÍŸs v¤jid bghU£fŸ, rJu©, fdrJu«, cUis, Ïizahd rkKidfisÍila fd cUt© (g£lf©) Ït‰iw mo¥gilahf¡ bfh§LŸsd vd neh¡Ff(gl¦fŸ 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4) bt›ntW _y¥bghUŸfshd ku©, cnyhf©, Ãsh«o¡, fh»j©, Jâ mšyJ Ïiyfë‹ Ïiz¥ò ngh‹wt‰iw¥ ga‹gL¤Â, kåjdhš bghUŸfŸ cUth¡f¥gL»wJ.

Fig. 10.1 Square Table

Fig. 10.2 Cubical Stool

gl« 10.1 rJu nki# gl« 10.2 fdrJu eh‰fhè gl« 10.3 cUis bkGFt®¤Â¤jh§» gl« 10.4 g£lftot és¡F ãHš i)

Fig. 10.3 Cylindrical Candle Stands

Fig. 10.4 Prism Shaped Lamp Shade

ku« - eh‰fhèfŸ, nki#fŸ k‰W© bg£ofŸ, mL¥giiwæèU¡F© Áy fUéfŸ ngh‹w ku¢ rhkh‹ tiffŸ (gl© 10.5)

Fig. 10.5 Wooden Table

Fig. 10.6 Metal Ware

gl« 10.5 kunki# gl« 10.6 cnyhf¤jhyhd bghUŸ ii) iii)

cnyhf« - vtªÁštª, jhäu© k‰W© mYäåa¥ gh¤Âu¦fŸ, étrha©, äÂt§o, fhª ngh‹witfë‹ ÏU©ò¡ fUéfŸ (gl© 10.6) Ãsh°o¡ - Ãsh«o¡ thë k‰W© Ftis, nrfç¡F© bg£ofŸ k‰W© l¥gh¡fŸ, F¥ig¤ bjh£ofŸ, nki# éç¥ò ngh‹wit (gl© 10.7)

Fig. 10.7 Plastic Recycle Bin

Fig. 10.8 Paper Bag

Fig. 10.9 Kurta made of fabric

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gl« 10.7 Ãsh«o¡»š kWRH‰¿¤ bjh£o gl« 10.8 fh»j¥ig gl« 10.9 F®jh Jâ fh»j« - fh»j¥ igfŸ, brŒÂ¤jhŸ, fh»j my¦fç¥òfŸ ngh‹wit (gl« 10.8) v) Jâ - MilfŸ, igfŸ, Âiu¢ÓiyfŸ ngh‹wit (gl© 10.9) bghUŸfŸ mo¥gilæš _‹W tiffshdit v‹gijÍ© ftå¤ÂU¥ghŒ. xë òfhjit: Ïj}nl xë c£òf ÏayhJ, bghUë‹ Ã‹òw¤ij¡ fhz ÏayhJ. cjhuzkhf, vtªÁštçš Md Fo¡F© l©sª, xU nki# (gl© 10.10) ngh‹wit. iv)

xë CLUt¡Toait: xë Ïj‹ têna CLUΩ. bghUë‹ všyh¥ g¡f¦fS© bjëthf¥ gh®¡f¡Toait cjhuzkhf, f©zhoahdyhd Fo¡F« l«s®, xU f©zho mšyJ ghÿ£L© ò£o, ãH‰gl¤ jhŸ (gl© 10.11) Á¿jsÎ xë CLUÎgit Ïj‹ têna xë, gF k£L© CLUΩ bghUë‹ k‰w g¡f¦fŸ ghª¡f¡Toaitahf ÏU¥ÃD© gå¤Jë ngh‹W fh£Á¡F mlª¨JŸsit. cjhuzkhf- k«è‹ Jâ Âiu¢Óiy (gl© 10.12) Á¿jsÎ xë CLUΩ Ãsh°o¡ ig.

Fig. 10.10 Opaque Wooden Table

Fig. 10.11 Transparent Glass

Fig. 10.12 Translucent Muslin Curtain

gl« 10.10 xë òfhj ku nki# gl« 10.11 xë CLUt¡ Toa f©zho gl« 10.12 Á¿jsÎ xë CLUt¡Toa k«è‹ Âiu¢Óiy 10.3 xU fdrJu¤Â‹ tiugl© 10.3.1 fdrJu© v‹whš v‹d? 3


Kjšgoahf, xU fdrJu¤ij m¿nth©. (gl© 10.13) gl« 10.13 fdrJu« c¦fŸ midtU¡F© bjçÍ©. ÏJ xU K¥gçkhz bghUŸ, MW rk msÎrJu¥ g¡f¦fŸ bfh§lit. (gæ‰Wé¡F© F¿¥Ã‹ xU gFÂahf¤ jhŸ khÂçÍl‹ cUth¡FthŒ) fdrJu© MW g¡f¦fisÍ©, 12 KidfisÍ©, 8 ÚŸnfhLfisÍ© bfh§lJ. mid¤J¥ g¡f¦fS© rJukhF©. mjdhš mid¤J 12 KidfS« rkkhF«. xU fdrJu© tiutš mo¥gil éÂfshd njh‰w¤ij - gFÂ, msÎnfhš, f©k£l«, Á¿ajhf tUtJ, mU»š tUtJ, MH¤ij¡ F¿¡f tiuÍ© ÁWnfhLfŸ k‰W© ÏJnghš m¿a KoÍ©. 10.3.2 K‹òw¤ njh‰w¤ÂèU¨J fd rJu¤Â‹ tiugl© ck¡F K‹ xU fdrJu© it¤JŸshŒ. f§ k£l¤Â‰F mij it¤J¡ bfhŸ. fdrJu¤Â‹ njh‰w¤Â‹ F¿¥ò Ï¥nghJ V‰gL¤j¥g£Lé£lJ. Ï¢rka¤Âš f§â‹ k£l© fdrJu¤Â‹ ika¡nfh£L¡F mU»š ÏU¡F«. Kjèš Kf¤njhL Ïij Ïl© bgw¢ brŒj ÃwF Kidfis KGtJkhf, ck¡F¥ gL¡if th»š Ïl©bgw¢ brŒtjhš kW g¡f¤ijnah Ë g¡f¤ijnah ghª¡f kh£lhŒ. tiuglK© bghUë‹ njh‰w¤Â‹ gFÂia¡ F¿æ£L¡ fh§Ã¡F©. gæ‰Á¤jhëš vëikahd, éiuéš tiuÍ© tiuglkhf, g¡f§fis mik¤J rJu« tiuf. vGJnfhš mšyJ msÎnfhš bfh§L fh£Áæš cŸs xU bghUis mséL© Kiwia kWgoÍ© brŒf. Ϩj rJu¤Â‹ ÚsK©, mfyK© rkkhf ÏU¥gijÍ© k‰W© ÏU äf Ú§l k‰W© rçahd (rçahf ÏU¨J© bjhlªòilaJ) gçkhz§fisÍ« fh©f. Kjš nfh£o‹ Ús©, gL¡if thnfh neªnfhlnlh rJu¥g¡f¤Â‹ k‰bwhU Kidæ‹ gçkhz¤ij V‰gL¤J©. ÏJ rçahd msé‹¿ Mdhš njit¥gL© Ús¤Â‰F¤ bjhlªghd msthF© v‹gij ãidéš bfhŸf. ÏJ fdrJu¤Â‹ xU njh‰wkhF©. Ϥnjh‰w© ÏU gçkhz¢ rJu¤Â‹ K¥gçkhd K‹nd‰wnk xU fdrJu© vd m¿¨J bfhŸs ck¡F cjΩ. 10.3.3 bt›ntW nfhz¦fëèU¨J xU fd rJu¤Â‹ tiugl©. Ϥjlit f§k£l¤J¡F¡ fdrJu¤Â‹ äf Ú§l ÚŸ nfh£o‹ Kid ck¡F¥ gL¡ifth»š mika it¤ÂLf. m¦F _‹W neªnfh£L KidfS© (nfhLfŸ) k‰W© äf Ú§l ika neªnfhL© cŸsd. Ï¥nghJ m¦F ÏU g¡fK© ckJ ghªitæš ÏU¡F©. x›bthU g¡fK© gh®it¡F FiwªJ tUtjhfnth RU¦Ftjhfnth bj‹gL©. Fig. 10.13 Cube

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fdrJu¤Â‹ tiugl¤Âš Ï¡fh£Áæš Kjèš ika neª¡nfh£L Kidia tiuf. Ï¡nfh£o‹ Úskhd, äf Ú§l gL¡if¡nfhL, Úª fhQ© k‰w mid¤J¡ nfhLfë‹ gçkhzkhf cUthF©. Ï›éj¤Âš Ϩj¡ nfh£o‰fhd k‰w KidfS© bjhlªò bfhŸs© nfhz¦fS© Ô®khâ¡f¥gL«. x›bthU ÏU g¡f¦fë‹ ÏU KidfS© ÏlJ k‰W© tyJ ne®¡nfh£L¡F¡ FiwªJ RU§» xU F¿¥Ã£l òŸëæš Ïizahf tUtjhf¤ bjçÍ©. Ϩj¡ f‰¥id¥òŸë Ï¢braèš ¡§k£l¤Â‹ f‰gid¡ nfh£oš mik»wJ. Ï¥nghJ ÏUKidfisÍ©, tyJ g¡f¤Â‹ nkš k‰W© mo Kidfis tiuf. ÏU KidfS© x‹W nrª»w nfhz¤ij kdÂny mséLf. (F¿¥ò: fdrJu¤Â‹ mU»YŸs ika¡nfh£oš ckJ f§k£l© mik¨jÂèU¨J nkš k‰W© Ñœ Kidfë‹ mU»š tU© nfhz¦fŸ Vw¤jhH¢ rkkhf ÏU¡F«) ika neª¡nfh£oèU¨J Ï›éU nfhLfë‹ Kidfis neª¡nfh£o‰F¢ r‰W¥ g¡fth£oš tiuf. neªnfh£L¥ g¡fth£o‹ Ús¤ij, vGJnfhš / msÎnfhiy¥ ga‹gL¤J© Kiwæš rçghª¡fΩ. ϦF é¤Âahr¥go‹, nkš k‰W© ѪKidfis mj‰nf‰g rç brŒaΩ. k‰w ÏU neªnfh£L Kidfë‹ msit, ikaKidia K‹å£L vL¡fΩ. öu¤ij Kjèš ika KidæèU¨J vL¡fΩ k‰W© Ït‰iw äjkhf tiua¥gL© neªnfhLfSl‹ F¿¡fΩ. neª¡nfhLfis ck¡F gl¡ifahf it¤J mt‰¿‹ Ús¤ij mséLtnj c§ikahdbjd ãidÎ bfhŸf. k‰W© ÏUKidfS© Ïitfis K‹å£L étç¡f¥gL»‹wd. ckJ K‹ cŸs fd rJu¤Â‹ tiugl¤ij rhjd© vJÎä‹¿ Ï¥nghJ tiuf. m¦F gL¡ifthF ÚŸth»‹ _‹W KidfS© ÏU g¡f¦fS© fhz¥gL«. 10.3.4 fdrJu¤ij tiuf mjdhš _‹W g¡f¦fis¡ bfh§l fdrJu© k‰W© x‹gJ KidfS© bj‹gL©. Ϥnjh‰w¤Â‰fhf, ckJ f§k£l¤Â‰F¡ Ñœ mik¡fΩ, neªnfh£L KidfŸ ck¡F¥ gL¡if th»š ÏU¡fΩ fdrJu¤ij it¡fΩ, vJ ck¡F¤ bjç»wJ vd¡TW? v¨j msényh v¨j¤ njh‰w¤Ânyh rhjd© vJÎä‹¿¡ fdrJu© tiua, x‹gJ nfhLfë‹ Kidfis¢ rçahf tiua nt§oaJ© k‰W© x‹nwhblh‹W rçahd bjhlªÃš ÏU¡f nt§oaJ© mtÁa©. äf Ú§l ÚŸnfh£o‹ Kidia msbtL¤J xU fh»j¤Âš rhjd© VJä‹¿ tiuf. K‹ònghš, fdrJu¤Â‹ k‰w mid¤J v£L¡ nfhLfë‹ gçkhd¦fS© Ï¡nfh£o‹ Ús¤Â‰F¤ bjhlªò bfhŸS©. Úª tiua nt§oa Ïu§lhtJ bjhF¥Ã‹ nfhLfŸ Ϩڧl nfhLfë‹ KidfŸ, mj‹ mo k‰W© EåæèU¨J g¡f KidfshF©. Ï¡nfhLfë‹ nfhz¦fŸ, neªnfh£il K‹å£LÛKŸs mnj nghš ÏU¡Fk nfhz§fis ã®t»¥gij¡ ftå¡fΫ ÏitfS«, f§k£l¤Â‹ f‰gid¡ nfhLfis¥g‰¿a m¿it ck¡F¡ bfhL¡F©.

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g¡fth£L ne® nfhLfisÍ« Ï¥nghJ nkY« ika ne® nfh£oèUªJ ÏilbtëiaÍ© msbtL¡fΩ. FW¡F¥ gFÂfë‹ òŸëfis¡ F¿¤J tiuaΫ. nkšg¡f¤ij tiua, nfhz¦fëš g¡fth£oYŸs neªnfh£o‹ c¢ÁæèU¨J Mu©Ã¡F© ckJ fh£ÁæYŸs 2 ÛjKŸs Kidfis m¿¨J bfhŸs nt§L© k‰w ÏU gL¡ifthF¡ nfh£L¡ nfh®itfS¡F Ï¡nfhLfŸ c§ikahfnt Ïizahf ÏU¥gij Ú¦fŸ m¿ÅªfshdhY©, Ïitfnshnlna bghUë‹ btë¥òw¤Âš xU F¿¥Ã£l òŸëæš nrªtjhf¤ bjç»wJ. nkšg¡f¤Â‹ Ï›éUnfhLfS©, Ëòw KidfS©, m¨j¨j¡ nfhz¦fis m¿¨jÃwF©, mséL© myF Mf Kjš neªnfh£il¥ ga‹gL¤JtjhY© tiuayh©. Ï›éU nfhLfS© v¥nghJ© K‹òwKŸs Kidfë‹ nfhLfis él Ús© Fiw¨jjhfnt ÏU¡F©. Ï¥g¡f¤Â‹ Ëòw© Ï›éU nfhLfS© r¨Â¡Fäl© fdrJu¤Â‹ Ëdhš kiw¨JŸs Ëòw Kidia¡ F¿¥gjhF©. Ï›éjkhf, Ï¥nghJ 3 bt›ntW éj¤ njh‰w¦fŸ bfh§l fdrJu¤ij, rhjdä‹¿ tiu¨JŸÇª. x›bthU tiugl¤JlD©, ghª¤jš, ãid¤jš k‰W© bjhlªò gL¤Jjè‹ K¡»a¤Jt¤ij m¿a nt§L©. c©Kila tiugl¤Âš Úª mil¨j EQ¡f¤Â‹ jukhdJ KGtJkhf¤ bjhlªòŸs nfhz¦fis Úª m¿¨J bfh§lijÍ©, x›bthU nfh£o‹, msÎfisÍ© bghW¤jJ. fd rJu¤Â‹ bt›ntW njh‰w¦fë‹ tiugl¦fŸ, mitfë‹ njit¡nf‰g, tiugl¤ njh‰w¤Â‹ Jšèakhd bjhF¥ghf¤ bj‹glhkš nghfyh©. Úª nk‰bfh§l és¡f¤Jl‹ tiugl¤ njh‰w¤ij¥ go¥goahf m¿¨J bfhŸÅª. v¥gonah, Jšèakhd, njit¥g£l khÂçahf miltj‰F, ftd¤Jldhd Ka‰ÁÍ©, gæ‰Á nk‰bfhŸs¥g£lJkhf¤ njit¥gL»wJ. jâ¡if édh¡fŸ 1) mo¥gil totæaš tot¦fis mo¥gilahf¡ bfh§l bghU£fŸ ahit? cjhuz¦fŸ jUf. 2) bghUŸfS¡F¥ ga‹gL© bghJthd cgfuz¦fŸ ahit? cjhuz¦fŸ jUf. 3) xU fiyPå‹ f§nzh£l¤ÂèU¨J, Âl¥ bghU£fis tif¥gL¤Jjè‹ Áw¨j tê vJ? 4) xëæ‹ ÃuÂgè¥ig mo¥gilahf¡ bfh§l _‹W éj¥ bghUŸfŸ ahit? 5) fdrJu© v‹whš v‹d? Ïj‹ fdmsÎfŸ (gçkhz¦fŸ, gu¥òfŸ) v‹d? 10.4 gæ‰ÁfŸ 10.4.1 tF¥ò¥ gæ‰ÁfŸ bghUshd tiugl¤Â‹ Áy mo¥gilfis vL¤J¢ br‹W, e© R‰W¥òw¤ÂèU¨J xU bghUis tiugl© tiua c£gLnth©. xU nfh¥ig, xU j£L, xU miu¡»©z«, xU O¡if¥Ão¡ »©z«, xU rik¡F« gh¤Âu«, mšyJ xU ó¢r£o - ngh‹W xU xë òfhj¥ bghUis vGJnfhyhš tiu¨J ãwngjäLf.

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ó¡fë‹ tiugl¦fŸ tiutš tF¥giwæš kW brašgh£o‹nghJ, t£l tot kyç‹ nkèU¨J fhQ© njh‰w© nfhz¤Â‹ ghªit g¡fth£oš khW©nghJ ÚŸt£lkhf¤ njh‹W»wJ. ÏJΩ xU bghUë‹ njh‰w¤Â‹ fh£Á¡fhd xU cjhuzkhF©. Ï¥bghGJ xU fd rJu¤Â‹ g¡f¦fë‹ nkš xU t£l© rJu¤ÂDila g¡f¤Â‹ Ús¤Jl‹ Ïj‹ é£lkhf tiua¥g£lbjd¡ f‰gid brŒJ bfhŸf. Ï¡fd rJu¤Â‹ Ïl mik¥ig kh‰W© nghJ, t£ltot© xU ÚŸt£lkhf tUtjhf¤ njh‹W»wjšyth. Ï¥bghUëDŸ xU cUistot© fh£Áahjè‹ czªit¥ bgW»whah? mjdhš, ckJ éU¥goahd bghUis xU nfh¥ignah, xU gh¤Âunkh mšyJ xU óŠr£onah xU t£l¤Â‰F© fdrJu¤Â‰F© cçajhf cŸs njh‰w¤Âid czU©go, Úª tiuÍ© nghJ mik¤ÂLf. Kjèš bghUë‹ nfh£L tiuglkhf tiu¨J étu¤Jl‹ ãwngjäLf. 10.4.2 Å£L¥ gæ‰ÁfŸ vGJnfhiy cgnah»¤J, étu¤Jl‹ ãwngjä£L xU xë CLUΩ bghUis tiuf(cjhuzkhf xU l©sª j§Ùª mšyJ fhŒf¿fŸ / gH¦fŸ cŸns ÏU¡FkhW xU Ãsh«o¡ ig) f§zhoahyhd l©sçš j§Ùª ngh‹W xë CLUΩ bghUë‹ tiugl© tiujèš, mo¥gilahf, KG¥bghUisÍ© všyh¥ g¡f¦fS© f§zhš fhQtjhf Úª ghª¤J¡ bfh§oU¡»Öª. xë CLUΩ bghUë‹ têna bghUë‹ njh‰w¤Â‹ fh£Á bjçÍ©. c©khš Ko¨j mÂf étu¦fSl‹ tiugl© tiuf. xë CLUΩ bghUŸfëš, ãHšfis él, vL¤J¡ fh§Ã¥gitfŸ äfΩ K¡»akh»wJ.. Úª bjç¨ÂlΟsgo bt§ikahd gFÂfshš vL¤J¡ fh§Ã¥gitfŸ khÂçah¡f¥gL»‹wd. vJbtšyh© xë CLUΩ bghUëš nrª¡f¥g£LŸsnjh, mJ ciltij¢ Á¿jsÎ f£L¥gL¤J»wJ. ÏJ t§zkakhf ÏU¨jhš, Ï›t§z¤Â‹ Á¿J ãw ngj¤ij Ï¥bghUS¡F tH§F«. ÏJ brŒtj‰F¢ Á¿J Áukkhd gæ‰ÁahF©. v¥gonaD© ckJ braèš Úª mÂfkhfnt f‰¿LŪ. bghUë‹ btë¡nfh£il Ko¨jtiu rçahfΩ JšèakhfΩ njh‰w¤Âš mik¤Âl Ka‰Á¡fΩ. xë CLUΩ j‹ikia vL¤J¡ Tw mÂf ãwngj¤ij k£L© nrª¡fΩ mšyJ c©khš Ko¨jtiu vL¤J¡ fh§Ã¡fΩ. 10.5 bjhF¤J mik¤jš Ï¥ghl¤Âš bghUë‹ tiugl© tiujè‹ xU RU¦»a K‹Diu¡F¥ ÃwF, kåj‹ cUth¡»a bt›ntW bghUŸfë‹ bt›ntW tiffë‹ bghUŸfŸ gç¨Jiu¡f¥g£LŸsd. k‰W© fdrJu¤Â‹ g§òfS© cilikfS© éth¡f¥gL»‹wd. ÏWÂahf go¥goahd, tiuKiwahd, xU fdrJu¤Â‹ tiuglkhdJ bt›ntW nfhz¦fëèU¨J és¡f¥gL»wJ. Ï›éjkhf Ï¥ghl© bghUë‹ tiugl© tiujè‹ tšyikia¡ F¿¤j Kjšgoahf ã%á»wJ.

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10.6 jâ¡if¡ nfŸéfS¡fhd éilfŸ 1) mo¥gil totæaš cUt¦fë‹ bghUŸfŸ ÑœtUtdt‰¿‹ mo¥gilahF«. rJu« - nki# cUis - bkGFtª¤Â ciw, vGJnfhš, ~¥Ÿh«¡ g£lf« - I«»ß© T©ò, és¡F¡ FšyhŒ 2) bghUŸfS¡fhf¥ ga‹gL¤j¥gL© bghJthd _y¥bghUŸfshtd: ku¡f£il - nki#, eh‰fhè tiffŸ cnyhf« - vtšÁštª, jhäu© k‰W© mYäåa¥ gh¤Âu¦fŸ Ãsh°o¡ - Ãsh«o¡ thëk‰W© nfh¥ig, Ãsh«o¡ rhkh‹fŸ fh»j« - fh»j¥igfŸ, brŒÂ¤jhŸ, fh»j my¦fhu¦fŸ Jâ tiffŸ - MilfŸ, igfŸ, Âiu¢ÓiyfŸ 3) bghU£fë‹ cUt¦fis¥ bghW¤J tif¥gL¤Jjš 4) xëc£òfhjit, Ïj‹ têna xë c£òf ÏayhJ. xë CLUt¡Toait, Ïj‹ têna xë CLUΩ k‰W© gF k£L© CLUt¡Toait, Ïj‹ têna xëahdJ gFÂk£L© c£òftšyJ. 5) xU fdrJu© v‹gJ xU 3 gçkhz¦fŸ bfh§lJ©, MW rkkhd rJu¥ g¡f§fis¡ bfh©lJkhd bghUshF«. fdrJu« 6 g¡f§fisÍ«, 12 KidfisÍ«, 8 ne®nfhLfisÍ« bfh©lJ. mid¤J¥ g¡f§fS« rJukhF©. Ïjdhš mid¤J 12 KidfS© rkkhditahF©. 10.7 ÏW édh¡fŸ 1) xU bghUë‹ g§òfS© Fz ey‹fS© ahit? Ïij xU jhëš tiuglkhf tiuªÂl vit m¿a¥gl nt©L«? ckJ éilfis xU vL¤J¡fh£L‹ Mjhukh¡Ff. 2) kåjdhš cUth¡f¥g£l xU Âl¥bghUis vL¤J¡ bfh§L _‹W ntWg£l nfhz¦fëèU¨J tiugl© mik¤ÂLf. x›bthU tiugl© tiujè‹ gofSlD© étu¦fSl‹ m¥bghUë‹ Áw¥Ãašòfis és¡Ff. 10.8 jftš F¿¥òfS© nk‰nfhŸfS© 1) bgaª bjçaéšiy. 2006 tiuglälY¡F© tªzäLtj‰Fkhd KGikail¨j¤ Jizt‹ ¡th§l© ÃçRç¥ò, y§l‹. 2) ¥nghbtš, lòŸÍ v~¥ 1997 cæ%£lKŸs tiugl¤Â‹ fiy thš£blª ~ngh«blª ÃuRç¥ò, Ï‹¡, fè~nghªåah.

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Lesson 10  
Lesson 10  

10.2 xU bghUë‹ mik¥ò e©ik¢ R‰¿ÍŸs bgU©ghyhd bghUŸfŸ, Ïa‰ifæšjhnd mik¡f¥gL© tisÎfshš ãu©ÃæU¥gJ nghyšyhkš, mo¥gil totæaš cUt¦fS¡F ãfuhd mik¥Ãš...

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