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OFFICE AUTOMATION – I OFFICE OPERATIONS 2. SETTING UP AN OFFICE PRESENTATION DURING A MEETING Today, there are various modern equipments and software available for making an office presentation. It is therefore important to have a broad understanding of them for an easy setting up and running of an effective presentation. This is the subject matter of the present lesson. You will also become familiar with the common problems and their resolutions in running presentations.


Objectives After going through this lesson, you will be able to:

• • •


Set up presentations Understand the basic requirements of a presentation Enabling the presentation & troubleshooting

Introduction This lesson will help you to learn the steps to set up presentations, explore the connectors on a computer or a laptop and to familiarize yourself with the different types of input and output connections on the system, how to adjust the various settings on the projector and observe the effect on the displayed image. This will help you to understand what part of the image is controlled by each function of the project. The best way to learn how to set up presentation is to do it yourself physically and to run a presentation from the laptop for an audience comprising your class.



2.2.1 Definition: What is a presentation? An effective means of sharing of information with internal and external people is critical to the successful functioning of any organization.


Organizations use several means to share information with its employees, with its customers, with external agencies including government, trade bodies etc. these include verbal and written means to share information. Verbal means include speeches and talks. Written methods of information sharing include documents, leaflets, letters, charts, whiteboards and blackboards. A flipchart board is shown on the left. One of the means to share information is called a ‘Presentation’ which combines the verbal and written means of communication. A ‘presentation’ is a speech delivered using a visual aid like a set of charts. The set of charts could be physical sheets with diagrams or text printed on them which are displayed to an audience while the speaker uses the words and diagrams on the charts to give out the information. A standard size chart or sheet of paper, however, can be displayed at a time to a very small number of people. There are several automated methods which enable displaying the charts to a very large audience. This is called ‘Projection’ of the charts to an audience.

With use of computers, there is no need for physically printed charts or sheets. These charts or text can now be electronically prepared in computer software and then projected using electronic equipment called ‘Projectors’. 2.2.2 Use and importance of Presentations Presentations are highly useful to convey information, ideas, concepts, thoughts etc to the relevant audience. The audience can be a very large size gathering, for example the Managing Director might present to all the employees of an organization. The audience can also be a very small group – for example a few customers of the company to whom a marketing manager is attempting to sell a new product.


Whatever the size of the audience, presentations are very useful to convey the information using a combination of visuals, charts and text and a verbal explanation by the presenter. Companies nowadays use presentations for a very large set of activities which include the following: • • • • • • • •

Information sharing with employees New products or services sales to customers Training of employees Reporting performance internally to executives and externally, for example to financiers or to government agencies Ideas for investment to senior management Seminars Internal and External Conferences Internal meetings with teams Employees use presentations for almost all information sharing opportunities to communicate clearly and effectively.

2.2.3 How a presentation is run There exist several software tools to help prepare presentations. One of the most popular software tools is called PowerPoint™ from Microsoft ™ Corporation. This software provides the user the capability to prepare charts with text or graphics, drawings and plans etc. The charts can then be projected electronically to a large audience. There exist several other features for example animation of graphics or text that give control to display the desired text in specific sequence. It is important to know how to set up a presentation for display to a large audience using computers and display equipment.

Self-Check Questions 1. Name a popular presentation software?




To set up a presentation you would require certain hardware equipment and also the software in which the presentation has been prepared and that will run the same. In the following sections we will describe these in detail. We will also describe the connections between the various hardware elements, and also the steps to launch the presentation using the software and the equipment. 2.3.1 Presentation Software The most popular software used to prepare and deliver presentations is Microsoft™ PowerPoint™ Basic use of this software is described later on in this booklet. A detailed chapter on using PowerPoint™ will be taken up in the course. There are also other means of presentations which include the following:

• • • • •

Flash™ projections Adobe™ Acrobat™ files Video files using Windows Media Player™ or other Video Players VCD or DVD formats played from computers Displaying documents or spreadsheets using Microsoft Word™ or Excel™ While we will not discuss the details of these software, the process for displaying the documents on the screen remains the same. The difference is in running Presentations using PowerPoint since these are specifically designed to be projected for larger audience and have special features amenable for communications and display.

2.3.2 Equipment required to set up a presentation A basic presentation setup is shown in the figure below.


This comprises a computer, here a laptop computer, which runs the presentation software; an equipment to project the presentation to a screen, called a ‘projector’, and connecting cables from the computer to the projector. Computer or Laptop with the relevant presentation software on it along with the specific presentation to be presented. The benefit of a laptop is that it is small and portable and also that it has a built in display screen. A presentation can also be run from a desktop computer, which would comprise an external monitor or the projector or both connected to the computer. LCD Projector: An LCD projector is a highly advanced piece of equipment that can be connected directly to a computer and projects on an external screen all the images which are displayed on the computer. You can display all documents, files; pictures etc as also run a presentation using software such as PowerPoint™ or Flash etc. Connector Cables: Connector cables are used to send the presentation or other displayed information from the computer to the projector. These cables look like something as below. These have specific connectors at both ends that fix into similar connector on the computer and projector. These are called RGB cables, and the connectors they fix into are called RGB connectors.


Projection ‘Screen’ for LCD Projector: The images or presentation needs to be displayed so as to be visible to a large audience. The ‘projector’ has a capability to enlarge and display the images received from the computer on a large area so it can be seen by a large audience and also be legible. Specific equipment called a ‘projection screen’ is used on which the enlarged image is displayed. The screen is made up of a special type of cloth and is white in color. Screens are generally of two types, fixed and portable. Fixed screens are usually fixed in rooms used only for presentations or meetings. Portable screens can be folded up and carried elsewhere conveniently to make presentations at various locations and to several people. The visual below shows a portable presentation screen. Fixed screens are similar, and they too can be folded up, but they cannot be carried to enable making presentations at different locations.


2.3.3 Types of Projection Equipment Two main types of projection equipment are used for projecting presentations to an audience. These include: Projector: This has already been described in the previous section. LCD TV / Plasma Screen: This type of projection system is used along with computers. It connects directly to a computer and does not need a separate projector to be attached. The visual below shows a plasma screen used for making presentations and projecting images directly from the computer. Typically the Plasma screen is fixed and cannot be moved around like a projector or screen. These screens come in various sizes. LCD or Plasma screens are also quite expensive and the equipment is quite sensitive.

2.3.4 Equipment Connections for a Presentation There exists a connector on the computer called ‘monitor out’ or ‘RGB out’ connector to which the external projection system is attached. The visuals below show the connectors for a laptop and desktop computer.


The projection system itself has sets of input connectors which are used to send the presentation from the computer to the projector. The most commonly used input is the RGB connector, as shown in the visuals above and below. Projectors usually come along with a standard cable for connections. It is important to observe and note the type of connectors on the computer and the projector. If the cable does not match the connectors, a fresh cable needs to be procured matching the type of connectors. The connecting cable is connected to the computer RGB out as shown in the visual on the left.

At the other end, the cable is inserted into the Projector RGB in socket as shown in the visual below.


The connection from computer to the projector using the RGB cable is as shown below:

A complete presentation setup is as shown below:

Another, more formal, presentation setup is as in the visual below. This is a conference room for a typical corporate office.


Self-Check Questions 2. What is the basic equipment required to run a presentation? 3. What connection is used to send images from the computer to the monitor or projector?


How to Run a Presentation A PowerPoint™ presentation is a set of slides or charts prepare electronically. The set of slides can be put in the desired sequence which can be modified as required


The presentation is displayed chart by chart in the sequence specified by the presenter in the presentation software. On pressing the key specified in the software the specific chart of the presentation appears on the computer screen, covering the entire screen.

A presentation prepared using PowerPoint™ is run by connecting the computer to the projector or the Plasma / LCD TV. 2.4.1 Enabling display from a Laptop All laptops come with a feature to switch the display between the built-in LCD display of the laptop or to an external monitor or projector. As shown earlier, in section 2.3, this is done by connecting the external display to the RGB out connector of the Laptop. All laptops also come equipped with a keyboard button which can switch the image between the laptop’s display and an internal display. This button is marked as CRT / LCD or with a visual icon. An example of this key is as shown on the right. Usually this button is used in conjunction with the ‘Function’ key as shown in the visual below.


2.4.2 Connecting to a Desktop The connections to a desktop computer are similar to that for a laptop. The main difference is that a desktop computer has only one connector, RGB, which is used to connect an external monitor. This connector is also used to connect to the external projector. The visual on the left shows a desktop CPU with the projector cable connected to RGB connector. 2.4.3 Displaying image on computer monitor and LCD / Projector together For a desktop computer which does not come with a built-in display like a laptop, it is sometimes necessary to keep a monitor to see the presentation that is being displayed. With a laptop computer this is easy to do since the presentation can be displayed both on the screen of the laptop and the projection equipment. This can be done using a 1:2 RGB cable called a ‘Y cable’. A Y-Cable has on output from the RGB or the ‘Monitor Out’ socket of the computer and 2 inputs. One each of these inputs can go into a projector and the external monitor. The Y-Cable is as shown below


2.4.4 Connecting Audio in a Presentation Some of the presentations are accompanied by audio or sound effects. Some presentations have video clips inserted. This requires audio or sound also to be connected. Some projectors come equipped with speakers, and the computer can be connected to the speakers of the projector to enable it broadcast to the audience. All LCD panels used in presentation come equipped with speakers which can also be connected to the computer for audio. Computers and laptops come with a socket for ‘audio-out’. This is the same socket on which headphones are connected. This is as shown in the picture above. Audio for presentation can be either through an external set of speakers or through the LCD projector itself by connecting the audio out to the inputs. 2.4.5 Projector Settings All LCD projectors come with a detailed set of settings that can be accessed through the Menu button on the projector.


The set of buttons differ from projector to projector, but the functionality is same. The basic functionality and setting include the following. Input select In addition to the RGB input, there are other types of video signals including S-Video, Composite Video etc. Projectors are usually set to Auto Detect mode. The projector then checks all the inputs and selects the input detected on its input connections. A manual selection option or switch is also usually provided, which enable switching between various inputs. A sample of the use of the menu for input select is as shown below.

Tilt: Tilt is used to move the image up or down on the screen. Tilt can be an auto function using keys, or it can be done by adjusting the height of the screws at the bottom of the projector. Focus: A ring knob on top of the lens can be used to adjust the focus of the image, i.e. to make it dull or sharp. Image Size / zoom: Another ring knob next to the focus ring can be used to zoom in or out and adjust the image size on the screen.

Keystone: This is used to adjust the projection picture dimensions so as to show a square as against a trapezoid when the image is tilted. 14

As specific menu key is pressed and then the image is adjusted using the up down key. Picture Size and other Attributes: There are several menu options to adjust brightness, color, contrast etc. Additional menu options enable adjusting the Horizontal and Vertical size. The sample menu instructions below depict the various options and adjustments possible.

Self-Check Questions 4. Name 2 types of projection equipment available? 5. What combination of keys is used on a laptop to switch display between the laptop and the external device? 6. For a desktop computer, how do you simultaneously display an image on an external monitor and a projector?




2.5.1 Connection problems Typical connection problems occur because of loose cables and connectors. You should ensure that the RGB cables are of good quality and the connectors at the end of the cable are not loose. Similarly you should ensure that the connectors on the computers have not come loose. The cable should be screwed in tightly at the ends, both at the projector and computer end.

2.5.2 Problem switching between laptop and projector Problem: Image does not go on to the LCD on switching from a laptop Possible solution: • • • • •

Check connector / cable. For Laptops check if dual mode option is switched on. Reboot with external LCD connected to detect. Check if the Projector input has been selected to RGB. Usually projectors have an auto input detect feature. It could have been turned off. Check input mode – it should be RGB if an RGB cable is being used.

2.5.3 Projected Image distorted or not clear • 16

Connectivity – cable connected but wire might be damaged.

• • • • • •


Replace RGB cable and test Image aspect ratio not right. Restart, check video modes on computer / laptop Blurred image – check focus of projector Projected image too small, use projector settings / knob Image trapezoidal: keystone adjustment, do manually if auto not on Image not bright: adjust projector settings Image getting cut from one side: set horizontal / vertical size and image shift settings


1. Connect and disconnect the cable from a laptop RGB connector and Projector RGB Connector and observe 2. Set up all the equipment required for making a presentation including a Computer, connecting cables, projector and screen. 3. Load a PowerPoint™ presentation on the computer and run the same for an audience.


Summing Up This lesson has covered most of the aspects of making a presentation in an office, including the purpose of a presentation, software used for making a presentation and different type of equipment used to make presentations. You have also learnt about basic set-up required to make a presentation using a software loaded on a computer (or a laptop), a projector for displaying the enlarged image on to a screen or connecting a computer directly to a plasma screen to display the presentation. You were also exposed to the various types of connectors on the computer and projector which are used to display the image and also play audio for the presentation. Further you also learnt to operate a projector, to adjust the image for best viewing and also to troubleshoot and solve simple set-up problems related to connections or to transmitting the presentation image from the computer to the projector.


Answers to Self-Check Questions

1. Microsoft Powerpoint 2. Presentation Software, Equipments (Desktop Computer / Laptop, Projector, Screen) 3. RGB Connection 4. Projector and LCD TV / Plasma Screen


5. Fn (function key) + CRT / LCD key 6. For displaying an image on external monitor and a projector, we need a 1:2 RGB cable called a ‘Y cable’. A Y-Cable has on output from the RGB or the ‘Monitor Out’ socket of the computer and 2 inputs. One each of these inputs can go into a projector and the external monitor.


Terminal Questions

1. Define a presentation? 2. What are the uses of a presentation? 3. Describe the full process, step by step, to connect a computer to a projector and then run a presentation? 4. Describe the process to adjust the focus, size, sharpness and brightness of picture using a projector? 5. What are the typical problems associated with presentation connections? 6. What are the steps to take when you find that the presentation is not being displayed through a desktop computer? 7. What are the steps to take when you find that the presentation is not being displayed through a Laptop computer?

2.10 Glossary • • • • • •

• •


Presentation: A speech delivered using a visual aid like a set of chart Projection: The process which enables display to a very large audience PowerPoint: The most popular software used for making & delivering presentations (from Microsoft) VCD: Video Compact Disc DVD: Digital Versatile Disc (also Digital Video Disc) LCD Projector: An LCD projector is a piece of equipment that can be connected directly to a computer and projects on an external screen all the images which are displayed on the computer RGB: Red Green Blue LCD TV / Plasma Screen: A type of projection system that is used along with computers. It connects directly to a computer and does not need a separate projector to be attached Keystone: Used to adjust the projection picture dimensions so as to show a square as against a trapezoid when the image is tilted


• Set up presentations • Understand the basic requirements of a presentation • Enabling the presentation & troubleshooting 2.1 Introduct...