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SHORTHAND I (ENGLISH) 5. STROKE S & Z, LARGE CIRCLES SW, SS & SZ AND LOOPS ST & STR To increase the writing speed further, circles and loops representing consonant S and Z, SW, SS, SZ, ST & STR are developed. This reduces the stroke size and its length.

5.0

Objectives After going through this lesson you will be able to-

5.1

1)

distinguish between the use stroke S & Z and circle S & Z;

2)

make the strokes S & Z;

3)

make the large circle to represent SW;

4)

make the large circle to represent SZ; and

5)

make a loop to represent ST and STR.

Introduction

In this lesson you will learn about the use of circles and loops to represent S and Z . Use of circle in phraseography is also mentioned.

5.2 Stroke S & Z 5.2.1 When ‘S’ and ‘S/Z’ stand alone, the strokes S/Z are applied and not the circle S because in the latter case there will be no place to represent the vowel. This is irrespective of the fact that the vowel precedes or follows the consonant S/Z. For example:

5.2.2 When a vowel precedes the consonant S/Z :

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5.2.3 When a vowel follows the consonant S/Z :

5.2.4 Even when triphone precedes or follows the consonant 'S/Z', stroke ‘S/Z’ is used. For example:

5.2.5 Stroke ‘S’ or ‘Z’ is retained even in two joined words. For example :

5.2.6

Plurals and Possessives

S/Z are written with the stroke S, the stroke is retained in the derived words. For example:

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Self-check Questions 1.

Which form of S/Z (circle/stroke) is used when vowel precedes?

2.

Which form of S/Z (circle/stroke) is used if it is preceded or followed by a triphone?

3.

Which form S/Z (stroke/circle) will be used when the final syllable 'ous' is preceded by a diphthong?

4.

Which form of S/Z (stroke/circle) is used when the word is compound, such as sea-mew, saw-bence?

5.3

Large Circle SW, SS and SZ

5.3.1 ‘SW’ Circle: In the beginning of a word a large circle (O) is drawn to represent the double consonantal sound of SW. It is drawn in the same direction as the circle S (o ) is drawn. For example:

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5.3.2 As a vowel cannot be written in a circle, the consonant W must be represented by stroke as in the words like:

The SW Circle is used only in the beginning of the word/stroke. 5.3.3 ‘SS’ and ‘SZ’ Circle To represent ‘SS’ / ‘SZ’ / ZS in the middle and at the end of a word, a large circle is drawn in the same direction as the circle S. For example:

When a vowel/diphthong occurs between two ‘SS’ / ‘SZ’ it is indicated by placing the vowel or diphthong sign within the large circle and is read between the two consonants. For example:

5.4

Large Circle in Phraseography The SW circle is used for the words ‘as we’ in phrases like

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Self-check Questions 5.

Fill in the blanks : (i)

A large circle used initially gives the sound of ________________ only

(ii)

A large circle in between two straight strokes forming an angle is written in ______________ motion.

(iii)

A large circle used finally also represents the sound of _________.

6.

In which motion a large circle is written.

7.

Write some phrases using SW/SS circle. 81


5.5

Loops ST & STR The sound ‘ST’ is represented by a small loop and the length of the loop should be half of the length of the stroke. Sound ‘STR’ is represented by big loop and the length should be 2/3 of the stroke

5.5.1 The loops when attached to any straight stroke should always be written in the same direction as we write Circle ‘S’ For example:

5.5.2 The loops when attached to any curved stroke should always be written inside the curved strokes. For example:

5.5.3 ‘ST’ loop, when written finally in any stroke also represents the sound of ‘ZD’. For example

(i)

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If there is a vowel in between the sounds of ‘S-T’ or ‘ST-R’, the word should not be written by using the loops ‘ST’ or ‘STR’ but the outline should be written in full. For example:


(ii)

If there is a vowel after the final ‘ST’ or ‘STR’, the outlines will not be written by using the loops. In such cases, the outlines should be written in full.

(iii)

The loops can be drawn medially only where it results in good joining; otherwise full stroke should be used.

(iv)

The initial loop is always read first, final loop is always read last and the vowel signs are placed and read in relation to the strokes.

(v)

Circle ‘S’ can be added on the opposite side of the loops in plurals. For example:

(vi)

‘STR’ loop is never written initially.

5.6

Grammalogues

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Self-check Questions 8.

Fill in the blanks: (i) STR Loops is never written ______________ (ii) ST/STR Loops should be written ________________the curved stroke.

9.

In which motion are ST/STR Loops written?

10.

What is the length of STR Loop of any stroke?

11.

Is it possible to add circle ‘s’ with ST/STR Loops?

12.

Is it possible to employ ST/STR Loop when vowel occurs between S-T/S-TR?

5.7

Assignments

5.7.1 Class Assignment Write and practice the following Paragraphs I am assuming you will like to see the details of the sales of the new books on Information Technology, and I am asking the cashier to give you these up to this week. If you would like to speak to me on the business, or if you have special reasons for supposing you can push the sales of the books at this time, I shall be happy to see you. I have myself seen to the dispatch of all the review copies, and the head of the mailing room has himself seen to the dispatch of copies to buyers by mail. The subject with which the books deal seems to be popular now, and I have had several visitors to the showroom each day since the issue of the volumes.

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5.7.2 Home Assignment

I wish you to write to me as to the disposal of those cases of yours which I have had lying in these offices for a year now. You have had successive notices asking you to remove them, but to no purpose. The cases themselves are ugly, and they can scarcely be said to be sweet-smelling. Besides this, the space inthese offices is too small for my business, and I have no room to spare for these packages. This is an unnecessary annoyance and I insist on your taking the cases away by the tenth of July at the outside.

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The first cost of the new styles may be heavy, but it will soon be repaid by the saving in waste and by the immense sales which will follow. Business must be influenced by the fact of our having the best and cheapest and latest styles to show to customers, and we think they will endorse our hopes. We are seeking, also to influence the big buyers to ask to see the new designs, and if they can be induced to look at them we think business must follow. If you can put me up for a week in August, I shall be ready to go and stay with you. You can have as much walking as you like. I shall be at your disposal at almost any hour, and as I am a rare walker myself I think I can say you will have all the exercise you wish. You ought to be a different fellow when I leave, if you will be influenced by me. I think I can give you a mile in six and beat you. I have had some talk with young Rajesh several times in the past week, and he says you can do five miles an hour.

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5.8

Summary

When ‘S/Z’ stand alone, the strokes S/Z are used.

When a vowel precedes the consonant, S/Z is written.

When a vowel follows the consonant, S/Z is written.

When triphone precedes or follows the stroke, ‘S/Z’ is used.

In case of plural words circles 'S' may added with stroke S.

A large circle is written in the same direction as the circle S.

A large initial circle represents SW.

Large medial, final circle represents SS or SZ.

A few words ending in S-S are written with the circle and stroke, or with the stroke and circle, to distinguish them from words in which the large circle is employed.

The SW circle is used in phrases like as well as, as we know; and the SS circle in phrases like it is said, in this city.

A small loop represents ST.

A large loop represents STR.

The ST loop may be used initially, medially or finally.

The STR loop may be used medially or finally, but not initially.

The ST loop may be employed finally to represent the sound of zd.

The ST loop cannot be employed when a vowel occurs between S and T, nor can the loop be written immediately before a final vowel.

The STR loop cannot be written when a strongly sounded vowel occurs between ST and R.

5.9

Answer to Self-check Questions

1.

Stroke

2.

Stroke ‘s’

3.

Stroke

4.

Stroke ‘s’

5.

(i)

SW

(ii)

Left Motion

(iii)

ZD

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6.

Same motion as circle ‘s’

7.

This is, as well as, in this city

8.

Left motion/anti-clock wise

9.

(i)

Initially

(ii)

Inside

10. 2/3 size of the stroke 11. Yes 12. No

5.10 Terminal Questions 1.

Define the use of large circles in phraseography. Describe the usage of large circles SW and SS or SZ.

2.

Giving justification, write the following words as per the rules of loop ST and STR. master, chest, steam, store, minister, refused, elastic, past, receipt, wastes

3.

What is the difference between Circle S,Z and Stroke S,Z . Explain with examples.

4.

Write 5 points about each of use of – (1)

Large circle SW/SS/SZ

(2)

Loop St/Str.

5.11 Reference •

Pitman Shorthand Instructor and Key, Wheeler Publishing, Allahabad, 2003.

5.12 Suggested Reading •

Pitman Shorthand Instructor and Key, Wheeler Publishing, Allahabad, 2003.

5.13 Glossary •

Large Circle SW, SS and SZ – Large size circle at beginning, middle and last position of the stroke.

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