SHORTHAND I (ENGLISH) 7. CIRCLE AND LOOP PRECEDING INITIAL HOOK AND N & F HOOKS To increase the writing speed, a number of consonants have been merged and their denotation is developed.
Objectives After going through this lesson you will be able to:
make the strokes of the words with ‘R’ represented by initial hook along with the circle ‘S’, SW, SS, SZ;
make the stroke of the words with ‘R’ represented by initial hook along with the loops ST and STR;
make the stroke of the words with ‘L’ represented by initial hook along with the circle S;
make the stroke of the words with ‘N’ represented by final hook; and
make the stroke of the words with F/V final hook.
This lesson deals with writing the phonetic sound of S or Ses, SW, ST or STR which are added to initial hooks. To make strokes of Final hooks representing N is also desorbed in this chapter. Use of hooks F/V, circles and loops is given. The final hook representing F/V is used to speed up the writing. With this merging of consonants a student will be able to write shorthand script fluently, speedily and accurately.
7.2 Hooked for 'R' 7.2.1
Straight Strokes If 'S' or 'SW' or 'ST' comes before a straight stroke hooked for R, then a small circle for S, a big circle for SW and a small loop for ST will be written on the same side of 'R' hook. Of course, 'R' hook will not be visible, but 'R' is there
because the small circle/big circle/small loop is written in the clockwise motion (right motion) as hook ' R '. For example: 22.214.171.124
Beginning of the word: Both the circle and hook should be clearly shown ( 'R' hook is visible). For example:
Middle of the word:
7.2.2 Curved Stroke If 'S' comes before a curved stroke hooked for 'R', then circle 'S' should be written inside the hook. Both, the circle and the hook should be clearly visible. For example:
7.2.3 As a rule, when skr or sgr follows 'T' or 'D', the circle is written with the left motion (anti-clock wise). For example :
7.2.4 As a rule, when skr occurs after 'P' or 'B', the hook r may be omitted. For example:
Hooked For 'L' If 'S' comes before a straight stroke or a curved stroke hooked for 'L', both, the hook and the circle, should always be clearly visible.
7.3.1 Beginning of the word 126.96.36.199 Straight Strokes. For example:
188.8.131.52 Curved Strokes. For example
7.3.2 Middle of the word
Where 'L' hook cannot be clearly shown in the middle of the word, the stroke 'L' is written, For example:
Self-check Questions 1.
Write the direction of ‘R’ hook in straight line initially.
Write the direction of ‘R’ hook in curved strokes initially.
Write the direction of Circle preceding initial hook SR.
If S comes before a curve stroke hooked for R, then is it possible to write the Circle S with curve strokes. Make an outline.
What is the difference between ‘R’ and ‘L’ hooks in curve stroke.
When ‘skr’ occurs after P/B is the hook ‘R’ to be omitted or not.
'N' and 'F / V' Hook Like the two small initial hooks, there are also two small final hooks. These hooks are called 'N' hook and 'F/V' hook.
7. 4.1 'N'' Hook A small final hook written with the right motion to the straight strokes adds 'N'. For example:
A small final hook to any curved stroke written inside the curve represents 'N.' For example:
If a vowel follows final sound of 'N', the outline should be written in full and not by using final 'N' hook because the final vowel requires a final stroke. For example:
'N' hook may be used medially wherever convenient to join. For example:
'N' hook and downward 'R' are used for the representation of the final syllable 'ner' when it follows a straight upstroke. For example:
However in all other cases, 'ner' will be represented by stroke 'N' and 'R' hook. For example:
'N' hook is used in Phraseography for the words been, than, on, own. For example:
'F/V' Hook A small hook written finally to the straight stroke with the left motion adds 'F' or 'V'. For example:
F/V Hook can also be written medially. For example:
If a vowel follows final sound of 'F/V', the outline should be written in full and not by using final 'F/V' hook because the final vowel requires a final stroke. For example:
'F/V' hook is used in Phraseography for the words have and of. For example:
If 'S' Comes before
Curved Strokes hooked for R
Straight Strokes hooked for L
} Circle 'S' must be written
Curved Strokes hooked for L
2. With Straight Strokes (i)
Initial Hook clock- wise represents
Initial Hook anti-clock wise represents
Final Hook clock-wise represents
Final Hook anti-clock wise represents
3. With Curved Strokes
Small Initial Hook represents
Big Initial Hook represents
Small Final Hook represents
Big Final Hook represents
- Not F/V Sound it is made by stroke only. This big final hook called Shun Hook, we will study later on.
Self-check Questions 7.
Fill in the blanks : (i)
Final hook with left motion in straight strokes represents _________
Final hook with right motion in straight strokes represents ________
When A word ending with a vowel sound requires F/V Stroke or F/V hook? Give an example.
Is it possible to write F/V hook in curve strokes. Give reason with examples.
Can F/V hook be written medially ? If yes, make the outline.
Write 2 words using â€˜Nâ€™ hook in phraseography.
7.6.1 Class Assignment
I am surprised to know from your favour of the 5th June of the extremely long delay in the delivery of the Science and Math books. There is no very clear reason for the delay. I have looked into the case, as you may be sure, and it is still a mystery. Our dispatch clerk, expressly disclaims any blame, but, if possible, he will take more care with the books still to come.
He will personally supervise the
addressing of the parcels. By the way, we hope to have the new books ready very soon. It will be in the same style as our Central library. 7.6.2 Home Assignment
Our local authorities, as borough and Nagar Panchayat generally derive their main revenue from the rates they levy. They may receive profits from any business
carried on by them within the borough.
Over and above all this they receive
allowance from the state. If they think they have been unfairly assessed. But it will be difficult for them to obtain relief unless they are able to prove their case, and satisfy the authorities as to a supposed overcharge.
The circles S and SW and the loop ST are prefixed to the straight strokes hooked for R by writing the circle or loop with the Right motion.
The S is prefixed to all other initially hooked strokes by writing the circle inside the hook, so that both the circle and hook are clearly shown.
The circle in words like tusker and disgrace is written with the Left motion; when SKR follow P or B, the R is omitted.
A small final hook struck by the Right motion adds N to straight strokes.
A small final hook struck by the Left motion adds F or V to straight strokes.
A small final hook adds N to curves.
There is no F or V hook to curves.
When a word ends with a vowel a final stroke must be written.
Hooks N, F or V may be used medially where an easy and legible joining is secured.
The final syllable -NER is represented by R hook + Stroke N when following any stroke except the straight upstrokes.
In phraseography, the N hook is sometimes used to represent the words been, than, on, and own, and the F/V hook for the words have and of.
Answers to Self-check Questions
Yes, it is possible to make it visible. Otherwise it will be treated as circle ‘S’. Example : Sooner.
Difference in between ‘R’ & ‘L’ is size of hook. Small hook indicates for ‘R’ & Large hook indicates for ‘L’ in curve strokes only.
Yes. Example : Prescribe
Stroke F/V. Example : heavy
It is not possible. Example : Five
10. Yes. Example : Driving 11. (i) (ii)
. . .
I have been better than
Define the rules of Circle or Loop preceding initial hook, giving examples.
Write the rules for using N and F Hooks in consonants (Straight & Curves) with examples.
Write 5 words with the use of N and F Hooks in Pharseography.
When a word ends with a vowel it is possible to write N and F Hooks. Give the reasons with suitable examples.
7.10 Reference •
Pitman Shorthand Instructor and Key, Wheeler Publishing, Allahabad, 2003.
7.11 Suggested Reading •
Pitman Shorthand Instructor and Key, Wheeler Publishing, Allahabad, 2003.
Initial hook – Hooks at starting point of the stroke.
Final hook – Hook at the last point of the stroke.
Circle S – Small circle used to represent S.
Circle SS, SZ, SW – Large circle used to represent SS, SL, SW.