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SHORTHAND I (ENGLISH) 15. SUFFIXES AND TERMINATIONS By now you must be familiar with making the strokes of the words their prefix letters. There are a number of words in English language in which new words are formed by suffixing few letters to the words. Therefore, it is essential to learn these letters.

15.0 Objectives After going through this lesson you will be able to1)

make the strokes of the words which suffix few letters viz, ing;

2)

make the strokes of the words which suffix few letters viz, logical or logically;

3)

make the strokes of the words which suffix few letters viz, elty, lity rity;

4)

make the strokes of the words which suffix few letters viz, ment, mental, mentally;

5)

make the strokes of the words which suffix few letters viz, ship, fullness, lessness;

6)

make the strokes of the words which suffix few letters viz, ward, wart, yard;

7)

make the strokes or compound words using them in consonants with in, on, at, to, of and with; and

8)

make the strokes of some phrases related to suffixes and terminations.

15.1 Introduction In this lesson you will learn about the strokes of the letters which on suffixing to certain word, form new words.

15.2 Suffixes A shorthand suffix is a joined or disjoined sign, which represents the final syllable, or syllables for frequently occurring combination.

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15.2.1 The dot -ing is written

After (i) circle NS, (ii) after K and G hooked for F or V, and (iii) after an upstroke finally hooked. For example:

After a half-length or a double-length stroke, where sharp and clear angle is not formed. For example:

Generally after a contracted logogram. Compare the following pairs of words for examples:

The dot ing cannot be used medially. Therefore, in such cases the stroke ing is written. Compare the following pairs of words for examples:

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15.3 The dash -ings "-ings" is represented by a light dash, written in place of ing dot, and it is used in accordance with the same rules as the dot ing. Compare the following pairs of words for examples:

15.4 Ality, -ility, arity, ority, - elty These terminations are represented by disjoining the stroke immediately preceding the termination. For example:

15.5 Logical, logically This terminations logical and logically are expressed by disjoined stroke J. For example:

15.6 Ment

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15.7 Mental, Mentally, Mentality This terminations Mental, Mentally, Mentality are represented by disjoined 'ment' sign. For example:

15.8 Ly Suffix -ly is indicated by disjoined stroke 'L', where it is not convenient to join stroke 'L'. For example:

15.9 Ship

15.10 Fullness

15.11 Lessness or lousness The terminations Lessness or lousness is expressed by disjoined ls For example:

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15.12 Ward or wart The suffixes Ward or wart are represented by half-length stroke 'W' . For example:

15.13 Yard Yard suffix is represented by half-length Stroke 'Y'. For example.

15.14 Compound words Compound words of, (i) here, (ii) there and (iii) where, formed by the addition of in, on, at, to, of, with, are written as follows:

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Phrases related to Suffixes and Terminations:

Self-check Questions 1.

What do you mean by suffix?

2.

Where is the sign of suffix indicated in stroke?

3.

Write the sign of "ings" as suffix.

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4.

If the sign of ‘ment’ does not join easily, which alternate sign will you make.

5.

Is it possible to use light dot medially suffix?

6.

Is it possible to use light dot (ing) in grammalogues?

7.

Make the outline of following two words : (a) formality, and (b) novelty.

8.

In suffix “Fullness” is expressed by disjoining the _________.

15.15 Assignments 15.15.1

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Class Assignment


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I am compelled to say that I think the form proposed is not likely to have the effect of introducing new members to the society. I fear the psychological effect of the wording of the circular, which is more like a command or instruction than in invitation. I think it will provoke a feeling of resentment in the minds of those whom you are addressing, and at the same time convey a false impression. I am conscious of no selfishness in communicating with you on the matter, because it is quite immaterial to me whether the membership is large or small, but as the instructor and conductor of the choir, I must in self defence, warn the committee against a possible misconstruction of their circular. I think you will be able to induce them to change it. We have pleasure in forwarding to you several mining market cuttings from this morning's papers, and we hope to add thereto within a day or two. The old mines have been strongly supported, in consequence of the announcement of the success of recent crushing operations, and, as the labour costs are likely to be reduced shortly, there is no reason why the experiments should not be carried further. You will recollect that we warned you against your extreme hopefulness regarding the possibility of profit from the new workings; but you were sanguine to the point of recklessness. Irregularities in the directorship have come to light, and, unfortunately, our pronouncement as to the mineralogical conditions has been amply justified. 15.15.2

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Home Assignment


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I cannot quite understand how you came to act as you did in the court today, nor how you could put the case against that child with such particular force, missing no opportunity that you were able to seize to make the poor child appear guilty of the theft. You may say that, without the evidence of the gentleman whose purse was taken and without the statements of the other gentlemen who said they saw the child put her hand into the old gentleman's pocket, there would certainly have been no case for the injury. But, surely, according to the evidence of the guard called by the defense, there was more than a doubt that the prisoner was the child seen by the gentlemen who testified. The guard told a straightforward tale, and though you tried to shake his evidence, you failed to do so, except towards the end, when he admitted he saw a god coin drop apparently from the child's hands to the ground. I think you were a little short with the guard, and I was glad when the people in the court cheered his final reply. They chaired him, too, at the end of the case, under protest by him and his friends. I do not believe the poor child came out of the yard, as stated by one of your witnesses, and indeed I did not believe a word of that witness's evidence. It was given in a bad spirit, in a tone which sent a shiver through everyone in the court. I know that at least a third of history about the school and the wonderful instruction he had received there was untrue. I know this because I went to the school myself and you will find my name inscribed on the roll of honour hanging in the large hall. It is not wonderful, therefore, that I have a doubt of that man’s word. It would be rather more wonderful if I believed his story. In think that he is a selfish, vindictive fellow, and it will be instructive of follow his future. Anyway, I shall set about an appeal for the child, whom I believe to be absolutely innocent of the crime alleged against her.

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15.16 Summary •

A shorthand suffix is a joined or disjoined sign, which represents the final syllable, or syllables for frequently occurring combination.

Where the stroke ing cannot be written, or, where, if written, an awkward joining would result, a light dot is placed to represent the suffix -ing.

The dot -ing is written -

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-

After a light straight downward stroke and downward 'R'

-

After circle NS

-

After K and G hooked for F or V

-

After an upstroke finally hooked.

-

After a half-length or a double-length stroke, where sharp and clear angle is not formed

-

Generally after a contracted logogram.

-

The dot ing cannot be used medially. Therefore, in such cases the stroke ing is written.

"-ings" is represented by a light dash, written in place of ing dot, and it is used in accordance with the same rules as the dot ing.

Ality, -ility, arity, ority, - elty terminations are represented by disjoining the stroke immediately preceding the termination.

The terminations logical and logically are expressed by disjoined stroke J.

The suffix - ment is represented by short outline.

Where "-ment" sign cannot be written easily, half-length Stroke 'N' is used.

Mental, Mentally, Mentality . 'ment' sign.

Suffix -ly is indicated by disjoined stroke 'L', where it is not convenient to join stroke 'L'.

Suffix - ship is represented by joined or disjoined stroke SH .

The termination Fullness is expressed by disjoined Fs.

The terminations Lessness or lousness is expressed by disjoined Ls.

Ward or wart suffixes are represented by half-length stroke 'W' .

Yard suffix is represented by half-length Stroke 'Y'.

Compound words of (i) here, (ii) there, and (iii) where are formed by the addition of in, on, at, to, of or with.

This termination is represented by disjoined


15.17 Answers to Self-check Questions 1.

A shorthand suffix is a joined or disjoined sign, which represents the final syllable, or syllables for frequently occurring combination.

2.

It is indicated at the end of the stroke.

3.

light dash.

4.

Half-length stroke ‘N’

5.

No

6.

Yes

7.

(a) formality

8.

Stroke F and Circle S

is used.

(b) novelty

15.18 Terminal Questions 1.

Write the suffixing words of the following signs a.

Disjoining the Stroke j

b.

Disjoined mnt

c.

Disjoined ls

d.

Disjoined fs

e.

The stroke sh

2. (a) Write the following phrases in English Shorthand: You will be able to, We are able to, According to the, At the same time, That was (b) Write the following words in English Shorthand: teaching, lodging, joining, permitting, chairmanship, plottings, commencement, weaving, friendship, usefulness 3.

Write 15 Compound words - here, there and where with some prepositions:

15.19 Reference •

Pitman Shorthand Instructor and Key, Wheeler Publishing, Allahabad, 2003.

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15.20 Suggested Reading •

Pitman Shorthand Instructor and Key, Wheeler Publishing, Allahabad, 2003.

15.21 Glossary

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Termination–

In sentences, words/phrases usually come in the last.

Suffix -

letters or group of letters which when added to the word after words forms a new word.


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